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Development of An On-Board Diagnostics System Based On Wireless Network

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In order to control vehicle exhaust emission effectively, an OBD is developed based on Zigbee technology. Overall solution design of the system is proposed and the vehicle-mounted monitoring database is established. The wireless network communication hardware platform is set up by the MC9S08GT60 microcontroller and the MC13192 wireless module. The project document is produced with the help of BeeKit wireless connectivity toolkit. Under the CodeWarrior IDE development environment, the monitoring station coordinator networking program and the vehicle-mounted terminal device networking program are designed. Experimental results shows that this system complete data exchange between the monitoring station coordinator and the vehicle-mounted terminal device and transfer data into monitoring station computer. The wireless network of OBD is realized.
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Sensors & Transducers, Vol. 164, Issue 2, February 2014, pp. 100-106
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© 2014 by IFSA Publishing, S. L.
http://www.sensorsportal.com
Development of an On-board Diagnostics System
Based on Wireless Network
1 Guosheng FENG, 2 Bo FENG, 1 Sumei JIA, 1 Lisha FENG
1 Shijiazhuang Tiedao University, Shijiazhuang, 050043, China
2 Hebei Construction Investment Group Railway Co. Ltd, 050080, China
Tel.: 13102828580
E-mail: fgs2005@126.com
Received: 28 November 2014 /Accepted: 28 January 2014 /Published: 28 February 2014
Abstract: In order to control vehicle exhaust emission effectively, an OBD is developed based on Zigbee
technology. Overall solution design of the system is proposed and the vehicle-mounted monitoring database is
established. The wireless network communication hardware platform is set up by the MC9S08GT60
microcontroller and the MC13192 wireless module. The project document is produced with the help of BeeKit
wireless connectivity toolkit. Under the CodeWarrior IDE development environment, the monitoring station
coordinator networking program and the vehicle-mounted terminal device networking program are designed.
Experimental results shows that this system complete data exchange between the monitoring station coordinator
and the vehicle-mounted terminal device and transfer data into monitoring station computer. The wireless
network of OBD is realized. Copyright © 2014 IFSA Publishing, S. L.
Keywords: Automobile, OBD, Wireless network, ZigBee, MC13192.
1. Introduction
With the increase of vehicle population, the
automobile exhaust emissions have become one of
the main factors causing air pollution. In order to
control vehicle exhaust emission pollution according
to the law, the major automobile manufacturers have
equipped their cars with OBD diagnostic system. The
system is used in the mid-90s, which has strict
emissions pertinence and its essence is to monitor
vehicle emissions [1]. Though OBD-II diagnoses
some emission-related fault, it cannot guarantee the
driver to accept the warning of fault indicator MIL
(Malfunction Indictor Lamp) and timely repair the
vehicle failure [2-3]. A new generation of OBD
systems-The OBD-III is produced, which is featured
with the wireless transmission of fault information.
Through wireless cellular communication,
satellite communication or Global Positioning
System, OBD III system which takes advantage of
the small-vehicle wireless transceiver system, can
automatically give the management department some
information including Vehicle identification number
VIN, fault codes and location information. On the
vehicle emission level, the administrative
departments issued a directive including where to
accept the maintenance time limits of solving the
emissions problem and so on. On the basis of the
relevant laws and regulations these information will
issue the punishment of forbidding operation for the
cars which cause excessive emissions of pollution
because of improper maintenance, and also it can
lead to punishment to the offenders. OBD-III not
only requires related communications technologies,
Article number P_1838
Sensors & Transducers, Vol. 164, Issue 2, February 2014, pp. 100-106
101
standards and regulations, it also proposes a higher
demand on the accuracy and reliability of the OBD
system diagnostic functions, now OBD-III is still in
development stage.
This paper develops the vehicle-mounted
diagnostic OBD system based on ZigBee technology,
comes up with the overall solution design of the
system, establishes a monitoring station database,
complete the system's hardware and software design ,
Preliminary realizes OBD system of wireless
network, and provides the reference for domestic car
OBD - III system development.
2. System Project Design
In order to design the wireless transceiver system
which uses ZigBee technology, monitoring stations
on the vital communication line and crossings was set
up and every station will be equipped with a ZigBee
network coordinator (Full Function Device FFD).The
vehicle (Reduced Function Device RFD) is a sensor
node with transceiver function. Through the license
plate number, these nodes correspond to other
information of the vehicle uniquely. When the RFD
into the coverage of FFD local area network, FFD
collects RFD vehicle diagnostic information and it
will be transmitted to database of monitor station
computer through the serial port and to monitoring
center computer finally for completing the on-board
emissions monitoring and management [4-7].
Systems network architecture shown in Fig. 1.
The system consists of the OBD self-diagnostic
system and emissions monitoring system. The
prototype of the OBD self-diagnostic system is the
OBD-II system which completes the diagnosis of car
emission-related parts. The emission monitoring
system is the network of OBD system which
completes the automatic collecting and processing of
diagnostic parameters of the vehicle OBD system
under the unsupervised mode.
Fig. 1. Systems network architecture.
3. Monitoring Station Database
Stations computer can read the vehicles archives
information (Vehicle VIN, License plate number,
Owners, etc), fault code, etc which are stored in the
database. Through the analysis of the fault code,
stations computer can give emission level, instruction
of maintenance advice and maintenance time limit,
etc, and issues fines and banned driving commands to
the vehicle which are beyond maintenance time limit.
First the monitoring station database was established
base on the Access database management system.
Then the database was operated using LabVIEW
database toolkit. Finally the LabVIEW program for
creating forms, adding records and deleting records
in the database were designed.
3.1. Establish Database
The function of vehicle-mounted monitoring
database mainly includes: Monitoring station
information management, vehicle information
management, vehicle owner information
management, monitoring records management,
illegal vehicle management, monitoring information
query [10].
To realize its function, the corresponding logical
structure was established as shown in Table 1.
For the realization of data revision and query, first
the relationship between data table was set up, among
them those were correlated that data tables of the
vehicle information management, the owner
information management, the illegal vehicle
management and the monitoring records management
with primary key "license plate number" field. At the
same time, the data table of illegal vehicle
management and the data table of monitoring records
management were correlated with "transit time" field.
The data table of monitoring station information
management and the data table of monitoring records
management were done with "monitoring station
numbers".
Sensors & Transducers, Vol. 164, Issue 2, February 2014, pp. 100-106
102
Table 1. Vehicle information management table logical structure.
Field name Field explanation Data type Field size note
VehicleID License plate number text 8 Major key
VehicleType Vehicle type text 4
BuyTime Purchase time date/time date
BuyComInsu Purchase compel
Insurance logic 2
AnnualInsp Annual inspection logic 2
3.2. Database Operation Procedure
In order to realize operation database used the
LabVIEW database toolkit, the database will be
connected. The method of DSN (Data Source Names)
was used for connecting the database to establish the
program code as shown in Fig. 2. After database is
connected, such as create a form, adds records, delete
records, inquire the records, close window in
database were carried out, the program code of
adding records as shown in Fig. 3.
4. System Hardware Design
Overall design of the hardware platform between
the vehicle terminal and the station coordinator in the
wireless network OBD system is shown in Fig. 4.
Connected with sensors by single-wire,
MC9S08GT60 is the core of the entire hardware
platform, and is responsible for collecting the signals
generated by each sensor and also complete A / D
conversion, data processing operations.
Fig. 2. The program code of connecting database.
Fig. 3. The program code of adding records.
It communicates with the MC13192 through the
SPI bus, completing data transceiver and control
information exchange.
It is connected with the PC through the RS232
serial port and the BDM interface, completing the
display of data and program download, debugging,
and other operations, Vehicle terminal completes
radio frequency communication with the coordination
through two MC13192, uploading data and issuing
control directive.
Sensors & Transducers, Vol. 164, Issue 2, February 2014, pp. 100-106
103
Fig. 4. Overall design of the hardware platform.
4.1. The Interface Circuit Between
MC9S08GT60 and MC13192
Since both MC9S08GT60 and MC13192 are from
Freescale, and the interfaces are relatively simple:
4 SPI lines, an IRQ interrupt request line and
3 Control lines, as shown in Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. MC9S08GT60 and the MC13192 interface circuit.
4.2. MC13192 RF Circuit
RF circuit is composed by the signal receiving
circuit, the signal transmission circuit and crystal
oscillator circuit, shown in Fig. 6.
Fig. 6. MC13192 RF circuit.
Sensors & Transducers, Vol. 164, Issue 2, February 2014, pp. 100-106
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Pin1 and pin2 are signal receiving ends, leading
to the signal receiving circuit; pin 5 and pin6 are the
signal sender, leading to the signal sending circuit.
Chip is connected to an external 16 MHz crystal to
form a crystal oscillator circuit, providing the clock
signal to the chip.
The role of the antenna is very important in
wireless communication systems. The MC13192
works at 2.4 GHz and uses balanced monopole
antenna or the inverted-F antenna. In this paper, the
inverted-F antenna is used and it is embedded
directly on the PCB, low cost and good effect.
5. System Software Design
Because MC9S08GT60 read and write MC13192
register through the 4-wire SPI interface, it is needed
to design the SPI communication [11], and later
design the procedure of short distance wireless
communication between the coordinator and vehicle-
mounted terminal, completing the exchange of data
between coordination and vehicle terminal, and
transmitting data via the serial port to a monitoring
station computer.
5.1. Program Design of the Stations
Coordinator
The main task of the stations coordinator is to
establish a network and receive the information of the
vehicle terminal. When coordinator is powered on, it
first needs to initialize ZigBee protocol stack, and
then network management requires the MAC layer to
complete the energy scan of the 16 channel, and to
detect whether there are other ZigBee networks in the
channels specified by coordinator, and finally select
the appropriate channel based on the results of the
scan. Then it is needed to select the PAN identifier,
ensuring that there is no conflict between the selected
PAN identifier and other PAN identifier which is in
the same channel. After the PAN identifier is chosen,
it is needed to select the network coordinator’ 16
short address; at last the coordinator can be started,
and begins to receive the connection request of the
vehicle terminal equipment, realizing the sending and
receiving of the data through CSMA/CA algorithm.
Stations coordinator network design’ flow chart is
shown in Fig. 7.
5.2. Program Design of the Vehicle
Terminal Equipment
There are two main tasks about the vehicle
terminal equipment: firstly, find the network and join
the network, secondly, send vehicle’s information to
the coordinator. When the vehicle terminal go
through the monitoring station, vehicle terminal
equipment will scan the channel to find stations
coordinator, and then issue a request to enter the
network, having received the response of the
coordinator, it will send their own 64-bit physical
address to the coordinator, and after that the
coordinator will allocate short address according to
the receiving order of the physical address of the
terminal equipment. At that time, terminal equipment
network is successfully connected. After that,
terminal equipment will send the information such as
license plate number, vehicle VIN, and whether the
emissions are beyond the standard to the coordinator.
With the vehicle gradually leaving the stations, the
signal of the coordinator gradually decreases, and
finally vehicle exits from the network. Vehicle
terminal equipment’ network design flow chart is
shown in Fig. 8.
5.3. Program Design of Receiving and
Dispatching Oxygen Sensor
Voltage Signal
Oxygen sensor is ternary catalytic system
components, but also the key sensor that OBD system
to test for, and an important change for national III
emission standard is equipped with the oxygen
sensor, so as to better monitor transformation
efficiency of the catalytic converter systems. Oxygen
sensor output voltage signal collection mainly
includes four parts: A/D conversion, interrupt
handling, SCI serial port to send, LabVIEW serial
storage data read [11]. To realize an A/D module's
collecotion voltage, we can call function
getVoltage(), based on the wireless transceiver
processes written in the Zigbee2004 protocol stack as
shown in Fig. 9.
6. System Experiment
We set a piece of MC9S08GT60 and
MC13192SARD plate on the laboratory and a car
which is 100 meters away from laboratory, do
experiment of coordinator and the vehicle-mounted
terminal of dispatch and receipt of monitoring station
database information and coordinator receiving
oxygen sensor voltage signal.
6.1. Database Information Experiment
in Monitoring Station
The 9 voltage power supply was adopted in two
pieces of MC13192 SARD. One of them work as the
coordinator, the other piece work as vehicle terminal,
the RS232 serial line link with the two PC
respectively, and the coordinator procedures and
vehicle-mounted terminal program were downloaded
to the two boards with BDM emulator.
Sensors & Transducers, Vol. 164, Issue 2, February 2014, pp. 100-106
105
Fig. 7. Stations coordination network
design process.
Fig. 8. Vehicle terminal equipment network
design process.
Fig. 9. Zigbee wireless transceiver process.
Sensors & Transducers, Vol. 164, Issue 2, February 2014, pp. 100-106
106
First of all power on the coordinator, and
secondly the terminal nodes and experimental results
will be shown in the SSCOM 3.2 serial debugging
tools. Serial port sets as follows: Port is the COM 4-
port, Baud rate is 57600, data bit is 8, stop bit is 1, no
parity and no flow control. Coordinator starts the
network and receives the data. Vehicle terminal joins
the network and sends the data. The physical address
of the coordinator is 0xFFFFFFFFFFFFFF01, PAN
identifier is 0x00001347, the channel is 0x14; The
physical address of the vehicle terminal is
0xFFFFFFFFFFFFFF02, short address is 0x1699, the
data to be sent including: plate number VehicleID is
Hebei A, 5C688, StationID is 265 301, passage time
is 2011-9-15 14:25:18 and NO emission excessive.
6.2. Oxygen Sensor Voltage Signal
Experiment
First of all, the voltage signal of front and back
oxygen sensor in the car was connected to vehicle-
mounted terminal equipment. Then start coordinator
and build network. When LED is bright, it shows that
the network sets up successfully. After that, the
vehicle-mounted terminal equipment was started and
let it join the network, when serial port receives
related information it shows that terminal equipment
join network successfully. Terminal equipment start
sending voltage data, coordinator receive voltage data
and sent it to the serial port, and LabVIEW
application reads serial data, serial port have received
oxygen sensor voltage signal as shown in Fig. 10.
Fig.10. The voltage signal of oxygen sensor.
7. Conclusions
Wireless network board diagnostic OBD system
which is based on ZigBee technology development,
explores on-board intelligent OBD solution with low-
cost and short-range wireless communication
interface, and it can be used for online monitoring of
the emission control systems and replace some
imported products. It completes the preliminary
studies for low cost OBD device development with
independent intellectual property in China, and the
transition from OBD II to the OBD III. It completes
the exchange of data between the monitoring station
coordination and vehicle terminal, and sends the data
to the monitoring station through the serial port,
preliminarily realizing the wireless the OBD system.
Acknowledgement
This project was supported by the National
Nature Science Fund of China (Grant No. 11272220).
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Design and implementation of real-time monitoring system of the vehicle information
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Huang Airong, Xiang Zhengtao, Zhang Tao, Design and implementation of real-time monitoring system of the vehicle information, Vehicle Information Real-Time Monitoring System, Vol. 31, Issue 8, 2010, pp. 1839-1847.
A practice learning of on-board diagnosis (OBD) implementations with embedded systems
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The development of the vehicle management information system based on driving behavior, Road Traffic and Technology
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. Zhao Xiaofeng, Ban Jun, Shen Dangyun, The development of the vehicle management information system based on driving behavior, Road Traffic and Technology, No. 8, 2010, pp. 299-302.