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Review and Summary of Research on the Embodied Effects of Expansive (vs. Contractive) Nonverbal Displays

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Psychological Science
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DOI: 10.1177/0956797614566855
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Commentary
In 2010, we published an article in which two experi-
ments demonstrated that expansive (vs. contractive) non-
verbal displays produced subjective feelings of power
and increased risk tolerance (Carney, Cuddy, & Yap,
2010). One of these experiments demonstrated that such
displays increased subjective feelings of power, risk toler-
ance, and testosterone, and decreased cortisol. Our two
experiments were the eighth and ninth to be reported in
the literature on the embodied effects of nonverbal
expansiveness—seven experiments on this topic were
published prior to 2010. Since our article in 2010, 24
additional experiments on the effects of expansive pos-
tures have been published (see Table 1). Embodiment
and the long-standing discussion of mind-body connec-
tion has its experimental roots in William James’s
(1890/1950) theories of emotion and ideomotor action.
Since then, many studies have demonstrated the bidirec-
tional link between nonverbal behavior and human
thought and feeling (see Laird & Lacasse, 2014). One
such study was conducted by Ranehill etal. (2014), who
reported a conceptual replication of one of our experi-
ments: They found an effect of expansive posture on
subjective feelings of power, but no effect of posture on
risk tolerance, testosterone, or cortisol.
We offer four comments that we hope elucidate the
similarities and differences among the 33 published
experiments (harvested from the literature through
extensive keyword searches and cross-referencing of
published articles) and the newly published research of
Ranehill etal. We also highlight the specific differences
between our experiment and that of Ranehill et al.
Unpublished findings were excluded in Table 1. Ranehill
et al.’s commentary, with the review presented here,
serves as an excellent springboard for identifying poten-
tial moderators of the psychological effects of nonver-
bally expansive (vs. contractive) posture.
Thirty-Three Published Results on
Expansive Posture
In Carney et al. (2010), we reported that nonverbal
expansiveness (vs. contractiveness) increased subjective
feelings of power, risk taking, and testosterone, whereas
it decreased cortisol. Using a conceptually similar para-
digm (see differences in Table 2), Ranehill etal. reported
no effect of nonverbal expansiveness on risk taking, tes-
tosterone, or cortisol—only an increase in subjective feel-
ings of power. Prompted by Ranehill etal.’s commentary,
we list in Table 1 all published tests (to our knowledge)
of expansive (vs. contractive) posture on psychological
outcomes. The work of Ranehill etal. joins a body of
research that includes 33 independent experiments pub-
lished with a total of 2,521 research participants. Together,
these results may help specify when nonverbal expan-
siveness will and will not cause embodied psychological
changes.
Differences Between the Ranehill etal.
and Carney etal. Studies
Table 2 lists the methodological differences between the
Ranehill etal. (2014) and Carney etal. (2010) studies. The
summary of the literature reported in Table 1 suggests
566855PSSXXX10.1177/0956797614566855Carney et al.Expansive Nonverbal Displays
research-article2015
Corresponding Authors:
Dana R. Carney, University of California, Berkeley, 2220 Piedmont
Ave., Berkeley, CA 94720
E-mail: dcarney@berkeley.edu
Amy J. C. Cuddy, Harvard Business School, 449 Baker Library, Boston
MA 02163
E-mail: acuddy@hbs.edu
Andy J. Yap, 1 Ayer Rajah Ave., Singapore 138676
E-mail: andy.yap@insead.edu
Review and Summary of Research on
the Embodied Effects of Expansive
(vs. Contractive) Nonverbal Displays
Dana R. Carney1, Amy J. C. Cuddy2, and Andy J. Yap3
1Department of Psychology, University of California, Berkeley; 2Harvard Business School, Harvard
University; and 3Department of Organisational Behaviour, INSEAD
Received 9/10/14; Revision accepted 12/12/14
2
Table 1. Comparison of Studies on the Effects of Nonverbal Expansiveness
Article and experiment Independent variable Dependent variable Cover story Findings
Key features of
paradigm
Allen, Gervais, & Smith
(2013): main experiment
(N = 97 females)
Configured posture Eating less (social
context)
Marketing and
physiology
Expansive posture + body concern
eating more
Cover story, social
context
Arnette & Pettijohn (2012):
main experiment
(N = 42)
Mimicked photos of
postures
Choice of leader seating
(nonsocial context)
None Expansive posture selected
leader seating
No instruction given,
nonsocial context
Bohns & Wiltermuth
(2012): Experiment 1
(N = 89)
Configured posture Pain (nonsocial context) Yoga stretching Expansive posture increased
pain tolerance (measured with
tourniquet)
Cover story,
nonsocial context
Bohns & Wiltermuth
(2012): Experiment 2
(N = 30)
Naturally occurring posture
in Tiedens & Fragale
(2003) complementarity
paradigm (social context)
Pain Social interaction Expansive posture increased
pain tolerance
Cover story, social
context
Briñol, Petty, & Wagner
(2009): main experiment
(N = 71)
Configured Posture ×
Thought Direction
(positive vs. negative)
Positive attitude toward
self
Acting and body
muscles
Expansive posture increased
thought confidence; expansive
posture + positive thoughts
positive attitude toward self
Cover story,
semisocial context
Carney, Cuddy, & Yap
(2010): pilot experiment
(p. 1367; N = 49)
Mimicked photos of
postures
Risk, power feelings
(social context)
Bodies and
impressions
Expansive posture increased
power feelings and risk tolerance
Cover story, social
context
Carney etal. (2010): main
experiment (N = 42)
Configured posture Power feelings,
endocrine responses,
and risk tolerance
(social context)
Physiological
measurements;
above and below
heart level
Expansive posture increased
power feelings, risk tolerance, and
testosterone; decreased cortisol
Cover story, social
context
Cesario & McDonald
(2013): Experiment 1
(N = 216)
Configured Posture ×
Social Context (social vs.
nonsocial)
Risk taking Physical body and
memory
Expansive posture increased risk
taking only when context was
social
Cover story,
social context
manipulated as
moderator
Cesario & McDonald
(2013): Experiment 2
(N = 167)
Configured Posture ×
Imagined Social Context
(dominant vs. submissive)
Risk taking (social
context)
Physical body and
memory
Expansive posture no effect
on risk taking; imagined role
(dominant vs. submissive)
increased risk taking
Cover story, social
context, imagined
power trumped
effect of posture
Cuddy, Wilmuth, Yap, &
Carney (in press): main
experiment (N = 66)
Experimenter explained
and configured posture;
Trier Social Stress Test job
interview
Power feelings, job
interview performance,
nonverbal presence
Physical motion
and performance
Expansive posture marginally
increased power feelings, increased
performance and nonverbal
presence
Cover story, social
context
Fischer, Fischer, Englich,
Aydin, & Frey (2011):
Experiment 2 (N = 36)
Configured posture with
chairs
Power feelings,
confirmatory processing
(semisocial context)
None Expansive posture increased
power feelings, confirmatory
processing
No instructions,
semisocial
(continued)
3
Article and experiment Independent variable Dependent variable Cover story Findings
Key features of
paradigm
Huang, Galinsky,
Gruenfeld, & Guillory
(2011): Experiment 1
(N = 77)
Configured Posture ×
Assigned Power Role
(high vs. low)
Word fragments
completed with power
words, power feelings
(social context)
Marketing test for
ergonomic chairs
Expansive posture increased
cognitive accessibility of power-
related words, power feelings; role
assignment increased powerful
feelings
Cover story, social
context
Huang etal. (2011):
Experiment 2 (N = 77)
Configured Posture ×
Assigned Power Role
(high vs. low)
Action orientation,
abstract thinking, power
feelings (social context)
Marketing test for
ergonomic chairs
Expansive posture and role
increased action orientation,
abstract thinking
Cover story, social
context
Huang etal. (2011):
Experiment 3 (N = 57)
Configured Posture ×
Assigned Power Role
(high vs. low)
Action orientation (social
context)
Marketing test for
ergonomic chairs
Expansive posture and role
increased action orientation
Cover story, social
context
Lee & Schnall (2014):
Experiment 2 (N = 41)
Configured posture with
chairs
Weight estimation of
boxes (semisocial
context)
Ergonomics
of work
environment
Expansive posture decreased
estimation of box weight
Cover story, social
context
Michalak, Mischnat, &
Teismann (2014): main
experiment (N = 30
psychiatric inpatients)
Configured posture with
chairs and instructions
Memory bias (semisocial
context)
Effects of
relaxation
positions on
stress
Expansive posture equal recall
of positive and negative words;
contractive posture increased
recall of negative words
No instructions;
semisocial
Nair, Sagar, Sollers,
Consedine, & Broadbent
(2014): main experiment
(N = 74)
Configured posture Self-esteem, arousal,
mood, fear, use of
negative words, use of
pronouns (semisocial
context) during speech
task
Physiological
measurements
Expansive posture higher self-
esteem; more arousal; better mood;
less fear; fewer negative words
Cover story;
semisocial
Park, Streamer, Huang,
& Galinsky (2013):
Experiment 2a (N = 213)
Configured posture of
American- and Asian-born
participants
Power feelings (social
context)
Body postures
being pretested
for a pilot study
Expansive posture (expansive-hands-
spread-on-desk pose) increased
power feelings for both American
and Asian participants
Cover story, social
task
Park etal. (2013):
Experiment 2b (N = 119)
Configured posture of
American- and Asian-born
participants
Power feelings (social
context)
Testing for
ergonomic quality
of chairs
Expansive posture (expansive-
upright-sitting pose) increased
power feelings for both American
and Asian participants
Cover story, social
task
Park etal. (2013):
Experiment 3 (N = 106)
Configured posture of
American- and Asian-born
participants
Priming of power words,
power feelings (social
context)
Testing for
ergonomic quality
of chairs
Expansive posture (feet-on-desk
pose) increased cognitive
accessibility of power-related
words, power feelings for
American participants only
Cover story, social
task
Park etal. (2013):
Experiment 4 (N = 83)
Configured posture of
American- and Asian-born
participants
Action orientation (social
context)
Testing for
ergonomic quality
of chairs
Expansive posture (expansive-
feet-on-desk pose) increased
action orientation for American
participants only
Cover story, social
task
(continued)
Table 1. (continued)
4
Article and experiment Independent variable Dependent variable Cover story Findings
Key features of
paradigm
Riskind (1984): Experiment
1 (N = 76)
Configured Posture × False
Feedback
Locus of control
(nonsocial context)
Biofeedback Expansive posture helped buffer
the negative impact of negative
feedback on locus of control
Cover story,
nonsocial context
Riskind (1984): Experiment
2 (N = 51)
Configured Posture × False
Feedback
Depression, puzzle-
solving persistence
(nonsocial context)
Biofeedback Both expansive posture and positive
feedback decreased depression;
increased persistence
Cover story,
nonsocial context
Riskind (1984): Experiment
3 (N = 20)
Configured posture; all in
negative feedback
Depression, locus of
control (nonsocial
context)
Biofeedback Expansive posture + negative
feedback more depression,
higher locus of control
Cover story,
nonsocial context
Riskind & Gotay (1982):
Experiment 1 (N = 20)
Configured Posture × False
Feedback
Persistence at solving
puzzles (semisocial
context)
Physiological
measurements
Expansive posture increased
persistence
Cover story,
semisocial
Riskind & Gotay (1982):
Experiment 2 (N = 20)
Configured Posture × False
Feedback
Persistence at solving
puzzles (semisocial
context)
Physiological
measurements
Expansive posture increased
persistence
Cover story,
semisocial
Stepper & Strack (1993):
Experiment 1 (N = 99)
Configured Posture × Onset
of Success Feedback
Feelings of pride
(nonsocial context)
Ergonomic
working positions
and task
performance
Expansive posture + success
feedback pride feelings
Cover story,
nonsocial context
Strelan, Weick, & Vasiljevic
(2013): Experiment 3
(N = 85)
Configured Posture ×
Chronic Power Feelings
Retaliation to multiple
transgressions (social
context)
Ostensibly
unrelated
experiment with
bodies and a box
Expansive posture chronically
powerless more vengeful than
chronically powerful
Cover story, social
context
Welker, Oberleitner,
Cain, & Carré (2013):
Experiment 1 (N = 91)
Posture configured by
experimenter and shown
line drawings; Posture ×
Social Exclusion (inclusion
vs. exclusion)
Threats to basic needs
and mood
None; posture
mentioned
Expansive posture and inclusion
decreased threat (posture effect
marginal) and increased mood
No cover story,
social context
Welker etal. (2013):
Experiment 2 (N = 84)
Posture configured by
experimenter and shown
line drawings; Posture ×
Social Exclusion (inclusion
vs. exclusion)
Threats to basic needs None; posture
mentioned
No main effect of expansive posture
decreased threat or mood;
Posture × Exclusion interaction:
expansive + excluded decreased
threat and increased mood
No cover story,
social context
Yap, Wazlawek, Lucas,
Cuddy, & Carney (2013):
Experiment 1 (N = 88)
Configured posture Stealing (social context) Stretching and
impressions
Expansive posture increased
cheating
Cover story, social
task
Yap etal. (2013):
Experiment 2 (N = 34)
Incidentally caused posture Cheating (social context) Feng shui and
creativity
Expansive posture increased
cheating
Cover story, social
task
Yap etal. (2013):
Experiment 3 (N = 71)
Incidentally caused posture Traffic violations
(semisocial context)
Physiology and
video games
Expansive posture increased
traffic violations
Cover story,
semisocial task
Note: All results reported were significant unless specified otherwise; comparisons between nonverbal expansiveness versus contractiveness (or neutral control posture). Reports
demonstrating causal effects of other power- and pride-related nonverbal behaviors were excluded (e.g., making fists, pride postures, crossing arms, tilting the head up, making an angry
face, lowering the voice). Also excluded were the hundreds of published experiments on effects of expanded body posture as an expression of power or dominance and on effects such as
perceptions, attributions, and social interaction.
Table 1. (continued)
Expansive Nonverbal Displays 5
Table 2. Comparison of Ranehill etal. (2014) and Carney, Cuddy, and Yap (2010)
Study characteristic Ranehill etal. (2014) Carney, Cuddy, and Yap (2010) Comment
Timing of
collection
Experiment conducted
recently
Experiment conducted between
2008 and 2009
In the past few years, research on
nonverbal expansiveness has been
well covered in the media and in many
university courses and textbooks;
therefore, participants might have had
exposure to the research and postural
manipulation.
Participant
population
Students from University of
Zurich and the Swiss Federal
Institute of Technology in
Zurich
Students from Columbia University Culture is a likely moderator, as was the
case in Park, Streamer, Huang, and
Galinsky (2013).
Sample size 200 42 Variability in sample size can affect
results because small sample sizes are
underpowered.
Gender ratio
(female:male)
98:102 26:16 Gender could be a moderator.
Cover story None (participants were told
that the study examined
how physical position
affects hormone levels and
behavior)
Elaborate cover story about
physiological signals above and
below hearing level
Results from past experiments favor using
a cover story and not explicitly telling
participants the study’s purpose before the
experiment begins. This framing could be
a moderator.
Instruction method Instructions given via
computer (specific
instructions not clear)
Participants’ poses manually
configured by experimenter
Method of delivery of instructions (e.g.,
via computer vs. experimenter, with vs.
without use of pictures) is likely to be a
moderator.
Time in poses 6 min 2 min Participants in Ranehill et al.’s study held
the poses 300% as long as participants
in Carney et al.’s study. Duration and
comfort of poses are very likely to be
moderators.
Filler task during
pose
Construct words from letters
and spaces
View and form impressions of nine
faces (a social filler task)
The social nature of the task is a known
moderator (Cesario & McDonald, 2013).
Cognitive taxation by the word task could
also be a moderator.
Risk measure Computer-mediated coin
flips: Participants made six
binary choices between a
safe and a risky option in a
gain domain and six more
choices in a loss domain
Participants were given $2 and told
they could keep the money—the
safe bet—or roll a die and risk
losing the $2 for a payoff of $4
(a risky but rational bet; odds of
winning were 50/50). Participants
rolled an actual die and saw the
money they could win.
The risk task used (e.g., computer mediated
or not) could be a moderator.
Self-report
moderators
Competitiveness measure
included
No competitiveness measure
included
There are many individual difference
measures that are of theoretical interest.
Computation
method of
hormone-change
score
Difference score (Time 2 –
Time 1)
Regression controlling for Time 1 This difference in analytic strategy often
yields different results.
Saliva collection at
Time 1
Immediately on arrival 10 min after arrival Neuroendocrine-reactivity studies should
include a rest period of 10 to 40 min
before the initial saliva sample is
collected. This downtime after arrival
at the lab allows hormones to return
to resting baseline levels, resulting
in cleaner, more interpretable data
(e.g., Blascovich, Vanman, Mendes, &
Dickerson, 2011).
6 Carney et al.
that all significant results were obtained using paradigms
with complex, detailed cover stories when participants
were unaware of the hypothesis of the experiment, which
suggests that awareness of the hypothesis may be a mod-
erator. And many, but not all, significant results were
obtained with paradigms situated in a social context,
which suggests social context as a moderator. By “social
context,” we mean there was either a social interaction
with another person (e.g., participant or experimenter)
during the posture manipulation or participants were
engaging in a real or imagined social task. Indeed,
Cesario and McDonald (2013) found direct evidence that
social context (present vs. absent) moderated the effect
of expansive posture such that effects were found only
when the participant was in a social context.
Tables 1 and 2 taken together suggest that there are
three differences between Ranehill etal.’s research and
our previously published experiment that may account
for the varied results. First, in our two experiments, we
were careful to conceal experimental purpose with a
detailed cover story; in their experiment, Ranehill etal.
told participants the purpose of the study—to investigate
effects of posture on hormones. Second, our two experi-
ments involved a social task during the postural manipu-
lation; Ranehill etal.’s experiment did not. Finally, in our
experiments, we used postural manipulations that were
comfortable, easy, and short in duration; Ranehill etal.’s
experiment employed postures that were three times as
long as those reported in our 2010 paper.
Contributions of Ranehill etal.
Some of the variables listed in Tables 1 and 2 suggest
future directions for research. One key moderator may be
awareness of the hypothesis of the experiment; virtually
all of the published reports demonstrating significant
effects of expansive posture used elaborate cover stories
to distract participants from the goal of the experiment.
As is common in economics research, Ranehill etal. did
not use any deception in the experiment, and partici-
pants were told that the study examined how physical
position affects hormone levels and behavior. Investigating
the effects of awareness of what one is doing seems like
an interesting and useful avenue for future research—
one with practical implications.
Another avenue for future research is the length of
time participants hold the expanded posture. Time in
posture was rarely reported and is not listed in Table 1.
In extensive pilot testing, we had settled on 1 min for
each of two postures because longer expressions of the
feet-on-the-desk pose were uncomfortable and difficult if
held longer than 1 min. Ranehill etal. (2014) tripled the
amount of time participants held all postures—including
the uncomfortable ones. Although it may make intuitive
sense that longer time in the posture would increase
effects, holding some postures for too long may cause
discomfort, become awkward, or habituate a body to the
effects of the posture. Length of time in posture should
be directly tested.
Finally, the experimenters’ blindness to the experi-
ment’s hypotheses was impossible to determine from
most articles and is not listed in Table 1. Ranehill etal.
used experimenters blind to the hypothesis, and we did
not. This is a critical variable to explore given the impact
of experimenter bias and the pervasiveness of expec-
tancy effects.
Looking Forward
Although we hope that Tables 1 and 2 will assist in mov-
ing forward the study of nonverbal expansiveness, at
present, direct replications are needed of Carney etal.
(2010) and many of the other reports in Table 1. Note
that in other disciplines, such as human physiology, simi-
lar results as those we obtained have shown that holding
an expansive yoga-style pose for 2 to 3 min significantly
increases blood-serum levels of testosterone and
decreases blood-serum levels of cortisol (Minvaleev,
Nozdrachev, Kir’yanova, & Ivanov, 2004). For the pur-
poses of a direct replication of Carney etal., all materials
can be obtained from the first author or downloaded
from her Web site (http://faculty.haas.berkeley.edu/
dana_carney/PRS%20Materials%20-%20to%20replicate
.zip).
Author Contributions
D. R. Carney drafted the manuscript and Table 1. A. J. Yap
drafted Table 2. D. R. Carney, A. J. C. Cuddy, and A. J. Yap read
and revised all text and tables.
Acknowledgments
We would like to thank the following colleagues for providing
helpful corrections and suggestions to this manuscript: Jill
Allen, Manzarin Banaji, R. Bhaskar, Vanessa Bohns, Joe Cesario,
Adam Galinsky, Li Huang, Johannes Michalak, Mike Norton,
Brian Nosek, Lora Park, Jeff Pfeffer, Simone Schnall, Peter
Strelan, Milica Vasiljevic, Mario Weick, Keith Welker, Scott
Wiltermuth, Brian Winters at the Association for Psychological
Science, and members of the Social and Nonverbal Behavior
Lab at the University of California, Berkeley.
Declaration of Conflicting Interests
The authors declared that they had no conflicts of interest with
respect to their authorship or the publication of this article.
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... During a second phase of approximately one hour, the participants are invited to partake in a session of power posing (15 minutes), which consists of three poses held for one minute each (Fig. 6). This duration was chosen based on earlier studies that demonstrate the beneficial effects after 60 to xxx.e8 120 seconds of holding a pose [39]. Since we included three different positions, we chose hold times of 60 seconds per pose, as it was suggested that holding postures too long could risk embarrassing the participants, bringing about unwanted effects [39]. ...
... This duration was chosen based on earlier studies that demonstrate the beneficial effects after 60 to xxx.e8 120 seconds of holding a pose [39]. Since we included three different positions, we chose hold times of 60 seconds per pose, as it was suggested that holding postures too long could risk embarrassing the participants, bringing about unwanted effects [39]. The poses were presented with a printed image and, upon request, were demonstrated by the experimenter. ...
Article
Objectives Childhood obesity has increased tenfold over the past 40 years. People with obesity present alterations of their bodily perceptions and a discrepancy between their actual body and their perceived body. One of the explanations advanced by neuroscience is the difficulty of integrating and processing sensory information, particularly the interoceptive interformation. There has been little research on this question in adolescent populations, although it is suggested that an atypical interoceptive mechanism is positively associated with the onset of psychopathologies and decreased socio-emotional skills in adulthood. We present here the first results of a qualitative research study that explores the experiential dimension of interception by obese adolescent girls in a hospitalization context and that assesses the main factors that influence interoceptive self-awareness: anxiety and pain. Method Exploratory qualitative research. T0 (30 min): Initial assessments: State trait anxiety Inventory for Children (STAIC Scale), visual analog scale for pain and Multidimensional Assessment of Interoceptive Awareness (MAIA Self-Questionnaire). T1 and T2 (60 min): perform three simple poses, each 1 min (T1) alternated with an explanatory interview exploring the interoceptive experience (T2). Results This study highlights that: (i) the severity of obesity is not positively associated with the level of interoceptive awareness; (ii) the correlation of influencing factors (pain and anxiety) and the level of awareness interoceptive is weak; (iii) the thematic categorization according to Mehling's eight interoceptive criteria demonstrates, for the participants: 1/the ability to identify their bodily perceptions by the majority of them; 2/the uneven capacity to maintain a level of attention on the body in its ensemble; 3/the ability not to worry about feelings of discomfort is influenced by hyper-rationalization or the negation of perceptions; 4/breathing appears to be the most mobilized lever to regulate attention; 5/the links between bodily perceptions and felt emotions are influenced by rationalization, bodily experience, or mood decline; 6/self-regulation is influenced by bodily experience, which enables awareness and postural readjustment; 7/listening to the body is influenced by the transfer of past bodily practices; 8/the notion of confidence in one's bodily perceptions is not always well understood and is not related to subjects’ ability to identify their internal manifestations, while perceived confidence is related to the level of rationalization and can be improved through postural practice. Discussion As reported in the literature, the interoceptive level of patients interviewed is generally low on the rating scales, but it appears that the MAIA results do not always reveal the perceived reality of body-self of the adolescent girls interviewed; guiding the participants in explaining their bodily experience reveals a much greater interoceptive dimension. We qualify this guided field of exploration as an interoceptive proximal zone or an interoceptive preconception zone. Conclusion We suggest that a better understanding of the interoceptive mechanisms experienced by obese people helps guide patients towards a safer experiential dimension of their body. Future research should enrich this qualitative perspective of interoception and open up more embodied dimensions of care.
... Innerhalb der letzten Jahrzehnte kam es im Zuge der zunehmenden Barsalou, 1999;Gibbs, 2006 (Barsalou et al., 2003;Weisfeld & Beresford, 1982) oder auch umgekehrt eine bestimmte Haltung die darauffolgende Stimmung bedingen (Carney et al., 2015;Nair et al., 2014;Peper et al., 2018;Stepper & Strack, 1993 (Newen et al., 2018). In diesem Zusammenhang sind auch Theorien des erweiterten Geistes zu nennen, da hier eine Erweiterung kognitiver Prozesse auf außerkörperliche Objekte angenommen wird (Clark, 2008;Clark & Chalmers, 1998 (Gibson, 1979;Newen et al., 2018). ...
... Bei der Bewertung der Originalität wurde nach der sogenannten Top-2-Scoring-Methode vorgegangen (siehe Silvia et al., 2008). Die Proband/-innen werden dabei im Rahmen der Instruktion gebeten, nach der Bearbeitung der Aufgabe für jeden der beiden Gegenstände jeweils zwei Antworten zu markieren, welche sie selbst als am kreativsten einschätzten (Top-2 (Stepper & Strack, 1993) und auf metakognitiver Ebene auch ein stärkeres Vertrauen in eigene Gedanken (Briñol et al., 2009 (Carney et al., 2015). Gebeugte Haltungen sind dagegen häufiger mit negativen Empfindungen assoziiert (Briñol et al., 2009;Carney et al., 2010;Huang et al., 2011 (Guinote, 2015;Keltner et al., 2003). ...
Thesis
Die vorliegende kumulative Dissertation beschäftigt sich mit der Fragestellung, welches Potenzial sich aus der Berücksichtigung von Embodiment-Theorien für die Pädagogik ergeben kann. Embodiment bzw. Embodied Cognition (dt. verkörperte Kognition) beschreibt eine Sammlung interdisziplinärer Ansätze innerhalb der neueren Kognitionswissenschaften, die kognitive Prozesse nicht rein geistig verorten, sondern als ein Zusammenspiel aus Geist, Körper und Umwelt betrachten. Im Rahmen der Einleitung findet zunächst eine kurze Darstellung des Forschungsbedarfs und eine Erläuterung der Untersuchungsgegenstände statt. Um eine theoretische Basis für die vorliegende Arbeit zu schaffen, werden im Anschluss die Grundgedanken von Embodiment-Ansätzen kontrastierend zu klassischen Kognitionstheorien vorgestellt. Nach einer allgemeinen theoretischen Einführung zu Embodiment erfolgt eine Überleitung zum Bereich der Pädagogik und damit eine Untersuchung der Thematik hinsichtlich ihrer Relevanz für Lehr- und Lernprozesse. Vor dem Hintergrund der Fragestellung, ob Embodiment zu einem Paradigmenwechsel in der Pädagogik führen kann, bestand das Ziel der Arbeit zum einen darin, bisherige (aus pädagogischer Sicht relevante) Erkenntnisse zu Embodiment aufzubereiten und basierend darauf, anhand zweier empirischer Untersuchungen, konkrete Effekte von Embodiment zu erfassen und hinsichtlich ihrer Bedeutung für Lehr- und Lernkontexte zu diskutieren. Dieses Ziel wurde schrittweise anhand dreier Publikationen verfolgt, welche den Kern der vorliegenden Dissertation bilden und inhaltlich aufeinander aufbauen. Publikation 1 („Embodiment – Die unterschätzte Rolle des Körpers im Lernprozess: Ein Paradigmenwechsel in der Schulpädagogik?“) umfasst eine Sammlung und Systematisierung ausgewählter Einzelbefunde der Embodiment-Forschung auf Theorieebene, wobei der Fokus auf der Beleuchtung bisheriger Forschung aus schulpädagogischer Perspektive liegt. Publikation 1 schließt mit dem Fazit, dass sich aus der Berücksichtigung von Erkenntnissen zu Embodiment wichtige Optimierungsmöglichkeiten für Lehr- und Lernprozesse ergeben können. Publikation 1 ist außerdem der Ausgangspunkt für Publikationen 2 und 3, zwei in Kapitel 3.2 dargelegte empirische Untersuchungen. In Publikation 2 („I sat, I felt, I performed: Posture Effects on Mood and Cognitive Performance“) erfolgt eine theoretische und empirische Auseinandersetzung mit Effekten von Stimmungen und Körperhaltungen auf Aspekte kognitiver Leistung (Bearbeitungsgeschwindigkeit und -genauigkeit in einem Aufmerksamkeits- und Konzentrationstest). Hierbei liegt der Fokus auf einer vergleichenden Betrachtung aufrechter und gebeugter Körperhaltungen. Entgegen den meisten bisherigen Untersuchungen bestand der Anspruch unter anderem in einer weitgehend impliziten Manipulation der Körperhaltung. Basierend auf vorangegangener Literatur, galt es die Hypothesen zu testen, dass 1) aufrechte Körperhaltungen mit positiverer Stimmung korrelieren, 2) aufrechte Körperhaltungen zu einer höheren Bearbeitungsgeschwindigkeit in einem Konzentrationstest führen, 3) gebeugte Körperhaltungen hingegen eine genauere Bearbeitung fördern sowie, dass 4) Effekte von Körperhaltungen auf kognitive Leistung durch Stimmung mediiert werden. Die Teilnehmenden bearbeiteten hierfür einen Konzentrationstest sowie einen Fragebogen zu ihrer Befindlichkeit. Es zeigte sich, dass Personen in der aufrechten Bedingung eine positivere Stimmung empfanden und verglichen mit der gebeugten Bedingung bei dem Konzentrationstest schneller arbeiteten. Effekte auf die Bearbeitungsgenauigkeit ließen sich jedoch in der vorliegenden Stichprobe nicht beobachten. Auch eine Mediation der Effekte von Körperhaltung auf Bearbeitungsgeschwindigkeit durch Stimmung ist in den Daten nicht zu erkennen. Es werden daher mögliche Limitationen und alternative Erklärungen diskutiert. In Publikation 3 („Offene Haltung, offenes Denken? Effekte von Körperhaltungen auf kreative Leistung“) galt es, basierend auf dem Studiendesign von Publikation 2, Effekte aufrechter und gebeugter Körperhaltungen auf kreative Denkprozesse zu untersuchen. Zur Erfassung des kreativen Denkens wurde sich für einen Test zu divergentem Denken entschieden. Die Daten lassen darauf schließen, dass aufrechte Körperhaltungen nicht nur positive Auswirkungen auf die Befindlichkeit zeigen, sondern außerdem auch förderliche Effekte auf die Ideenflüssigkeit und Originalität bei kreativem Denken haben. Auch hier ließ sich jedoch keine Mediation durch Stimmung erkennen, mögliche alternative Hintergründe werden diskutiert. Zusammenfassend wird, basierend auf den Ergebnissen der vorliegenden Dissertation, postuliert, dass Ansätze des Embodiments im Rahmen von Lehr- und Lernprozessen stärkere Berücksichtigung finden sollten.
... Registered replications with large sample sizes failed to replicate the testosterone and behavioral effects, but the subjective power effects were reliable (Jonas et al., 2017). The results from the original study were also published using questionable research processes (e.g., p-hacking) that can artificially inflate false positives (Carney et al., 2015). No doubt the use of these methods is problematic and inadvisable. ...
... In past studies, researchers may have looked to related literature and used a sample size from a similar study. Some researchers also engaged in the highly questionable practice of monitoring data as it was collected and stopping data collection when the results became significant (Carney et al., 2015). In critique of these practices, open science practitioners have called for authors to note how sample sizes are determined with a priori power analyses, report stopping rules for data collection, and describe data cleaning and removal procedures. ...
Article
In this commentary, we argue that feminist science and open science can benefit from each other’s wisdom and critiques in service of creating systems that produce the highest quality science with the maximum potential for improving the lives of women. To do this, we offer a constructive analysis, focusing on common methods used in open science, including open materials and data, preregistration, and large sample sizes, and illuminate potential benefits and costs from a feminist science perspective. We also offer some solutions and deeper questions both for individual researchers and the feminist psychology and open science communities. By broadening our focus from a myopic prioritization of certain methodological and analytic approaches in open science, we hope to give a balanced perspective of science that emerges from each movement’s strengths and is openly feminist and radically open.
... The contrasting positions are slumped postures in which the back and shoulders are bent forward (e.g., . In experimental research on body positions, participants are typically instructed to engage in one of these positions for 1-5 min, and various outcomes are subsequently assessed (Carney et al., 2015;. ...
... However, future research could explore whether inferences of manipulative intent diminish if alternative, more subtle approaches of eliciting power are employed. For instance, power could be primed by using status-enhancing furniture (Chen et al., 2001) or "power poses" (Carney et al., 2015). Our evidence on the comparatively greater viability of power messages that focus on how the service experience An additional, important issue to consider in future research relates to the effect of individual characteristics of consumers in interpreting power messaging, other than skepticism measured in this paper. ...
Article
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Past research shows that company messaging can inflate consumers' feelings of power, which in turn alleviate the negative effects of service failures. Extant research, however, has not examined how various types of power messaging can have a differential effect on consumers, with some leading to counterproductive consequences for companies. Across five experiments, we show that power messaging stressing that consumers have power over the company can backfire by increasing manipulative intent. Power messaging communicating that consumers will obtain a power boost from the service is more acceptable and less likely to be perceived as manipulative. Furthermore, we demonstrate that messaging eliciting power from the service is most effective when (1) targeted at consumers with low levels of skepticism, (2) delivered by an underdog brand, and (3) paired with co‐created recovery. Following a service failure, messaging communicating how customers will gain a power boost from the service experience increases identification with underdog brands. Our examination of power messaging as an overt communication strategy contributes to the literature on service failure and recovery. The research advances knowledge of the potential pitfalls of power messaging while proposing strategies to overcome risks associated with this communication strategy.
... PsyAr-Xiv). Sixth, we checked the reference lists of previous reviews on the topic (i.e., Carney et al., 2015;Cuddy et al., 2018;Elkjaer et al., 2020;. ...
Article
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Early research on body positions suggested that engaging in certain nonverbal displays can lead to changes in self-report, behavioral, and physiological dependent variables. Still, there has been intense criticism regarding the replicability of these effects. To determine what effects are valid, we conducted a meta-analytic review on body position studies. We used the dominance–prestige framework and distinguished between high-power poses representing dominance and upright postures representing prestige. We preregistered our meta-analysis, used the largest sample of studies thus far, and analyzed several theoretical and exploratory moderator variables. Based on 313 effects from 88 studies involving 9,779 participants, evidence was obtained for an overall statistically significant effect of body positions that was not trivial in size, g = 0.35 (95% CI [0.28,0.42]). Both the poses and postures showed effects for self-report and behavioral dependent variables but not for physiological dependent variables. However, sensitivity analyses suggested that effects for behavioral dependent variables were influenced by publication bias and/or outliers. Effects were noticeably larger in studies without cover stories and in studies that used within-subjects designs, suggesting that demand characteristics might partially explain the results. Whether participants were male or female, students or nonstudents, or from an individualistic or collectivistic culture did not make a difference. We also present an app that researchers can use to enter data from future studies and thus obtain up-to-date metaanalytical results on this topic. Future research should investigate whether high-power poses/upright postures increase effects and/or whether low-power poses/slumped postures decrease effects
... There are several studies in this field that look at how small changes in our body language can have significant effects on social interaction. For example, a more open and expansive body posture, such as standing and having a lot of space between your feet, with your hands on your hips, lead to changes in perception and interactional behavior, according to the study developed by Carney, Cuddy and Yap (2015). In this study, the authors discuss how this type of nonverbal behavior is often associated with a higher probability of being hired in a simulated job interview (Cuddy, Wilmuth, Yap, & Carney, 2015). ...
Article
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RESUMO Este artigo relata um estudo realizado sobre a interação professor-aluno em uma escola pública dos anos iniciais, na cidade de Santiago, Chile. O estudo realizou uma análise quantitativa dos quadros das imagens capturadas por uma minicâmera montada em óculos de um grupo de 18 estudantes. Os quadros selecionados foram os que a professora aparece no campo visual dos alunos. A análise foi desenvolvida a partir do conceito de proxêmica e os resultados mostram que há momentos em que a professora da sala de aula interage com os alunos em um nível mais próximo e, em outros, há um distanciamento maior. Além disso, foi possível identificar diferenças entre meninos e meninas quanto aos padrões proxêmicos de envolvimento visual na interação. Os resultados deste estudo sinalizam novos sentidos para a análise da interação professor-aluno com foco em aspectos não verbais na construção das relações de ensino e aprendizagem.
... In der Kontrollbedingung wurden die Versuchspersonen dazu aufgefordert, simpel aufrecht, aber entspannt am Tischtennistisch zu stehen. Die jeweilige Bewegungsaufgabe sollte 2 Minuten ausgeführt werden (Carney et al., 2015). Um einen standardisierten Ablauf zu gewährleisten, wurde die Bewegungsdurchführung mit einem Metronom begleitet (20 bpm) und die Versuchspersonen wurden gebeten auf den Schlag des Metronoms die High-und Low-Fives mit und ohne Part-ner_in durchzuführen. ...
Article
Zusammenfassung. High- und Low-Fives stellen im Sport verbreitete aber unerforschte Phänomene dar. Ziel der Studie ist es, den bislang unklaren Einfluss auf psychophysiologische, soziale und leistungsrelevante Parameter zu untersuchen. In einem Innersubjektdesign nahmen 23 tischtennisaffine Dyaden teil. Vor und nach den Bewegungsmanipulationen (High-Fives alleine; High-Fives mit Partner_in; Low-Fives alleine; Low-Fives mit Partner_in; Kontrollbedingung) gaben Versuchspersonen Auskunft über Motivation, Macht, Affekt und wahrgenommene Nähe zum/zur Partner_in. Ebenfalls gaben sie Speichel zur Erfassung von Cortisol ab. Anschließend wurde die Aufschlagleistung im Tischtennis erhoben. Ergebnisse zeigten weder Unterschiede in der Veränderung der psychophysiologischen Parameter noch in der Leistung zwischen den Bedingungen. Lediglich die wahrgenommene Nähe stieg in den Bedingungen mit Partner_in an. Die Ergebnisse widersprechen den Theorien des Embodiments, was hinsichtlich der unnatürlichen Bewegungsausführung diskutiert wird. Allerdings sind unsere Ergebnisse im Einklang mit Theorien über die Funktionen von Berührungen und zeigen erstmalig für den sportlichen Kontext, dass High- und Low-Fives einen positiven Effekt auf soziale Strukturen haben.
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Previous research suggests that there is a fundamental link between expansive body postures and feelings of power. The current research demonstrates that this link is not universal, but depends on people’s cultural background (Western versus East Asian) and on the particular type of expansive posture enacted. Three types of expansive postures were examined in the present studies: the expansive-hands-spread-on-desk pose (Carney et al., 2010), the expansive-upright-sitting pose (Huang et al., 2011; Tiedens & Fragale, 2003), and the expansive-feet-on-desk pose (Carney et al., 2010). Of these postures, the expansive-feet-on-desk pose was perceived by both Americans and East Asians as the least consistent with East Asian cultural norms of modesty, humility, and restraint (Study 1). The expansive-hands-spread-on-desk and expansive-upright-sitting postures led to greater sense of power than a constricted posture for both Americans and East Asians (Studies 2a-2b). In contrast, the expansive-feet-on-desk pose led to greater power activation (Study 3) and action orientation (Study 4) for Americans, but not for East Asians. Indeed, East Asians in the expansive-feet-on-desk pose showed less power activation and action orientation than Americans in this pose. Together, these findings support a basic principle of embodiment – the effects of posture depend on: (a) the type of posture, and (b) the symbolic meaning of that posture.
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Basic research has shown that the motoric system (i.e., motor actions or stable postures) can strongly affect emotional processes. The present study sought to investigate the effects of sitting posture on the tendency of depressed individuals to recall a higher proportion of negative self-referent material. Thirty currently depressed inpatients either sat in a slumped (depressed) or in an upright (non-depressed) posture while imagining a visual scene of themselves in connection with positive or depression related words presented to them on a computer screen. An incidental recall test of these words was conducted after a distraction task. Results of a mixed ANOVA showed a significant posture x word type interaction, with upright-sitting patients showing unbiased recall of positive and negative words but slumped patients showing recall biased towards more negative words. The findings indicate that relatively minor changes in the motoric system can affect one of the best-documented cognitive biases in depression. Practical implications of the findings are discussed. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Features of patients' motoric system (i.e., habitual movement patterns or body postures) might be relevant for individual case conceptualization. Training patients to change habitual motoric patterns (e.g., dysfunctional posture or movement patterns) might attenuate negatively biased information processing in depressed patients. Training patients in mindful body awareness might be useful because it fosters an intuitive understanding of the interplay of bodily and emotional processes.
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Three studies explored whether social power affects the perception of physical properties of objects, testing the hypothesis that the powerless find objects to be heavier than the powerful do. Correlational findings from Study 1 revealed that people with a low personal sense of power perceived loaded boxes to be heavier than people with a high personal sense of power perceived them to be. In Study 2, experimentally manipulated power indicated that participants in the powerless condition judged the boxes to be heavier than did participants in the powerful condition. Study 3 further indicated that lacking power actively influences weight perception relative to a neutral control condition, whereas having power does not. Although much research on embodied perception has shown that various physiological and psychosocial resources influence visual perception of the physical environment, this is the first demonstration suggesting that power, a psychosocial construct that relates to the control of resources, changes the perception of physical properties of objects. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).
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Body image concern has long been linked with unhealthy restrained eating patterns among women, yet scant research has examined factors to disrupt this process. At the same time, feminine stereotypes prescribe that women should be small, restrict their movements, speak softly, and limit their food intake (e.g., through dieting). Here, we examined whether women’s postural constriction or expansion moderated the relation between body shape concern and restrained eating, predicting that expansive postures would interrupt this robust relation. As a secondary aim, we investigated whether women spontaneously adopted constrictive postures and to what extent postures contributed to restrained eating under baseline conditions. Specifically, women’s postural position (constricted, expanded, or baseline posture) was manipulated and restrained eating was measured. Results showed that at high levels of body shape concern, women sitting in expansive postures restrained their eating less compared to women in constrictive postures. Further, spontaneously expansive (vs. spontaneously constrictive) postures were associated with less restrained eating among women. Thus, postural expansion attenuated the link between body shape concern and restrained eating whereas postural constriction exacerbated the link. Implications for gender performativity and possible interventions for restrained eating are discussed.
Article
Two studies examine complementarity (vs. mimicry) of dominant and submissive nonverbal behaviors. In the first study, participants interacted with a confederate who displayed either dominance (through postural expansion) or submission (through postural constriction). On average. participants exposed to a dominant confederate decreased their postural stance, whereas participants exposed to a submissive confederate increased their stance. Further, participants with complementing response,, (dominance in response to submission and submission in response to dominance) liked their partner more and were more comfortable than those who mimicked. In the second study, complementarity and mimicry were manipulated, and complementarity resulted in more liking and comfort than mimicry. The findings speak to the likelihood of hierarchical differentiation.
Article
The authors tested whether engaging in expansive (vs. contractive) "power poses" before a stressful job interview-preparatory power posing-would enhance performance during the interview. Participants adopted high-power (i.e., expansive, open) poses or low-power (i.e., contractive, closed) poses, and then prepared and delivered a speech to 2 evaluators as part of a mock job interview. All interview speeches were videotaped and coded for overall performance and hireability and for 2 potential mediators: verbal content (e.g., structure, content) and nonverbal presence (e.g., captivating, enthusiastic). As predicted, those who prepared for the job interview with high- (vs. low-) power poses performed better and were more likely to be chosen for hire; this relation was mediated by nonverbal presence, but not by verbal content. Although previous research has focused on how a nonverbal behavior that is enacted during interactions and observed by perceivers affects how those perceivers evaluate and respond to the actor, this experiment focused on how a nonverbal behavior that is enacted before the interaction and unobserved by perceivers affects the actor's performance, which, in turn, affects how perceivers evaluate and respond to the actor. This experiment reveals a theoretically novel and practically informative result that demonstrates the causal relation between preparatory nonverbal behavior and subsequent performance and outcomes. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).
Article
Objective: The hypothesis that muscular states are related to emotions has been supported predominantly by research on facial expressions. However, body posture also may be important to the initiation and modulation of emotions. This experiment aimed to investigate whether an upright seated posture could influence affective and cardiovascular responses to a psychological stress task, relative to a slumped seated posture. Method: There were 74 participants who were randomly assigned to either a slumped or upright seated posture. Their backs were strapped with physiotherapy tape to hold this posture throughout the study. Participants were told a cover story to reduce expectation effects of posture. Participants completed a reading task, the Trier Social Stress speech task, assessments of mood, self-esteem, and perceived threat. Blood pressure and heart rate were continuously measured. Results: Upright participants reported higher self-esteem, more arousal, better mood, and lower fear, compared to slumped participants. Linguistic analysis showed slumped participants used more negative emotion words, first-person singular pronouns, affective process words, sadness words, and fewer positive emotion words and total words during the speech. Upright participants had higher pulse pressure during and after the stressor. Conclusions: Adopting an upright seated posture in the face of stress can maintain self-esteem, reduce negative mood, and increase positive mood compared to a slumped posture. Furthermore, sitting upright increases rate of speech and reduces self-focus. Sitting upright may be a simple behavioral strategy to help build resilience to stress. The research is consistent with embodied cognition theories that muscular and autonomic states influence emotional responding.
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William James’s theory of emotion has been controversial since its inception, and a basic analysis of Cannon’s critique is provided. Research on the impact of facial expressions, expressive behaviors, and visceral responses on emotional feelings are each reviewed. A good deal of evidence supports James’s theory that these types of bodily feedback, along with perceptions of situational cues, are each important parts of emotional feelings. Extensions to James’s theory are also reviewed, including evidence of individual differences in the effect of bodily responses on emotional experience.
Article
Adopting a powerful posture leads individuals to feel more confident and dominant. Social exclusion can strongly impact individuals' mood and basic social needs. The current research combines these bodies of research, investigating the effects of dominant and submissive poses on responses to social exclusion and inclusion. In two experiments, participants held a slouching or upright pose and were either socially included or excluded using the Cyberball social exclusion manipulation. Social exclusion only affected participants' mood when individuals took a powerful posture: Excluded participants in powerful postures had more negative mood after exclusion than included power-posing participants, but effects of exclusion and inclusion did not differ among submissive-posing participants (Experiments 1 and 2). Similarly, it was also found that social exclusion affected basic needs only when participants' adopted powerful poses (Experiment 2).