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Homo Ludens: A Study of the Play-Element in Culture.

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... Recreational activities related to cultural practices have been an object of study in human science as one of the fundamental aspects of understanding humans (Huizinga, 1955;Roberts et al., 1959;Schwartzman, 1979) Games are cultural and recreational activities whose practice and consequences have significant social, historical, and functional importance in various societies with different evolution levels (Roberts et al., 1959). Play, or competition associated with entertainment practices, is directly related to ancient and slightly primitive activities related to survival aspects, with a basal role from an evolutionary point of view, comparable to religious practices, hunting activities, or war strategies (Tylor, 1896). ...
... Although games do not directly satisfy basic human needs related to survival (Maslow, 1943), they represent essential pillars for societies with diversified evolutionary levels. They can act as a mechanism that promotes social activities resulting in feelings of exaltation, tension, enthusiasm, and rapture, followed by feelings of joy and relaxationactivities that have enormous relevance and impact in civilizational and social domains (Huizinga, 1955). The instinct of imitation promoted by the act of play allied to the need for relaxation, whose main objective is fun associated with conquest and defeat are feelings that convey cultural significance allied as a tool to discharge excess vital energy (Huizinga, 1955;Schwartzman, 1979). ...
... They can act as a mechanism that promotes social activities resulting in feelings of exaltation, tension, enthusiasm, and rapture, followed by feelings of joy and relaxationactivities that have enormous relevance and impact in civilizational and social domains (Huizinga, 1955). The instinct of imitation promoted by the act of play allied to the need for relaxation, whose main objective is fun associated with conquest and defeat are feelings that convey cultural significance allied as a tool to discharge excess vital energy (Huizinga, 1955;Schwartzman, 1979). ...
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Playable Characters are the element of mediation between the Player and the digital game world. This paper proposes a taxonomy to categorize Playable Characters in Digital games based on the type of experience a digital game offer regarding the type of Playable Character a Digital game provides. The present paper has detailed a method to find Playable Characters in the history of digital games, based on best-selling reports-Entertainment Software Association-and critical acclamation-Eurogamer, Games Radar, IGN, Polygon, The Guardian, Time, and Metacritic. A total of 393 digital games were analyzed, culminating in a proposal to categorize Playable Characters by genre in digital games based on the typology of play: Avatar, Class, Group, Real-life Characters, and Fictional Characters.
... Another influence is Vygotsky's (1967) socio-cultural approach under which play is a social symbolic activity through which children learn and develop (Nicolopoulou, 1993). Play practices can therefore be seen as a fundamental part of our existence, as something that constitutes us as humans (Huizinga, 1949). At the neural level, pleasurable learning processes are more likely to be retained and consolidated as memories than neutral processes. ...
... Play is thus more a way of life than an activity. The purpose of play is play itself (Huizinga, 1949). In recent years, there has been a growing tendency to use play elements to optimise different aspects of life such as work processes and educational settings. ...
... Further, the app functions as play media (Karoff, 2013a(Karoff, , 2013b by creating a playful atmosphere and allowing participants to create meaning through practice. Although play is considered to be a joyful voluntary activity (Huizinga, 1949) and the activities related to the app may be less voluntary since the target group (children between 10 and 12 years) is there with their families or schools, using the app has a more playful atmosphere in the learning environment and invites a different approach to learning about history and the specific location. For example, when searching for spots at En kirke braender, visitors are led around the carefully tended churchyard via narrow paths and nooks and crannies, which invites exploration not explicitly intended by the app-scheduled plan. ...
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In this study, we test and discuss a Danish communication and entertainment mobile application (app) aimed at children aged 10 to 12 years for use by families and schools. The app, Tidslommen, has been developed by Museum Vestsjælland, a collaboration among natural history museums in Denmark. Tidslommen features audio and video guides and augmented reality with game elements, which become active when users enter specific geographical spots. Adopting a transdisciplinary approach (media study, studies in children’s culture, educational neuroscience, educational anthropology) and using a combination of the walkthrough method and sensory ethnography, we explore the functionalities of the app at four locations. With our field-based user experiences as the point of departure, we analyse and discuss the potential and challenges related to the intersections among bodily and nature-based experiences, mobile technology and participatory practices as part of a didactic setting that aims to encourage children to participate in experiences with nature. Our study suggests that using mobile technology encourages interactions between peers and moving around at a location. The app also allows for an individualised experience characterised by a play-oriented approach to the location.
... A highly detailed analysis of the affinity between play and uncertainty is also given by several scholars, such as Moore (1975) whose term 'indeterminacy' I have adapted. Turner (1983) used the term 'liminality' to the same end, and Handelman (2006) suggested a 'Möbius ring' model describing a twisted strip closed in a ring which due to this twisting, forms two planes permanently passing into each other, i.e., a permanent duality between the message of a beginning of play and the interference of reality in this play (Huizinga, 1938(Huizinga, /1949. These views taken together provide sufficiently good reason to infer that the uncertainty under discussion can be analyzed as a central peculiarity of interpersonal live playing in small groups, and serve as its common denominator in further discussion. ...
... A highly detailed analysis of the affinity between play and uncertainty is also given by several scholars, such as Moore (1975) whose term 'indeterminacy' I have adapted. Turner (1983) used the term 'liminality' to the same end, and Handelman (2006) suggested a 'Möbius ring' model describing a twisted strip closed in a ring which due to this twisting, forms two planes permanently passing into each other, i.e., a permanent duality between the message of a beginning of play and the interference of reality in this play (Huizinga, 1938(Huizinga, /1949. These views taken together provide sufficiently good reason to infer that the uncertainty under discussion can be analyzed as a central peculiarity of interpersonal live playing in small groups, and serve as its common denominator in further discussion. ...
... A person is often unable to perceive an activity proposed by agents as playful (Huizinga, 1938(Huizinga, /1949Schneider, 2001;Suits, 2004). One's attitude toward this activity is such that it just cannot be a subject for play, either because it seems routine or it is too shocking. ...
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Social background is a vital element of human play, realizing the overt and covert transference of social norms as relevant values in public discourse. The interdisciplinary discussion proposed in this article makes it possible to propose a 3D model of ‘sociali persona ludum’ in the concluding part of the study. The model suggests three kinds of domains that together, create each socially dependent person’s play: (1) the emergent domain of escapes to the so-called ‘being there’ of play (2) the domain of contents, and (3) the domain of uncertainties. They are functions of different basic features of human play that are analyzed here – the quantity and quality of playing agents, plots of games, and interactions between agents – placed on three Cartesian axes. In addition to the scholarly thesis suggested by this model, one can see it as a possible framework for different applicative needs.
... Playing games is a very valuable activity for thought, culture, and education (Huizinga, 1955). Every game has a goal and predetermined rules. ...
... This process not only allows the players to have a good time but also enables them to learn about the game and develop some skills. Players also experience an enculturation process such as obeying ethical rules and playing gentlemanly, and they develop themselves socially and psychologically (Huizinga, 1955). ...
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Board games have been mainly used in school in order to develop students' cognitive skills such as recognizing oneself intellectual potential, developing different and original strategies in confronting problems, developing quick thinking and decision-making skills, and using reasoning and logic correctly and effectively. However, detailed guidance about how the teacher could manage the game-playing process and about how it will play a role in helping students achieve the targeted skills has not been provided in the studies on games, the curriculum, or the game guides. In this study, a framework for the teacher in managing the process of playing board games is proposed. This framework is based on the Theory of Didactical Situations and has been developed in the context of strategic board games that are mostly played against an opponent on a board and do not involve luck. Pentago was used to illustrate the proposed framework. At the end of the study, the use of this framework for other board games is also discussed.
... AI in games has always been a field leader (Laird and Van Lent 2001;Vinyals et al. 2019), and this application domain can be leveraged to illustrate how problems of adaptivity and uncertainty can be dealt with in a well-defined context. For example, adaptive AI in games requires two constraints: to maintain logical consistency of game rules and a coherent 'Magic Circle' that preserves player immersion (Huizinga 1949). Games have also been used in XAI, e.g. the Arcade Learning Environment (Bellemare et al. 2013) and the General Video Game Competition (Perez-Liebana et al. 2016), which both consist of collections of game tasks designed to be solved by a single AI agent, and associated evaluations. ...
... The MMOG is a useful conceptual construct, not least because it has been so well studied, and serves well as the design for a thought experiment simulation. MMOGs also have one distinct advantage over the newer forms of social online platforms: being games, they naturally conform better to the characteristics of formal games, i.e. they describe the behaviour of rational agents (rationality here defined by the rules of the game, entered into knowingly by the players, viz the Magic Circle Huizinga 1949). This allows us to reason about the behaviour of players with confidence. ...
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In this chapter, we reflect on the deployment of artificial intelligence (AI) as a pedagogical and educational instrument and the challenges that arise to ensure transparency and fairness to staff and students . We describe a thought experiment: ‘simulation of AI in education as a massively multiplayer social online game’ (AIEd-MMOG). Here, all actors (humans, institutions, AI agents and algorithms) are required to conform to the definition of a player. Models of player behaviour that ‘understand’ the game space provide an application programming interface for typical algorithms, e.g. deep learning neural nets or reinforcement learning agents, to interact with humans and the game space. The definition of ‘player’ is a role designed to maximise protection and benefit for human players during interaction with AI. The concept of benefit maximisation is formally defined as a Rawlsian justice game, played within the AIEd-MMOG to facilitate transparency and trust of the algorithms involved, without requiring algorithm-specific technical solutions to, e.g. ‘peek inside the black box’. Our thought experiment for an AIEd-MMOG simulation suggests solutions for the well-known challenges of explainable AI and distributive justice.
... The phrase "a theatrical performance performed in a theater by theatrical performers" could just as easily be written as "a play played in a playhouse by players". "Play is distinct from 'ordinary' life both as to locality by and duration" (Huizinga [1944(Huizinga [ ] 1950). For Huizinga, playing makes and underlies representation in ritual and dramatic performance, culture, poetry, and art. ...
... The phrase "a theatrical performance performed in a theater by theatrical performers" could just as easily be written as "a play played in a playhouse by players". "Play is distinct from 'ordinary' life both as to locality by and duration" (Huizinga [1944(Huizinga [ ] 1950). For Huizinga, playing makes and underlies representation in ritual and dramatic performance, culture, poetry, and art. ...
Article
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This essay engages the experimental playwright Nassim Soleimanpour’s White Rabbit Red Rabbit alongside the theological dramatic theory of Hans Urs von Balthasar. Every Soleimanpour play can only happen once. Actors receive the script as they begin the show; any given actor must perform Soleimanpour’s drama as a cold reading unique in history. I propose “Showtime” to theorize this theatrical temporality, exemplified by White Rabbit Red Rabbit and shared by von Balthasar’s theology, on analogy to stage space. This article further examines the play’s themes of identity, self-sacrifice, free obedience, and writing about time through a “theodramatic structural analysis” keyed to von Balthasar. Soleimanpour expands Balthasarian theodramatics in unexpected and unintended directions. So too did the performance of White Rabbit Red Rabbit I attended in 2016 that featured Wayne Brady as the actor. This essay concludes with analysis of that performance and how it places this essay’s theodramatic structural analysis into contexts of race and the history of anti-Black racism in the United States.
... New global processes and transformations, in which children are the most numerous group of participants, enable a broader insight into their situation and, above all, into play and toys -tools with which they recognize, encode and learn about the surrounding world. Zabawa, niezależnie od jej umiejscowienia w czasie i przestrzeni, jest prymarna dla wszystkich rodzajów ludzkiej kultury (Huizinga 1950). Jako kulturowy fenomen i kulturowo-biologiczne uniwersum stanowi ważną część każdego dzieciństwa i jednocześnie jest zjawiskiem, dla którego nie istnieją żadne adekwatne kryteria. ...
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The text refers to contemporary interdisciplinary research on children’s play in different cultures. The author reflects on the diverse functions of play in the context of the multiplicity of childhoods and in view of the changing conditions and contexts of children’s lives, as well as the changing models of childhood and the ways and possibilities of children’s functioning in the 21st century. New global processes and transformations, in which children are the most numerous group of participants, enable a broader insight into their situation and, above all, into play and toys – tools with which they recognize, encode and learn about the surrounding world. https://czasopisma.bg.ug.edu.pl/index.php/pwe/article/view/7243
... But the feeling of being 'apart together' in an exceptional situation, of sharing something important, of mutually withdrawing from the rest of the world and rejecting the usual norms, retains its magic beyond the duration of the individual game." (Huizinga, 1950) In educational work, we can build on this feeling of community, which stems from a common interest, and benefit from its motivating character. And we have to accept that even if we ban video games from the classroom, video game culture is always present. ...
Conference Paper
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As the majority of people in Austria and all over Europe play video games - regardless of gender, age, social or cultural background - video games have become an important part of today's society. Around this fascination, a "video game culture" has developed. However, in this context, it is not only the mere consumption of video games that plays a role, but rather the participation in a media landscape shaped by video games. Examples of phenomena that have emerged from video game culture are gameplay video productions (Let's Play videos and streams) and e-sports, the organised competitive playing of video games. In these fields, especially young people participate taking on different roles - for example as fans, spectators, content producers or competitors. A closer look at these activities shows that they on the one hand open up numerous spaces for (informal) learning. One the other hand, they also bring challenges to our society. However, there are hardly any school projects that address the various phenomena and challenges arising from today’s video game culture. The article sheds light on the relevance of video game culture activities - beyond gaming - for the educational field and provides insights into two ongoing projects: the research project StreamIT! as well as the E-Sports School League Floridsdorf+ in Vienna with the accompanying web platform esport-schulliga.at
... The facilitator can also simulate non-standard situations when trying to achieve didactic goals, however, he/she should not create a dangerous environment. As Huizinga (2008) states, rules are an important part of games. They are unconditionally binding and do not permit doubts. ...
Conference Paper
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As part of testing the Act As A® simulation on a sample of secondary school students, it was found that negative emotions may emerge during the simulation. The aim of this paper is to propose new elements that can minimize negative experiences of the participants, either during or immediately after the simulation. The paper describes specific situations that occurred during the testing and the influence of the facilitator on the simulation process. In the context of the observed phenomena, suggestions are presented at the end of the article that can mitigate negative emotions in participants in the simulation. Ensuring a safer environment can positively affect the effectiveness of the didactic simulation.
... Entre ellas los videojuegos, tienen un papel relevante, y forman parte de estas representaciones culturales, mediadas por la tecnología. La inserción del juego en la cultura es un proceso lógico, como señala Huizinga (2000) el juego es el precursor de la cultura y forma parte de las estrategias inherentes de aprendizaje del ser humano, dando forma a su configuración social y cultural actual. ...
... By using game design elements, gamification can be used to persuade users by addressing the users' psychological needs as well as providing a joyful or gameful experience. Herein, the latter refers to the concept of playfulness that is inherently a part of most human beings-the homo ludens-as well as hedonic aspects of the use of information technology for entertainment (Huizinga, 2009;Sharp, Preece, & Rogers, 2019). Thereby, users usually get motivated by specific gamification rewards (e.g., achievements or points) or simply the experience of the IS itself (i.e., homo ludens). ...
Article
Persuasive System Design (PSD) is an umbrella term for designs in information systems (IS) that can influence the attitude, behavior, or decision-making of people for better or worse. On the one hand, PSD can improve the engagement and motivation of users to change their attitude, behavior, or decision-making way favorably and thus help them achieve the desired outcome, thus improving the users’ well-being. On the other hand, PSD can also be misused and lead to unethical and undesirable outcomes such as disclosing unnecessary information or agreeing to terms that are unfavorable for the user, which in return can negatively impact the users’ well-being. These powerful persuasive designs can involve concepts such as gamification, gamblification, or digital nudging, which all have become well-renowned during the last years and have been implemented successfully across different sectors including education, e-health, e-governance, e-finance, or digital privacy contexts. However, such persuasive influence on individuals raises ethical questions as PSD can impair the autonomy of users or persuade the user towards the goals of a third party and hence lead to unethical decision-making processes and outcomes. In human-computer interaction, this is especially significant with the advent of advanced artificial intelligence. These novel technologies allow to influence the decision-making of users, gather data, and profile users as well as persuade them towards unethical outcomes. These unethical outcomes can lead to psychological and emotional damage in users. To understand the role of ethics in persuasive system design, we conduct an exhaustive systematic literature analysis and a set of 20 interviews to compile an overview of ethical considerations for persuasive system design. Furthermore, we then derive potential propositions for more ethical PSD and shed light on potential research gaps.
... Before discussing the reasons why we consider the use of VR in this scenario, we should recall the concept of the magic circle, introduced by Johan Huizinga in his book Homo Ludens (Huizinga, 2002), which is a key concept in game studies. The magic circle is an imaginary place in which what happens inside the circle has no consequences outside the circle. ...
Book
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More than 20 years have passed since the publication of Pianta (2001) on the quality of the teacher-student relationship. Since then, several attempts have been made to elaborate theoretically the concept of teacher-student relationship quality and to provide empirical evidence of the impact that good teacher-student relationship quality might have on academic achievement, student psychological adjustment, and classroom climate. The teacher has been recognized as a “psychological parent” and defined as a secure base and safe heaven, following attachment theory (Verschueren and Koomen, 2012, 2021; Prino et al., 2022; Spilt et al., 2022). Several studies have shown that a relationship with the teacher characterized by affection, closeness, and respect predicts more favorable developmental outcomes and better adjustment to the classroom context in any school setting (Roorda et al., 2011, 2017; Longobardi et al., 2019, 2021; Lin et al., 2022). However, after 20 years, we saw the need to synthesize the current literature on the topic of teacher-learner relationship quality and to promote a collection of studies that provide new insights, ideas, and reflections to advance the research field and overcome current limitations. In this Research Topic, 16 publications were collected from different parts of the world. The Research Topic includes two literature reviews, several empirical works, some of which aim to develop and validate instruments to measure the quality of the teacher-student relationship, and others to promote new knowledge about the effects and mechanisms of action of the quality of the teacher-learner relationship on the psychological development and adjustment processes of children and adolescents. In addition, the Research Topic includes a contribution on possible intervention strategies on the quality of teacher-student relationship.
... New global processes and transformations, in which children are the most numerous group of participants, enable a broader insight into their situation and, above all, into play and toys -tools with which they recognize, encode and learn about the surrounding world. Zabawa, niezależnie od jej umiejscowienia w czasie i przestrzeni, jest prymarna dla wszystkich rodzajów ludzkiej kultury (Huizinga 1950). Jako kulturowy fenomen i kulturowo-biologiczne uniwersum stanowi ważną część każdego dzieciństwa i jednocześnie jest zjawiskiem, dla którego nie istnieją żadne adekwatne kryteria. ...
Article
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The article presents the importance of games and play activities for children in the first years of primary school during and after distance learning caused by COVID-19. The shift of education to online reality has been a challenging experience. Teachers had to find new ways to work with children, whereas kids had to cope with the new school reality. The aim of the article is to present the ways in which play-based activities were used by primary school teachers during remote education, based on an exploratory and descriptive study. The main research question was whether and how games and play-based activities were used during remote education in the first three grades of primary school in the COVID-19 pandemic. The authors conducted semi-structured interviews with primary school teachers and parents of students from grades 1–3. The main conclusion is that play, perceived as an important factor in early childhood education, was used by teachers in remote education to introduce a new topic, expand the scope of the material, involve children in the learning process, assess what they had learned and help to relax during classes, even if there were limitations arising from remote education and the specific needs of the youngest learners. Keywords: game-based learning, remote education, early childhood education, teachers, parents
... (Price, 2021: 13) The anthropologist Victor Turner thought that play, and by extension fun, was simply indescribable, because it was transient and unvoiced (1983: 233). Many others in a variety of fields follow Huizinga (1949) by associating fun with play, a subject somewhat easier to define. Play, however, is a universal, found in all human societies and among other species from mammals to reptiles and even invertebrates (Zylinski, 2015). ...
Article
Ultimately, consumption drives the global economy and high levels of consumption among the wealthiest fraction of the population are responsible for a disproportionate amount of carbon emissions. Many experiences that motivate overconsumption include the pursuit of fun, a term that cuts across other conventional categories like pleasure, entertainment, leisure and play. This article surveys the scattered literature on fun and finds the concept useful in framing issues of overconsumption. Consumer capitalism is constantly finding and marketing new ways of having fun. I suggest that we should carefully assess the potential of particular kinds of fun to increase or reduce carbon emissions and use social and policy measures to discourage one and promote the other.
... Seeking to blur the barriers described above, RCD uses game techniques as a simulation tool that stimulates creative capacities across different stakeholders (Huizinga, 1949). A game can allow dialogue and consensus through clear rules and common objectives. ...
Conference Paper
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Abstract This paper synthetizes theoretical aspects of photography related to architecture, city and territory, as well as the case studies coming from the research project Visual Spaces of Change, focusingon the use of photography to investigate the dynamics of architecture and urban change. The project proposed to engage researchers and artists from the fields of architecture, art and image in the creation of visual narratives that promote a new understanding about architectureas well as public debates on urban change in the Porto Metropolitan Area.The methodological framework adopted was designed with special attention to the multidisciplinarycharacter of this project, complementing each other and putting in relation the various aspects covered within this integrative approach regarding Architecture, City and Territory. Thus, the research implied, for the first case study, promoting a series of open talks, public presentations andexhibitions of contemporary photography projects related to the subjects of Architecture, City and Territory during the years of 2019 and 2020 on several public spaces and Metro Stations of OportoCity. These initiatives intended to broaden the discussion about how architecture transforms and istransformed by trends and ways of living, using as its subject of study Porto’s Metropolitan Area andthe results from this case study had as base the several impressions from the audience collected through qualitative survey. For the second case study, a pedagogical experiment was taken that builds up on previous research combining blended learning and e-learning with visual research methods and photographic that enabled students to manage the whole process of conception, development and implementation of photography projects in a collaborative learning environment. The results from this case study had as base the several impressions from the students collected through quantitative and qualitative survey. The potential of visual methods for communicating the identity and transformation of architectures and public spaces are made clear through the discussion of photography (including its uses, methods and approaches) as a valuable research tool and technique to disseminate architecture and public space problematics in contemporary cities. The paper presents the results of the qualitative survey made to the audience of four site-specific exhibitions comprehending visual narratives produced in the context of the research project, as well as the survey made to students ofArchitecture from third year (1ºcycle) in the Faculty of Architecture of University of Porto (FAUP). 2nd AE International Symposium, IKU Department of Architecture March 24-25, 2022
... As a cultural practice, sport o ers experiential qualities of many kinds: fun, joy, excitement, pleasure and pain, winning and losing, a sense of community, of con ict, and of mastery and failure. Huizinga's (1971) classic study of play, Homo Ludens, departs from the idea that the very raison d'être of play is to be found in the activity itself. Play is further characterized by a clear order as de ned by rules, both written and unwritten. ...
Article
This chapter defines and discusses values in and of sports and the potential in and of sport in developing moral character. It distinguishes between internal values in terms of experiential qualities in sporting practice and external values toward which sport is used as a means. Another distinction runs between moral and nonmoral values, and the chapter concentrates on the former. With examples from the social sciences, it discusses the diversity of values in and of sport and how this diversity can be understood with reference to the social and cultural contexts in which sports take place. From the perspective of philosophy and ethics, the possibility of common value patterns in all sports and of weighing between values in rational ways is evaluated. In the last part, an overview is given of two current normative debates in sports: the use of performance-enhancing drugs and the requirements on sports for sustainable development. The chapter concludes by pointing to sport’s normative ambiguity.
... As a cultural practice, sport o ers experiential qualities of many kinds: fun, joy, excitement, pleasure and pain, winning and losing, a sense of community, of con ict, and of mastery and failure. Huizinga's (1971) classic study of play, Homo Ludens, departs from the idea that the very raison d'être of play is to be found in the activity itself. Play is further characterized by a clear order as de ned by rules, both written and unwritten. ...
Book
The Oxford Handbook of Sport and Society features leading international scholars’ assessments of scholarly inquiry about sport and society. Divided into six sections, chapters consider dominant issues within key areas, approaches (theory and method) featured in inquiry, and debates needing resolution. Part I: Society and Values considers matters of character, ideology, power, politics, policy, nationalism, diplomacy, militarism, law, ethics, and religion. Part II: Enterprise and Capital considers globalization; spectacle; mega-events; Olympism; corruption; impacts on cities, communities, and the environment; and the press of leadership cultures, economic imperatives, and marketing. Part III: Participation and Cultures considers questions of health and well-being, violence, the medicalization of injury, influences of science and technology, substance use and abuse, the roles of coaching and emotion, challenges of child maltreatment, climates for scandal and athlete activism, and questions on animals in sporting competition. Part IV: Lifespan and Careers considers child socialization, youth and elite athlete development, the roles of sport in education and social mobility, migratory sport labor practices, arcs defining athletic careers, aging and retirement, and emergent lifestyle sport cultures. Part V: Inclusion and Exclusion considers sport’s role in social inclusion and exclusion and in development and discrimination and features treatments of race and ethnicity; indigenous experiences; the intersection of bodily ideals, obesity, and disability; and the gendered impacts on masculinities, femininities, and nonbinary experience. Part VI: Spectator Engagement and Media considers sporting heroism and celebrity, fandom and hooliganism, gambling and match-fixing, and the influences of sport journalism, television and film treatments, advertising, and new media.
... Essentially, human beings as homo ludens (or players) [36] who could play several roles in the community start to emerge since childhood when they play drama. In playing the frog doll, a character is narrated and portrayed according to one's imagination. ...
Article
This research focuses on the contextualization and preservation of the diminishing local values which are slowly abandoned by the young generation. The data consists of texts containing local values or presumed to contain values collected by the researchers. The data was gathered by observing the texts describing traditional children’s games during the timeline of research. The technique to implement the observation method was recording and note-taking. Besides, interview or speaking method was employed to gather the data. Interview was conducted to experts who understood the values of local wisdom contained in the traditional children’s games. The data analysis was done using the distributional and content analysis methods. The result of the analysis shows that the values of local wisdom contained in the traditional children’s games are values of: (1) Affection; (2) Agility and Fighting Spirit; (3) Creativity and Adaptability; (4) Creative Imagination; (5) Acceptance of the Facts of Life; (6) Fulfilling the Destiny; (7) Obedience and Discipline; (8) Intelligence Test; (9) Synergy and Collaboration. These values and wisdoms were found in the following games: (a) Dedek-Dedekan, (b) Rerodaan, (c) Bentik, (d) Topeng-Topengan, (e) Boneka Kodokan, (f) Kitiran Umbul, (g) Masak-Masakan, (h) Polisi-Polisian, (i) Mekrok, (j) Dingklik Oglak-Aglik.
... Oyun dünyası, gerçek dünyadan farklı şekilde tanımlanmış kurallara sahip ve oyuncu tarafından gönüllü olarak dahil olunan bir sihirli daire (magic circle) ve oyun alanı olarak ifade edilmiştir (Gillin & Huizinga, 1951). Oyuncular, oyun mekâniğine dayanan kurallara riayet ederek sanal mekân sınırları içerisinde genellikle bir hedef doğrultusunda mücadele eder ve bu hedefe ulaşmaya çalışırlar. ...
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Bu makalede kentin deneyimlenmesine yönelik oyunlaştırma stratejileri, Situasyonist Hareket’in önerdiği kenti keşfetme stratejileri ile ilişkilendirilecek ve güncel örnekler üzerinden tartışılmıştır.
... According to sports ethics, irregularities based on cheating and deception negatively affect the game character of the match and competition. Because the essence of the game is based on obeying the rules (Huizinga, 1955). Therefore, if the sports person behaves in accordance with the rules, he will display an example of good morality in terms of sports. ...
Article
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What is life? Life is the process between birth and death. This process, which is also accepted as the state of being alive, contains many parts. These parts are called life. Life encompasses one's experiences of the conditions that one encounters. These lives are interrelated. The longer and more harmonious these relationships are, the higher and more balanced the person's quality of life will be. For this, education and learning methods with scientific and philosophical foundations should be used. One of the parts of life in life is sports. Therefore, in this study, the subjects of morality, right, mistake, education, professionalism, health, mentality and economy in life will be associated with sports. Because sports is a human right that emerged from basic needs, it is associated with many areas of life. For this reason, some concepts that express our lives and the conditions we live in will be tried to be associated with sports. In this descriptive study, document analysis was carried out. The collected data were blended from sources in different fields such as education, sociology, psychology, education and philosophy. It is thought that this study, which is one of the rare studies on the subject, will be an example for similar studies to be done in the future.
... Entre ellas los videojuegos, tienen un papel relevante, y forman parte de estas representaciones culturales, mediadas por la tecnología. La inserción del juego en la cultura es un proceso lógico, como señala Huizinga (2000) el juego es el precursor de la cultura y forma parte de las estrategias inherentes de aprendizaje del ser humano, dando forma a su configuración social y cultural actual. ...
... Masa kanak-kanak merupakan masa dimana seseorang manusia melakukan banyak eksplorasi dan pencarian akan hal-hal baru. Sebuah masa yang menyenangkan, dimana seorang manusia lebih banyak melakukan kegiatan-kegiatan sebagai fitrahnya sebagai Homo Ludens (Huizinga, 2009) atau manusia yang bermain. Kata ini sendiri diambil dari judul buku yang ditulis oleh seorang filsuf Belanda bernama Johan Huizinga. ...
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Tulisan ini membahas mengenai serial kartun Upin-Ipin, sebuah film animasi berseri yang menggambarkan tentang kisah keseharian dari dua orang anak kembar yang bernama Upin dan Ipin bersama dengan teman-temannya. Serial ini cukup popular dan banyak disukai khususnya oleh anak-anak yang ada di Indonesia. Tulisan ini berusaha untuk menguak bagaimana nilai-nilai moral dan keberagaman terangkum dalam serial animasi tersebut. Pendekatan dilakukan melalui penelitian eksploratif, data diambil dari beberapa serial yang dianggap representatif dengan tema kajian. Dari hasil pembahasan tersebut, diketahui bahwasanya walaupun serial animasi Upin dan Ipin yang menjadi obyek kajian masih kental dengan nuansa dominasi etnis melayu dan keagamaan islam, namun bukan berarti animasi ini kemudian menegasikan eksistensi keberagaman daripada etnis-etnis yang lainnya. Hal ini kemudian terlihat dalam narasi-narasi yang dibangun pada setiap episode yang di dalamnya sangat erat kaitannya dengan nilai-nilai moderasi dan toleransi, baik itu antar etnis maupun keagamaan. Kata kunci: Film Animasi, Upin-Ipin, Moderasi Beragama
... According to sports ethics, irregularities based on cheating and deception negatively affect the game character of the match and competition. Because the essence of the game is based on obeying the rules (Huizinga, 1955). Therefore, if the sports person behaves in accordance with the rules, he will display an example of good morality in terms of sports. ...
Article
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What is life? Life is the process between birth and death. This process, which is also accepted as the state of being alive, contains many parts. These parts are called life. Life encompasses one's experiences of the conditions that one encounters. These lives are interrelated. The longer and more harmonious these relationships are, the higher and more balanced the person's quality of life will be. For this, education and learning methods with scientific and philosophical foundations should be used. One of the parts of life in life is sports. Therefore, in this study, the subjects of morality, right, mistake, education, professionalism, health, mentality and economy in life will be associated with sports. Because sports is a human right that emerged from basic needs, it is associated with many areas of life. For this reason, some concepts that express our lives and the conditions we live in will be tried to be associated with sports. In this descriptive study, document analysis was carried out. The collected data were blended from sources in different fields such as education, sociology, psychology, education and philosophy. It is thought that this study, which is one of the rare studies on the subject, will be an example for similar studies to be done in the future.
... Hjorth & Richardson, 2020;Ortmann & Sydow, 2018). O trabalho de Huizinga (1949) é frequentemente mencionado para construir uma abordagem para a conceptualização da ludicidade e a ludicidade está, por vezes, ligada a uma abertura temporal de si mesmo (Andersen & Pors, 2014). ...
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Resumo O movimento da ciência aberta alcançou a pesquisa e a educação em gestão. Em todo o mundo, os acadêmicos de gestão discutem, pesquisam e avaliam formas de tornar as suas práticas de trabalho menos “fechadas” e mais “abertas”. Entretanto, de que forma, exatamente, essas novas práticas de trabalho mudam o conhecimento e o ensino em gestão depende, em grande medida, da interpretação filosófica que os profissionais fazem de 'abertura'. Atualmente, a abertura na pesquisa e na educação em gestão é interpretada principalmente como uma característica da entrada ou saída do trabalho de conhecimento. Essas interpretações concebem a pesquisa e a educação como entidades relativamente estáveis, que podem ser abertas em alguns pontos claramente definidos. O nosso estudo tem por objetivo superar essa concepção e propor uma interpretação nova e mais radical de abertura. Propomos reconsiderar a abertura por meio da abordagem processual do Pragmatismo americano e, assim, em um sentido que dispense a exigência da predisposição da pesquisa e da educação como entidades estáveis. Por meio desta interpretação de abertura, a pesquisa e a educação em gestão podem ser transformadas em um movimento democrático coprodutivo, que pode trazer conhecimentos comuns entrelaçados com os verdadeiros problemas societais e de gestão. Para oferecer uma primeira descrição da abertura como um processo que pode transformar a pesquisa e a educação em gestão, analisamos o material etnográfico a partir de dois tipos de experimentos pragmáticos, facilitados pelo primeiro autor entre 2016 e 2021. Identificamos três dimensões-chave no processo de abertura da pesquisa e da educação: ludicidade, ambiguidade e desterritorialização. O nosso estudo avança os debates sobre a questão de como a pesquisa em gestão pode ser mais imediatamente útil para abordar as preocupações dos profissionais e estudantes de gestão.
... The act of playing can be observed in almost all living things . Similarly, competition is part of daily life and it originates as a form of play during the early stages of development (Huizinga, 1980). Videogames are intimately connected to these elements of play and competition (Egenfeldt- Nielsen, Smith, & Tosca, 2008;. ...
Conference Paper
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Este estudio es una continuación de una primera prospección sobre ficción interactiva transmedia, y tiene como intención ahondar en la temática a través de una exploración del estado del arte, una exposición de referencias transmedia imprescindibles de la ficción interactiva i una primera propuesta de estructuras narrativas interactivas en los juegos de rol de mesa y en los videojuegos (Pons, 2021).
... The same fearful, 'X-ray vision' (302) persists in "Bech Presides," where the competitive aspect of play, agon, another one of Caillois's four characteristics of play, but the sole one according to Huizinga (1955), is in full swing. The literati and their mutual envy and inner circle quarrels are the main focus. ...
Article
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In the foreword of Bech: A Book, John Updike’s character Henry Bech gives his creator John Updike his blessing for fiction refuting a curse. In this ‘little jeu of a book’ and in the rest of Bech stories, fear (of alienation, oblivion, castration, the writer’s block, and finally of death) is tamed through play. This paper studies the narrative games and play between character and author in their joint attempt to fight fear. Bech, the Schauspieler par excellence and homo ludens, Updike’s most postmodern character, alter ego and mischievous double, although an amalgam of American writers and fitting in the American literary tradition of play, also calls forth the European play culture.
... Playing can foster learning behaviors and facilitate social interactions, especially in gameplay. A game is a particular type of play, which is characterized by its voluntarily and entertaining nature (Huizinga 1998). As opposed to random play, games follow a rule set and have certain conditions to win (Caillois 2001). ...
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Gamified advertising has received considerable attention from advertising scholars over the last two decades. In the literature, two main types of gamified advertising can be identified: in-game advertising (IGA) and advergames (AG). In this article, we synthesize 20 years of research into these types of advertising-and pay special attention to the role played by the International Journal of Advertising (IJA). We give a systematic overview of the most often used theories explaining the persuasive effects of advertising in games (in-game advertising) and through games (advergames) and discuss the main conclusions that can be drawn from the existing gamified advertising literature. Furthermore, we propose a framework that offers an overview of the most important ad, game, and player characteristics influencing the effectiveness of gamified advertising. Finally, we look ahead and discuss the future of research on gamified advertising.
... The 'specificity' of sport is the term often used to signify that sport is somehow different from other arenas of human life. It is where, in the phrase coined by the Dutch cultural theorist, Johan Huizinga (1949), we become homo ludens or 'playful, sporty beings', as distinct, for example, from the world in which we work or the domestic sphere. For some play theorists such as Callois (1961), Castronova (2005) and Salen and Zimmerman (2003), the space of play or games is marked off with its own distinct and self-contained rules from those other domains of human activity. ...
Chapter
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Democratic principle and legitimacy of Sport Goverment Bodies (SGB)
... Le jeu fait partie des sociétés humaines depuis leur origine (cf. notamment le concept d'homo ludens développé par Huizinga (1996Huizinga ( [1938)). Il implique généralement des interactions sociales (Brougère, 2012, p. 118). ...
Book
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Las tecnologías están en constante evolución y la democratización de los vídeo juegos, de los sistemas de realidad virtual, realidad aumentada o de las herramientas de vídeos interactivos cuestionan nuestras prácticas de enseñanza y nos llevan a reconsiderar la forma de concebir experiencias inmersivas en lenguas extranjeras. Hoy, la inmersión cultural o lingüística en el aula es posible gracias al uso de tecnologías inmersivas e interactivas que permiten estimular el aprendizaje y la motivación del alumnado. Esta obra presenta proyectos realizados en aulas de idiomas y hace un análisis de la situación, de conceptos claves y de algunas estas tecnologías.
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In this chapter, I move on from an exploration of the benefits of play to look at the more negative aspects of play and playfulness, particularly in relation to learning in adulthood, but also to society in general. In the first part of the chapter, I consider playful learning from a critical pedagogic and sociological perspective, exploring the ideas of power and privilege, and concepts of play capital. I discuss the relationship between play and social justice, considering how play can be made more inclusive and how playful approaches might be used for democratic and civic engagement, before taking a detour into the world of dark play and considering the range of negative behaviours associated with play and playfulness. Using playful approaches in the context of adult learning may have great potential, but it is important to remember that this applies only for some learners, under some circumstances. The play experience for an individual who is not neuro-typical, extrovert, physically mobile, who comes from somewhere where the game is played with different rules, may vary enormously. This chapter highlights that it is vitally important we recognise the power of play to exclude as well as to empower.
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The main theme is “materiality”, as an umbrella concept that embraces all the fragments of the whole materialization process starting from architectural imagination, conceptualization, and design to the act of construction. In this respect, discussing materiality under three main themes as “architectural design”, “research” and “technology” is aimed. Within this scope, the potential discussions could be around but not limited to architectural practice, architectural design education, heritage, and conservation, vernacularity, urban context, theory, R&D in architectural materiality, tectonics, computation, media and immersive visualization, materiality as a process, methods of computational design and materiality. The collected papers addressed a wide range of disciplinary fields that are somewhat related to architecture, from robotics to theory and criticism, from professional practice to educational practices, from urban scale to the product/material scale.
Article
El Metaverso es considerado la siguiente evolución de Internet por favorecer una experiencia inmersiva que permitirá a los usuarios sentirse parte de algo que actualmente sólo puede verse en la pantalla de un dispositivo.En las primeras experiencias que combinaban Internet y realidad virtual surgieron, casi de forma inmediata, situaciones que pueden considerarse atentados contra la libertad sexual de la Mujer, unas acciones que pueden y deben ser perseguidas penalmente desde la óptima del Ordenamiento Jurídico español, para así evitar que las perjudicadas se sientan vulnerables y puedan llegar a renunciar a esta nueva experiencia.
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In this chapter I consider some of the foundational concepts that underpin any discussion of games and play in education. I provide working definitions for ‘games’, ‘playfulness’, and ‘play’, where games are viewed as objective constructs, playfulness a state of mind, and play existing at the intersection. A game is a deeply interactive challenge in an unreal context, with a goal and lusory rules (where the rules preclude the most straightforward means of achieving the goal). Playfulness is an attitude of mind that embodies a willingness to engage in activities in a light-hearted, joyful, open, mischievous, and comedic manner. Play occurs when a person engages with a game playfully, adopting a lusory attitude, in a free context (where actions in the game are not constrained by the real world) purely for enjoyment. The magic circle is introduced as a theoretical lens for better understanding the possibilities of play in relation to learning in adulthood, and the chapter concludes by exploring the different ways in which play in adulthood is manifest depending on the existence of a game context, playful intention, and intrinsic motivation.
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This chapter provides an overview of playful learning, in the context of adults, as both a suite of approaches to teaching and a philosophy of education. I will draw on two of my own pieces of recent thinking to explore these different ways of conceptualising playful learning in Higher Education: the practical and the political. The growing use of evaluation metrics throughout Higher Education, in the UK and globally, is indicative of a wider culture of increased instrumentalism and performativity. I believe that this focus on the measurement of performance impacts negatively on both academics and students. Playful learning offers a way to counter this by creating inclusive magic circles of learning that support learning through failure, intrinsic motivation, and deep engagement with possibilities through the adoption of a lusory attitude. I discuss the role of assessment and failure in relation to learning and present a model of failure-based assessment along with an exploration of what assessment designers might learn from game designers. The chapter concludes with a discussion of playful universities and playful leadership.
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This article presents playful activities undertaken with children during the three years of the BRIDGING project. The authors try to show the pupils’ participation expressed through play in its different types. During the implementation of the project activities, it was important to have the attentive presence of adults who showed direction and tried to always remind children as well as other partners (from partner institutions) about the purpose of the playful activities. However, the educators did not show ready-made solutions and allowed the children to express their own opinions, to be creative and to work on their own, and to have fun. The cooperation of adult participants in the project – teachers, tutors and university lecturers – enriched the project with a diverse perspective on children’s activities, play and the issue of participation. The implementation of the BRIDGING project in Poland became an opportunity to develop the idea of equal involvement of adults and children. This idea has been disseminated in the local community, firstly among parents, and also among other people involved in the project through activities (including play activities) undertaken during the project.
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The “and one!” is an iconic play constituted by the rules of basketball. It occurs when a player is fouled in the act of shooting and makes the shot anyways. The offensive player then receives a free-throw attempt worth one additional point. This paper explores the powerful meaning of this moment in pickup basketball where, counterintuitively, players don’t shoot free throws and so have no opportunity for an added point. Through a close-up ethnographic study of one pickup game in Santa Monica, California I argue that the “and one!” moment resonates (McDonnell et al. McDonnell et al., Sociological Theory 35:1–14, 2017) with a whole series of performative moments through which players generate charismatic character statements. I describe the performance of charisma in the formation of teams, in the organization of a sequence of games, in the flow of play, and in the “and one!” moment itself. By exploring the everyday texture of this pickup game I also argue that the play is woven into the broader cultural meaning of pickup basketball. When the basketball apparel company AND1 used the emotional authenticity of the “and one!” moment to symbolize the cultural and racial authenticity of “streetball,” they gave the play a public and iconic layer of meaning.
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Regardless of its all-encompassing and ubiquitous nature, game and play researchers have often steered away from applying fun as a research concept. If a concept seems to be associated with everything, it logically follows that the concept lacks explanatory power. In this paper, we do not merely settle for the blunt conclusion that fun is not an interesting research concept. Rather we start to explore the phenomenon of fun by approaching it through three lenses: motivation to play, gameplay experience, and psychological need satisfaction. By analyzing two large survey samples collected in Finland (N = 879) and South-Korea (N = 1519), we cluster survey participants into player types according to their gameplay motivations. It is revealed that all players are more motivated by fun than by other need-based gaming motives, but also that a significant minority of players are only motivated by fun. By studying player preferences of the player types, it is furthermore highlighted that these Fun-Seekers generally dislike most gameplay activities and differ from other player types also regarding their genre play habits. Practical and theoretical implications of these findings are discussed.KeywordsFunGameplayMotivationSelf-determination
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Entertainment computing spans anything from a single player game on a console through to large-scale multiplayer online virtual worlds. This workshop focuses on a range of issues which impact on the design, use and adoption of entertainment computing systems from an ethical and social perspective. Issues to be explored include the composition of those working in the industry from the perspectives of diversity and inclusion, how this impacts on design and how groups are represented within games and other entertainment platforms. We will further explore issues relating to monetization, incentives, and potential addiction. We will explore how to design for ethical and social issues while also looking at problems which have arisen and the potential challenges of the future.KeywordsEthicsLegalGamesSerious gamesVirtual worlds
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Children are the least responsible for environmental degradation and climate change, yet they will bear the greatest burden of its impact, and even if children have not been entirely neglected in environmental treaties, a comprehensive regime that extends environmental human rights to them is still absent. However, the Convention of the Rights of the Child (CRC), which is the most ratified human rights instrument, is dedicated to children’s rights and is unique in specifically referring to the dangers and risks of environmental pollution. This chapter will propose a critical analysis of the normative basis underlying the articulation of environment-related rights for children. After clarifying the notion of child and the point at which childhood can be said to begin, it will first consider conventional provisions containing explicit references to the environment and then discuss other provisions that indirectly protect environmental aspects of children’s rights. It will also address the Convention’s general guiding principles, which show that the drafters were aware of the long-term impact of environmental pollution and its intergenerational implications, for safeguarding the present generation is a pledge towards the protection of future generations. Finally, attention will be turned to ways in which the content and scope of the Convention’s express and implied rights and principles are being and can be expanded, notably through the proactive stance taken by the Convention’s monitoring body, the Committee on the Rights of the Child. A positive trend is evidently manifested in the General Comments and Concluding Observations that has progressed the environmental due diligence obligations and are moving from indirect considerations to explicit mainstreaming of climate change issues and related obligations. Moreover, following the entry into force of the Optional Protocol on a Communications Procedure (OPCP), which recognises that children have the right to appeal to an international mechanism specific to them, when national mechanisms fail to address violations effectively; the outcome of the most recent individual communication in 2021 has opened new perspective on jurisdictional issues as to multiple countries simultaneously accountable for obligations under the CRC related to climate change. There is reason to think that this proactive stance will be further explained and developed in the next, much-awaited General Comment on children’s rights and the environment with a special focus on climate change, which is due in 2023.Keywordsbest interest of the childdue diligencecorporate social responsibilitynon-discriminationchild participationsubstantive protectionprocedural protectionhealthleisuredevelopmenteducation
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It is a major challenge to identify assessment instruments for group work that not only support students’ learning processes and progress but also reflect a valid and reliable result based on individual efforts. In this chapter, we discuss the use of electronic posters (e-posters) as a multimodal assessment instrument for virtual excursions. The chapter involves a review of relevant literature on the use of posters embedded within CL. The value of posters as a multimodal assessment instrument, contributing towards the promotion of much-needed SDL skills (i.e. critical thinking, communication, and deeper learning), is central to this research. Qualitative data from students’ self assessments were analysed in order to present practical guidelines in terms of the implementation of e-posters as an assessment instrument for virtual excursions, as well as the affordances thereof in the first-year students’ learning process.
Conference Paper
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Fiction is an invention that allows humankind to expand, and a state of affairs that can be analysed from several different points of view. While pondering the purpose of this invention, we must consider the different uses it is designed for, and recognise the differences between fiction in everyday life, fiction in literature, and virtual reality. By incorporating factual, historical and verified material evidence, fiction inspires the reader to continually question the boundaries of fiction and faction using quotability, editing and collaging. The profusion of archive documents relating to important world events, wars, genocides, depressions, collective traumas and diseases, interwoven with the space of fiction, requires an active reader who will be able to follow all the elements of the work of literature, understand the author's engaged position, and consciously develop one of his own. The transmedial narratology theory, on the other hand, analyses how different media build story worlds, the implications on their recipients, and the opportunities for subversion. During the COVID-19 pandemic, there have been situations when fiction was able to better explain what was going on in the world than science. Gaming, fiction and fictionalisation explain and help predict the outcome or result. The truth is no longer an absolute concept, but depends on its interpreter. In the present context, when social rules are less clear or are completely incomprehensible, a return to games and fiction is a principle that helps us better understand our environment and other people's reactions. The artificially created world plays an important role in this. Contrary to our tradition, based on Aristotle's postulates, our idea of the virtual now means that we see perfection as means to repair the imperfect world. There are no mistakes in virtual worlds. We choose and love virtual persons because they never let us down. We are inclined to avoid the real life and its negative aspects, such as habits, illness, aging and death, and immerse ourselves in videogames as an escape during the pandemic. The paper discusses the relationship between adaptation and emulation of new media, genre positioning of videogames in the literary and media genealogy, and their role during the long-lasting social isolation we have faced during the COVID-19 pandemic, which presents us with a double thesis: videogames can be used as a tool for social criticism, and the boundary between reality and virtual reality will eventually become immaterial.
Article
Playing masses interact and communicate in an uncertain and topsy-turvy behavioral environment freed, curbed, and evaluated by cultural norms. Through collective effort, this issue has been studied in depth (e.g., Huizinga, 1938, [1949]; Bakhtin, 1984; Sutton-Smith, 2008). The play of the masses is usually considered an escape toward a pleasurable 'there', in which a person in a crowd becomes not him/herself for a while. However, when play is ritualized, linked to the sacral and fixed in the cultural tradition of socio-cultural interactions of the masses, it exhibits properties that have not yet been analyzed in depth. Specifically, I suggest that, despite the tendency to see play as a search for pleasurable escape from routine, the further back one regresses in history, the less mass play is connected with joy and entertainment and the more it is linked to elements of the unsettling and suspenseful sacral experience of identity and deep dramatic catharsis. This 'serious' aspect of mass play can also be seen in contemporary sports fandom which, in specific contexts, can be interpreted as a special and even 'sacral' kind of play. ARTICLE HISTORY
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This article examines the online multi-player game Fortnite: Battle Royale as a modern-day representation of sacrificial rites. It is argued that Fortnite: Battle Royale constitutes a simulation of a sacrificial rite due to its gameplay mechanics. In the game, the players need to kill each other off and come out victorious. As such, the players need to recognise themselves in opposition to others, exterminate those others, and sacrifice their innocence in the process. As conceptualised by R. Girard, this experience of a sacrificial rite constitutes a form of social education and conditioning. Such experiences are predominantly represented in the genre of Bildungsroman: coming-of-age stories that concern a literal or metaphorical rite of passage from childhood to adulthood. In Fortnite: Battle Royale, the psychological effect of this conditioning is amplified due to the medium-specific affordance of having the player as both the spectator and the spectacle of the sacrifice; namely, the player watches themselves being offered as a sacrifice while trying to overcome the trial. In this regard, Fortnite: Battle Royale follows and expands on the tradition of the Bildungsroman establishing a new take on the genre that is thereby termed Bildungsspiel-a coming-of-age game.
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The increasingly overuse of mobile or screen-based products has raised concerns in society. Family, originally a psychosocial support for addiction prevention or treatment, can be weakened in its functioning due to individual members’ over-concentration on the personal addictive devices. In the core of the digital addiction lie simulation and play, which can be repurposed to intervene for more positive family interactions and perceptions. We argue that with always-on sensing and data-driven visualization technologies, interactive tangible artifacts can be designed to detect family members’ use of mobile phones, present simulations that prompt their physical engagements, and hopefully enhance family functioning. This paper presents Lunar Land, which is a smart lamp with its “face” simulating from the crescent to the full moon, when family members put down their phones and take daily-life playful challenges together. Field trials of Lunar Land involved families having the working prototype installed at home for weeks. Usage was automatically logged. Pre- and post-trial surveys were conducted. Families using Lunar Land both for charging phones and taking playful challenges reported higher increase in family time and relationship satisfaction. They also showed higher increase in general family functioning measured by instrument, and more obviously linking the concept of togetherness and “light up.” Results suggest that experiencing simulated outcomes of pausing phone use may assist positive perception of the family. Having the members playing together further enhances the positive perception, because the processes render the positive action-outcome link, from pausing phone use and playing together to joy, cognitively accessible.KeywordsBehaviour changeSimulationPlayMobile overuseFamily functioning
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This is a book about play in adulthood and how play can make the world a better place. I will examine play and its relationship to learning beyond childhood. I will explore the phenomenon of play from various angles using many lenses, with the aim of bringing together multiple disciplines of knowledge to gain insights into the purpose, power, and philosophy of play and how it can influence, and enhance, learning throughout the life course. While there is a plethora of research on childhood play, play in adulthood as a field is relatively underserved and this book aims to begin to redress the balance. Through this book I hope to offer new insights into the possibilities and power of play for learning in adulthood, making the case that play has vast potential for helping us all live better, richer, happier lives, but also that it is not an unproblematic approach. Playful learning offers a series of tools and techniques and provides a philosophy of living and a political agenda.
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