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... Pour pallier les problèmes énumérés cidessus, une première étape est nécessaire, la normalisation des données pour pouvoir les comparer. Ceci peut se faire par des techniques de calage linéaire, normalisation gaussienne, distance à la référence, etc. ( Geniaux et al., 2009). Une autre approche est de convertir toutes les valeurs des indicateurs à agréger en une unité unique. ...
... Cette typologie est à croiser avec une seconde typologie basée sur la chaîne causale (cf. Figure 35). Elle divise de manière différente le cadre DPSIR de l'Agence Européenne pour l'Environnement ( Smeets et Weterings, 1999), cadre qui a fait l'objet de nombreuses critiques (ex : Niemeijer et de Groot, 2008 ;Geniaux et al., 2009). Le fait d'avoir été confrontés à de nombreux problèmes de classification des indicateurs m'y a motivé, problèmes pour décider entre pression/état/réponse dès qu'on descendait à une échelle plus petite que celle des pays de l'UE pour lequel le cadre avait été conçu ( Girardin et al., 2005), (OS8). ...
... The indicators can be calculated using a variety of methods. The most popular of these consists of calculating sums or weighted means, or using normalization techniques (linear scaling techniques, Gaussian normalization distance to target, ranking by experts, categorical scales etc.) [60,86,87]. There are also some more sophisticated methods. ...
... Only the parameters that could clearly indicate the level of sustainability in a chosen dimension were used in further analyses. Basing on the method of Géniaux et al. [86], these parameters (Data Z = (z1, . . . , zp)) were the basis for the calculation of 51 "diagnostic variables" (Variables X = (x1, . . . ...
Article
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Attempts to measure sustainability of farms are usually based on indicators of a set of sustainability dimensions. According to the literature, analyses should (but quite often do not) cover not only the level, but also the relations between the sustainability dimensions, because we could expect complementarity, synergies or competition between the sustainability goals. The aim of this paper was to measure and assess the interdependencies between dimensions of farms' sustainability. The research was carried out on 601 farms that participate in the Polish Farm Accountancy Data Network (FADN), with the use of standard FADN data supported by additional information from interviews. Based on many variables, economic, environmental, social, and composite sustainability indices were collected. From the correlation and correspondence analyses it was concluded that the farms reached the balance of all three dimensions simultaneously when the level of sustainability indices was medium, while a high level of sustainability in one dimension made it very difficult to reach a high level in the others. It was also emphasized that assessing farms' sustainability with the use of a simple aggregation of variables may be not correct since sustainability goals may compete with each other.
... Efforts of the European Union showed, next to global measurement, regions using their own resources and potential, try to find the best way to meet present and forthcoming SD challenges (Dickens et al. 2019). Due to different approaches to SD from different disciplines combined with the complexity of SD assessment, redundancy can easily appear between indicators at different levels (local, regional, national, and international) (Geniaux et al. 2009). ...
Article
This paper explores the process of achieving sustainable development at a regional level in post-socialist states in the context of the clusters concept. In spite of the research on how it is achieved in particular countries, it remains under-researched or the results are in conflict. We consider if qualitative parameters of regions, the complex process of dependence between R&D financing in regions, whether the policies implemented in the development processes of post-socialist countries are important for the greater development of clustering and the higher concentration of clusters. The empirical analysis is based on Spearman’s ρ rank correlation and the stepwise regression analysis. We find that dependencies between the functioning of clusters and selected factors of the sustainable and qualitative development of regions were confirmed. The research shows that the expected effects are not clear, albeit that such policies resulted in a change in the direction of the activities, and that better performance can be expected by taking directional measures. Overall, our findings confirm the expected dependencies of involving public financing on R&D and clusters in regions. We find that the policies implemented in the post-socialist states do not necessarily involve large-scale permanent environmental improvement.
... Given the profusion of possible indices, indicators, and metrics, various frameworks and methods have been presented regarding how to formulate, compare, and select them [5, [31][32][33][34][35], including a methodological framework that summarizes best practices in their application at local scales [36]. Despite the enormous efforts and developments that have taken place toward sustainable development, with multiple instruments available to allow us to better monitor how we are progressing toward the defined goals, important steps are seen as still missing and affecting other important contributions to sustainabilityoriented policy design and control. ...
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The rise of global attention toward sustainability and sustainable development (SD) has provided increased incentives for research development and investment in these areas. Food systems are at the center of human needs and global population growth sustainability concerns. These drives and the need to provide quantified support for related investment projects led to the proliferation of sustainability metrics and frameworks. While questions about sustainability definition and measurement still abound, SD policy design and control increasingly need adequate quantified support instruments. This paper aims to address this need, contributing to a more consistent and integrated application of food system sustainability metrics and quantified management of the implemented solutions. After presenting the relationships between sustainability, resilience, and robustness and summarizing food system sustainability quantification developments so far, we expose complexity sciences’ potential contributions toward SD quantified evaluation, addressing prediction, intangibles, and uncertainty issues. Finding a paramount need to make sense and bring existing sustainability metrics in context for operational use, we conclude that the articulated application of multiple and independent modeling approaches at the micro, meso, and macro levels can better help the development of food SD policies and implemented solution quantified management, with due regard to confidence levels of the results obtained.
... A differentiation is made between the state of the environment, of a particular resource, and the impact it has on other resources within the environment or other dimensions, however the identification of indicators in these categories is not always straightforward. This framework implicitly emphasises the environmental dimension of sustainable development (Geniaux et al. 2009). Variations of the PSR frameworks continue to be used in more environmentally orientated indicator sets, however, recent revisions of the UNCSD indicators have discontinued the DSR framework due to the following identified issues: it was not suitable to address the complex linkages among issues; the classification of indicators into 'driving force' , 'state' or 'response' was often ambiguous; there were uncertainties over causal linkages; and it did not adequately emphasise the relationship between the indicators and policy issues (Indicators of Sustainable Development… 2007). ...
Book
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Sustainable development in karst areas should be adapted to its specificities and take into account its vulnerability. The assessment of the development potential and management of karst areas is of great importance in Slovenia. This book presents the analyses of the impact of landscape features on the land use and sustainable development in a marginal Slovenian karst landscape ‒ Bela krajina. In order to draw attention to the combination of social perspectives with natural conditions for an integrative view of the karst landscapes, three approaches were used: 1. assessment of the degree of human disturbance to the karst landscape, 2. analyses of land use dynamics, and 3. quantitative and qualitative analyses of the sustainable development of Bela krajina. Karst landscape features affect sustainable development of the study region both positively and negatively. According to local stakeholders the positive effects are mainly connected with tourism, and the negative effects are mainly connected with hampered agriculture. The main message is that karst landscape features should not only be seen as limiting factors, but also for their development potential.
... Eco-efficiency indicators evaluated with the use of DEA were further compared with a set of farm characteristics and sustainability indicators in economic, environmental, and social dimensions. The sustainability indicators were calculated in a multiphase procedure [141]. In the first stage, on the basis of data from the interview questionnaire and the FADN database, 51 diagnostic variables characterizing the environmental, economic, and social dimension of sustainability at the farm level were determined. ...
Article
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The negative impact of agriculture on the natural environment is not a new issue. One of the ideas to overcome this problem is the eco-efficiency concept, analyzing the agricultural output in relation, not only to traditional inputs, but to the environmental impact, as well. This paper aims at calculating the eco-efficiency of Polish commercial farms, based on a representative sample of 601 farms participating in the Polish Farm Accountancy Data Network (FADN). To assess the eco-efficiency of the farms, variables illustrating traditional inputs (land, labor, capital), as well as variables reflecting the environmental pressure of the surveyed farms (greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, and nitrogen and phosphorus surpluses) were used. Data envelopment analysis (DEA) revealed that, on average, farms could reduce their inputs by almost a quarter without reducing their outputs. Additionally, it was revealed that incorporating externalities of agricultural production into analyses decreases the diversity of the farm population in terms of efficiency measures. According to the analyses, more eco-efficient farms are characterized by larger utilized agricultural area (UAA), higher production value, and higher intensity of chemical inputs per 1 ha, but at the same time by lower amounts of inputs used per production unit. Moreover, more eco-efficient farms achieved higher farm incomes in many terms: total, per 1 ha of UAA, and per 1 EUR of production value.
... The most common approach to assess impact of environmental or policy changes on sustainability relates to the use of indicators. Numerous impact indicators and indicator lists have been identified and their selection depends on many issues such as the goal of the assessment, the expertise of the scientist, the availability of data and models, etc. (Geniaux et al., 2005). In order to link the indicator selection to the conceptual understanding of sustainability, indicator frameworks have been developed. ...
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Theoretically, much skepticism has emerged insofar as the translation of SDG framework at local level is concerned. Comparatively, much less has been done to investigate the empirical reality of this discourse. Using case study exploration technique situated in two urban areas of India – Mumbai and Sitamarhi, this paper explicates how key contentions of the debate manifest at the ground level. Reflections from Mumbai show that SDG’s reliance on targets and indicators masks extreme inequality underlying so-called ‘extraordinary’ achievements in reducing child stunting. Despite its transformatory claims the operationalization of SDG framework adopts a narrow view on inequality and bypasses related structural processes. At the same time, preoccupation with numbers and targets while implementing nutrition programmes for SDG two in the town of Sitamarhi, distorts the reality and diverts priorities away from systemic issues like infrastructural and institutional gaps. SDG framework’s continued engagement with indicators, targets and numbers, indeed hides multiple axes of inequality in nutrition outcomes, creates fallacious claims of successes and therefore, closes the window for potential improvement. Eventually, both Mumbai and Sitamarhi, despite their development contrast, are faced with similar question – what structural and institutional transformation, must precede the operationalization of SDG two?
Article
Reconnaissance and conceptualization of the system are the first steps to perform an integrated assessment study and step towards sustainability. This paper focuses on the conceptualization phase of the integrated assessment using frameworks to identify the key variables of a system and their relations. Authors believe that in an integrated assessment study, it is important to include both “ex-post” and “ex-ante” aspects. This paper adopts Driver-Pressure-State-Impact-Response (DPSIR) as an ex-post, and Goal Oriented Framework (GOF) as an ex-ante framework to the model conceptualization process in the case of water resources system in South Khorasan, Iran. It is shown that DPSIR framework is well adapted to describe past and present interactions of the system and provide a retrospective view, also more focused on the environmental dimension, while GOF is able to capture the future interactions as well and it can also encompass the three dimensions of sustainability. By adopting both frameworks, a more integrated and comprehensive view of the system has been achieved, which can be helpful to shed lights on knowing the key variables and relations to be relied on in the phase of developing efficient models to analyze the system.
Chapter
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This chapter concerns to the challenge that the farm managers face in defining and using sustainable indicators to their reality and enterprise. We consider that the concept of five capitals (natural, human, produced – or physical –, financial, and social or institutional) represents the most appropriate conceptual framework for a sustainable development information system (eg. farm sustainability monitoring information). A farm system, as any other human activity based on the five capitals, has the characteristics of sustainability if such activity contributes for the achievement of sustainable development. The concepts and principles of sustainable development guide the search for sustainability measures in managing a farm system. We emphasize that, in the farm management literature, the discussion about capital in agriculture is always present. In managing a farm, it is important to identify and measure capital assets that provide the necessary flows of service for sustainability of a farm system. The sustainability measures developed through the methodologies of Emergy Synthesis (ES) and the Response Inducing Sustainability Evaluation (RISE) are in line with the dimensions that basis sustainable development. Both are based on a methodology for the holistic assessment of an agricultural production system. These two methodologies and their analytical structure are compatible to the structure of the five-capital stocks. We recommend that these methodologies should be applied in a same farm system for improving the dialogue between ES and RISE indicators.
Book
The primary focus is to provide landholders, catchment groups, catchment and land protection boards, and rural communities with the best tools that science has so far developed for benchmarking and monitoring the condition of the land and water resources in the catchments. A diverse range of potential indicators has been reviewed and the most appropriate suite of indicators assembled to aid this focus. The proposed indicators cover farm productivity and financial performance, product quality, soil health, water quality and landscape integrity.
Chapter
This chapter works from a premise about our discussions of environmental management. Those who support ecosystem health as a useful way to understand the management of the natural (and to some extent the human) world are making a political argument about the use of a very powerful and appealing idea. Ecosystem health has the same emotional and intuitive appeal as words like justice, equality, and freedom.
Chapter
The terms data and information are often used interchangeably, but this is rather loose usage. In simple terms, data may be defined as basic facts which need processing in order to be of any practical use.
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Environmental impact assessment for a farming region : a review of methods