Article

The Significance of Impulse Buying Today

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Abstract

Aware of the significance of impulse buying and wishing to anticipate possible changes in the market for its products, the Wm. Wrigley Jr. Company commissioned Stanford Research Institute to study the market for impulse items as it has developed in the past decade and as it is likely to develop during the 1960s. This article is drawn from the study findings, on the nature and significance of consumer impulse buying.

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... Impulse buying behaviour is defined as an unplanned purchase (Kollat & Willet, 1969). It is a situation wherein a purchase is made without planning in advance (Stern, 1962). Impulse buying behaviour happens when consumers do not have any intention to purchase a specific product or brand (Hadjali et al., 2012). ...
... Consumers may feel that they already own a particular product, thereby compelling them to grab and purchase it impulsively (Saad & Metawie, 2015;Virvilaite & Saladiene, 2012;Zhaou et al., 2019). Nonetheless, Stern (1962) stated that impulse buying does not always connote that the consumer did not plan to purchase ahead of time. There may be times when a consumer has planned to buy in advance; however, the actual purchase is different once inside the store. ...
... As travelling decisions are sometimes made last minute, Karl et al. (2021) define impulse buying in tourism as a situation in which an individual may approach the travel decision-making process without a list of specific products to buy but with an impulse to act impulsively. According to Stern (1962), pure impulse buying does not occur in tourism except in the context of shopping tourism. Tourists do not have any shopping intention before they travel, but they would eventually purchase specific products to experience the culture of the place they are visiting (Babin et al., 2004;Karl, 2021). ...
Article
Background: Males and females have different shopping preferences and behaviours that lead them to make impulsive purchases. Several factors have been discussed in the prior literature that would prompt them to make impulsive purchases. However, a lack of attention has been given by researchers to how social and environmental factors would differ between males and females. Aim: The primary purpose of this study was to examine whether environmental and social factors are associated with impulse buying in both males and females. Methods and Sample: The study was conducted in five premium outlets in Malaysia with a total of 390 respondents. Using t-test and Pearson correlation, this study explored the different patterns of impulse buying behaviour between males and females. Results: This study revealed that environmental factors were associated with impulse buying among female tourists. At the same time, word of mouth (WOM) emerged as having a significant relationship with impulse buying among male tourists. Conclusion, Implication: Given these findings, this study may have several implications. The retailers could design an encouraging environment to encourage both genders to purchase impulsively. Additionally, having a good reputation plays an important role in encouraging consumers or tourists to spread positive word of mouth. Limitation: This study has limitations in certain aspects where it only covers the aspect of gender but not age. Thus, this study suggests future research can measure the age aspect to obtain an interesting result.
... Satın alma sürecinde bu kaynakları yoğun bir şekilde kullanmak gerektiğinde bireyler daha dikkatli ve planlı hareket etmeye başlar. Tersi durumlarda (satın alma sürecinde zaman, para, fiziksel çava ve zihinsel çabanın küçük olması durumunda) anlık satın alma olasılığı yükselmektedir (Stern, 1962). ...
... Yapraklı ve Mutlu, 2020). Bununla birlikte Stern, (1962) dürtüsel satın alma davranışına sebep olan unsurları: düşük fiyat, marjinal ihtiyaç, kitlesel dağıtım, self servis, kitlesel reklam, tanınmış mağazalarda satış, ürünlerin kısa ömürlülüğü, ürünlerin hafif ve küçük boylu olması ve depolama kolaylığı olmak üzere dokuz başlık altında ele almıştır (Stern, 1962). ...
... Yapraklı ve Mutlu, 2020). Bununla birlikte Stern, (1962) dürtüsel satın alma davranışına sebep olan unsurları: düşük fiyat, marjinal ihtiyaç, kitlesel dağıtım, self servis, kitlesel reklam, tanınmış mağazalarda satış, ürünlerin kısa ömürlülüğü, ürünlerin hafif ve küçük boylu olması ve depolama kolaylığı olmak üzere dokuz başlık altında ele almıştır (Stern, 1962). ...
Article
Bilim ve teknolojideki hızlı gelişim toplumsal hayatta önemli değişim ve dönüşümler meydana getirmiştir. Özellikle internetin yaygınlaşması ile birlikte farklı coğrafyalardan çok sayıda insan bir araya gelmeden iletişim kurmaya başlamıştır. Sosyal medya platformları bu amaçla kullanılan önemli araçlardır. Bu platformlar, tüketicilerin ve işletmelerin günlük rutinlerini önemli oranda değiştirmiştir. Tüketiciler, zamanlarının önemli bir bölümünü bu mecralarda eğlenerek, bilgi alışverişinde bulunarak ve gündemi takip ederek geçirmeye başlamıştır. İşletmeler de hem sosyal medyada bulunan tüketicilere ulaşma hem de günlük faaliyetlerini daha kolay gerçekleştirme amacıyla bu mecraları kullanmaya başlamışlardır. İşletmeler bu mecralardaki etkinliklerini artırmak için farklı araçlar kullanmaktadır. Sosyal medya fenomenleri, bu kapsamda kullanılan en önemli araçlardan biridir. Influencer olarak değerlendirilen bu kişiler hem tüketici beklentilerini öğrenmede hem de ürün ve hizmetlerin tanıtım ve satışını yapmada işletmelere önemli kolaylıklar sağlamaktadır. Bu çalışma, Instagram fenomenleri, impulsif satın alma ve satın alma sonrası pişmanlık davranışları arasındaki ilişkiyi tespit etmek amacıyla gerçekleştirilmiştir. Bu amaç doğrultusunda 469 kişi ile anket yapılmıştır. Elde edilen veriler SPSS 25 Paket programı ile analiz edilmiştir. Yapılan analiz sonucunda Instagram fenomenleri, impulsif satın alma ve satın alma sonrası pişmanlık davranışları arasında anlamlı ve pozitif yönlü güçlü bir ilişkinin olduğu tespit edilmiştir.
... According to Stern (1962), impulse buying defined as "an unplanned purchase which is aroused in the store and it changes the shopping patterns of the buyers and it's an unplanned purchase decision that is made just before a purchase." According to Stern (1962), "planned buying behavior involved a time-consuming information search followed by rational decision making. ...
... According to Stern (1962), impulse buying defined as "an unplanned purchase which is aroused in the store and it changes the shopping patterns of the buyers and it's an unplanned purchase decision that is made just before a purchase." According to Stern (1962), "planned buying behavior involved a time-consuming information search followed by rational decision making. ...
... This study discusses literature regarding sales promotions and its impact on impulse buying behavior. Many studies have proven the positive relationship between discount, promotion, and impulse purchase (Abratt & Goodey, 1990;Stern, 1962). Jamal and Lodhi (2015) stated that there is a positive relationship between consumer's impulse buying behavior and promotional activities. ...
Article
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Impulsive buying behavior is the unplanned purchase psychologically triggered in the mind of the consumer on account of various stimulants. This study focuses on understanding these stimulants in the form of In-Store factors such as Promotions & Discounts, In-Store atmosphere enhanced by using music, lighting, ventilation, etc and the presence of friendly store staff. Many studies on similar grounds have been done for major cities, but small cities have not been tapped for studies based on these parameters. This study is an attempt to study the impact of these stimulants on the triggering of impulsive buying behavior of consumers in Tier II & Tier III cities in India. The study was conducted with a sample population of 300 drawn from 4 cities falling in the relevant category and with the help of a structured questionnaire, responses were collected on the impact of the three variables identified for the purpose of the study. All three variables were found to be supported by the data collated and were found to have significant impact on triggering the impulsive buying behavior in consumers. The study can go a long way in identifying such potential areas for pushing sales volumes and increasing customer satisfaction.
... Consumers are not often making unplanned transactions based on their urgent desire or emotions and external signals are also influential influences (Amos et al. 2014). According to Aragoncillo and Orus (2018); Chan et al. (2017); Stern (1962), there are four categories to give a simple description regarding impulse buying, as shown in the table below (Table 3): Stern (1962) conceptualization of impulse buying serves as an excellent starting point for further study. Aragoncillo and Orus (2018) added the concept from Stern (1962) regarding definition of impulse buying, which is not only applicable to retail stores but also to online studies. ...
... Consumers are not often making unplanned transactions based on their urgent desire or emotions and external signals are also influential influences (Amos et al. 2014). According to Aragoncillo and Orus (2018); Chan et al. (2017); Stern (1962), there are four categories to give a simple description regarding impulse buying, as shown in the table below (Table 3): Stern (1962) conceptualization of impulse buying serves as an excellent starting point for further study. Aragoncillo and Orus (2018) added the concept from Stern (1962) regarding definition of impulse buying, which is not only applicable to retail stores but also to online studies. ...
... According to Aragoncillo and Orus (2018); Chan et al. (2017); Stern (1962), there are four categories to give a simple description regarding impulse buying, as shown in the table below (Table 3): Stern (1962) conceptualization of impulse buying serves as an excellent starting point for further study. Aragoncillo and Orus (2018) added the concept from Stern (1962) regarding definition of impulse buying, which is not only applicable to retail stores but also to online studies. This is due to the fact that the advent of online shopping has added new dimensions to impulse buying conduct. ...
Chapter
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Purchasing is not a novel idea. In reality, buying and selling has existed since the dawn of time, and as culture has advanced, the idea has developed in terms of shape, design, and compassion. Nowadays customers purchase items not only to satisfy their basic needs, but also as a way of life or a recreational activity that can help them meet their psychological needs. Since the 1950s, researchers have been researching consumer behaviour to better understand the idea of impulse buying. Impulse buying is the most common in modern societies, and it has drawn the attention of a variety of researchers from different fields, including marketing, consumer behavioural economics, and psychology in recent decades. Impulse buying not only occur on traditional store but it also happens on e-store due to the tremendous growth of the Internet has altered the retail environment, and changes in e-retailing, such as telemarketing, credit card and debit card use, and 24-h e-retailing availability, have increased the opportunity for impulse shopping by Internet shoppers. In result, individuals may now buy at any time and from any place as a result of this evolution. In contrast to traditional shoppers, online shoppers are more likely to indulge in impulsive purchases. Hence, impulse buying become important need to continuous study. Thus, this study provided the definition, timeline as well as categories of online impulse buying behaviour based on recent studies.
... Research scholars have taken a very keen interest in impulse buying for the past sixty years (Clover, 1950;Stern, 1962;Rook, 1987;Peck & Childers, 2006;Chang et al, 2011). Abratt and Goodey (1990) found that the examination of impulse buying in supermarkets could be of much interest to the manufacturers as well as retailers worldwide. ...
... Clover (1950) was first to study impulse buying mix and pointed out that some product categories are more sold on impulse. Stern (1962) defined impulse buying behavior by classifying as planned, unplanned, or impulse, also suggested that some product-related factors that might predict impulse buying. Kollat & Willett (1967) found that the characteristics of consumers and their demographics influence the impulse purchasing. ...
... Vol. 11, No. 9;2015 From the survey, it is found that out of one hundreds respondents, 77% of them often buy one or more items that was not their planned, among them in this case 97% made an unplanned purchase. That may be an interesting as well as profitable segment for any providers. ...
Article
Full-text available
Super stores are playing a key role in the field of shopping in Bangladesh. The popularity of super stores is increasing day by day in our country and consumers are becoming more habituated to buying from here. Today's consumers are also very much concern about food items. They want fresh, hygienic and healthy foods. So, super stores have become a great source for the consumers to get these items of foods. This paper is an attempt to investigate the factors that affect consumer impulse buying behavior at superstores in Bangladesh. Survey methodology was used to collect the data from 100 respondents by adopting simple random sampling technique. The study found that many factors were responsible for this changing buying behavior such as: in store atmosphere, point of purchase display, convenience, location, product characteristics, product quality, availability of branded items, store size, store image, variety seeking, discounts, stock outs, packaging, in store display etc. All of the characteristics are subject to consideration while making a purchase. Specifically planned purchase, generally planned purchase, substitute products all have an impact on impulse buying. The paper will be useful for marketing practitioners and researchers towards comprehensive understanding of the consumer's impulsiveness.
... Impulsive buying is a compelling, impulsive, and hedonically complex purchasing behaviour that occurs when customers do not plan to purchase in advance (Shen & Khalifa, 2012;Stern, 1962). Live streaming commerce offers considerable potential to trigger consumers' impulse purchases due to its high engagement as well as visibility. ...
... The Social Impact Theory is employed in the study to investigate different social clues (para-social interaction, social presence as well as telepresence) in live streaming commerce and how these social clues affect users' impulsive purchases, as well as to offer potential guidance for the variables' structural relationship. Stern (1962) conceptualized impulsive buying as "any purchase which a shopper makes but has not planned in advance". While Rook (1987) depicted impulsive buying as a case when "a consumer experiences a sudden, often powerful and persistent urge to buy something immediately". ...
... Impulse buying refers to a spontaneous or unplanned purchase (Clover, 1950;Rook, 1987;Stern, 1962), and it is decided on the spot. Impulse buying has become a notable trend worldwide (Muruganantham & Bhakat, 2013;Sirhindi, 2010) as it is prevalent in the market. ...
... Culture is a set of collective programming of mind to differentiate persons in one category from persons in another category (Hofstede et al., 2005). Over the past several years, it has been examined by researchers that buying behavior and buying decision process of consumers have been modified (Beatty & Ferrell, 1998;Kacen & Lee, 2002;Stern, 1962). Studies revealed that due to various factors the buying behavior of consumers changes and cultural values is one of those factors (Abraham & Dameyasani, 2013;Ahmed et al., 2015;Cleveland & Chang, 2009;Legohérel et al., 2009;Pickett-Baker & Ozaki, 2008;Tuyet Mai et al., 2003). ...
Article
Full-text available
The purpose of this study is to investigate the influence of Personality, shopping enjoyment tendency, materialism, impulse buying tendency, and cultural dimension namely collectivism and individualism on impulse buying behavior. This study employed a quantitative approach that involved a convenience sampling technique to collect data from customers (n=320) using a structured survey. Structured Equation Modeling was applied to analyze data by using AMOS 24. According to the study's findings, shopping enjoyment tendency and materialism strongly affect impulse buying. Further, buyers with a high tendency to impulsiveness, buy more spontaneously. More importantly, the findings revealed that personality traits; neuroticism and extraversion, have also a strongly positive impact on consumers’ IBB. This study provides important information regarding the buying behavior of consumers from the retail sector of a developing nation and checks the effect of the above-mentioned important factors on consumers’ impulse buying. The outcomes of this study will help retailers and marketers to develop effective strategies in accordance with consumer buying behavior.
... An impulse purchase or impulse buying is an unplanned decision to buy a product or service, made just before a purchase (Stern, 1962) [1]. One who tends to make such purchases is referred to as an impulse purchaser or impulse buyer. ...
... An impulse purchase or impulse buying is an unplanned decision to buy a product or service, made just before a purchase (Stern, 1962) [1]. One who tends to make such purchases is referred to as an impulse purchaser or impulse buyer. ...
Article
Full-text available
It is often seen that consumers plan their purchases carefully but at the time of actually shopping, many a time, they get carried away by their emotions due to the visual appeal or attraction that a product, strategically placed in the store, may catch their eye and even though it was not part of the original shopping list, the consumer impulsively ends up buying the product. This emotional driven behaviour of consumers is known as Impulse Buying. There are several factors responsible for this impulsive buying behaviour of consumers and this area of marketing has particular potential for marketers who are always looking at ways and means of attracting the consumers' attention towards their products. This research sought to examine the demographic and psychological factors behind such impulsive buying behaviour of consumers in order to be able to establish a relationship between these factors and the aforesaid behaviour. A number of hypotheses were established by the researcher keeping the impulsive buying as dependent variable and to study the impact of the various independent variables like age, income, gender, occupation, education, perceptions, etc on the dependent variables. Through a primary study aided by secondary data, analysed statistically, the researcher was able to establish a relationship between impulsive buying behaviour and factors such as income, perception, motivation & attitudes and beliefs of consumers. This research can be of significance to marketers who can use the outcomes to further fine-tune their marketing strategies and successfully catch the attention of their target consumers.
... A large number of studies have attempted to understand the construct of Impulse Buying Behaviour (IBB) so as to cater to and encourage these unplanned purchases [32]. A study by [9] suggests that these impulsive purchases are usually accompanied by emotions of pleasure and excitement during purchase and guilt, post purchase. ...
... A study by [9] suggests that these impulsive purchases are usually accompanied by emotions of pleasure and excitement during purchase and guilt, post purchase. [32] provides the theoretical basis of Impulsive Buying Behaviour. According to him, Buying Behaviour comprises of two types of action, one which is unplanned action and the other is a planned action. ...
Article
Paper Impulsive purchases are defined as those purchase decisions that are unplanned. Sellers are constantly attempting to understand the triggers to impulsive purchases as it provides them with a leverage to increase sales. The current study has identified literature in the area of Impulsive Buying Behaviour and consolidated the findings in order to arrive at a list of possible antecedents to Impulsive Buying Behaviour. The studies chosen were based in the offline context and sourced from ProQuest, ensuring reliability of the findings. The findings were consolidated using Meta-Analysis, carried out in the SPSS software package. The analysis revealed that Brand Preferences, Demographics, Buyer Emotions, Promotions, Store Atmospherics and Buyer Traits had statistically significant relations with Offline Impulsive Buying Behaviour. The findings of this study provide insights into the factors that drive impulsive purchases. The study adds value to the literature in the area of Marketing by consolidating research findings across time and geography.
... Stern defines unplanned purchasing behavior as the situation that the consumer realizes without prior planning because they buy when they go shopping (Stern, 1962). In another definition, it has been expressed as an experience that emerges as a result of immediate decision making, far from selective and careful attitude (Rook, 1987). ...
... It is the situation of going shopping by planning ahead like buying a product and getting an interest in the discount, attractiveness, promotion, offer of another brand. Stern (1962) categorized and defined four types of Unplanned Purchasing behavior in his study. ...
Article
Full-text available
People's shopping habits are changing day by day.Consumers' point of view towards the product has turned into an emotional quality rather than a material quality.Emotional consumers pay attention that their products are compatible with each other.This situation triggers the Diderot Effect in consumers.With this feeling,the consumer displays a continuous buying behavior.It directs the consumer,acting with the domino effect logic,to unplanned purchases.When consumers buy an initial product,they start to think that they also need other products with the logic of induction.In order to finalize this situation, they tend to buy complementary products.This instinctive desire for integrity is described as the Diderot Effect.The aim of the study is to examine the Diderot Impact Levels and Unplanned Buying trends of the consumers.The research data were obtained through a survey applied on social media.In the analysis of the data, descriptive statistics, percentage and frequency,ANOVA and Chi-Square analysis were used.The reliability of the scales used in the study was tested with the Cronbach Alpha method, and the scales were found to be "High Reliability".As a result of the analysis,it was determined that there was a relationship between the unplanned purchasing behavior of the consumers and the Diderot effect levels and that the consumers purchased other products that were complementary to the products they purchased, therefore they were under the influence of diderot.
... Initially, and according to Stern (1962), the concept of impulse buying was considered a synonym for unplanned buying. However, the results of several investigations settled that, although impulse buying can usually be categorized as being unplanned, the opposite is not always the case, that is, not all unplanned purchases are impulsive (Amos et al., 2014). ...
... However, the results of several investigations settled that, although impulse buying can usually be categorized as being unplanned, the opposite is not always the case, that is, not all unplanned purchases are impulsive (Amos et al., 2014). In this sense, and as the tendency to buy impulsively is influenced by a variety of factors, Stern (1962) distinguishes, based on this diversity of elements, three purchasing behaviors (planned, unplanned, and impulsive) and four different categories of impulsive purchases (pure, reminder, suggestion, and planned impulse buying). ...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose: Impulse buying is a topic still scarcely studied in the scientific community. However, it proves to be very pertinent since it is a very complex, broad behavior and influenced by several variables. This study aimed to find associated variables with impulse buying of books. Methodology: 347 Portuguese participated in the study, aged between 18 and 73 years old (M = 37; SD = 16). Most of the sample was composed by women (n = 285; 82.1%). The participants had a high educational level, with 78.8% of the sample having a bachelor's degree or a higher level of education. The sample was collected through online questionnaires from July to December 2019. Findings: The impulse buying tendency, impulse buying tendency of books, susceptibility to interpersonal influence, need for cognition, materialism, and extended self were analyzed in this research. The results revealed that the tendency to buy impulsively and the extended self are associated with impulse buying of books, this model explaining 27% of the variance. Practical implications: This study contributes to a better understanding of the impulse buying of specific objects and provides a foundation for investigating the Portuguese book-buying behavior. Originality: The results offer advantages for marketing professionals and consumer psychology and can be used to captivate consumer interest and to promote conscientious and ethical marketing.
... Stern defines unplanned purchasing behavior as the situation that the consumer realizes without prior planning because they buy when they go shopping (Stern, 1962). In another definition, it has been expressed as an experience that emerges as a result of immediate decision making, far from selective and careful attitude (Rook, 1987). ...
... It is the situation of going shopping by planning ahead like buying a product and getting an interest in the discount, attractiveness, promotion, offer of another brand. Stern (1962) categorized and defined four types of Unplanned Purchasing behavior in his study. ...
Article
Full-text available
People's shopping habits are changing day by day.Consumers' point of view towards the product has turned into an emotional quality rather than a material quality.Emotional consumers pay attention that their products are compatible with each other.This situation triggers the Diderot Effect in consumers.With this feeling,the consumer displays a continuous buying behavior.It directs the consumer,acting with the domino effect logic,to unplanned purchases.When consumers buy an initial product,they start to think that they also need other products with the logic of induction.In order to finalize this situation, they tend to buy complementary products.This instinctive desire for integrity is described as the Diderot Effect.The aim of the study is to examine the Diderot Impact Levels and Unplanned Buying trends of the consumers.The research data were obtained through a survey applied on social media.In the analysis of the data, descriptive statistics, percentage and frequency,ANOVA and Chi-Square analysis were used.The reliability of the scales used in the study was tested with the Cronbach Alpha method, and the scales were found to be "High Reliability".As a result of the analysis,it was determined that there was a relationship between the unplanned purchasing behavior of the consumers and the Diderot effect levels and that the consumers purchased other products that were complementary to the products they purchased, therefore they were under the influence of diderot.
... Stern was the first to put forward the definition of "impulse consumption = unplanned consumption". A later article by Rook and Hoch's [6] focused on consumers' cognitive and emotional responses, and eventually constructed the five "crucial elements that distinguish impulsive from non-impulsive consumer behavior", that is, based on Stern [6] 's theory, the "stimulus response" and "hedonically complex" phenomenon were introduced. This theory was subsequently improved again by Francis Piron [7]. ...
... Stern was the first to put forward the definition of "impulse consumption = unplanned consumption". A later article by Rook and Hoch's [6] focused on consumers' cognitive and emotional responses, and eventually constructed the five "crucial elements that distinguish impulsive from non-impulsive consumer behavior", that is, based on Stern [6] 's theory, the "stimulus response" and "hedonically complex" phenomenon were introduced. This theory was subsequently improved again by Francis Piron [7]. ...
... Stern defines unplanned purchasing behavior as the situation that the consumer realizes without prior planning because they buy when they go shopping (Stern, 1962). In another definition, it has been expressed as an experience that emerges as a result of immediate decision making, far from selective and careful attitude (Rook, 1987). ...
... It is the situation of going shopping by planning ahead like buying a product and getting an interest in the discount, attractiveness, promotion, offer of another brand. Stern (1962) categorized and defined four types of Unplanned Purchasing behavior in his study. ...
Article
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İnsanların alışveriş alışkanlıkları her geçen gün değişim göstermektedir. Tüketicilerin ürüne bakış açıları maddi nitelikten çok duygusal niteliğe dönüşmüştür.Duygusal boyutta hareket eden tüketiciler ürünlerinin birbiri ile uyumlu olmasına dikkat etmektedirler.Bu durum tüketicilerde Diderot Etkisini tetiklemektedir.Bu duygu ile tüketici sürekli satın alma davranışı sergilemektedir.Domino etkisi mantığı ile hareket eden tüketiciyi plansız satın alımlara yöneltmektedir.Tüketiciler başlangıç bir ürünü satın aldıklarında tümevarım mantığıyla diğer ürünlere de ihtiyacının olduğunu düşünmeye başlamaktadır.Bu durumu sonuçlandırmak için de tamamlayıcı ürünler satın almaya yönelmektedir. Bu içgüdüsel bütünlük arzusu Diderot Etkisi olarak tanımlanmaktadır.Çalışmanın amacı, tüketicilerin Diderot Etki Düzeyleri ve Plansız Satın Alma eğilimlerini incelemektir.Araştırma verileri sosyal medyada uygulanan anket ile elde edilmiştir.Verilerin analizinde, tanımlayıcı istatistiklerden yüzde ve frekans, ANOVA ve Ki-Kare analizlerinden faydalanılmıştır.Araştırmada kullanılan ölçeklerin güvenirlikleri Cronbach Alfa yöntemiyle test edilmiş olup, ölçekler “Yüksek Güvenilirlik” çıkmıştır.Analizler sonucunda tüketicilerin plansız satın alma davranışı ile diderot etki düzeyleri arasında ilişki bulunduğu ve tüketicilerin satın aldıkları ürünleri tamamlayıcı nitelikte diğer ürünleri de plansız bir şekilde satın aldıklarını dolayısıyla diderot etkisinde kaldıkları belirlenmiştir.
... Rook (1987) outlines impulse buying as a substantial and persistent desire to buy something instantly in pioneering work. Past studies convey impulse buying as an unplanned purchase in a marketing context (Stern, 1962). Consumers detail the phenomenon of impulse buying as experiencing a powerful temptation for a target that can be an object of desire (Weinberg and Gottwald, 1982). ...
... Previous studies also accentuate searching for knowledge while information contemplation during impulse purchase (Verhagen and Van Dolen, 2011). According to Stern (1962), impulse buying can be divided into four categories: pure, reminder, planned, and suggestive. ...
Article
The Role of Internet Celebrities in Purchase Intention and Impulse Buying by Massoud Moslehpour, Alaleh Dadvari, Pei-Kuan Lin, Erdenebaatar Odgerel Abstract: With the introduction of social media, celebrity endorsement has become trendy, influencing commercial strategy. While the economic impact of impulsive purchasing is well known globally, a model is developed to investigate the relationship between Internet celebrity endorsement and impulsive buying. The article looks into whether purchasing behaviour and e-WOM are linked to buying behaviour. An online survey of 426 using structural equation modelling (SEM) investigates the relationships among constructs. The results demonstrate a link between Internet celebrity endorsement and impulsive buying. Skincare purchase intent is closely linked to impulsive buying with electronic word of mouth as partial mediator. This study examines the impact of celebrity recommendations in cyberspace using planned behaviour, social identity, and response theory. It also shows how to efficiently recruit celebrity endorsers to increase client purchase intent, which promotes impulsive buying. Researchers and beauty product marketers can better understand consumer behaviour to target clients. Keywords: internet celebrity endorsement; ICE; electronic word-of-mouth; e-WOM; purchase intention; impulsive buying behaviour; IBB. DOI: 10.1504/IJIMA.2022.10047371
... Situational factors such as the time, personal shopping habits, retail location and season may create buying momentum for consumers (Shapiro, 1992), making it more likely for them to act on their desires. Stern (1962) concluded that impulse buying is affected by different aspects of the products that consumers encounter in the store, such as their functionality or appearance. Different types of consumers are also more inclined to purchase on impulse based on their preference for product category such as fashion, confectionery or books. ...
Article
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To evaluate impulse buying behaviour in consumers and how confidence moderates the variables being tested, which is an interesting phenomenon considering the fact that personal values and perceptions dictate each and every individual’s behaviour as a consumer. This research paper attempts to elaborate consumer behaviour of individuals who purchase on impulse through social comparison, materialistic tendencies, negative affectivity, and confidence levels of individuals. This research topic is relatively new as there hasn’t been any study done which examines impulse buying in Indonesian citizens with the following variables that have been conducted in Vietnam, let alone conducted under post Covid-19 conditions. The data gathered was obtained through a Google Forms questionnaire in which respondents had to use the Likert Scale to rate the agreeability of each statement. The data was compiled and processed using Smart-PLS 4 software. This research showed that social comparison and materialism positively impacted impulse buying but negative affect did not. Furthermore, confidence moderated the relationship between social comparison and impulse buying but did not moderate the relationship between impulse buying and social comparison. It can be concluded that everyone is unique in terms of behaviour and mindset which may benefit marketers to develop effective marketing strategies to induce purchasing behaviours. This research may also act as a reminder for consumers to spend wisely. Keywords: Impulse Buying; Social Comparison; Materialism; Negative Affect; Confidence
... Salah satu bentuk rangsangan eksternal adalah melalui iklan di instagram. Menurut Stern (1962) paparan iklan yang menawarkan promo dan sebagainya membuat konsumen terdorong untuk melakukan pembelian impulisif. Sama halnya yang terjadi dalam penelitian ini dimana generasi junior millennial yang awalnya hanya ingin berinteraksi dengan teman-temannya di instagram, setelah melihat iklan yang menawarkan promo produk menjadi tertarik dan melakukan pembelian impulsif. ...
Article
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The purpose of this study is to find out the psychology of the millennial junior generation in several big cities in Indonesia who are intensely using Instagram and have an impact on their impulse buying. This study uses quantitative methods. The analytical technique used is SEM (Structural Equation Model) with LISREL software. A total of 390 junior millennial respondents (born 1991-1998) filled out an online questionnaire using a google form. The results showed that instagram had an insignificant direct effect on impulse buying. However, Instagram has a significant indirect effect through self-esteem on impulse buying. Neuroticism has the greatest influence on the impulse buying of millennial juniors. Based on the calculation of the indirect effect, it can be seen that self-esteem in this study is fully mediated for the instagram and neuroticism variables. Thus it can be concluded that Instagram has an important role in the psychological formation of the millennial junior generation. The intensity of excessive use of Instagram can lower self-esteem so that they compensate for these feelings through impulse buying. The limitation in this study is that it only uses one personality characteristic of the five existing personalities. The contribution of this research is to strengthen Murk (2006) self-esteem theory as a development of Rosenberg's (1989) theory. In addition, the results of this study can also be a recommendation for online business people who aggressively advertise their products through Instagram in order to choose the right marketing strategy.
... The notion of behavioural-led attitudinal change in user-brand involvement can be explained by the identification theory, which asserted that users may be motivated to place higher value in a brand because they realise that the brand reflects and enhances their identity after engaging with it (Burke and Reitzes, 1991) and the commitment theory which posits that the more a person behaves in a certain way toward a brand, the more attached he/ she feels toward the brand (Chang and Stansbie, 2018). Additionally, the ecological paradigm of commitment theory proposes that people within an "environment"for instance, participating in value co-creation in MSPs via user curationmay be exposed to certain external stimuli and find unique value, such as social value in terms of ego satisfaction, in such environments that they may not have otherwise known as an outsider who has never been exposed to those experiences (Stern, 1962;Chang and Stansbie, 2018). The theoretical lens of user-brand involvement allows researchers to take user participation and its psychological outcome (i.e. ...
Article
Purpose Given the acute competition between music-streaming platforms (MSPs), the purpose of this study is to identify the relational motivators of brand loyalty towards the MSP in terms of user-brand involvement, brand trust, brand engagement, brand recommendation and brand loyalty. Design/methodology/approach Cross-sectional quantitative data, gathered from a total of 340 eligible respondents via an online questionnaire survey, were empirically analysed and validated using a hybrid predictive-analytics structural equation modelling (SEM) and Artificial Neural Network (ANN) method. Findings The results of this study demonstrate that user-brand involvement promotes brand loyalty toward a MSP by fostering brand engagement, brand trust and positive word-of-mouth. SEM and ANN data comparison reveals good consistency. Research limitations/implications The generalizability of the research outcomes may be constrained, as this study only considers the data from a single country (i.e. Malaysia) and one music streaming platform (i.e. Spotify). This study highlighted the relevance of user-brand involvement and non-core supporting services in the cultivation of brand loyalty, particularly their salient roles in promoting favourable attitudes and behaviours towards platform brands. Practical implications The insights produced can aid MSPs in devising better user retention strategies that can be used to maintain their competitive edge over time. The findings of this study made it abundantly evident that practitioners should facilitate more user-brand cooperative activities to encourage user-brand involvement and, ultimately, foster brand loyalty. Originality/value This study has addressed a major research gap by examining the relational roots of brand loyalty, which transcend the typical focus on transactional factors and technical lock-in. This study pioneered the investigation of brand involvement with user involvement.
... Impulsive buying is generally seen as being synonymous with unplanned buying (Stern, 1962). Therefore, both terms are used in the same sense throughout this article. ...
Article
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Impulsive buying is considered to be an emotional and unplanned decision-making behaviour. Because this type of purchasing rate has fairly increased in recent years, examining the determinants of impulsive buying is important to understand which intervention programs should be designed. In the current study, it was aimed to develop a model in which impulsive buying tendency is predicted by variables such as personality traits, affect and cognitive factors (problem solving skills and cognitive flexibility). Overall, 300 young adults (198 female and 102 male), took part in the study. The mean age of the participants for the current study was as 21.29 years (SD = 2.95). Impulsive buying tendency, personality traits, affect, problem solving skills and cognitive flexibility variables were measured via Consumer Buying Impulsivity Scale (CBI), Behavioural Inhibition/Activation System Scales (BIS/BAS), Positive and Negative Affect Scale (PANAS), Problem Solving Inventory (PSI) and Cognitive Flexibility Scale (CFI), respectively. The results indicated that personality traits in the behavioral activation system (reward system) could be an important determinant of impulsive buying tendency when examined together with other variables. In sum, high reward responsiveness may result in impulsive buying. Furthermore, affective factors (both negative and positive affect) rather than cognitive factors may be a triggering factor for impulsive buying
... Theo Stern (1962) hành vi mua hàng ngẫu hứng được sử dụng để chỉ bất kì hành vi mua hàng nào do người mua thực hiện mà không được lên kế hoạch từ trước. Rook (1987) đã bổ sung thêm yếu tố cảm xúc và sự thôi thúc mua hàng vào khái niệm hành vi mua hàng ngẫu hứng, ông cho rằng mua hàng ngẫu hứng xảy ra khi người tiêu dùng trải nghiệm một cảm giác bất chợt, mang tính thôi thúc mua một cái gì đó ngay lập tức và sự ngẫu hứng mua này thể hiện trạng thái tình cảm khá phức tạp và có thể tạo ra những mâu thuẫn nhất định trong suy nghĩ của người tiêu dùng. ...
Conference Paper
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Bài nghiên cứu này được thực hiện nhằm xác định mối quan hệ giữa âm nhạc tại điểm bán đến hành vi mua sắm ngẫu hứng của khách hàng trẻ tại Thành phố Hồ Chí Minh. Tác giả tiến hành phát 317 bảng khảo sát và thu về 309 câu trả lời hợp lệ, sử dụng phương pháp phân tích nhân tố khám phá (EFA) và phân tích nhân tố khẳng định (CFA), phần mềm xử lý dữ liệu là AMOS. Từ kết quả nghiên cứu, nhóm tác giả đề xuất hàm ý quản trị góp phần giúp doanh nghiệp tăng thêm hiệu quả sử dụng âm nhạc tại điểm bán để thu hút và kích thích mua sắm ngẫu hứng của khách hàng trẻ, tăng doanh thu cho doanh nghiệp. Đồng thời nghiên cứu như tài liệu tham khảo góp phần làm cơ sở cho các nghiên cứu sau này với các đề tài có liên quan.
... Contrarily, the delineation of planned buying is simply the alternative when there is an identified problem and earlier intention to shop for. Its miles promising to mention that impulse purchases are some type of unplanned buying state of affairs or an advanced shape of unplanned buying (Stern, 1962, Kollat & Willet 1967. ...
Article
Customer research has paid a lot of attention to consumer impulse buying. The phenomena is intriguing since it is influenced by both external, market-related inputs and a number of internal psychological elements. The research attempts to comprehend the factors affecting impulse buying behaviour of consumers typically when they consider purchasing new products. Furthermore, the effects of different concepts on the impulse buying are discovered, such as impulse buying intention, new product knowledge and promotional signage in the Pakistani context. This study uses a survey method to test a theoretically grounded set of hypotheses. Using a 22 items questionnaire, the data were obtained from 200 respondents and the data were analysed using SPSS. This study findings reveal that new product knowledge and promotional signage has positive and significant influence on consumers’ impulse buying behaviour as well as impulse buying intention, similarly our mediator that is impulse buying intention also has a positive significant influence on consumers’ impulse buying behaviour. There lies a partial mediation between the promotional signage and impulse buying behaviour in the presence of mediator but impulse buying intention has no significant mediating impact between new product knowledge and impulse buying behaviour. The paper supports the importance of new product knowledge and promotional signage as key drivers of consumer’s impulse buying behaviour. It further underlines the importance of consumer’s impulse buying intention with a mediating effect between new product knowledge, promotional signage and consumer’s impulse buying behaviour. Marketers, retailers, executives and managers can have advantage from these findings for future marketing strategies and can acquire new customers by retaining the old ones to achieve long-term performance objectives. Keywords: Impulse Buying, Behaviour, Purchase Intention, Product Knowledge, Promotional Signage.
... "Anlık satın alma" terimi genel olarak "plansız satın alma" ile eşanlamlı olarak kabul edilmektedir-yani, bir tüketicinin yaptığı fakat önceden planlamadığı herhangi bir satın alma işlemini tanımlamaktadır (Stern, 1962). Kollat ve Willet (1969) anlık satın almanın gerçekleşme sebeplerine dair iki açıklama yapmışlardır. ...
... Although previous studies have adopted different definitions of impulse buying, they agree that impulse buying has three characteristics. First, it is an unplanned behavior (Stern, 1962;Li et al., 2020;Lina et al., 2022). Second, it is an impulsive reaction. ...
Article
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Social media plays a vital role in consumers’ purchasing decision making. There are still gaps in existing research on the relationship between divided dimensions of social media use and impulse buying, as well as the mediating and moderating effects therein. This study explored the mediation and moderation effects in the relationship between different social media usage patterns, emotional responses, and consumer impulse buying. Data from 479 college students who were social media users in China were analyzed using structural equation modeling. The results showed that active and passive social media use were significantly and positively associated with users’ enjoyment, whereas passive social media use significantly increased depression. Both enjoyment and depression were significantly and positively associated with users’ impulse buying. Materialism positively moderated the relationship between enjoyment and impulsive consumption, while self-control significantly reduced the effect of depression on impulse buying. These findings that emotion mediated and personality traits moderated relationships between social media use and impulse buying expand impulsive purchase literature and provide insights for guiding college students’ healthy use of social media and rational consumption.
... As a customer browses longer, she/he will tend to encounter more stimuli, which would tend to increase the like hood of experiencing impulse urges. This supports Stern's (1962) conceptualization of impulse buying as a response to the consumer's exposure to in-store stimuli. Shoppers may actually use a form of in-store planning to finalize their intentions (Rook, 1987). ...
... Tüketicilerin impulsif satın alma davranışına etkide bulunan ürünle ilgili faktörler ilk olarak Stern (1962) Ayrıca hafif, küçük, kolay taşınabilir, kolay saklanabilir ürünlerin de diğerlerine kıyasla tüketiciye sağladığı kolaylıklar sebebiyle bu davranışta payı büyüktür (Stern, 1962: 59-62). Tüm bunların yanı sıra ambalajın da büyük önemi olduğunu belirtmek gerekmektedir. ...
Thesis
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Tüketicilerin satın alma karar süreci demografik, sosyal, kültürel, kişisel, psikolojik faktörlerin ya da pazarlama araçları tarafından şekillenen faktörlerin etkisi altında ortaya çıkmaktadır. Bu anlamda dışsal ve içsel faktörler olarak ele alınabilecek olan bu türden faktörler, tüketicilerin zihninde gerçekleşen değerlendirmeyi etkileyerek bazı yanıtlar (tepkiler) meydana getirmektedir. Bu araştırma, sanal mağaza atmosferi, satış promosyonları, akış deneyimi ve impulsif satın alma değişkenleri arasındaki ilişkileri S-O-R paradigması kapsamında incelemeyi amaçlamıştır. Bu doğrultuda sanal mağaza atmosferi ve satış promosyonları dışsal uyaranlar, akış deneyimi organizma (zihinsel süreç) ve impulsif satın alma bir tüketici tepkisi olarak ele alınmış ve bir nicel araştırma kapsamında araştırmanın teorik modeli değerlendirilmiştir. Araştırmanın verilerini online anket yoluyla erişilen 407 tüketicinin yanıtları oluşturmuş ve veriler SPSS 24 ve AMOS 24 istatistik yazılımlarında çözümlenmiştir. Yapılan analizler sonucunda iyi uyum iyiliği gösteren bir yapısal eşitlik modeli kapsamında elde edilen bulgular, sanal mağaza atmosferi, satış promosyonları, akış deneyimi ve impulsif satın alma davranışı arasında istatistiksel olarak anlamlı ilişkiler bulunduğunu ortaya koymuştur. Sonuçlara göre akış deneyimi, hem sanal mağaza atmosferi ile impulsif satın alma arasında hem de satış promosyonları ile impulsif satın alma arasında aracılık rolü üstlenmektedir. Ayrıca sosyo-demografik özellikler ile alışveriş alışkanlıklarına ilişkin bazı faktörlerin istatistiksel olarak anlamlı gruplararası farklılıklar sergilediği ortaya çıkmıştır.
... Çok sayıda değişken olsa da bu değişkenlerin tüketicilerin tüketim alışkanlıklarını ve satın alma niyetlerini ne derece etkilediğini ve hangilerinin etkisinin daha fazla olduğunu belirlemek satın alma niyetini anlamlandırabilmek açısından oldukça önemlidir (Whiteside ve Lynam 2005). Stern (1962), dürtüsel satın alma niyetinin; kişilik özelliği, ekonomik durum, coğrafi konum, zaman ve hatta kültürel faktörlerden etkilendiğini belirtmiştir. Bununla birlikte, dürtüsel satın alma niyeti yalnızca farklı müşterilerin aynı ürünü satın alması aşamasında değil, aynı zamanda farklı seçeneklerin sunulması durumunda aynı müşterilerin aynı ürünleri satın almaları sırasında da değişmektedir. ...
Article
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Yaşadığımız çağda çoğu insan günlük hayatında birçok kez stresli durumlar içinde bulunabilmekte, iç ve dış birçok faktörün etkisiyle hem ruhsal hem de fiziksel bir baskı altında kalabilmektedir. Bu durum her bireyde farklı etki gösterebilir. Bu etkilerden ikisi depresyon ve dürtüsel satın almadır. Yapılan çalışmanın amacı, depresyon ve dürtüsel satın alma kavramlarının arasındaki ilişkiyi araştırmak ve bu kavramların demografik değişkenler bazında farklılıklarını tespit etmektir. Bu doğrultuda ana kütle; Türkiye'de ikamet eden, 18 yaş ve üzeri olan, aynı zamanda en az bir kere çevrimiçi alışveriş yapmış olan tüketicilerden seçilmiştir. Verilerin toplanması için anket yöntemine başvurulmuş ve anketler Google Forms üzerinden gerçekleştirilmiştir. Ankette, "Dürtüsel Satın Alma" ve "Depresyon" ölçekleri ve örnekleme yöntemi olarak kartopu örneklemesi kullanılmıştır. Hipotezlerin test edilmesinde yapısal eşitlik modellemesinden yararlanılmıştır. Öncesinde, demografik değişkenlerin frekans analizi, verilerin normal dağılıma uygunluğu, keşfedici ve doğrulayıcı faktör analizleri, güvenirlilik analizleri yapılmıştır. Elde edilen sonuçlara göre, depresyon, dürtüsel satın almanın her iki boyutunu anlamlı ve pozitif etkilemektedir Demografik değişkenlerle olan farklılıklar açısından ise, depresyon değişkeninin; yaş, gelir durumu ve medeni duruma göre farklılıklar gösterdiği, dürtüsel satın alma değişkeninin ise yaş, gelir durumu, eğitim durumu ve medeni duruma göre farklılıklar gösterdiği sonucuna ulaşılmıştır. Bunun yanında cinsiyet değişkeninin ise her ikisinde de farklılaşmadığı tespit edilmiştir. Ayrıca, dürtüsel satın almanın keşifsel analizde, 2 boyutla açıklanması ve isimlendirilmesinin literatüre katkı sağlayacağı düşünülmektedir.
... The research further facilitates the formation of a detailed mechanism that outlines the interrelationships between the above-mentioned factors by including cognitive and affective reactions as intermediary factors, and susceptibility to informational influence as a moderator. Stern (1962) defined IB as unplanned purchases; however, the definition was later argued to be oversimplistic. According to Block and Morwitz (1999), IB represents a hedonically complex and rapid process that precludes the deliberations on alternative information and selections as well as consequences of decision-making. ...
Article
The power of livestreaming commerce to rake in billions of revenues within hours has thrust this nascent commercial model into the global spotlight; that said, despite the prevalence of impulsive buying in livestreaming commerce, the existing knowledge regarding the phenomenon remains relatively scarce. This research seeks to unravel the critical determinants that influence consumers’ impulsive buying in livestreaming. Grounded in the Stimulus-Organism-Response paradigm, a framework is proposed to elucidate the underlying mechanism on how parasocial interaction, social contagion, vicarious experience, scarcity persuasion, and price perception translate into impulsive buying urge and behaviour in livestreaming commerce via the cognitive-affective processing system. A self-administered online questionnaire survey was conducted with 295 respondents. The data collected was validated empirically through a multi-analytical hybrid structural equation modelling-artificial neural network (SEM-ANN) technique. The results reveal that parasocial interaction, vicarious experience, scarcity persuasion, and price perception can drive cognitive and affective reactions, which in turn, induce impulsive buying urge, subject to the boundary condition of impulsive buying tendency. In sum, the findings have drawn some insightful theoretical and practical implications that can facilitate the advancement of livestreaming commerce in the modern business arena.
... In his study, Stern [5] confirmed that large scale advertising campaigns can promote consumer purchase behavior. Agee and Martin [6] stated in their study that merchants use advertising to disseminate information to raise consumers' awareness of the existence of a product and how it differs from other products, which in turn stimulates shoppers' demand. ...
Article
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Based on the SOR (stimulus–organism–response) model to obtain 534 survey data from the MTurk platform, the relationship between external stimuli, psychological processes, and consumers’ stationery purchasing behavior was empirically analyzed using a multivariate ordered logistic regression model. In terms of marketing stimuli, consumers’ recognition of product quality and price as well as the convenience of purchasing channels significantly and positively influenced purchasing behavior; in terms of social stimuli, self’s opinion of needs and the positive evaluation of peers significantly and positively influenced purchasing behavior; in terms of psychological process, consumers’ knowledge, trust, willingness to know, and preference for stationery products significantly and positively influenced purchasing behavior. Accordingly, it is proposed that, in order to promote the purchase of stationery products, the production and operation links should ensure the quality of stationery products, promote price control in a reasonable range, guarantee a healthy, orderly, and convenient stationery market environment, as well as strengthen the multi-sensory promotion of stationery products.
... Impulse buying is important because it is a great financial source for retailers. Stern (1962) stated four kinds of impulse buying: made upon offers, made upon reminders, planned in advance and unplanned purchases. Impulse buying is sudden, spontaneous, strong and persistent drive to purchase that is short of evaluation of product and consequences of buying behavior (Vohs and Faber, 2007;Piron, 1991;Rook, 1987). ...
Article
With the widespread use of the Internet, consumers began to shop online instead of traditional channels. Hence, compulsive buying becomes a more problematic behavior in this online milieu because online shopping offered compulsive consumers a very convenient environment in which whenever and whatever they want to buy. Although it is becoming an increasingly important issue, there is gap in the literature on compulsive buying online. The main purpose of this research is to determine whether impulse buying and hedonistic buying are among the explanatory factors of online compulsive buying under the thumb of the new age technologic, economic and social trends. This is causal research which employed a multiple regression model. A research company performed an online survey over two weeks and 601 surveys were accepted. The results of the research revealed that impulse and hedonic buying have explanatory power for online compulsive buying behavior. However, the role of impulse buying dimensions is more powerful than the role of hedonic buying dimensions on online compulsive buying. Managerial and other implications of the results are presented.
... Impulse buying (IB) represents a notable phenomenon undermining such rational decision-making models in the shopping context (Strack et al., 2006). This behaviour is conceptualised as a sudden act of purchase with no preshopping intentions, low effort in decision-making, and a powerful emotional charge (Beatty & Ferrell, 1998;Rook, 1987;Rook & Fisher, 1995;Stern, 1962). Originally studied in physical stores, IB behaviours have also been investigated in digital marketplaces (Chan et al., 2017). ...
Article
Full-text available
Impulse buying represents a relevant behavioural phenomenon in the e-commerce environment both in economic and social terms. In this context, young adults embody an acknowledged portion of online impulse buyers. Although a single impulse purchase does not pose real risks for the individual, excessive impulse buying has a significant weight on social welfare. This research discusses possible nudge-based interventions for immediate coping with online impulse buying. Starting from an outline of the core factors that typify impulse purchasing, the paper introduces three different interventions in the form of nudges, namely designing for interactional friction, engaging in distraction, and the timely provision of feedback. Lastly, the research discusses the implications for online retailers and policymakers in terms of collaborative approaches to foster consumer trust, enhance brand reputation, reduce logistics costs, and promote public support.
... Impulse buying is perceived differently by marketers and psychologists. Marketers usually are of the opinion that impulse buying happens mostly because of the market influence on consumers The main cause of this kind of purchases are determined by factors that are external in nature (Kotler & Bes, 2003;Piron, 1991;Stern, 1962). The psychologists on the other hand consider this to be an individual tendency governed by internal controls that are a part of the traits of the person (e.g. ...
Research
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This paper elaborates the relationship between Emotional Intelligence and Impulse Buying and the resultant product value proposition for the consumer. The study is done on Impulse Buying in the apparel section by women between the age group of 18 and above in a middle class developing town on the outskirts of Mumbai Metro. It is proven in this study that Emotional Intelligence of the Consumer is a very important component in Impulse Buying. The Higher the Emotional Intelligence the lower will be the Impulse buying habit and vice versa. This becomes very important in the middle class Indian context where the women are bound by a strong sense of prioritizing family needs first before indulging in any personal wish fulfillment. Impulse Buying as this study shows creates a strong feeling of guilt which in turn reduces the value proposition of the apparel because there is less repeat usage of the apparel brought on impulse. Hence Emotional Intelligence of the consumer should be an important consideration for all stakeholders if the value proposition has to be high. INTRODUCTION Irrational behaviour in humans is an interesting area of enquiry as it defeats human reasoning and argument. Irrational behaviour often directs many decisions and hence its importance. Understanding some factors that direct irrationality in human behaviour will give a better perspective to manage the irrationality. Impulse Buying falls into this realm of irrational behaviour as the craving or the desire to possess something defeats logical reasoning of the expenses involved or the consequences thereafter in financial social or emotional context. Studies conducted in North America show that up to 75% of purchases are done spontaneously or impulsively. These unplanned spontaneous purchase decisions are not in the domain of rational human behaviour. In the broader marketing context it has been seen that all irrational buying behaviour like impulse buying are usually encouraged by marketers. But impulse buying could have both negative and positive connotation for marketers. Impulse purchases are often accompanied by negative feelings of guilt and regret. Moreover studies have proved that consumers of impulsive buying very often run into financial mismanagement because of it. All this translates into a feeling of negativity for the consumer who could end up influencing others into having and spreading a contrary image of the brand that was previously subject to impulse buying.
... Hoch & Loewenstein (1991) explain the existence of external motivation from the product and atmosphere as well as internal from the desire and thought to buy that are involved by marketers to control impulse buying (Beatty & Ferrell, 1998;Rook, 1987). Stern (1962) classifies impulse buying into 4 characteristics, namely (1) pure impulse buying, which is a purchase that begins with browsing without a specific purpose and finding offers and reviews, (2) offers, limited products, advertisements from browsing such results, and former experiences to impulse buying reminders, (3) suggestive impulse buying resulting from recommendations from other people found, (4) planned impulse buying, namely planning shopping on a list based on unplanned browsing results. Beatty & Ferrell (1998) categorize impulse buying into 2 categories, namely the urgency of buying and the tendency of impulsive buying. ...
Article
Full-text available
Various online website marketplaces attract consumers to experience a good and visually pleasing shopping experience, especially for the young age group in generation Y or millennials. This study was made to explore the effect of online shopping experience in terms of aesthetics on customer satisfaction and impulse buying with eWOM as moderation. Through this study, there is a goal to contribute in explaining the importance of website aesthetics in the consumer shopping experience by adding eWOM for the millennial group which can affect customer satisfaction and impulse buying. The research was conducted by collecting data through a survey using a questionnaire distributed online. Data were analyzed using Structural Equation Model-Partial Least Square (SEM-PLS). The findings in this study are first, good aesthetics can directly increase customer satisfaction, and second, aesthetics influence impulse buying. The research implication, so that companies can set up the eWOM area as an active and positive means for customers to exchange and share their own opinions about the online shopping experience.
... Hoch & Loewenstein (1991) explain the existence of external motivation from the product and atmosphere as well as internal from the desire and thought to buy that are involved by marketers to control impulse buying (Beatty & Ferrell, 1998;Rook, 1987). Stern (1962) classifies impulse buying into 4 characteristics, namely (1) pure impulse buying, which is a purchase that begins with browsing without a specific purpose and finding offers and reviews, (2) offers, limited products, advertisements from browsing such results, and former experiences to impulse buying reminders, (3) suggestive impulse buying resulting from recommendations from other people found, (4) planned impulse buying, namely planning shopping on a list based on unplanned browsing results. Beatty & Ferrell (1998) categorize impulse buying into 2 categories, namely the urgency of buying and the tendency of impulsive buying. ...
Article
Full-text available
Various online website marketplaces attract consumers to experience a good and visually pleasing shopping experience, especially for the young age group in generation Y or millennials. This study was made to explore the effect of online shopping experience in terms of aesthetics on customer satisfaction and impulse buying with eWOM as moderation. Through this study, there is a goal to contribute in explaining the importance of website aesthetics in the consumer shopping experience by adding eWOM for the millennial group which can affect customer satisfaction and impulse buying. The research was conducted by collecting data through a survey using a questionnaire distributed online. Data were analyzed using Structural Equation Model- Partial Least Square (SEM-PLS). The findings in this study are first, good aesthetics can directly increase customer satisfaction, and second, aesthetics influence impulse buying. The research implication, so that companies can set up the eWOM area as an active and positive means for customers to exchange and share their own opinions about the online shopping experience.
... Rook, (1987) defines impulsive purchases as a strong and persistent urge to buy something immediately. Early research sometimes showed impulsive purchases as unplanned purchases and often used the term synonymously in literature (Stern, 1962). Beatty & Ferrell, (1998) describes impulsive purchases as spontaneous or sudden and direct urges to buy without considering what you wanted beforehand. ...
Article
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This study aims to examine the effect of f-commerce browsing and f-commerce usage intensity of f-commerce impulse purchase mediated by urge to purchase on users of the Facebook. The data was collected from 197 respondents who had made impulsive purchases using the Facebook. The data collection technique used a questionnaire that was distributed online through social media. The research measurement in this questionnaire consists of 16 questions to the respondent. Data analysis in this study used SEM-AMOS to see the relationship between variables. the research showed that; (1) f-commerce browsing has a positive effect on f-commerce impulse purchase; (2) f-commerce usage intensity has a positive effect on f-commerce impulse purchase; (3) f-commerce browsing has a positive effect on urge to purchase; (4) f-commerce usage intensity has a positive effect on f-commerce urge to purchase; (5) urge to purchase has a positive effect on f-commerce impulse purchase; (6) urge to purchase mediates the effect of f-commerce browsing on f-commerce impulse purchase; (7) urge to purchase mediates the f-commerce usage intensity on f-commerce impulse purchases.
... Impulse buying, generally defined as sudden and unplanned purchases that are emotionally driven and hedonically complex (Stern, 1962;Rook, 1987), has been on a rise alongside the unabated growth of e-commerce. A recent survey found that more than five in six Americans have made impulse purchases, with each person spending an average of $81.75 per session, amounting to almost $18 billion in total (McDermott, 2021). ...
Article
Full-text available
Dark patterns – design interfaces or features that subtly manipulate people in making suboptimal decisions – are ubiquitous especially in e-commerce websites. Yet, there is little research on the effectiveness of dark patterns, and even lesser studies on testing interventions that can help mitigate their influence on consumers. To that end, we conducted two experiments. The first experiment tests the effectiveness of different dark patterns within a hypothetical single product online shopping context. Results show that, indeed, dark patterns increase the purchase impulsivity across all dark patterns, relative to the control. The second experiment tests the effectiveness of three behaviorally informed interventions on four different dark patterns also in a hypothetical online shopping scenario, but this time offering multiple products instead of a single product. Between-subject analysis shows that not all interventions are equally effective, with uneven impact across dark patterns. However, within-subject results indicate that all interventions significantly reduce purchase impulsivity pre- versus post-intervention, indicating that any intervention is better than none when it comes to combating dark patterns. We then end by discussing the policy implications of our results.
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This paper performs a comprehensive analysis of academic research on impulse buying following a systematic literature review approach. Drawing on the TCCM framework suggested by Paul and Rosado‐Serrano (2019), we synthesise the impulse buying literature and develop a future research agenda. Accordingly, this review synthesises impulse buying research in terms of theory development, context, characteristics, and methodologies to examine the development of the literature over time. This systematic review shows that impulse buying research is fragmented and still developing due to its transition from a traditional retail environment into different online channels. Furthermore, this paper proposes a conceptual framework based on the literature synthesis, presenting antecedents and mediators of impulse buying behaviour. Finally, this review identifies overlooked areas in impulse buying literature and provides insightful directions to advance research in the domain. Overall, this research effort makes a significant contribution to consumer behaviour literature, specifically to impulse buying literature. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Thesis
p>The idea of brand relationships is neither novel nor outrageous; it is rather the way of thinking about it and the analysis here that shows an innovative process. The human parallel has been used by researchers in the past to show how the buyers differ from the non buyers on their perceived attitude of the brand towards them. This has been referred to as 'Relationship'. However a study in human relationships, indicates that reciprocity of attitude is only one of the factors, influencing a relationship between two persons. This research (with both a qualitative and a quantitative field study) therefore explores the issue by looking into the existence of the rest of the factors and demonstrates that the following are not only present in a consumer - brand relationship but are also important : the Similarity to the other party, the Equity from actions, the Affiliation felt, the Reinforcement received and lastly the Reciprocity of Attitude. On the other hand, Loyalty as a concept has been very poorly defined. A number of diverse definitions are being used, which all tend to be operational due to the apparent lack of a conceptual definition. This can only be compiled when there is a concrete understanding as to what causes loyalty. But then Loyalty, or rather true Loyalty is all about commitment and dedication, and in a human world, commitment is dependent on the strength of the relationship. This research has therefore been exploring the relationships consumers have with brands (they are loyal to), in order to understand if and how this relationship can affect their purchasing patterns and attitudes. This has also led to a conceptual definition of Loyalty since it is shown that this relationship is indeed the cause of Loyalty. In addition to this, a model has arisen which can give a better picture of the segmentation of the customers of a brand, based on the strength of the Relationship and the Repeat purchase pattern. Techniques like Transactional Analysis have been used, demonstrating this need to monitor the interactions and therefore the Relationship of the customers to the brands. This then, allows the brand owners or the marketers to adapt their marketing and corporate strategies in a effort to maintain or increase the size of certain segments in their existing customer base.</p
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This study intends to distinguish hidden factors and causal associations between cognitive rationality and misinformation that influence panic buying and price hikes. It utilizes consumer behavior theory consolidating cognitive rationality and misinformation concept for anticipating the complementary or unidirectional impact of price hikes and frenzy purchasing. Hierarchical regression analysis will be conducted to distinguish the connections between four builds: misinformation, cognitive rationality, price hikes, and panic buying. Since SNS, WOM, and print media are as of now the most broadly utilized wellsprings of data and for spreading deception, that is the reason we think about SNS, WOM, and Print Media as our primary apparatuses which connect the mediator and moderator. A survey questionnaire is used to examine all presumptions. We are expecting that negative misinformation will direct hoarders' mental objectivity, which will intervene in price hikes, and panic buying. Likewise, it is also expected that price hikes and panic buying will have a reciprocal relationship.
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L’objet de ce papier est d’analyser l’impact des variables situationnelles utilisées dans les points de ventes sur le déclenchement des impulsions d’achat et leurs transformations en achat impulsif. Il s’agissait de comprendre les différents stimuli de l’environnement commercial qui permettent d’inciter les impulsions d’achat auprès de nos consommateurs. Notre investigation touchera un type de commerce nouveau est celui des grandes surface non alimentaire, un secteur commerçant dit magasin populaire et plus précisément le magasin « Habillement familial », (Alias BOUHSSINA). Les résultats soulignent que les variables retenues dans cette étude ont un meilleur pouvoir prédictif sur la réalisation d’achat impulsif fonctionnel.
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