Article

Right and Left Inverted Lobar Lung Transplantation

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Abstract

Adult recipients frequently withdraw from living-donor lobar lung transplantation because of the small size of donor grafts. The right lower lobe is 120% larger than the left lower lobe. We developed a novel surgical technique in which an inverted right lower lobe graft can be transplanted into the left thorax. The first patient was a 43-year-old woman with end-stage idiopathic interstitial pneumonia. Her husband was the only eligible donor for living-donor lobar lung transplantation. His right lower lobe was estimated to provide 45% of the recipient's predicted forced vital capacity, which would provide the borderline function required for living-donor lobar lung transplantation. Since lung perfusion scintigraphy of the recipient showed a right-to-left ratio of 64:36, transplanting the right lower lobe graft into the left thorax and sparing the native right lung was considered the only treatment option. We simulated this procedure using three-dimensional models produced by a three-dimensional printer. In living-donor lobar lung transplantation, all anastomoses were performed smoothly as planned preoperatively. Because of the initial success, this procedure was performed successfully in two additional patients. This procedure enables larger grafts to be transplanted, potentially solving critical size matching problems in living-donor lobar lung transplantation. © Copyright 2015 The American Society of Transplantation and the American Society of Transplant Surgeons.

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... Only two lower lobes may be too small for big male adults. We have developed two transplant procedures for undersized graft; native upper lobe-sparing transplantation and right-to-left inverted transplantation (21)(22)(23)(24)(25)(26)(27). When an adult lower lobe may be too big for a small child, we employ a downsizing technique and single-lobe transplantation for oversized graft (11)(12)(13)(28)(29)(30). ...
... The indication for right-to-left inverted transplantation is a (22,23). The right lower lobe and left lower lobe consist of 5 segments and 4 segments, respectively, which theoretically indicates that the right lower lobe volume is 25% larger than the left lower lobe volume. ...
... First, the graft bronchus is anastomosed to the recipient left upper lobe bronchus, leaving the recipient left lower bronchial stump closed. Therefore, the recipient left bronchus is carefully dissected and the bronchial stump is reinforced with the pericardial fat pad in order to prevent the postoperative bronchopleural fistula (23,31). Then pulmonary artery anastomosis is performed without twisting behind the bronchus. ...
Article
Living-donor lobar lung transplantation (LDLLT) has become an important life-saving option for patients with severe respiratory disorders, since it was developed by a group in the University of Southern California in 1993 and introduced in Japan in 1998 in order to address the current severe shortage of brain-dead donor organs. Although LDLLT candidates were basically limited to critically ill patients who would require hospitalization, the long-term use of steroids, and/or mechanical respiratory support prior to transplantation, LDLLT provided good post-transplant outcomes, comparable to brain-dead donor lung transplantation in the early and late phases. In Kyoto University, the 5- and 10-year survival rates after LDLLT were reported to be 79.0% and 64.6%, respectively. LDLLT should be performed under appropriate circumstances, considering the inherent risk to the living donor. In our transplant program, all living donors returned to their previous social lives without any major complications, and living-donor surgery was associated with a morbidity rate of <15%. Both functional and anatomical size matching were preoperatively performed between the living-donor lobar grafts and recipients. Precise size matching before surgery could provide a favorable pulmonary function and exercise capacity after LDLLT. Various transplant procedures have recently been developed in LDLLT in order to deal with the issue of graft size mismatching in recipients, and favorable post-transplant outcomes have been observed. Native upper lobe-sparing and/or right-to-left inverted transplantation have been performed for undersized grafts, while single-lobe transplantation has been employed with or without contralateral pneumonectomy and/or delayed chest closure for oversized grafts.
... Excessively small grafts may cause high pulmonary artery pressure and result in lung edema. 13 We have developed lobar-sparing transplantation 14 and right-to-left inverted transplantation protocols 15 for undersize grafts. ...
... We have developed 2 transplant procedures, native upper lobe sparing LDLLT 14 and right-left inverted LDLLT. 15 Native upper lobeÀsparing LDLLT is indicated when the total graft FVC was less than 60% of the recipient's predicted FVC. The recipient lung should not be infected and the interlobar fissure should be well developed. ...
... 19 The technical details have been described previously. 15 At the time of left pneumonectomy in the recipient, upper and lower bronchi are stapled separately. After the right lower lobe graft is rotated from its anatomic position to 180 about its superior-inferior axis, the graft is placed in the recipient's left chest cavity. ...
Article
Objectives: In standard living-donor lobar lung transplantation (LDLLT), the right and left lower lobes from 2 healthy donors are implanted. Because of the difficulty encountered in finding 2 donors with ideal size matching, various transplant procedures have been developed in our institution. The purpose of this retrospective study was to compare outcomes of nonstandard LDLLT with standard LDLLT. Methods: Between June 2008 and January 2016, we performed 65 LDLLTs for critically ill patients. Functional size matching was performed by estimating graft forced vital capacity based on the donor's measured forced vital capacity and the number of pulmonary segments implanted. For anatomical size matching, 3-dimensional computed tomography volumetry was performed. In cases of oversize mismatch, single-lobe transplant or downsizing transplant was performed. In cases of undersize mismatch, native upper lobe sparing transplant or right-left inverted transplant was performed. In right-left inverted transplants, the donor's right lower lobe was inverted and implanted into the recipient's left chest cavity. Results: Twenty-nine patients (44.6%) received nonstandard LDLLT, including 12 single-lobe transplants, 7 native upper lobe sparing transplants, 6 right-left inverted transplants, 2 sparing + inverted transplants, and 2 others. Thirty-six patients (57.4%) received standard LDLLT. Three- and five-year survival rates were similar between the 2 groups (89.1% and 76.6% after nonstandard LDLLT vs 78.0% and 71.1% after standard LDLLT, P = .712). Conclusions: Various transplant procedures such as single, sparing and inverted transplants are valuable options when 2 donors with ideal size matching are not available for LDLLT.
... Because only 2 lobes are implanted, size mismatch often becomes a problem, and 2 lobes may be too small, especially for adult recipients. To overcome the size-mismatch issue, we developed two new techniques in LDLLT: native lung-sparing LDLLT and inverted LDLLT [5][6][7][8]. ...
... We recently reported the satisfactory surgical and shortterm outcomes of the inverted LDLLT technique [6,7]. However, the functions of inverted grafts are uncertain. ...
... The details of the operative technique of inverted LDLLT were previously reported [6,7]. Briefly, after left pneumonectomy, the inverted right lower lobe graft was placed in the recipient left cavity. ...
Article
Background: To overcome the problem of small-for-size grafts in standard living-donor lobar lung transplantation (LDLLT), we developed inverted LDLLT, in which a right lower lobe from one donor is implanted as a right graft and another right lower lobe from another donor is implanted as a left graft. We retrospectively analyzed the functions of inverted grafts versus noninverted grafts. Methods: Between 2008 and 2015, 64 LDLLTs were performed. Included were 35 LDLLTs whose recipients were adults and followed for >6 months without developing chronic lung allograft dysfunction. Among them, 65 implanted lobes were eligible for this analysis. Thirty-one right lower lobes were implanted as right grafts (R-to-R group), seven right lower lobes as inverted left grafts (R-to-L group), and 27 left lower lobes as left grafts (L-to-L group). We evaluated the graft forced vital capacity (G-FVC) and graft volume of the 65 lobes before and 6 months after LDLLT and compared them among the three groups. Results: Preoperatively, G-FVC in the R-to-L group (1050 mL) was comparable to that in the R-to-R group (1177 mL) and better than that in the L-to-L group (791 mL, p<0.01). Six months after LDLLT, G-FVC in the R-to-L group (1015 mL) remained comparable to that in the R-to-R group (1001 mL) and better than that in the L-to-L group (713 mL, p=0.047). The ratio of graft volume 6 months after LDLLT to the preoperative value was comparable. Conclusions: The functions of inverted grafts in inverted LDLLTs were satisfactory compared with those of noninverted grafts.
... The concept of inverted lung transplantation was first described in cadaveric lung transplantation by a French group [12,13]. We previously reported the initial success in 3 cases; the procedure was performed successfully in the first case after careful preoperative simulation of the positional relationship among structures using 3-dimensional (3D) models produced by a 3D printer [14]. In this study, we report 15 consecutive cases of rightto-left inverted lobar lung transplantation to investigate their characteristics and intermediate outcomes. ...
... As 2 patients received re-LDLLT, 91 patients underwent LDLLT, of whom 15 underwent right-to-left inverted LDLLTs (Fig. 1). In 2014, the first right-to-left inverted LDLLT was successfully performed [14]. Since then, it is basically indicated when total graft FVC is <60% of the recipient predicted FVC or when donor left lower lobectomy would be technically difficult because of the interlobar pulmonary artery anatomy. ...
... Then, the inverted RLL was transplanted instead of a LLL in the left thorax. The details of the operative technique of inverted LDLLT are previously described [14,16]. Briefly, at the time of left pneumonectomy for the recipient, the upper and lower bronchi were stapled separately. ...
Article
Objectives: Owing to the severe donor shortage in Japan, living-donor lobar lung transplantation (LDLLT) remains a valuable option. As only lobes are implanted in LDLLT, grafts may be too small, especially for adult recipients. To overcome this obstacle, we developed right-to-left inverted LDLLT. In this procedure, the right lower lobe, which is 25% bigger than the left lower lobe, is used as the left-side graft instead of the left lower lobe. This study aimed to investigate the characteristics and intermediate outcomes of right-to-left inverted LDLLT. Methods: Since the first right-to-left inverted LDLLT performed in 2014, 48 LDLLTs have been performed in our institution, of which 15 were right-to-left inverted LDLLTs. We reviewed their characteristics and intermediate outcomes. Results: The reasons for choosing an inverted procedure instead of the standard LDLLT were small-for-size graft in 11 cases and anatomical variation of donor vessels in 4 cases. The first patient underwent left single LDLLT using a right lower lobe graft, and the following 14 patients underwent bilateral LDLLT using 2 right lower lobe grafts. A native upper lobe-sparing procedure was additionally applied in 2 patients. No complications occurred in the bronchial and vascular anastomoses. No operative mortality occurred, and all the patients were discharged home after LDLLT. The 3-year survival was 92.3%, with a median follow-up time of 40 months. The donor postoperative course was uneventful, and all the donors returned to their regular routine postoperatively. Conclusion: Right-to-left inverted LDLLT is a safe and useful option with encouraging intermediate outcome.
... To overcome this problem, we developed and performed a right-to-left inverted LDLLT technique. 6,7 In right-to-left inverted LDLLT and downsizing CLT, bronchial stump management is a major concern. Our strategy was to avoid leaving donor bronchial stumps by using lobar-to-lobar bronchial anastomosis and to leave the recipient bronchial stump if necessary. ...
... To overcome this problem of size mismatch, we developed a right-to-left inverted LDLLT technique that exploits the fact that the right lower lobe is 25% larger than the left lower lobe. 6 When the right lower lobe graft is inverted, the donor pulmonary artery is positioned posteriorly to the donor lower bronchus. In contrast, the left main pulmonary artery of the recipient is located anteriorly to the recipient main bronchus. ...
Article
Background The validity of lobar lung transplantation (LT) has been established in both living-donor lobar lung transplantation (LDLLT) and cadaveric-donor lung transplantation (CLT). However, bronchial stump management in lobar LT has not been precisely documented. Thus, we retrospectively analyzed our strategies for bronchial stump management in lobar LT. Methods Between June 2008 and August 2016, 145 LTs (72 LDLLTs and 73 CLTs) were performed at our institution. Bronchial stumps were left in 14 LDLLTs. Eight patients underwent bilateral CLTs with downsizing lobectomy. We avoided leaving donor bronchial stumps by lobar-to-lobar bronchial anastomosis, and left recipient bronchial stumps if necessary. We retrospectively reviewed the bronchial stump management methods and outcomes in these 22 patients. Results Among the 14 LDLLTs, right-to-left inverted lobar LT and right single-lobe LT with left pneumonectomy were performed in 12 and 2 patients, respectively. Among the 8 CLTs, 11 lobectomies were performed because of oversized grafts and/or localized pneumonia. Twenty-three lobar-to-lobar bronchial anastomoses were performed, and there were 21 recipient bronchial stumps in total. Three bronchial stumps were left in the donor graft, the middle bronchus in all cases. No complications related to lobar-to-lobar bronchial anastomoses were observed. All bronchial stumps healed well without developing a bronchopleural fistula. The 3-year overall survival rate was 88.1% (95% confidence interval, 58.8%-97.0%). Conclusions We successfully avoided leaving bronchial stumps in the donor graft, except in the middle bronchus, by performing lobar-to-lobar bronchial anastomoses in lobar LTs. Excellent healing of lobar-to-lobar bronchial anastomoses and bronchial stumps was observed.
... In our series, intraoperative complications were noted in only 2 donors (2%), which were low compared with the number in previous reports (12). A major reason for such a low rate of intraoperative complications in our institution was that we performed preoperative anatomical evaluation with 3D-CT angiography in all donors (13). For example, branches of the interlobar left pulmonary artery depicted by 3D-CT angiography were consistent with those seen in the actual operative field (Figure 4). ...
... With this concept, we developed a novel surgical technique in which an inverted RLL graft can be transplanted into the left thorax. In the first patient, we successfully performed this novel procedure after careful surgical simulation using a 3D printer (13). Simulation of the positional relationship among structures was performed using 3D-CT images. ...
Article
Background: Three-dimensional computed tomography (3D-CT) technologies have been developed and refined over time. Recently, high-speed and high-quality 3D-CT technologies have also been introduced to the field of thoracic surgery. The purpose of this manuscript is to demonstrate several examples of these 3D-CT technologies in various scenarios in thoracic surgery. Methods: A newly-developed high-speed and high-quality 3D image analysis software system was used in Kyoto University Hospital. Simulation and/or navigation were performed using this 3D-CT technology in various thoracic surgeries. Results: Preoperative 3D-CT simulation was performed in most patients undergoing video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS). Anatomical variation was frequently detected preoperatively, which was useful in performing VATS procedures when using only a monitor for vision. In sublobar resection, 3D-CT simulation was more helpful. In small lung lesions, which were supposedly neither visible nor palpable, preoperative marking of the lesions was performed using 3D-CT simulation, and wedge resection or segmentectomy was successfully performed with confidence. This technique also enabled virtual-reality endobronchial ultrasonography (EBUS), which made the procedure more safe and reliable. Furthermore, in living-donor lobar lung transplantation (LDLLT), surgical procedures for donor lobectomy were simulated preoperatively by 3D-CT angiography, which also affected surgical procedures for recipient surgery. New surgical techniques such as right and left inverted LDLLT were also established using 3D models created with this technique. Conclusions: After the introduction of 3D-CT technology to the field of thoracic surgery, preoperative simulation has been developed for various thoracic procedures. In the near future, this technique will become more common in thoracic surgery, and frequent use by thoracic surgeons will be seen in worldwide daily practice.
... This procedure was performed for the first time after accurate surgical simulation of the positional relationship of the anastomotic structures was conducted using a 3D model (Figure 8). 54 Because of the initial success, this procedure was performed in more than 15 additional patients. 55 Furthermore, the first LDLLT using the middle lobe from a donor was successfully conducted. ...
Article
Thoracic surgery has evolved drastically in recent years. Although thoracic surgeons mainly deal with tumorous lesion in the lungs, mediastinum, and pleura, they also perform lung transplantation surgery in patients with end-stage lung disease. Herein, we introduce various major current topics in thoracic surgery. Minimally invasive surgical procedures include robot-assisted thoracic surgery and uniportal video-assisted thoracic surgery. Novel techniques for sublobar resection include virtual-assisted lung mapping, image-guided video-assisted thoracic surgery, and segmentectomy using indocyanine green. Three-dimensional (3D) computed tomography (CT) simulation consists of surgeon-friendly 3D-CT image analysis systems and new-generation, dynamic 3D-CT imaging systems. Updates in cadaveric lung transplantation include use of marginal donors, including donation after circulatory death, and ex vivo lung perfusion for such donors. Topics in living donor lobar lung transplantation include size matching, donor issues, and new surgical techniques. During routine clinical practice, thoracic surgeons encounter various pivotal topics related to thoracic surgery, which are described in this report.
... Excessively small grafts may cause high pulmonary artery pressure, resulting in lung edema. We have developed lobar sparing transplantation (19) and right to left inverted transplantation (20) for undersize graft. On the other hand, the adult lower lobe might be too big for small children. ...
Article
Lung transplantation has been performed worldwide and recognized as an effective treatment for patients with various end-stage lung diseases. Shortage of lung donors is one of the main obstacles in most of the countries, especially in Japan. Every effort has been made to promote organ donation during the past 20 years. In 2010, Japanese transplant low was revised so that the family of the brain dead donors can make a decision for organ donation. Since then, the number of cadaveric lung donor has increased by 5-fold. However, the average waiting time is still more than 800 days resulting in considerable number of deaths on the waiting list. Lung transplantation in the use of donation after cardiac death (DCD) has now been increasingly performed in Europe, Australia and North America with promising results. However, controlled death is not permitted in Japan making it difficult to accept this strategy. Use of marginal donors is one of the strategies for organ shortage. In Japan, the rate of lung usage is now well over 60% because of careful donor management by medical consultants and aggressive use of marginal donors. Living-donor lobar lung transplantation (LDLLT) has been developed to offset the mismatch between supply and demand for those patients awaiting cadaveric lung transplantation (CLT) and it is often the most realistic option for very ill patients. Between 1998 and 2015, lung transplantation has been performed in 464 patients (55 children, 419 adults) at 9 lung transplant centers in Japan. CLT was performed in 283 patients (61%) and LDLLT was performed in 181 patients (39%). The 5-year survival was 72.3% and 71.6%, respectively. Of note, only seven children received CLT. In conclusion, lung transplantation in Japan has grown significantly with excellent results but the shortage of cadaveric lung donor remains to be an important unsolved problem. LDLLT is often the only realistic option for very ill patients especially for children.
... In transplant surgery, patient-specific models have been printed to simulate and plan for lobar lung transplantation (74) and kidney transplantation (75). Before lobar lung transplantation, models of the donor and recipient pulmonary vasculature were printed and all vascular anastomosis were simulated pre-operatively. ...
Article
Full-text available
Three dimensional (3D) printing involves a number of additive manufacturing techniques that are used to build structures from the ground up. This technology has been adapted to a wide range of surgical applications at an impressive rate. It has been used to print patient-specific anatomic models, implants, prosthetics, external fixators, splints, surgical instrumentation, and surgical cutting guides. The profound utility of this technology in surgery explains the exponential growth. It is important to learn how 3D printing has been used in surgery and how to potentially apply this technology. PubMed was searched for studies that addressed the clinical application of 3D printing in all surgical fields, yielding 442 results. Data was manually extracted from the 168 included studies. We found an exponential increase in studies addressing surgical applications for 3D printing since 2011, with the largest growth in craniofacial, oromaxillofacial, and cardiothoracic specialties. The pertinent considerations for getting started with 3D printing were identified and are discussed, including, software, printing techniques, printing materials, sterilization of printing materials, and cost and time requirements. Also, the diverse and increasing applications of 3D printing were recorded and are discussed. There is large array of potential applications for 3D printing. Decreasing cost and increasing ease of use are making this technology more available. Incorporation 3D printing into a surgical practice can be a rewarding process that yields impressive results.
... Multi-detector CT able to construct three-dimensional (3D) images has been developed and refined for its clinical use over time in the field of thoracic surgery (3). 3D images of the pulmonary vessels and the tracheobronchial tree have been widely used for preoperative and intraoperative surgical simulation as well as postoperative evaluation (8,11,12). Preoperative and intraoperative simulation using 3D images helps both inexperienced thoracic surgeons and even experts in performing a safe and accurate VATS segmentectomy. In recent years, a novel simulation system called resection process map has been developed, which generates dynamic images based on patient-specific CT data and reflects the intraoperative deformation of the lung Editorial Is it true that less is more in thoracic surgery? ...
... The baseline ESM CSA of the recipients was approximately 25% lower than that of the donors; however, ESM CT values were comparable (table 1). The predicted postoperative vital capacity, which was calculated from the graft-lung volume, was 61.6±15.1%; to compensate for the small graft size, six recipients underwent operations sparing the native upper lobes [29], and four underwent operations with inversion of the right and left lobes [30]. Postoperative clinical course and pulmonary function After LDLLT, the recipients stayed in the intensive care unit for 11.7±5.9 ...
Article
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Background Skeletal muscle dysfunction is a common feature in patients with severe lung diseases. Although lung transplantation aims to save these patients, the surgical procedure and disuse may cause additional deterioration and prolonged functional disability. We investigated the postoperative course of antigravity muscle condition in terms of quantity and quality using chest computed tomography. Methods 35 consecutive patients were investigated for 12 months after living-donor lobar lung transplantation (LDLLT). The erector spinae muscles (ESMs), which are antigravity muscles, were evaluated, and the cross-sectional area (ESM CSA ) and mean attenuation (ESM CT ) were analysed to determine the quantity and quality of ESMs. Functional capacity was evaluated by the 6-min walk distance (6MWD). Age-matched living donors with lower lobectomy were evaluated as controls. Results Recipient and donor ESM CSA values temporarily decreased at 3 months and recovered by 12 months post-operatively. The ESM CSA of recipients, but not that of donors, surpassed baseline values by 12 months post-operatively. Increased ESM CSA (ratio to baseline ≥1) may occur at 12 months in patients with a high baseline ESM CT . Although the recipient ESM CT may continuously decrease for 12 months, the ESM CT is a major determinant, in addition to lung function, of the postoperative 6MWD at both 3 and 12 months. Conclusion The quantity of ESMs may increase within 12 months after LDLLT in recipients with better muscle quality at baseline. The quality of ESMs is also important for physical performance; therefore, further approaches to prevent deterioration in muscle quality are required.
... In 2001, the same group reported successful right single lung transplantation using a donor left lung graft for a patient with a history of previous left pneumonectomy. 2 Our group reported successful single and bilateral livingdonor lobar lung transplantation using a right-to-left inversion technique when donor grafts were too small. 3 We simulated this procedure using 3-dimensional models produced by a 3-dimensional printer. In 15 patients receiving right-to-left inverted living-donor lobar lung transplantation, no complications occurred in the bronchial and vascular anastomoses. ...
... In this issue of JTCVS Open, Huang and colleagues 8 turn the tables of the animal model-to-human paradigm with a technical report of a novel "inverted" rat single-lung transplant procedure inspired by the Kyoto group's successful human lobar lung transplantation of a right lower lobe implanted into the left chest. 9 Elegantly described and depicted in the accompanying video, a rat donor left lung is rotated 180 and transplanted to the recipient's right chest using a standard 3-cuff anastomotic technique (inverted left-right transplant, IL-RT). This innovative model leverages the anatomic size discrepancy between the smaller left lung versus larger right chest cavity, allowing for a technically simpler and reproducible procedure compared with other techniques of right lung transplant. ...
In standard bilateral living-donor lobar lung transplantation (LDLLT), right and left lower lobes donated by two healthy donors are implanted into a recipient after right and left pneumonectomies. Because only two lobes are implanted, the grafts may be too small for an adult recipient. To overcome size mismatch, we have developed a technique of right-to-left inverted LDLLT based upon the fact that the right lower lobe is generally larger than the left lower lobe. In right-to-left inverted LDLLT, two donors donate their right lower lobes. The right graft is implanted in the right side of the recipient. The left graft is inverted and implanted in the left side. This operation is indicated when total graft forced vital capacity (FVC) is less than 60% of the recipient's predicted FVC or when donor's left lower lobectomy is technically difficult due to interlobar pulmonary artery anatomy.
Article
We report the first patient with pleuroparenchymal fibroelastosis (PPFE) to undergo living donor bilateral lobar lung transplantation. The patient was diagnosed with secondary PPFE as a late complication of chemotherapy that included high-dose cyclophosphamide for mature B-cell lymphocytic leukemia. Although the patient maintained complete remission, dry cough and back pain appeared 8 years after the chemotherapy. He had repeated bilateral pneumothoraces, and his respiratory condition gradually deteriorated because of progressive pleural thickening and parenchymal fibrosis. He underwent living-donor bilateral lobar lung transplantation with an inverse transplant on the left side.
Article
Intrapericardial rupture of the superior vena cava resulting from blunt thoracic trauma is a rare and life-threatening condition that has to be ruled out in the presence of signs of cardiac tamponade and a history of blunt thoracic trauma. We report the case of undiagnosed superior vena cava laceration caused by a high-speed road traffic accident in a 25 year-old patient revealed by cardiac tamponade. We highlight the need of urgent surgical exploration in all patients whose condition is unstable in the setting of blunt thoracic trauma regardless of imaging conclusions.
Article
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Objective Right lung transplantation (LTx) in rats has been attempted occasionally, but the technical complexity makes it challenging to apply routinely. Additionally, basic research on inverted lobar LTx is scarce because of the lack of a cost-effective experimental model. We first reported right LTx in a rat model using left-to-right inverted anastomosis to imitate the principle of clinically inverted LTx. Methods Right LTx was performed in 10 consecutive rats. Using a 3-cuff technique, the left lung of the donor rat was implanted into the right thoracic cavity of the recipient rat. The rat lung graft was rotated 180° along the vertical axis to achieve anatomic matching of right hilar structures. Another 10 consecutive rats had received orthotopic left LTx as a control. Results All LTx procedures were technically successful without intraoperative failure. One rat (10%) died of full pulmonary atelectasis after right LTx, whereas all rats survived after left LTx. No significant difference was observed in heart-lung block retrieval (8.6±0.8 vs. 8.4±0.9 min), cuff preparation (8.3±0.9 vs. 8.7±0.9 min) or the total procedure time (58.2±2.6 vs. 56.6±2.1 min) between the right LTx and standard left LTx groups (P>0.05), although the cold ischemia time (14.2±0.9 vs. 25.5±1.7 min) and warm ischemia time (19.8±1.5 vs. 13.7±1.8 min) were different (P<0.001). Conclusions Right LTx with a left-to-right inverted anastomosis in a rat model is technically easy to master, expeditious and reproducible. It can potentially imitate the principle of clinically inverted LTx and become an alternative to standard left LTx.
Article
Background: Lung transplantation is the final life-saving option for patients with pulmonary complications after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Patients undergoing HSCT for hematologic diseases are thought to be high-risk candidates for lung transplantation; therefore, few lung transplants are performed for these patients, and few studies have been reported. This study aimed to describe the characteristics and outcomes of lung transplantation in patients with pulmonary complications after HSCT. Methods: We retrospectively investigated 62 patients who underwent lung transplantation after HSCT. All data were collected from 6 lung transplant centers in Japan. Results: Seventeen patients underwent cadaveric lung transplantation, whereas 45 underwent living-donor lobar lung transplantation (LDLLT). In the LDLLT group, 18 patients underwent LDLLT after HSCT in which 1 of the donors had also served as a donor for HSCT. Seven patients underwent single LDLLT for which the donor was the same as the patient from whom stem cells were obtained for HSCT. Preoperative hypercapnia was observed in 52 patients (84%). Thirteen patients (21%) required mechanical ventilation preoperatively. Fifty-five patients underwent HSCT for hematologic malignancies, and 4 (7%) relapsed after lung transplantation. The 5-year survival rate was 64.2%. In a multivariable analysis, patients younger than 45 years and those with the same donor for both procedures exhibited significantly better survival (p = 0.012 and 0.041, respectively). Conclusions: Lung transplantation for pulmonary complications after HSCT was performed safely and yielded better survival, especially in younger recipients for whom both lung transplantation and HSCT involved the same donor.
Article
Living-donor lobar lung transplantation (LDLLT) was developed to deal with the severe shortage of brain dead door for patients who would not survive the long waiting period. In standard LDLLT, right and left lower lobes removed from two healthy donors are implanted into a recipient after right and left pneumonectomies using cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). The number of LDLLT has decreased in the USA due to the recent change in allocation system for cadaveric donor lungs. For the past several years, most of the reports on LDLLT have been from Japan, where the average waiting time for a cadaveric lung is exceeding 800 days. LDLLT has been performed both for adult and pediatric patients suffering from various end-stage lung diseases including restrictive, obstructive, vascular and infectious lung diseases. Since only two lobes are implanted, size matching is a very important issue. Functional size matching by measuring donor pulmonary function and anatomical size matching by three-dimensional computed tomography (3DCT) volumetry are very useful. For oversize graft, we have employed several techniques, including single lobe transplantation, delayed chest closure, downsizing the graft, and middle lobe transplantation. In cases of undersize mismatch, native upper lobe sparing transplant or right-left inverted transplant was performed. The 5-, 10-and 15-year survivals were 80.8%, 72.6% and 61.7%, respectively. There was no difference in survival between standard LDLLT and non-standard LDLLT such as single, sparing and inverted transplant. All donors have been discharged without any restrictions. LDLLT is a viable option for very ill patients who would not survive a long waiting time for cadaveric lungs. We have successfully developed various surgical techniques to overcome size mismatching with favorable outcome.
Article
Background: Severe chest wall deformation is generally a contraindication for lung transplantation; however, it is not known whether patients with flat chests have reduced postoperative exercise capacity and pulmonary function. This study's purpose was to investigate the relationship between preoperative thoracic shape and postoperative exercise capacity and pulmonary function in patients undergoing lung transplantation. Methods: Twenty recipients who underwent successful bilateral living-donor lobar lung transplantation were evaluated. To analyze postoperative graft function in relation to preoperative thoracic shape, 40 donor grafts implanted into 20 recipients were divided into two groups: flat chest group and normal chest group. Flat chest is diagnosed when the thoracic anteroposterior diameter to transverse diameter ratio is 1:3 or less. Results: The ratio of the postoperative forced vital capacity to the preoperatively estimated forced vital capacity was significantly lower in the flat chest group than in the normal chest group 1 year after lung transplantation (p = 0.002). However, there were no significant differences in postoperative 6-minute walk distances between the two groups. Furthermore, the thoracic anteroposterior diameter to transverse diameter ratio in the flat chest group significantly increased after lung transplantation (p = 0.02). Conclusions: Although postoperative pulmonary function was significantly poorer for patients with flat chests than for patients with normal chests, their postoperative exercise capacity was equivalent. We also found that flat chest severity significantly improved after lung transplantation. Our study, the first investigating postoperative functional status in patients with flat chests, clearly shows that it is possible to perform lung transplantation in such patients with acceptable outcomes.
Article
Three-dimensional computed tomography (3D-CT) technologies have been developed and, recently, high-speed and high-quality 3D-CT technologies have been introduced to the field of thoracic surgery. The purpose of this manuscript is to demonstrate the clinical application of 3D-CT technologies in lung transplantation. In Japan, because of the severe donor shortage, living-donor lobar lung transplantation (LDLLT) is essential, in addition to cadaveric lung transplantation. In LDLLT, size matching is a grave issue, since ideal size matching between donor and recipient is usually difficult because of the limited population of potential donor. Size matching using pulmonary function test results has been widely used as a gold standard, but anatomical size matching using 3D-CT volumetry data has also been utilized in LDLLT. In donor lobectomy, 3D-CT images provided a variety of information regarding anatomical variation of pulmonary vessels and bronchial trees preoperatively. These images ensure surgical quality and safety, and they also affect surgical procedures for the recipient. 3D-CT images are also utilized in various aspects of postoperative care, such as detection of chronic lung allograft dysfunction and clarification of its subtypes. Furthermore, preoperative 3D-CT simulation is useful in developing and performing a special surgical procedure, such as right-to-left inverted LDLLT. In conclusion, following the introduction of 3D-CT to the field of thoracic surgery, various 3D-CT images and their application to preoperative simulations have been introduced in lung transplantation. In the near future, this technique will become more prevalent, and frequent use by thoracic surgeons will be seen worldwide in daily practice.
Article
Objective The preset study evaluated the outcome of living-donor segmental lung transplantation (LDSLT) for pediatric patients. Methods Between August 2009 and May 2021, we performed LDSLT in six critically ill pediatric patients including one patient on a ventilator alone and another patient on a ventilator and extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO). There were four male and two female patients, with a median age of 7 (range: 4-15) years old and a median height of 112.7 (range: 95 to 125.2) cm. The diagnoses included complications of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (n = 4) and pulmonary fibrosis (n = 2). All patients received bilateral lung transplantation under cardiopulmonary bypass. A basal segment and a lower lobe were implanted in three patients, and a basal segment and an S6 segment were implanted in the other three patients. In two patients, the right S6 segmental graft was horizontally rotated 180° and implanted as the left lung. Results Among the nine segmental grafts implanted, seven functioned well after reperfusion. Two rotated S6 segmental grafts became congestive, with one requiring graft extraction and the other venous repair, which was successful. There was one hospital death (14 days) due to sepsis and one late death (9 years) due to leukoencephalopathy. The remaining four patients are currently alive at 9 months, 10 months, 1.3 years, and 1.9 years. Conclusion LDSLT was a technically difficult but feasible procedure with acceptable outcomes for small pediatric patients with chest cavities that were too small for adult lower lobe implantation.
Article
Background: We have developed a novel method for native upper lobe-sparing living-donor lobar lung transplantation (LDLLT) to overcome a small-for-size graft in standard LDLLT with acceptable results. We hypothesized that grafts implanted with this procedure might work more efficiently than those in standard lobe transplantation. Methods: Bilateral LDLLT was performed in 31 patients with a functional graft matching of less than 60% at our institution between August 2008 and December 2015. Of these, 22 patients were available for evaluation of pulmonary function more than 1 year later: 15 undergoing standard LDLLT with less than 60% functional matching and 7 undergoing native upper lobe-sparing LDLLT. Results: Overall survival at 2 years was 87.5% in the lobe-sparing LDLLT patients and 79.0% in the standard LDLLT patients (p = 0.401). The median forced vital capacity size-matching levels were 50.7% ± 1.6% in the standard LDLLT and 45.2% ± 2.3% in the sparing LDLLT group (p = 0.074). The 1-year and 2-year post-operative volume ratios of inspiration to expiration were significantly different between the 2 groups, at 1.76 and 1.45 after standard LDLLT (p = 0.019) vs 2.41 and 2.23 after lobe-sparing LDLLT (p = 0.015). Conclusions: The grafts in lobe-sparing LDLLT functioned more effectively than those in standard LDLLT. This advantage was associated with the improvement of pulmonary functions.
Article
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Objectives: We report our experience of lobar lung transplantations (LLTs) in patients with small thoracic volume. Methods: Since 1988, 50 LLTs were done for cystic fibrosis (n=35), fibrosis (n=7), bronchiectasis (n=3), emphysema (n=3) and lymphangiomyomatosis (n=2). There were 44 females and 6 males (mean age 31±13 years, mean size 155±5.5 cm and mean predicted total lung capacity (TLC) 4463±598 ml). Mean ratio between donor and recipient-predicted TLC was 1.65±0.26. Six patients were listed in high emergency, 2 of them on ECMO as a bridge to transplantation. Forty middle/lower right lobe with left lower LLT, four bilateral lower LLT and six split left lung LLT were performed through a clamshell incision (n=12) or a bilateral antero-lateral thoracotomy (n=38), with epidural analgesia in 17 cases. Thirty-two patients were transplanted under circulatory support (CPB n=16, veno-arterial ECMO n=16). In 11 cases, the right venous anastomosis was enlarged by a pericardial cuff. Ischaemic time was 4.4±1.2 h for the first lobe and 6.1±1.3 h for the second. Results: Median mechanical ventilation weaning time was 10.5 (1-136) days. Four patients were extubated in the operating room. Ten patients needed ECMO for primary graft dysfunction. In-hospital mortality was 28% related to sepsis (n=6), PGD (n=3), haemorrhage (n=2), broncho-vascular fistula (n=1), and multiorgan failure (n=2). Eight patients required endoscopic treatments for airway complications. Mean best FEV1 was 72±16% of the theoretical value. The actuarial 3-year and 5-year survival rates were 60 and 46%, respectively. Conclusions: LLTs are a reliable solution and can be performed with satisfactory functional results and survival rates.
Article
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OBJECTIVES Living-donor lobar lung transplantation (LDLLT) has been performed as a life-saving procedure for critically ill patients who are unlikely to survive the long wait for cadaveric lungs. The purpose of this study was to compare the preoperative condition and outcome of LDLLT patients with those of conventional cadaveric lung transplantation (CLT) patients.
Article
Purpose of review To address the donor shortage issue, living-donor lobar lung transplantations have been performed in some institutions. This paper will review the current status of living-donor lobar lung transplantation. Recent findings Up to 2006, living-donor lobar lung transplantation has been performed in approximately 300 patients worldwide. As only two lobes are transplanted, cystic fibrosis represents the most common indication for living-donor lobar lung transplantation, because patients are usually small in body size. Indications for living-donor lobar lung transplantation have recently been expanded to include paediatric and adult patients with various lung diseases such as idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis and pulmonary arterial hypertension. Survival appears to be similar to or better than International Society for Heart and Lung Transplantation registry data on cadaveric lung transplantation. Living-donor lobar lung transplantation may improve survival after paediatric lung retransplantation. The Vancouver Forum Lung Group proposed the eligibility criteria for living lobar donation. Summary This procedure can be applied to restrictive, obstructive, infectious, and hypertensive lung diseases for both paediatric and adult patients. As a result of the possible serious complications after donor lobectomy, living-donor lobar lung transplantation should be performed only for very sick patients by a well-prepared programme.
Article
Living-donor lobar lung transplantation (LDLLT), unlike deceased donor lung transplantation, often involves a wide range of size discrepancies between donors and recipients. The aim of this study was to evaluate the function of donor lung grafts in the recipient thorax in 14 cases of bilateral LDLLT involving 28 successfully transplanted lower-lobe grafts. Pulmonary function tests and three-dimensional computed tomography (3D-CT) volumetry were performed perioperatively. According to 3D-CT size matching, donor graft volumes ranged from 40% to 161% of the hemilateral thoracic volumes of the recipients. Graft forced vital capacity (FVC) values increased over time, reaching 102 ± 39% of preoperatively estimated values at 12 months postoperatively. Graft volumes also increased over time, reaching 120 ± 38% of the original values at 12 months postoperatively. Undersized donor grafts expanded more after LDLLT than oversized donor grafts, producing greater FVC values than those estimated preoperatively, whereas oversized donor grafts became inflated to their original size and maintained FVC values that approached the preoperative estimates. Thus, donor grafts were found to overinflate or underinflate to the extent that they could preserve their native function in the new recipient's environment.
Article
The Japanese Organ Transplant Law was amended, and the revised law took effect in July 2010 to overcome extreme donor shortage and to increase the availability of donor organs from brain-dead donors. It is now possible to procure organs from children. The year 2011 was the first year that it was possible to examine the results of this first extensive revision of the Japanese Organ Transplant Law, which took effect in 1997. Currently, seven transplant centers, including Tohoku, Dokkyo, Kyoto, Osaka, Okayama, Fukuoka and Nagasaki Universities, are authorized to perform lung transplantation in Japan, and by the end of 2011, a total of 239 lung transplants had been performed. The number of transplants per year and the ratio of brain-dead donor transplants increased dramatically after the revision of the Japanese Organ Transplant Law. The survival rates for lung transplant recipients registered with the Japanese Society for Lung and Heart-lung Transplantation were 93.3 % at 1 month, 91.5 % at 3 months, 86.3 % at 1 year, 79.0 % at 3 years, and 73.1 % at 5 years. The survival curves for brain-dead donor and living-donor lung transplantation were similar. The survival outcomes for both brain-dead and living-donor lung transplants were better than those reported by the International Society for Heart and Lung Transplantation. However, donor shortage remains a limitation of lung transplantation in Japan. The lung transplant centers in Japan should continue to make a special effort to save critically ill patients waiting for lung transplantation.
Article
Successful living-donor lobar lung transplantation (LDLLT) largely depends on donor outcome; however, there are few studies that have assessed outcomes of LDLLT donors, particularly pulmonary function. We investigated the outcomes and pulmonary function after donor lobectomy in LDLLT donors. Retrospective evaluation of consecutive 33 LDLLT donors was performed. Preoperative characteristics and perioperative and postoperative variables were investigated. Evaluation of pulmonary function 3, 6 and 12 months after donor lobectomy was performed prospectively. All donors were well alive after donor lobectomies. Morbidity was found in five donors (15%). Postoperative complications consisted of re-accumulation of pleural effusion requiring readmission in three donors and prolonged air leakage in two donors. Sacrifice of pulmonary arteries was performed in 20 donors (61%) with 1.4 ± 0.6 branches. Forced vital capacity was 77.8 ± 6.1%, 84.8 ± 6.0% and 89.4 ± 6.6% of the preoperative value 3, 6 and 12 months after donor lobectomy, respectively. Forced expiratory volume in 1 s was 80.5 ± 7.8%, 85.6 ± 8.9% and 89.3 ± 8.7% of the preoperative value 3, 6, and 12 months postoperatively. Living-donor lobectomy was performed with low morbidity. Pulmonary function even after lobectomy was better preserved than expected.
Article
Living-donor lobar lung transplantation (LDLLT) is one of the final options for saving patients with pulmonary complications after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). We retrospectively investigated 19 patients who had undergone LDLLT after HSCT in Japan. Eight patients underwent LDLLT after HSCT in which one of the donors was the same living donor as in HSCT (SD group), while 11 received LDLLT from relatives who were not the HSCT donors (non-SD group). In the SD group, three patients underwent single LDLLT. The 5-year survival rate was 100% and 58% in the SD and non-SD groups, respectively. In the SD group, postoperative immunosuppression was significantly lower than in the non-SD group. Two patients died of infection and one died of post-transplant lymphoproliferative disease (PTLD) in the non-SD group, while only one patient died of PTLD 7 years after LDLLT in the SD group. Hematologic malignancy relapsed in two patients in the non-SD group. For the three single LDLLTs in the SD group, immunosuppression was carefully tapered. In our study, LDLLT involving the same donor as for HSCT appeared to have advantages related to lower immunosuppression compared to LDLLT from relatives who were not the HSCT donors.
Article
Artificial bones are useful for tissue augmentation in patients with facial deformities or defects. Custom-made artificial bones, produced by mirroring the bone structure on the healthy side using computer-aided design, have been used. This method is simple, but has limited ability to recreate detailed structures. The authors have invented a new method for designing artificial bones, better customized for the needs of individual patients. Based on CT data, three-dimensional (3D) simulation models were prepared using an inkjet printer using plaster. The operators applied a special radiopaque paraffin wax to the models to create target structures. The wax contained a contrast medium to render it radiopaque. The concentration was adjusted to achieve easy manipulation and consistently good-quality images. After the radiopaque wax was applied, the 3D simulation models were reexamined by CT, and data on the target structures were obtained. Artificial bones were fabricated by the inkjet printer based on these data. Although this new technique for designing artificial bones is slightly more complex than the conventional methods, and the status of soft tissue should also be considered for an optimal aesthetic outcome, the results suggest that this method better meets the requirements of individual patients.
Article
We previously proposed calculating forced vital capacity (FVC) by the number of segments for size matching in living-donor lobar lung transplantation (LDLLT). The primary purpose of this study was to compare spirometry-obtained calculations of lower lobe volumes with three-dimensional (3D) computed tomography (CT) volumetric images. Our second goal was to compare the data of pulmonary function tests with CT volumetry in living lung donors. Pulmonary function test, including FVC and total lung capacity (TLC), and 3D CT volumetry were performed pre-operatively in 21 healthy donor candidates for LDLLT. The relationship of 3D CT volumetric data and calculated volume of lower lobes by the number of segments was investigated. Also studied were 3D CT volumetric data in relation to FVC and TLC. Various pre-operative variables were analyzed retrospectively. According to 3D CT volumetry, the right and left lower lobe volume was 26.3% ± 2.9% and 22.6% ± 3.1% of the total lung volume, respectively. We found a significant, strong correlation between each lower lobe volume and the total lung volume. Because the calculated volumes of right and left lower lobes by the number of segments were 26.3% and 21.1%, respectively, our results implied that the volume of both lower lobes was accurately described by the number of segments. FVC was significantly associated with TLC and the total lung volume. We confirmed that it would be justified to estimate graft FVC by the number of segments according to the CT volumetric data in LDLLT.
Article
An 8-year-old girl became ventilator-dependent due to severe bronchiolitis obliterans/interstitial pneumonia caused by cord-blood cell transplantation for neuroblastoma. Her mother's right lower lobe was twice as large as her right chest cavity. She successfully underwent living-donor, right, single-lobe lung transplantation and simultaneous left pneumonectomy under conditions of cardiopulmonary bypass. At 18 months after transplantation, the patient returned to school life and is currently able to carry out daily activities without supplemental oxygen.
Article
A 44-year-old man became wheelchair-bound due to sever bronchiolitis obliterans caused by peripheral blood stem cell transplantation for acute myelogenous leukemia. His lung donors, his sister and his wife, were 17 cm shorter than him. He successfully underwent living-donor lobar lung transplantation with sparing of the bilateral native upper lobes to address the size mismatch. Ten months after the transplantation, the patient has returned to a normal lifestyle without supplemental oxygen. J Heart Lung Transplant 2011;30:351-3
Article
Lobar transplantation represents a therapeutic option for children and some adults with severe end-stage pulmonary disease. Six patients including two neonates, three children, and one adult underwent lobar transplantation. Ages ranged from 17 days to 21 years. Transplant procedures were unilateral in the neonates and two of the children and bilateral in the child and adult who had cystic fibrosis. The donor lobes were from cadavers in the two neonates and living related donors in the children and the adult. Unilateral grafts involved use of the right upper lobe in the 12-year-old patient with bronchopulmonary dysplasia; right middle lobe with a ventricular septal defect repair in the 4-year-old patient with Eisenmenger's syndrome, left upper lobe in the 28-day-old patient with primary pulmonary hypertension, and the right upper and middle lobes in the 17-day-old patient with diaphragmatic hernia. Bilateral lobar transplantations were performed with the right lower and left lower lobes in the two patients with cystic fibrosis (aged 13 and 21 years). The two neonates underwent emergency transplantation with the use of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation as a bridge. Perioperative survival was 83%, with only the 4-year-old patient with ventricular septal defect/Eisenmenger's syndrome dying early. No airway complications were observed. The unilateral grafts received most of the blood flow as shown by perfusion scanning (range 74% to 99%). Living related donor complications included prolonged air leaks (> 6 days) in two patients. In urgent situations, such as an infant requiring extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, and in the existing milieu of donor shortage, lobar transplantation (living related or cadaveric) is a surgically feasible procedure and can provide a donor source in the limited time frame of these clinical situations. Bilateral lobe transplantation may be a viable option for patients with cystic fibrosis and life-threatening respiratory decompensation.
Article
The scarcity of small donors has significantly limited lung transplantation for pediatric and small adult patients. Use of single lobes procured from size-unmatched donors has overcome this difficulty, but only in a few selected cases and, in addition, it represents a waste of lung tissue. In an animal model we have shown that it is possible to divide one lung with careful partitioning of the vascular and bronchial structures and thus obtain two viable lobar grafts suitable for bilateral implantation in a smaller animal. We have now applied this procedure clinically in seven patients operated on between May 1993 and November 1994. The indications were cystic fibrosis in three children, primary pulmonary hypertension in two adults, bronchiectasis in one, and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis in one. There were three children aged 13 to 17 years (median 14) and four adults aged 40 to 53 years (median 45). There was a 46% to 50% discrepancy for weight between recipient and donor and a 12% to 17% discrepancy for height. The surgical technique consisted of careful partitioning of the left donor lung, bilateral anterior thoracotomy in the recipient, and, with the use of cardiopulmonary bypass, implantation of the lower lobe in the left hemithorax and the upper lobe in the right hemithorax. Vascular and bronchial connections were facilitated by leaving a long pedicle on the recipient side. The pulmonary artery anastomosis for the donor left upper lobe was done with the "fissure" side of the artery to ensure an anastomosis without tension. An end-to-end bronchial anastomosis overcame the problem of size discrepancy. Six patients are alive and well 10 to 27 months (median 19) after operation. One patient with cystic fibrosis died of systemic aspergillosis infection. All were discharged from the hospital within the first or second postoperative month. No technical problems were identified: repeated bronchoscopy has demonstrated satisfactory healing without early stricture formation. All patients remain well subjectively with good exercise tolerance and all patients achieve greater than 70% of predicted values of forced expiratory volume in 1 second. Perfect adaptation of the transplanted lobes to the recipient pleural space has been demonstrated by postoperative computed tomographic scan. In conclusion, bilateral lobar transplantation from a single donor lung is possible in small adults or children when there is a large size discrepancy with the donor. This may help resolve the problem of donor availability in the pediatric population.
Article
Since the inception of lung transplantation in 1982, it has been standard practice to implant donor lungs on the ipsilateral side in the recipient. The development of the techniques of lobar and bilateral lobar transplantation has shown that lung morphology may adapt to the shape of the thorax. Thus, variations in implantation have become possible. We describe a case of a 30-year-old man with severe bronchiectasis due to ciliary dyskinesis which required a left lower lobectomy at the age of 11 years and a left completion pneumonectomy 10 years later. His disease progressed and he was listed for a right lung transplantation. At the time of transplantation, the donor right lung was noted to be edematous and unfit for transplantation. This required grafting the donor left lung in the right thorax of the recipient. Follow-up at 7 years shows good exercise capacity and excellent functional tests without evidence of rejection.
Article
The increasing scarcity of donor lungs, especially for small and pediatric recipients has stimulated the development of new operative techniques, which allow larger lungs to be downsized for use in smaller recipients. This approach has only recently gained widespread use-especially for highly urgent recipients-however, it is still not considered a standard procedure. This report reviews the Vienna University experience with cadaveric split lung transplantation, lobar transplantation and by means of peripheral resection size reduced lung transplantation within the years 2001-2002. Peri-operative complications and outcome of those patients were retrospectively analysed and compared to the patients undergoing standard single or double lung transplantation during the observation period. During the observation period 98 primary lung transplantations were performed, of which 27 (27.6%) were size reduced transplantations. Size reduction was achieved by lobar transplantation (n=9), split lung transplantation (n=2) or peripheral segmental resection (n=16). There was no statistically significant difference between the size reduced and standard lung transplantation group with regard to the rate of bronchial healing problems (n=3/7; P=0.85) and the rate of post-operative bleeding (n=5/12; P=0.85). No other major thoracic surgical complications were observed. Three months survival rate was 85.2% in the size reduced group, compared to 92.9% in the standard group (P=0.13). Size reduced lung transplantation, including split lung transplantation, lobar transplantation and peripheral segmental resection, is a reliable procedure providing equal results compared to standard lung transplantation.
Article
Survival after living-donor lobar lung transplantation has been reported to be similar to that after cadaveric lung transplantation. The purpose of this study was to summarize our 5-year experience of living-donor lobar lung transplantation for critically ill patients. Between October 1998 and April 2004, we performed living-donor lobar lung transplantation in 30 critically ill patients with various lung diseases, including 5 (17%) patients on a ventilator. Mean age was 30.4 years (range, 8-55 years). Postoperative management included slow weaning from a ventilator, relatively low-dose immunosuppressants, and careful rejection monitoring on the basis of radiographic and clinical findings without transbronchial lung biopsy. The average duration of mechanical ventilation was 15.4 days, intensive care unit stay was 23.5 days, and hospital stay was 64.6 days. Clinically judged acute rejection occurred at an average rate of 1.5 episodes per patient, but infection occurred in only one patient during the first month. In spite of the complicated postoperative course, all patients were discharged without oxygen inhalation. Four patients had unilateral bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome, but the decrease in their forced expiratory volume in 1 second values stopped within 9 months. All 30 recipients are currently alive, with a follow-up period of 1 to 66 months. All donors have returned to their previous lifestyles. Living-donor lobar lung transplantation can be applied to both pediatric and adult patients with very limited life expectancies. It might provide better survival than conventional cadaveric lung transplantation.
Article
Living lobar lung transplantation was developed as a procedure for patients considered too ill to await cadaveric transplantation. One hundred twenty-eight living lobar lung transplantations were performed in 123 patients between 1993 and 2003. Eighty-four patients were adults (age, 27 +/- 7.7 years), and 39 were pediatric patients (age, 13.9 +/- 2.9 years). The primary indication for transplantation was cystic fibrosis (84%). At the time of transplantation, 67.5% of patients were hospitalized, and 17.9% were intubated. One-, 3-, and 5-year actuarial survival among living lobar recipients was 70%, 54%, and 45%, respectively. There was no difference in actuarial survival between adult and pediatric living lobar recipients (P =.65). There were 63 deaths among living lobar recipients, with infection being the predominant cause (53.4%), followed by obliterative bronchiolitis (12.7%) and primary graft dysfunction (7.9%). The overall incidence of acute rejection was 0.8 episodes per patient. Seventy-eight percent of rejection episodes were unilateral. Age, sex, indication, donor relationship, preoperative hospitalization status, use of preoperative steroids, and HLA-A, HLA-B, and HLA-DR typing did not influence survival. However, patients on ventilators preoperatively had significantly worse outcomes (odds ratio, 3.06, P =.03; Kaplan-Meier P =.002), and those undergoing retransplantation had an increased risk of death (odds ratio, 2.50). These results support the continued use of living lobar lung transplantation in patients deemed unable to await a cadaveric transplantation. We consider patients undergoing retransplantations and intubated patients to be at significantly high risk because of the poor outcomes in these populations.
Article
A 68-year patient suffering from pulmonary fibrosis underwent single lung transplantation on April 4, 2005. Because the ipsilateral donor lung was severely damaged, we had to implant the contralateral lung--the left lung--to the right thorax, and finally this patient recovered.
Article
We report on our early experience in living-donor lobar lung transplantation for patients with various lung diseases including restrictive, obstructive, septic, and hypertensive lung diseases. From October 1998 to March 2002, living-donor lobar lung transplantation was performed in 14 patients with end-stage lung diseases. There were 11 female patients and 3 male patients, with ages ranging from 8 to 53 years, including 4 children and 10 adults. Diagnoses included primary pulmonary hypertension (n = 6), idiopathic interstitial pneumonia (n = 2), bronchiolitis obliterans (n = 2), bronchiectasis (n = 2), lymphangioleiomyomatosis (n = 1), and cystic fibrosis (n = 1). Bilateral living-donor lobar lung transplantation was performed in 13 patients and right single living-donor lobar lung transplantation was performed for a 10-year-old boy with primary pulmonary hypertension. All the 14 patients are currently alive with a follow-up period of 4 to 45 months. Although their forced vital capacity (1327 +/- 78 mL, 50.2% of predicted) was limited at discharge, arterial oxygen tension on room air (98.5 +/- 1.8 mm Hg) and systolic pulmonary artery pressure (24.8 +/- 1.6 mm Hg) were excellent. Forced vital capacity improved gradually and reached 1894 +/- 99 mL, 67.4% of predicted, at 1 year. All donors have returned to their previous lifestyles. Living-donor lobar lung transplantation can be applied to restrictive, obstructive, septic, and hypertensive lung diseases. This type of procedure can be an alternative to conventional cadaveric lung transplantation for both pediatric and adult patients who would die soon otherwise.
Improved survival after living-donor lobar lung transplantation
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Registry of the Japanese Society of Lung and Heart-Lung Transplantation: Official Japanese lung transplantation report
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