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Anthropological study of ear tubercles in a Spanish sample

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Anthropological study of ear tubercles in a Spanish sample

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... Although many studies have performed morphological analysis or population frequency of atrial characteristics such as the presence and location of Darwin's Tubercle [4,[18][19][20][21][22][23], metric approaches can provide additional evidence, especially in human identification from images. Moreover, metric analyzes of the ear are particularly necessary when there are no pathologies, malformations, or deformities in the ear that could be useful in identifying by morphological comparison. ...
... However, when only the helix region has been available for analysis, the comparison between the questioned ear and the reference ear may consider whether they are on the same or opposite sides since the helix showed a statistically significant difference between the sides (Table 4). Therefore, the helix should be used with caution, although it is an important region because it is the most projected region of the ear, which can be visualized in images or printed on surfaces [18]. ...
Article
Objective This research aimed to test the reproducibility and applicability of the human identification method using photographs of the ears proposed by Cameriere et al. (2011) in a Brazilian sample. Materials and Methods Photographs of both ears of 115 participants were captured and evaluated by three different examiners. The data obtained were submitted to Kendall's Agreement Coefficient to assess interobserver agreement, in addition to descriptive statistics to assess the proportions of the areas of each ear. The Wilcoxon test was applied to determine the similarity of the proportions of the ear. To test the ability to identify a person based on the parameters of the ear, the k-dimensional tree algorithm was used. Results There was a high interobserver agreement, and the size and proportions obtained between the ears were similar, except for helix proportion. Thus, most of the parameters of an ear can be identified based on the parameters of the opposite ear, and that the parameters associated with the algorithm used can classify and group a set of ears based on the similarity of their measurements. Conclusion It can be concluded that the method proved to be reproducible and useful as a method of human identification in a Brazilian sample.
... Moreover, the bilateral differences are also recorded in various studies. 1,8,[15][16][17] Furthermore, Rubio et al 18 made an attempt to find the dependency relationship between the morphological characters and concluded that not only anatomically related characters (eg, between ear shape and protrusion) show relationship but also the characters which are not anatomically associated such as rolling of superior helix and shape of inter-tragic incisures. ...
... The frequency of various morphological characters of the ear was calculated using SPSS statistic (IBM, Armonk, NY) software version 16. In order to evaluate the sexual dimorphism and bilateral differences in the present population, the frequencies of the characters were calculated using Crosstabs. ...
Article
Introduction and Objectives: Human external ear is a morphologically complex structure and plays a vital role in the collection of sound. The present study would provide the information regarding the shape and size of the various morphological structures of the ear in normal individuals which may help the plastic surgeons to reconstruct the anatomy of the deformed ear and the physical and forensic anthropologists to study variations and establishing its use as a biometrics. The aim of the study was the morphological examination of the ear and its features to investigate the biological variations, sex differences, bilateral variations and further attempt to provide a database of external ears of a normal north Indian population. Methods: A cross-sectional sample of 71 males and 69 females aged between 18 to 25 years were collected from Nahan city of Sirmaur District in Himachal Pradesh state of North India. Various anthroposcopic parameters were considered and evaluated through personal observation such as ear shape, form of the helix, lobule shape and its attachment to the cheeks, strength of the anti-helix, etc and were sub-divided on the basis of form, shape, elevation, etc. The SPSS statistic (IBM, Armonk, NY) software version 16 was used to evaluate the sexual dimorphism and bilateral differences. Results and Conclusion: The frequencies of various morphological characters of the human external ear were calculated using Crosstabs. The results indicate the oval and round shaped ears were reported in 37.3%; 35.92% males and 23.92%; 38.41% females, respectively. Normally rolled helix was more frequent (73.24% in males and 84.06% in females) and possessed frequently occurring Darwin's tubercle with nodosity form (88.03% in males and 90.58% in females). Hypertrichosis was mostly present on the complete helix in case of males (66.20%). Single knob tragus (40.14% in males and 52.90% in females) and double knob tragus (33.10% in males and 36.23% in females) were found to be with higher frequency in the studied population. Partially free earlobes (53.52% in males and 46.38% in females) were more common than the attached one (38.03% in males and 47.83% in females) in case of males only. The present study provides a database of morphoscopy of the external ears of North Indian population. The database may be useful in the reconstruction of the deformed ears and in the anthropological and forensic research for comparison purposes. The study may also be utilized in the prediction of ear shape and size of the studied population for facial reconstruction in forensic examinations.
... Oepen [50] examined the relationship between the presence of an indentation in the superior helix and a bulge in the inferior part of the helix, and between the characters fossette and partial islet. Rubio et al. [51,52] analysed dependency relationships between the characters of helix and lobe tubercles. ...
... These totalled 22 characters, whose morphology is described in Galera et al. [53] and Rubio [25]. Relationships between the rest of the characters have been described in Rubio et al. [51,52] and Rubio [25]. For statistical analysis, we performed the chi-squared test and correspondence analysis (CA), both of which were carried out using SPSS 21 and Statistica 10. ...
Article
The aim of this paper is to provide information on dependency relationships between the morphological characters of the external ear and their importance in physical identification. At present, there is a lack of population data in this field, and little research has been published. Our study sample consisted of 281 Spanish university students of European descent aged between 18 and 31 years old. We analysed a total of 562 ears. For a large number of characters, we found a dependency between anatomically related characters, confirming our hypothesis. For example, we found relationships between ear shape and protrusion, between rolling of the superior and posterior helix, and between the upper and lower parts of the scapha. However, our results also indicated that some anatomically related characters did not present relationships. Thus, we found no dependency between contour shape of the supero-posterior helix and rolling of the posterior helix or between intertragic incisure shape and tragus or antitragus shape. In addition, we found that some characters that are not anatomically related also showed relationships. These included rolling of the superior helix and intertragic incisure shape, and contour shape of the superior helix and the inferior part of the scapha. These results are of great importance and should be taken into account in forensic applications.
... There have been taking into account 14 anthropometric landmarks at the level of each of the two ears ( Figure 2 (5); incisura intertragica inferior (6); incisura anterior auris posterior (7); strongest anthelical curvature (8); otobasion superior (9); otobasion inferior (10); protragion (11) antitragus superior (12); lobule anterior (13); lobule posterior (14). ...
... • Auricular length (1-2) -physiognomic length of the ear -straight distance between superaurale and subaurale following the longitudinal axis of the ear 21,22 • Auricular width (3-4) -physiognomic width of the ear straight distance between preaurale and postaurale 21,22 • Lobular lenght (2-6) straight distance between the deepest point in the incisura intertragica and subaurale 21,22 • Lobular width (13)(14) straight distance between the anterior lobule and posterior lobule at the midpoint of lobular length and perpendicular to medial longitudinal axis of auricle 21,23 • Conchal lenght (5-6) -straight distance between concha superior and incisura intertragica inferior • Conchal width (7-8) -straight distance between most posterior point on the edge of the incisura anterior auris and the strongest anithelical curvature 21,22 • Intertragic distance (11)(12) straight distance between tragus and antitragus • Morphological length of the ear (9-10)straight distance between otobasion superior and otobasion inferior 20 ...
... [1][2][3][4] The ear has always represented a field of particular interest for anatomy, especially because of its large variability in size and shape among humans. 2,5 However, although the anatomical analysis of ears is one of the most ancient, very few data on the variability of the auricle are available, 6 mainly based on morphologic assessments, with limitations in quantifying the probability of finding the same shape in the sample. 6,7 However, the analysis of ear structure is a relevant topic in different fields of research, with important practical applications, from aesthetic reconstruction to personal identification. ...
... 2,5 However, although the anatomical analysis of ears is one of the most ancient, very few data on the variability of the auricle are available, 6 mainly based on morphologic assessments, with limitations in quantifying the probability of finding the same shape in the sample. 6,7 However, the analysis of ear structure is a relevant topic in different fields of research, with important practical applications, from aesthetic reconstruction to personal identification. [8][9][10][11] In recent years, the introduction of modern three-dimensional image acquisition systems such as laser scanning and stereophotogrammetry has enabled researchers to perform more accurate analysis of facial morphology. ...
Article
Uniqueness of ear morphology has been a widely debated issue in cephaloscopy, but past studies used only two-dimensional approaches. In the current investigation, the right and left ears of 10 healthy adults were imaged twice by stereophotogrammetry at the interval of a few seconds. The ear images obtained from the two acquisitions were superimposed both within subject (group of matches) and among subjects (group of mismatches). A point-to-point root mean square distance was calculated between the two three-dimensional models. Differences according to side and group were assessed by two-way analysis of variance. In total, 200 superimpositions were performed. On average, the point-to-point root mean square distance was 0.31 mm in cases of matches and 1.43 mm in cases of mismatches: differences were statistically significant (p < 0.01). Results provided quantitative data for the assessment of uniqueness of ear morphology, highlighting differences based on their three-dimensional morphology.
... The three forms of Darwin's tubercle evaluated in the study, that is, the projected, enlarged and nodosity had different percentages in the three ethnic populations under study without any form of gender bias. This agrees with studies of Gurbuz et al. (2005) and Rubio et al. (2015) who reported that there were no significant differences between gender and Darwin's tubercle in Spanish and Turkish, respectively. The nodosity tubercle was the most prevalent in the Hausa and Igbo population (39.2-52.6%), ...
Article
Full-text available
Background The human external ear is unique in every individual in terms of shape, size and dimension making it suitable in forensic anthropology for sex estimation and personal identification purposes. The study aimed to evaluate sexual dimorphism and ethnic specificity of the external ear in major Nigerian ethnic populations. Results There was variation in the morphological features of the external ear of the sampled subjects. The external ear features vary in the right and left ears in both sexes of the ethnic groups. All variables were statistically significant ( p < 0.05) except ear width. Univariate discriminant function gave sex prediction accuracies between 56.4 and 57.3% for left and right ears, respectively. Population-specific sex prediction accuracy using stepwise discriminant analysis of left ear variables ranged 58–69.7% and 57.5–74.2% for right ear. Conclusion The ear parameters showed potential for sex estimation, but cannot be solely relied upon for personal identification.
... In the present study, the Darwin tubercle was absent in just 3.4% of the population; otherwise, it is present on the ear of the subject in one or the other form, however, Singh and Purkait (2009) showed it to be absent among 54-60% of the population. According to Rubio et al. (2015), Darwin's tubercle does not show sexual dimorphism in Spanish population. Gurbuz et al. (2005) also observed the same findings in Turkish population. ...
Article
Full-text available
Background External human ear is considered to be a highly variable structure showing different morphological and individualistic features in different individuals and population groups. The uniqueness of the ear may be useful in establishing the identity of individuals by direct examination, during the examination of CCTV footage or analysis of the ear prints. Considering the forensic significance of the human ear and ear prints encountered at the scene of the crime, the present study is an attempt to evaluate various morphological characteristics of the ear in a north Indian population. Methodology The sample for the present study comprises of 90 males and 87 females aged between 18 and 30 years. All the study participants were from upper reaches of Himachal Pradesh in North India. The morphological characteristics such as overall shape of the ear, size and shape of the tragus, earlobe, shape of the helix, and forms of Darwin’s tubercle were studied in the participants. Results The oval-shaped ear was present among 40% of the males and 44.8% of the females in the study sample. The other types of the ear such as oblique, rectangular, round, and triangular were also found in both sexes. Bilateral asymmetry was observed in the shape of the ear. The shape of the tragus also varied with respect to the left and right sides as well as sexes. The earlobe showed different characteristics in different individuals. In nearly half of the cases in both males and females, the earlobe was found to be attached to the face; in many cases, it was free and in some partially attached. The size and shape of the earlobe also showed variations with respect to sides as well as sexes. The Darwin’s tubercle showed a variety of structures in both the left and right sides in both sexes. Conclusion The present study shows that the individualistic characteristics of the ear can provide very useful information for personal identification in forensic examinations. The shape of the ear and the important structures such as the tragus, helix, earlobe, and Darwin’s tubercle show a variety of structures and individuality. The importance and variability of the human ear may encourage the researchers in conducting further studies and solving the forensic cases pertaining to the investigation of CCTV footage and in examination of dead in airplane crashes, intentional mutilation and dismemberment, explosions, or other mass disasters.
... However, research on morphoscopic traits was scarce. Only five publications on Spanish populations were available (Fernández-Fresneda, 1954;Galera et al., 2011;Marquer, 1963;Rebato, 1986;Rubio et al., 2015). From a forensic point of view, the external ear has been used since Bertillon (1893) for personal identification from photographic images, videos, or earprints. ...
... Quelprud et al. [14] studied the presence of Darwin's tubercle in German families and found that, in 52 families in which neither parent possessed the auricular prominence, 45% possessed the trait and the other did not. In addition, although some studies have found no differences in the prevalence of Darwin's tubercle with sex or age, [16,17], others have observed associations with both. For example, Vollmer et al. [18] found that greater degrees of expression were associated with older males. ...
Article
Background“Darwin’s tubercle” is a term used to describe an atavistic swelling of the posterior helix that is present in some individuals. Little is known about its prevalence, characteristics, and function. With growing interest in the individuality of external ear patterns and its possible applications to personal identification, more knowledge about this tubercle is warranted. PurposeWe review the history, clinical presentation, and modern-day influences of Darwin’s tubercle. MethodA comprehensive review of the literature was performed. Pubmed was searched with the key words: auricle, congenital, Darwin, ear, evolution, helix, pinna, tubercle, Woolnerian. ResultDarwin’s tubercle has been documented to be present in about 10.5% of the Spanish adult population, 40% of Indian adults, and 58% of Swedish school children. It has a variety of clinical presentations, which may be classified by its degree of protuberance. The influence of genetics on the expression of Darwin’s tubercle is unclear, and there are conflicting observations about its correlations with age and gender. Although usually present bilaterally in individuals who do possess this trait, a portion of this population does display asymmetric expression. Conclusion Darwin’s tubercle is a benign and unique helical feature. It contributes to the individuality of human ears and may have applications toward personal identification in the future.
... However, research on morphoscopic traits was scarce. Only five publications on Spanish populations were available (FernándezFresneda, 1954;Galera et al., 2011;Marquer, 1963;Rebato, 1986;Rubio et al., 2015). From a forensic point of view, the external ear has been used since Bertillon (1893) for personal identification from photographic images, videos, or earprints. ...
Article
Despite the fact that variation in ridge breadth is of biological, medical, and genetic interest, it has not received as much attention as other dermatoglyphic characteristics. Recently, sex differences in mean epidermal ridge breadth have been proposed in the field of forensic identification in order to infer gender from fingerprints found at the scene of a crime left by an unknown donor. The aim of this research was to analyze sexual, bimanual, and topological variations in epidermal ridge breadth on palmprints taken from a Spanish population sample for subsequent application in inferring gender from the palm marks. The material used in the present study was obtained from the palmprints of 200 individuals (100 males and 100 females) from the Caucasian Spanish. Since ridge breadth varies according to age, subjects of similar ages were recruited to ensure that growth had finished. Therefore, in order to assess topological variation in ridge density or number of ridges in a given space, the count was carried out for the five palmar areas: hypothenar, thenar/first interdigital, second interdigital, third interdigital, and fourth interdigital. This allowed the segmentation of 2000 ridge count areas for analysis. For this, two methods were used, one described by Cummins et al. (the ridge count was carried out along a 1cm line) and the other by Acree (the number of ridges per 25mm(2) of surface area). The results obtained by the second method can be compared with those obtained for the ten fingers from this same sample and evaluated in a previous study. The results have demonstrated the existence of topological differences in ridge thickness on the epidermal palm surface; also females present a significantly higher ridge density than men and, therefore, have narrower ridges over the entire palmar surface. Those sexual differences found in the sample population can be used for inferring the gender from palm marks left by an unknown donor. The hypotheses that could explain the variability in ridge breadth are evaluated according to the obtained results.
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Deaths that occur in prisons riots can be by extreme violence. When unrecognizable corpses are referred for examination, the process of human identification is hampered. The aim of this study is to present applicability in human identification by ear individual signs in an inmate beheaded in Brazil prison riot. Ten prisoners died in the rebellion being discussed. Seven corpses had been burned, and three of them were beheaded. For the examination, only two heads were presented. Three families were consulted. They informed that suspect 1 had a "front tooth failure" in the anterior maxilla and no dental records, while a second family brought a panoramic radiograph (suspect 2) and the last family (suspect 3) sent one photograph. Suspects 2 and 3 were considered incompatible. Information about suspect 1, such as "front tooth failure" in the anterior maxilla and anthropological facial aspects, provided compatibles clues. The absence of dental documentation stimulated the search for other characteristics conserved in the head under study. The left ear presented good conservation for a comparative method. Morphological ear variations enabled identification to be achieved for an inmate beheaded in a prison riot, demonstrating the method´s applicability and reliability. The certainty of the death of a relative allows the normal grief process to start, decreasing psychological morbidity. Mixed feelings between hope and despair are reduced. Therefore, this is a high priority for forensic experts in these cases.
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Weathering nodules are a benign skin condition that usually present as papules on the helices of patients with significant prior sun exposure. They are easily recognized clinically and blanch upon application of pressure to the adjacent helical rim: a positive blanch sign. We describe the clinical presentation of weathering nodules in 10 patients, nine men and one woman, aging from 38 to 70 (median 59), and their associated risk factors. Eight patients had a history of actinic keratosis, three had a history of nonmelanoma skin cancer, and all patients had increased Sun exposure through outdoor activities. Weathering nodules are rarely mentioned in the literature and may be confused with other cutaneous disorders. Therefore, it is paramount for clinicians to become familiar with weathering nodules and include them in the differential diagnosis of ear nodules. Appropriate diagnosis will help avoid unnecessary biopsies while reassuring the patient that the lesions are benign.
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Ear prints have the potential for personal identification as the shape, size and orientation of the external ear are as individual as fingerprints. Several studies exist on ear dimensions in various populations; however, studies on Indians are sparse and none of these studies have explored the sex discrimination potential of ear morphometric variables. The present study included 300 subjects (150 males and 150 females) in the age range of 18-30 years originating from all over India. A digital anthropometric method was employed to measure ear length and breadth, base of auricle, lobe length and breadth. Further, the physiognomic ear index, lobe attachments and shape of ear were also assessed. The sex discrimination potential of all these variables was also evaluated. The right and left ears were mostly asymmetrical with respect to ear length, ear breadth, base of auricle. The ear length, breadth and base of auricle were larger in males than females while lobe length and breadth were larger in females as compared with males (chi square test, p 0.001). Additionally, the ear parameters gave a moderate to good sex identification accuracy ranging from 68-71% using discriminant function analysis.
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Somatoscopy of the external ear provides a general idea of the shape of an ear, form of the helix, presence (or absence) of Darwin's tubercle and of the attachment of an ear lobe to a cheek, etc. It is of great importance not only to physical anthropologists but also to plastic surgeons, physicians and forensic scientists. There is no detailed somatoscopic study of the ear morphology concerning the entire Indian subcontinent. Hence, in the present study an attempt has been made to report the frequency of various somatoscopic features of various parts of the auricle of adult males and females who live in the central region of India. In both sexes oval-shaped ears and normally rolled helix were most common. The preauricular region was found to be clear with very few cases of the occurrence of pits and sinuses. Free lobules were more frequent among females than males but it was vice versa for Darwin's tubercle. The position of the ear's upper edge was most commonly located at the eyebrow tail while its lower edge was located at an upper lip level in both sexes. Hypoplastic lobules were noted in one-fifth of males but were very rare among females. Very few cases of lop ear, preauricular appendage and preauricular pit were observed. Some of these somatoscopic features act as soft biometric traits that improve the performance of the primary biometric system of personal identification. Somatoscopy of external ear acts as an aid to surgeons while reconstructing deformed ears and also helps physicians in detecting anomalies, for example, Edward's, cleft lip/cleft palate syndromes.
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Hypertrichosis pinnae auris, Darwin's point and tubercle, and muscle Palmaris longus have been examined in 425 adult subjects from two endogamous groups of Patiala, Hindu Khatris (230) and Baniyas (195). No significant differences between the two groups were found for any of the three traits.
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In recent years, the analysis of earprints has been developed in the field of legal and forensic medicine, with the aim of acquiring an identification tool similar to fingerprints. In the present paper, we review the current status of earprint identification from both a medical and a legal perspective. The objective is to introduce an area of knowledge which, is spite of its closeness, is not familiar to otolaryngologists, and to present the up to date scientific evidence. First, identification in general, and earprint analysis in particular, are situated in a historical context. Second, an approximation is made to the complexity of earprint analysis, introducing conceptual problems of the method, and possible solutions. Next, a discussion on the legal peculiarities of the validity of the method is undertaken from the forensic point of view, and finally, current development is pointed.
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As part of the Forensic Ear Identification (FearID) research project, which aims to obtain estimators for the strength of evidence of earmarks found on crime scenes, a large database of earprints (over 1200 donors) has been collected. Starting from a knowledge-based approach where experts add anatomical annotations of minutiae and landmarks present in prints, comparison of pairs of prints is done using the method of Vector Template Matching (VTM). As the annotation process is subjective, a validation experiment was performed to study its stability. Comparing prints on the basis of VTM, it appears that there are interoperator effects, individual operators yielding significantly more consistent results when annotating prints than different operators. The operators being well trained and educated, the observed variation on both clicking frequency and choice of annotation points suggests that implementation of the above is not the best way to go about objectifying earprint comparison. Processes like the above are relevant for any forensic science dealing with identification (e.g., of glass, tool marks, fibers, faces, fingers, handwriting, speakers) where manual (nonautomated) processes play a role. In these cases, results may be operator dependent and the dependencies need to be studied.
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In this paper we investigate the use of outer ear images for human identification. From the point of view of image processing, ears offer several advantages over complete faces: reduced spatial resolution, a more uniform distribution of colour, and less variability with expressions and orientation of the face. These advantages together with its identification richness, make ear images appropriate to be used as input data for a connectionist system. A new multiple identification method, which combines the results obtained by several neural classifiers using, respectively, features outer ear points, information obtained from ear shape and wrinkles, and macrofeatures extracted by a compression network, is presented. Experimental results yields higher identification rates as well as a more robust framework using this approach as a component of a more general face identification system especially in security applications
Los otogramas como prueba pericial en el proceso penal español
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