Article

Psychometric properties of the Polish version of the brief version of Kutcher Adolescent Depression Scale - Assessment of depression among students

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Abstract

Aim. Depressive disorders, which remain one of the most common and recurrent mood disorders worldwide, presently affect up to 15% of the population under age 25. Adolescent depression is related to a number of adverse phenomena such as scholastic/academic failure, juvenile delinquency, illicit substance abuse or suicide. Studies show that students are at a high risk of developing this disorder but depression in this population is often misdiagnosed and undertreated. Consequently, it is important to develop reliable diagnostic tools to evaluate symptoms of depression in students. Kutcher Adolescent Depression Scale (brief version) is a commonly used screening test used to identify young people at risk for depression, which consists of six items related to its main symptoms. The aim of the study was to adapt and test reliability and content validity of the Polish version of six – item Kutcher’s KADS based on analysis of students using confirmatory factor analysis. Material and method. A total of 1,589 student aged 18–24 anonymously answered a questionnaire on the risk of depression (KADS) and a demographics survey. Results. Confirmatory factor analysis showed the good fit of model to empirical data: SB χ² (15) = 968.688, p < .001, RMSEA = .053, CFI = .958, SRMR = .029. Factor loading ranged from .40 to .80. Conclusions: Validation of Polish version of KADS in a group of students aged 18-24 years has shown its high reliability and content validity. Further studies should be focused on the assessment of the questionnaire criterion validity.

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... Kutcher Adolescent Depression Scale [KADS (Brooks et al., 2003)]. The authors of the Polish scale are Mojs et al. (2015). The KADS is a widely used screening tool for assessing the risk of depression in youth and young adults. ...
... A score equal to or greater than 6 indicates a risk of depression. The reliability of the scale calculated with the α-Cronbach coefficient was at α = 0.82 (Mojs et al., 2015). ...
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Background: The aim of the presented series of studies was to test the factor structure and assess the psychometric properties of the Resilience Scale 25 in the Polish population. It was developed and tested during the course of four independent studies analysing various aspects of the validation of the RS 25 questionnaire’s Polish version. Method: Study 1 concerned the procedure for developing the Polish language version. Study 2 (N = 2716) consisted of reliability tests and a confirmatory factor analysis. In Studies 3 (N = 733) and 4 (N = 431), the validity was assessed by examining the relationship between resilience and the assessment of ego-resiliency, the risk of depression, styles of coping with stress, perceived stress, and satisfaction with life. Results: The presented research results obtained using the measure indicate that it can be considered to be a reliable and valid research tool. A five-factor solution showed a good fit to the data: χ2/df = 12.85; RMSEA = 0.066 (low = 0.064; high = 0.068; 90% CI); GFI = 0.90; AGFI = 0.90. An assessment of the internal consistency was carried out on the basis of Cronbach’s alpha. The values achieved were satisfactory and indicate acceptable internal reliability of the questionnaire (0.89) and of the five dimensions: (1) purpose (0.65); (2) equanimity (0.65); (3) self-reliance (0.75); (4) perseverance (0.72); and (5) existential aloneness (0.66). In accordance with the predictions and earlier studies, resilience was correlated positively with ego-resiliency, a task-oriented style of coping with stress, and life satisfaction and negatively with perceived stress, the risk of depression, and an emotion-oriented coping style. Conclusion: The Polish version of the RS 25 allows the assessment of the intensity of resilience as a general indicator and its five constituting dimensions. Such a measurement seems to be important from the perspective of assessing the role of an individual’s resources in clinical psychology, health psychology, and psychotherapy.
... Most tools for measuring aspects of mental health are focused on negative areas, illness and suffering [1,12,13]. In contrast, respondents and patients prefer 'positive' tools [14]. ...
... Total score ranged from 0 to 18. Validation of the Polish version of KADS in a group of students aged 18-24 years has shown its good reliability (0.82) and content validity [12]. ...
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Background The study of mental wellbeing requires reliable, valid, and practical measurement tools. One of the most widely used measures of mental wellbeing is the Warwick–Edinburgh Mental Wellbeing Scale (WEMWBS). We conducted four studies to validate the Polish version of the WEMWBS. Their objectives are the following: (1) to present the psychometric properties of the Polish version of the WEMWBS (study 1: n = 1197); (2) to evaluate the test–retest reliability of the Polish version of the WEMWBS (study 2: n = 24); (3) to determine the validity of the WEMWBS (study 3: n = 610); (4) to examine sensitivity of the WEMWBS scale to detect population with different levels of pro-health behaviours (study 4: n = 430). Methods To explore the dimensional structure of the scale we tested a one-factor model. The evaluation employed explanatory and confirmatory factor analyses and tested reliability and stability. To determine the convergent validity of the WEMWBS we analysed correlations among wellbeing and life satisfaction and risk depression. To examine sensitivity of the WEMWBS scale to detect a population with different levels of health-related behaviours we used Student’s t test. Results The results presented confirm that the psychometric properties of the Polish adaptation of WEMWBS are very good. Using EFA and CFA it was shown that a one-factor solution is optimal. Reliability, measured using the Cronbach’s alpha coefficient and McDonald's omega proved to be very high. The estimation of the stability of the Polish version of the WEMWBS proved to be high. Our validation studies also provided data demonstrating sensitivity of the WEMWBS to detect a population with different levels of health-related behaviours, indicating that group with high level of pro-health behaviours achieved higher WEMWBS wellbeing results than group with low level of pro-health behaviours. Conclusions WEMWBS was confirmed as a short, reliable and valid measure with good psychometric properties. Due to the high indicators for its psychometric properties, the scale may therefore prove to be a particularly useful tool not only in empirical research, but also in mental wellbeing monitoring, and could serve as support in educational and preventive.
... In epidemiological studies, it is estimated that this disorder affects up to 15% of adolescents and young adults and is twice as likely to affect females than males. The first episodes of depression usually occur during adolescence, between 12 and 18 years of age [22]. As such, mental health issues are relatively common in the general youth population; however, there is an overall consensus that youth involved in the juvenile justice system show high rates of mental health issues [23,24]. ...
... Scores of 6 or more indicate that the respondent is at risk for depression. The reliability (expressed as Cronbach's alpha) of the Polish version was found to be α = 0.82 [22]. ...
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Background Mental health is an important aspect of the process of individual adaptation and development. The present study analysed the role played by resilience in mental health while taking into account both positive and negative indicators among juveniles. The aim of the first study (Study 1) is to analyse the relationship between resilience and the broadly understood mental health of juveniles admitted to youth education centres. Study 2 aimed to understand the direct and indirect role of resilience in shaping the mental health of juveniles. In the model we tested, we looked at the relationship among resilience, coping strategies, and mental well-being. Methods The first study involved 201 juveniles, and the second involved 253 juveniles. Resilience was measured by the Resilience Scale-14. Coping strategies were measured with the Brief-COPE Questionnaire, and information on mental health was obtained using the Kutcher Adolescent Depression Scale, the Satisfaction with Life Scale and the Warwick-Edinburgh Mental Well-being Scale. Results The results of both studies have shown that resilience is an important predictor of the mental health of juveniles, primarily with respect to its positive indicator. The stronger the severity of resilience, the greater the satisfaction with life and mental well-being of the juveniles surveyed. In addition, two coping strategies (seeking support from others and coping through emotions) mediated the relationship between resilience and mental well-being. Conclusions The results obtained indicate that work at the level of juvenile resilience leads to the strengthening of positive mental health indicators and buffering of negative indicators.
... (12) Ancak farklı dillere çevrilip kullanılan KEDÖ-6 için sadece bu çalışma ile aynı zamanda yürütülen benzeri bir çalışma dışında Türkçe geçerlik güvenirlik çalışması bulunmamaktadır. (13)(14)(15) Az sayıdaki soru ile geçerli bir ölçüm sağladığına dair alanyazın bilgisi bu ölçeğin Türkçeye kazandırılması gerekliliğini doğurmuştur. KEDÖ-6 birçok dile çevrilmiş ve yaygın olarak kullanılmaktadır ve www.teenmentalhealth.org ...
... As for other risk factors of developing depression, stressful life events are often mentioned in the literature. They include experiences of loss, marital discord or family conflicts, changes in family financial situation, interpersonal conflicts, emotional disappointments or losses, chronic diseases, or death of a loved one, and, often mentioned, experiencing abuse [27,28]. There remains a need to conduct more studies, to include all those factors and explain their possible contribution to the high prevalence of depression amongst the young population. ...
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Introduction The prevalence of depression in Polish children and adolescents under 18 years of age treated for mental disorders has increased in the last few years in Poland. The purpose of this study was to examine the prevalence of major depression in a population of Polish children and adolescents under 18 years of age treated for mental disorders, stratified by sex and place of residence, in the years 2005, 2009, 2014, and 2016. Material and methods We analysed the psychiatric treatment data of children and adolescents under the age of 18 years in Poland compiled by the Institute of Psychiatry and Neurology in Warsaw for these years. Results Major depression was moderately prevalent among children and adolescents treated in all evaluated types of mental health facilities, with a prevalence in this population ranging from 0.8% in 2005 to 4.3% in 2016. The rates of young patients with mood disorders increased from 3.1% in 2005 to 7.0% in 2016. Risk factors for developing major depression in our research group were: being female and living in an urban area. Conclusions Our findings suggest the need to increase the service capacity for children and adolescents as well as to intensify preventive measures to improve the mental health status of this age group.
... In this study, the prevalence of depression was 1.6% in children and adolescents aged 6 to 18 years old, which is consistent with Young study reporting the prevalence of depression as 1.32% (11). However, another study found that depression was more common in adolescents of the 12 -18 age group (21). This greatly differs from the results of our study, which is probably due to the use of the semistructured diagnostic questionnaire, K-SADS-PL. ...
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Nowadays, a growing increase in depression and school burnout is being observed in students. The research aim is to test the mediating effect deviation from balanced time perspective, gender, and subjective sense of family network acceptance on the relationship between depression and school burnout. The sample consisted of 355 students (61.6% girls, 48.4% boys) from the third grade of high school in the south of Poland (mean age 18.5). The student school burnout scale for youth, Time Perspective Inventory, and Depression Scale for youth were used in the survey. Results showed significant relationships between the time perspective indicators, depression, and school burnout as well as a mediation effect of the past time perspective and the fatalistic present time perspective towards depression through school burnout. The findings confirmed that the focus of a person on immediate hedonistic goals becomes significant for the severity of depression only after accounting for the level of school burnout. Conclusions comprised the design of psychological interventions aimed at the group of young people experiencing depression and school burnout considering the time perspective development.
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The prevalence, structure, stability, and predictors of change in early behavior problems were examined in a population-based sample of Norwegian children at 18 and 30 months of age (N = 750). A clear factor structure involving four dimensions emerged at both assessment times: Two factors were characterized by externalizing behaviors and were labeled Social Adjustment and Overactive-Inattentive; one factor tapped internalizing problems and was labeled Emotional Adjustment; and the fourth, related to general immaturity, was labeled Regulation. Specific patterns of child and family risk factors were associated with stability and change over the two time points for each factor. Children with stable problems had the most problematic characteristics on all significant predictors, followed by children with problems at one, but not both, time points. The data suggest that it is possible to identify risk factors for stable problems at 18 months, allowing some prediction of those children whose problems will persist over early childhood. Since specific risk factors emerged for specific types of behavior problems, the results may provide some much-needed guidance to early intervention efforts.
Article
To evaluate the predictive value of childhood depressive symptoms for psychiatric symptoms, adaptive functioning, and self-performance in young adults. The study sample consisted of 111 young adults born during 1975-1976 in the Helsinki region. The young adults were assessed in childhood (10 to 11 years of age) using the Children's Depression Inventory (CDI) and at the age of 20 to 21 years using Achenbach's Young Adult Self Report (YASR), the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), and the Wallston Self-Performance Survey. Self-reported depressive symptoms in childhood predicted psychiatric symptoms (especially aggression), poor adaptive functioning, and low self-esteem in young adulthood. Depressive symptoms in children should be addressed to prevent later psychiatric problems. The CDI may be a measure of nonspecific psychopathology rather than of pure depression--thus, it may be a good screening tool for child populations.
Article
Epidemiologic studies show that major depression is comparatively rare among children, but common among adolescents, with up to a 25% lifetime prevalence by the end of adolescence. Mania is much less common, with no more than a 2% lifetime prevalence by the end of adolescence. Developmental studies that include assessments of both hormonal changes and social changes through the pubertal transition are needed to investigate joint biological and environmental influences on the emergence of the gender difference in depression in puberty. Although subthreshold mood disorder symptoms are common, controversy exists about their clinical significance. This controversy is made more complex by methodologic uncertainties regarding inconsistent symptom reports obtained from parents, teachers, and children and by the pervasive existence of comorbidity. Retrospective reports about age of onset in adult studies suggest that at least 50% of youngsters with major depression and 90% of those with mania continue to have adult recurrences. These recurrences are mediated by adverse role transitions, such as truncated educational attainment and teenage childbearing, that typically occur before the time of initial treatment. Aggressive outreach and early treatment aimed at preventing the occurrence of adverse role effects might help decrease the persistence of child and adolescent mood disorders. Long-term follow-up studies are needed to resolve current uncertainties regarding nosology, methodology, and long-term treatment effects. Innovative epidemiologic research designs aimed at more quickly providing provisional information are also needed to advance understanding of long-term developmental processes.
Article
This study used longitudinal data to examine the extent to which young people with depression in mid adolescence (ages 14-16) were at increased risk of adverse psychosocial outcomes in later adolescence and young adulthood (ages 16-21). Data were gathered during a 21-year longitudinal study of a birth cohort of 1265 children. Measures included assessments of DSM-III-R major depression (at age 14-16); psychiatric disorders, educational achievement, and social functioning (at age 16-21); social, familial, and individual factors; and comorbid disorders. Thirteen percent of the cohort developed depression between ages 14 and 16. Young people with depression in adolescence were at significantly (P<.05) increased risk of later major depression, anxiety disorders, nicotine dependence, alcohol abuse or dependence, suicide attempt, educational underachievement, unemployment, and early parenthood. These associations were similar for girls and boys. The results suggested the presence of 2 major pathways linking early depression to later outcomes. First, there was a direct linkage between early depression and increased risk of later major depression or anxiety disorders. Second, the associations between early depression and other outcomes were explained by the presence of confounding social, familial, and individual factors. Young people having early depression were at increased risk of later adverse psychosocial outcomes. There was a direct linkage in which early depression was associated with increased risk of later major depression and anxiety disorders. Linkages between early depression and other outcomes appeared to reflect the effects of confounding factors.
Article
The authors examined whether adolescent major depressive disorder (MDD) was associated with difficulties in young adult functioning and whether differences would remain significant after accounting for nonmood disorder, MDD recurrence, functioning in adolescence, or current mood state. A total of 941 participants were assessed twice during adolescence and at age 24. In unadjusted analyses, adolescent MDD was associated with most young adult functioning measures. Associations were not due to interactions with adolescent comorbidity, but differences in global functioning and mental health treatment appeared as a result of MDD recurrence. Accounting for levels of functioning in adolescence or for current depression at age 24 eliminated the remaining associations. The implications of these findings for efforts to prevent MDD in adolescence are discussed.
Article
Self-report instruments commonly used to assess depression in adolescents have limited or unknown psychometric properties in this age group. We report the evaluative properties of the Kutcher Adolescent Depression Scale (KADS), a self-report scale designed specifically for identifying depressed adolescents and for monitoring symptom severity over time. One hundred and six adolescents with major depression disorder (MDD) enrolled in an 8-week, double-blind, placebo-controlled study of paroxetine. Efficacy assessments were conducted on days 0 (baseline), 7, 14, 21, 28, 42, and 56 using the self-rated KADS and the clinician-rated Children's Depression Rating Scale-Revised (CDRS-R), Clinical Global Impression (CGI) of severity, and Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF) scale. The data were initially examined to establish which of the 16 KADS items showed greatest sensitivity to change. Subsequent analyses then compared the evaluative properties of three versions of the KADS: the full-length KADS, a six-item subscale previously established as a screening tool, and an 11-item subscale optimized for sensitivity to change. Within-subject correlations among subjects' KADS scores and their clinician-rated scale scores showed that clinician-rated changes in severity were significantly better corroborated by the 11-item KADS (mean correlations with the CDRS-R, CGI, and GAF: r = 0.69, 0.60, and -0.70, respectively) than by the six-item KADS (r = 0.62, 0.56, and -0.63, respectively) and at least as well corroborated as by the full-length KADS (r = 0.64, 0.56, and -0.67, respectively). Furthermore, in terms of mean percentage change in scores from day 0 to day 56, the 11-item KADS (59%) significantly outperformed the full-length KADS (46%) and all three clinician-rated scales (43%, 37%, and 29%, respectively) and at least matched the performance of the six-item KADS (56%). These results suggest that the 11-item self-rated KADS is a sensitive measure of treatment outcome in adolescents diagnosed with MDD.
Article
Psychiatric disorders are common among children and adolescents, affecting about 15-22% of this population. In order to fully develop emotional and cognitive skills, those children require professional care at early stages of the illness. Inventories addressing the broad range of emotional and social impairments, with high reliability and validity, can be of great help in early diagnostics. Self-report scales were proven valuable diagnostic tools even for young children. The Beck Youth Inventories (BYI) are five self-report measures for children between the ages of 7 and 14. They assess a child's experience of self-concept, depression, anxiety, anger and disruptive behaviour. BYI were created in response to epidemiological studies demonstrating significant prevalence of psychiatric disorders in children as well as the U.S. governmental report suggesting a high value of a brief questionnaires for early diagnostics of those disorders. To our knowledge, there existed no Polish self-report scale for children examining a broad range of psychiatric disturbances. The aim of the study was to create a Polish version of BYI and to examine its psychometric properties. Using a culturally-adapted Polish translation, we examined 197 students of three primary schools in Warsaw. The scales had high reliability (Cronbach's alpha from 0.87 to 0.93). The validity was confirmed by intercorrelations between scales. In addition, boys scored higher on theAnger and Disruptive behaviour scales and young children on the Self-concept scale. Polish self-report inventories for children, examining emotional and social impairments have been created. Very high reliability and good validity of each scale qualify them as trustworthy tools both in scientific research and in individual diagnostics.
Poznan: Zysk i S-ka publishing house
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Knowledge about psychologists and their work in the population of the Wielkopolska province
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Kutcher S, Szumilas M. Skala depresji nastolatków według Kutchera (KADS): Jak używać 6-punktowej KADS? http://teenmentalhealth.org/resources/entries/kutcher-adolescent-depres-sion-scale-kads-polish/ [retrieved: 2011.03.03].
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Rola stresujących wydarzeń życiowych w patogenezie depresji
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Factors associated with undertreatment of medical student depression
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Suicide ideation among college students: A multivariate analysis
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Skala depresji nastolatków według Kutchera (KADS): Jak używać 6-punktowej KADS?
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Kutcher S, Szumilas M. Skala depresji nastolatków według Kutchera (KADS): Jak używać 6-punktowej KADS? http://teenmentalhealth.org/resources/entries/kutcher-adolescent-depression-scale-kads-polish/ [retrieved: 2011.03.03].