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The first data on the population ecology and diet of the endemic ukliva dace (Telestes ukliva Heckel, 1843) are presented. Along the Cetina River system, the ukliva dace accounted for 38.4% of the overall fish fauna abundance, but only 6.4% of total fish biomass. The ukliva dace population exhibited migratory behaviour during the year and showed a strong temporal component; inhabiting the river main course in spring and summer, and colonising springs and subterranean waters in late autumn, where most of population overwintered. Males are smaller than females, while the sex ratio at the population level was 1:1.6 in favour of males, though this varied by station. The diet can be divided into two phases; the first in the warmer part of the year when feeding is intensive and Simuliidae larvae dominated in gut contents. This was followed by the winter and early spring period, when feeding markedly decreased due to its predominant distribution in overwintering habitats (underground waters). The highest frequency of empty stomachs and unidentifiable digested matter and detritus occurred in early spring. Although some potential pray (Coleoptera) were present in high densities of the substratum of Cetina River, they were not found in the stomach contents of the ukliva dace.
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Ecology and diet of the endemic Telestes ukliva
(Cyprinidae) in the Cetina River system, Croatia
by
Davor ZANELLA*, Zlatko MIHALJEVI*, Milorad MRAKOVI (1)
ABSTRACT. - Telestes ukliva 

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-

-

RÉSUMÉTelestes ukliva
Telestes ukliva
T. ukliva -
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-



T. ukliva.
 - Telestes ukliva
Cybium 2009, 33(2): 97-105.
-


et al.,-
-


-
et al.,







et al.,
Telestes ukliva-
Leuciscus
Telestes
et al.,
T. ukliva, 



et al.,

et al.,




 

 
Ecology and diet of  Zanella e t a l .
 Cybium 2009, 33(2)

T. ukliva



-

MATERIALS AND METHODS
Study area and sites characteristics
-







et al.,

-

















Telestes
ukliva

et al.,-

-






-





-1



-
-1 





-







Za n e l l a e t a l . Ecology and diet of 
Cybium 2009, 33(2) 


-


-

-

Sampling








-

T. ukliva -









-

-


Telestes ukliva
  








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
   1 - -
 


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1
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

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

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11
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-
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

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  
   
Ecology and diet of  Zanella e t a l .
 Cybium 2009, 33(2)




-

Diet analysis



-





-

-










-




-



RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
Relative abundance, biomass, spatial and temporal
distribution



Telestes
ukliva-
Squalius
illyricus


 
 total
total        total
 
total       
Salmo trutta              
Squalius illyricus              
Telestes ukliva 1176 38.42 3.70 7.57 99.55 94.22 16.23 38.90 4.42 5122.1 6.41 0.02 0.41 99.96 97.31 2.35 32.38 0.36
Carassius gibelio        
Cobitis dalmatina          
Cyprinus carpio 1    
Pseudorasbora parva          
Thymallus thymallus 1    
Anguilla anguilla        
Aulopyge huegelii      
Knipowitschia caucasica      
Liza aurata      
Pomatoschistus canestrini      
Salaria uviatilis      
Za n e l l a e t a l . Ecology and diet of 
Cybium 2009, 33(2) 
S. illyricus
-


Pseudorasbora parva
-
Pseudorasbora parva Salmo trutta.


-

-
Telestes soufa ,


-




-
Anguilla anguilla



-










-





-




-


-






-








T. soufa





-

T. souffia


Telestes montenegrinus 



-



-

Population structure and sex ratio






 
Telestes montenegrinus

-

-

-



Ecology and diet of  Zanella e t a l .
 Cybium 2009, 33(2)





-
-







Feeding patterns

-









    
    
     
    
    
     
    
     

  May 
       
Aquatic invertebrates
 -  - -

Ancylus   ---
 --- 

 - -    
        

   -   
   -  -
      1.1  
Terrestrial invertebrates

 - -   -
 - -   -

 --- 

 - -   -
  - - - -
 - -- -
Za n e l l a e t a l . Ecology and diet of 
Cybium 2009, 33(2) 



-
-



-

-


-











-





Cricotopus 
Orthocladius

et al.,-
et al.,et al.,



Esolus
et al.
Zingel
asper
-





-


-

-




Ancilus uviatilis-







-

Table V. - Relative densities (ind.m-²) of benthic macroinvertebrates
at station S6 - Blato na Cetini.
May 
 -
  
 -
  
  -
  
 -
  
  
 -
  
  
 - -
  -
  
  
) 
Table VI. - Ivlev Electivity Index (E) for benthic macroinvertebrates ingested by ukliva dace at station S6.
    
May     -1
    -1 
Ecology and diet of  Zanella e t a l .
 Cybium 2009, 33(2)


-

-


Telestes

T. montenegrinus 

-
T. uklivaT. montenegrinus -
-




-




-

 T. ukliva 



Acknowledgements. - 




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
 
In

-


Leuciscus soufa
Fischökologie


Hydrol. Process.

Zingel asperJ. Fish
Biol.


-






Rutilus rubilio -
Cybium
Bio-
div. Lett., 

J. Fish Biol.


Oecologica,


Österr. Fisch.

-
Leuciscus
Telestes
Ital. J. Zool.

-

Leu-
ciscus soufa montenegrinus
Glas. Rep. Zav. Zašt. Prirode
- Prirod. Muz. Podgorica
Leuciscus
soufa montenegrinus
Nat. Montenegrina, Podgorica

Leuciscus souffia montenegrinus -
Nat. Montenegrina,
Podgorica
-
Hydro-
biol

Chironomus tentans -
Aquaculture, 


-
Sabanejewia balcanicaCobitis elongata
Folia Zool.
In






   



Za n e l l a e t a l . Ecology and diet of 
Cybium 2009, 33(2) 







J. Fish Biol.

Oncorhynchus tshawytscha-

Ecol. Freshw. Fish,


In

-
BioScience

In



-


Leucis-
cus soufa agassizii
Arch. Hydrobiol.



Telestes ukliva
-
J. Fish Biol.
Reçu le 25 septembre 2008.
Accepté pour publication le 13 mai 2009.
... The population structure of the karstic dace, Telestes karsticus, has hitherto been completely unknown. There are literature reports for the population composition of the related species Telestes ukliva (Heckel, 1843) (see Zanella, unpublished thesis;Zanella et al. 2009), Telestes montenigrinus (Vuković, 1963) (see Krivokapić 1992), and Telestes souffia (Risso, 1827) (see Vuković, unpublished thesis), and those results are compared with the results presented here. The maximum standard length of the karstic dace in Sušik Creek was 122 mm (total length 146 mm), confirming the assumption that it is a small bodied fish, and even smaller than other species in the genus Telestes. ...
... Females of the karstic dace from Sušik Creek, were generally larger than males, as was also found for T. ukliva (see Zanella, unpublished thesis;Zanella et al. 2009) and T. montenigrinus (see Krivokapić 2002). Larger females are capable of producing greater numbers of eggs, therefore increasing reproductive success (Andersson 1994). ...
... In the colder part of the year (November through March), when the water temperature is below 10°C, samples were comprised of individuals with an upper quartile of standard length less than 50 mm, and a median standard length of about 40 mm, suggesting that larger individuals overwintered at another, unknown location. One assumption is that larger individuals retract into subterranean areas where water temperatures are higher than in the surface stream, as suggested by Zanella (unpublished thesis) and Zanella et al. (2009), though such an assumption requires further study for the karstic dace. ...
Article
Full-text available
This study provides the first description of the age, growth, and population structure of the endemic karstic dace, Telestes karsticus Marčić et Mrakovčić, 2011, from Sušik Creek in Croatia. The oldest individual in the sample was a female of age 5 ⁺ years and the oldest males were 4 ⁺ . Females of the karstic dace have a higher maximum standard length than males (122.0 vs. 95.1 mm, respectively). In both sexes, the most numerous length category was 41–50 mm. The most numerous age group of karstic dace was 1 ⁺ , with a gradual decline in the abundance of older age groups. In larger length categories, males were fewer, while females showed a bimodal distribution with a second maximum in the length category of 81–90 mm. The total ratio of males to females in the sample was 2.8:1, in favor of males.
... The population structure of the karstic dace, Telestes karsticus, has hitherto been completely unknown. There are literature reports for the population composition of the related species Telestes ukliva (Heckel, 1843) (see Zanella, unpublished thesis;Zanella et al. 2009), Telestes montenigrinus (Vuković, 1963) (see Krivokapić 1992), and Telestes souffia (Risso, 1827) (see Vuković, unpublished thesis), and those results are compared with the results presented here. The maximum standard length of the karstic dace in Sušik Creek was 122 mm (total length 146 mm), confirming the assumption that it is a small bodied fish, and even smaller than other species in the genus Telestes. ...
... Females of the karstic dace from Sušik Creek, were generally larger than males, as was also found for T. ukliva (see Zanella, unpublished thesis;Zanella et al. 2009) and T. montenigrinus (see Krivokapić 2002). Larger females are capable of producing greater numbers of eggs, therefore increasing reproductive success (Andersson 1994). ...
... In the colder part of the year (November through March), when the water temperature is below 10°C, samples were comprised of individuals with an upper quartile of standard length less than 50 mm, and a median standard length of about 40 mm, suggesting that larger individuals overwintered at another, unknown location. One assumption is that larger individuals retract into subterranean areas where water temperatures are higher than in the surface stream, as suggested by Zanella (unpublished thesis) and Zanella et al. (2009), though such an assumption requires further study for the karstic dace. ...
Article
Full-text available
This study provides the first description of the age, growth, and population structure of the endemic karstic dace, Telestes karsticus Marčić et Mrakovčić, 2011, from Sušik Creek in Croatia. The oldest individual in the sample was a female of age 5 ⁺ years and the oldest males were 4 ⁺ . Females of the karstic dace have a higher maximum standard length than males (122.0 vs. 95.1 mm, respectively). In both sexes, the most numerous length category was 41–50 mm. The most numerous age group of karstic dace was 1 ⁺ , with a gradual decline in the abundance of older age groups. In larger length categories, males were fewer, while females showed a bimodal distribution with a second maximum in the length category of 81–90 mm. The total ratio of males to females in the sample was 2.8:1, in favor of males.
... For the input data for effective population sizes and migrations among populations, the results of this investigation were used, and maximum likelihood estimates for both parameters for all investigated populations were included. Input data on the reproductive system, sex ratio, reproductive rates, and mortality rates were based on previous investigations and literature data [7,[18][19][20]. For the description of ecological characters of Telestes species, we have used available data on this genus. ...
... The effective removal of already present non-native species, as well as the design and implementation of a strategy for continuous monitoring, early discovery, and quick response in order to prevent non-native species from forming stabile populations in watersheds inhabited by native Telestes species should be a top priority in Croatian practical nature conservation. The results of Scenario 3 evince that although skewed sex ratios have been recorded in various Telestes species [7,[19][20][21], if this phenomenon were to occur more often due to climate change (since the water temperature is possibly a factor influencing the sex ratio at birth), it would also result in the extinction of all populations within the next 100 years. Of note, in Scenario 3, we have calculated a constant change in the sex ratio and no mitigation effects that might occur as an adaptation of the investigated populations to climate change. ...
Article
Full-text available
The genus Telestes primarily comprises freshwater fish distributed mostly in the Mediterranean area. Recent investigation of the evolutionary history of this genus revealed that it originated in southern Europe, where the most ancient Telestes species are still present. The isolation of rivers in the karstic region facilitated allopatric speciation, resulting in a high number of Telestes species and a great portion of endemic species in freshwater systems of Croatia and Bosnia and Herzegovina. Most of the endemic Telestes species have very small distribution areas, inhabiting a single river or a few water bodies in a single karstic field, making them extremely vulnerable to anthropogenic changes. In order to contribute to practical conservation of the endemic Telestes species through the design of conservational measures that are likely to be the most effective in ensuring the future viability and undisturbed evolutionary course of those species, we have investigated their population genetic structure and estimated their viabilities. Population viability analyses were carried out based on the current state of populations and their habitats, as well as recognized threats. Several scenarios also included potential threats. Our results show that invasive species pose the biggest threat to the future survival of the endemic Telestes species. Contrary to previous opinions that a reduced genetic diversity is characteristic for small populations, high intraspecific genetic diversity was revealed inside most of the investigated species, which might enable most of the populations to cope with future changes and mitigate negative effects.
... The gut morphology is very similar to T. montenegrinus (Krivokapić, 1992) and T. ukliva (Zanella, Mihaljević, Mrakovčić, & Ćaleta, 2009). ...
... The qualitative composition of the diet of the T. karsticus reveals that this species is an euryphagous omnivore, similar to T. ukliva (Zanella et al., 2009). Vuković (1985) reported that T. souffia from the Drina River is also an omnivore, although with a higher share of plant materials ingested, placing that species in the zoophytophagous subgroup, which was also confirmed for T. montenegrinus by Krivokapić (1992). ...
Article
Full-text available
The first data on the feeding ecology of the endemic Telestes karsticus are presented for specimens sampled monthly (July 2007–July 2008) from the Sušik Creek in the Lug Polje field, Croatia. Macrozoobenthos density was calculated and compared with the stomach contents of T. karsticus and the seasonal profile of the diet was examined. The ratio of gut length vs. standard length was 0.9 ± 0.12. Gut contents revealed that benthic invertebrates accounted for the majority of food consumed, although terrestrial arthropods, plant material, algae and fish were also found. Since this is the only fish species in the investigated creek, T. karsticus can be concluded to be cannibalistic. The proportion of empty guts found in all seasons was small, indicating year round feeding. The number and diversity of prey species was highest in spring and lowest in summer. Ivlev's electivity index was very high for Cladocera, Coleoptera, Trichoptera, Heteroptera and Hymenoptera in all seasons, suggesting positive selection for these prey groups, as opposed to Oligochaeta, Isopoda and Bivalva, which showed negative values in all seasons. For Actinopterygii, the Ivlev coefficient of selection was highly negative in spring, and highly positive in summer. Plant matter was detected in stomach contents in all seasons, with the highest share found in summer when other prey species were less available. The karstic dace is a generalised feeder, consuming the most available prey, and therefore can be classified as a euryphagous omnivore.
... They have broader habitat tolerance than most loaches in the region, living in lakes, rivers and channels, over fine sediments, rocks and gravel as well on dense macrophytes ( Šanda et al. 2008). Nonetheless, its occurrence is very sporadic ( Zanella et al. 2009). One of at least 14 threatened or endangered species in the Neretva River catchment. ...
Research
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We reviewed the potential impact of large-scale hydropower expansion on the conservation status and extinction threat of 113 freshwater fish species on the Balkan Peninsula. Each of these species is listed in one of three IUCN threat categories and/or listed in one or more annexes of the European Habitats Directive or Bern Convention. For 81 of these species, GIS-based distribution maps have been overlaid with distributions of existing hydropower facilities (ca. 1,000), those in construction (ca. 180), or those planned (ca. 2,800) to explicitly demonstrate the spatial dimension of potential habitat loss. Based on these plans, we predict that up to 49 freshwater fish species are faced with either the threat of extinction or loss of between 50 and 100% of their Balkan distribution. Of these, eleven endemic species are threatened with extinction, seven will become critically endangered, and the number of endangered species will double to twenty-four. For 68 of 69 endemic species, habitat losses are estimated between 30 and 100%, resulting in increased levels of endangerment for essentially the entire endemic fauna. Additionally, the four migratory sturgeon species would essentially lose their potential for rehabilitation in the lower Danube if additional dams were constructed there. Three exemplary hotspots of biodiversity and threat were further described: The Neretva basin in Bosnia-Herzegovina and Croatia with fourteen listed species, the Morača/Skadar system in Montenegro and Albania with eleven listed species, and the Tara/upper Drina system in Montenegro and Bosnia-Herzegovina with nearly 200 kilometers of free-flowing riverine habitat. An additional six rivers of strategic conservation interest (the Sava in Slovenia and Croatia; the Kolpa on the Croatian-Slovenian border; the Una on the Croatian-Bosnian-Herzegovinian border, the Lim in Montenegro; and the Sana in Bosnia-Herzegovina) are described with respect to their length and value in conserving self-sustaining populations of key species, such as the endangered huchen. Several smaller rivers (Cetina River, Croatia; Kalamas River, Greece; Treska River, Republic of Macedonia) are discussed as critical habitat for species, whose global existence is endangered.
... They have broader habitat tolerance than most loaches in the region, living in lakes, rivers and channels, over fine sediments, rocks and gravel as well on dense macrophytes ( Šanda et al. 2008). Nonetheless, its occurrence is very sporadic ( Zanella et al. 2009). One of at least 14 threatened or endangered species in the Neretva River catchment. ...
Technical Report
Full-text available
We reviewed the potential impact of large-scale hydropower expansion on the conservation status and extinction threat of 113 freshwater fish species on the Balkan Peninsula. Each of these species is listed in one of three IUCN threat categories and/or listed in one or more annexes of the European Habitats Directive or Bern Convention. For 81 of these species, GIS-based distribution maps have been overlaid with distributions of existing hydropower facilities (ca. 1,000), those in construction (ca. 180), or those planned (ca. 2,800) to explicitly demonstrate the spatial dimension of potential habitat loss. Based on these plans, we predict that up to 49 freshwater fish species are faced with either the threat of extinction or loss of between 50 and 100% of their Balkan distribution. Of these, eleven endemic species are threatened with extinction, seven will become critically endangered, and the number of endangered species will double to twenty-four. For 68 of 69 endemic species, habitat losses are estimated between 30 and 100%, resulting in increased levels of endangerment for essentially the entire endemic fauna. Additionally, the four migratory sturgeon species would essentially lose their potential for rehabilitation in the lower Danube if additional dams were constructed there. Three exemplary hotspots of biodiversity and threat were further described: The Neretva basin in Bosnia-Herzegovina and Croatia with fourteen listed species, the Morača/Skadar system in Montenegro and Albania with eleven listed species, and the Tara/upper Drina system in Montenegro and Bosnia-Herzegovina with nearly 200 kilometers of free-flowing riverine habitat. An additional six rivers of strategic conservation interest (the Sava in Slovenia and Croatia; the Kolpa on the Croatian-Slovenian border; the Una on the Croatian-Bosnian-Herzegovinian border, the Lim in Montenegro; and the Sana in Bosnia-Herzegovina) are described with respect to their length and value in conserving self-sustaining populations of key species, such as the endangered huchen. Several smaller rivers (Cetina River, Croatia; Kalamas River, Greece; Treska River, Republic of Macedonia) are discussed as critical habitat for species, whose global existence is endangered.
... They have broader habitat tolerance than most loaches in the region, living in lakes, rivers and channels, over fine sediments, rocks and gravel as well on dense macrophytes ( Šanda et al. 2008). Nonetheless, its occurrence is very sporadic ( Zanella et al. 2009). One of at least 14 threatened or endangered species in the Neretva River catchment. ...
Technical Report
Full-text available
We reviewed the potential impact of large-scale hydropower expansion on the conservation status and extinction threat of 113 freshwater fish species on the Balkan Peninsula. Each of these species is listed in one of three IUCN threat categories and/or listed in one or more annexes of the European Habitats Directive or Bern Convention. For 81 of these species, GIS-based distribution maps have been overlaid with distributions of existing hydropower facilities (ca. 1,000), those in construction (ca. 180), or those planned (ca. 2,800) to explicitly demonstrate the spatial dimension of potential habitat loss. Based on these plans, we predict that up to 49 freshwater fish species are faced with either the threat of extinction or loss of between 50 and 100% of their Balkan distribution. Of these, eleven endemic species are threatened with extinction, seven will become critically endangered, and the number of endangered species will double to twenty-four. For 68 of 69 endemic species, habitat losses are estimated between 30 and 100%, resulting in increased levels of endangerment for essentially the entire endemic fauna. Additionally, the four migratory sturgeon species would essentially lose their potential for rehabilitation in the lower Danube if additional dams were constructed there. Three exemplary hotspots of biodiversity and threat were further described: The Neretva basin in Bosnia-Herzegovina and Croatia with fourteen listed species, the Morača/Skadar system in Montenegro and Albania with eleven listed species, and the Tara/upper Drina system in Montenegro and Bosnia-Herzegovina with nearly 200 kilometers of free-flowing riverine habitat. An additional six rivers of strategic conservation interest (the Sava in Slovenia and Croatia; the Kolpa on the Croatian-Slovenian border; the Una on the Croatian-BosnianHerzegovinian border, the Lim in Montenegro; and the Sana in Bosnia-Herzegovina) are described with respect to their length and value in conserving self-sustaining populations of key species, such as the endangered huchen. Several smaller rivers (Cetina River, Croatia; Kalamas River, Greece; Treska River, Republic of Macedonia) are discussed as critical habitat for species, whose global existence is endangered.
... During the Pleistocene glaciation, this area (along with the Iberian Peninsula and the Apennines) was a major refugium for European species as it remained largely unaffected by glaciers. Consequently, many species survived glaciations, and due to the karst geology, they remained isolated and evolved as endemic species 55 . The Adriatic basin has more than 40 endemic FW fish species, many endemic to only one river (sometimes very short). ...
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Coralline red algae are significant components of sea bottom and up to now considered as exclusively marine species. Here we present the first coralline alga from a freshwater environment, found in the Cetina River (Adriatic Sea watershed). The alga is fully adapted to freshwater, as attested by reproductive structures, sporelings, and an inability to survive brackish conditions. Morphological and molecular phylogenetic analyses reveal the species belongs to Pneophyllum and is described as P. cetinaensis sp. nov. The marine-freshwater transition most probably occurred during the last glaciation. The brackish-water ancestor was preadapted to osmotic stress and rapid changes in water salinity and temperature. The particular characteristics of the karst Cetina River, such as hard water enriched with dissolved calcium carbonate and a pH similar to the marine environment, favoured colonization of the river by a marine species. The upstream advance and dispersal is facilitated by exceptionally pronounced zoochory by freshwater gastropods. Pneophyllum cetinaensis defies the paradigm of Corallinales as an exclusively marine group.
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The waters of the Dinaric Karst drain into both the Adriatic and the Black Sea basins. Precipitation is high, yet surface waters are scarce, with the exception of sinking streams. Dinaric Karst is a biodiversity hotspot, with diverse speleo-and epigean freshwater fauna. The distribution patterns of taxa in Dinaric Karst have arisen from a combination of vicariance and dispersal and their alteration over time. Within fishes, there are genera that include both species that are widespread and species with restricted ranges (e.g., Phoxinus, Telestes), and genera with only restricted distributions (e.g., Delminichthys, Phoxinellus). Some (Delminichthys, Phoxinellus and Dinaric Telestes) have a similar lifestyle, specialized for dwelling in sinking streams in karst poljes. The present study compares the distribution ranges of Phoxinus, Delminichthys, Phoxinellus and Telestes in Dinaric Karst based upon their mitochondrial genetic lineages, including dating of divergence times and reconstruction of ancestral geographic ranges. The biology of Phoxinus has played a major role in its wider distribution than the other three genera, which exhibit some limited ability to migrate underground, but which cannot disperse along main river courses due to their specific adaptation for dwelling in the sinking streams of karst poljes.
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A checklist of the freshwater fish fauna of Croatia is presented for the first time. It is based on 1360 publications of historical and recent data in the literature. According to the literature review, there were 137 fish species in 30 families and 75 genera recorded in Croatia. The checklist is systematically arranged and provides distributional data of the freshwater fish fauna as well as whether the species is endemic, introduced or translocated.
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p. 335-340 In Cranston P. (ed.) Chironomids: from genes to ecosystems. CSIRO, East Melbourne.
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