ArticlePDF Available

Perspective solutions for modern schools design in the Gaza Strip. (Study case- UNRWA schools)

Authors:

Abstract

Abstract: Architectural design is the result of solutions carried out through a design process to solve the individual issues while at the same time resolving the global issue of the building proper. It is an intense and complex mix that involves all sections of this curriculum using the design elements defined herein to fulfill the purpose of the design. This paper explores the factors affecting school design generally and in the Gaza Strip especially. Architectural design principles are not neatly identifiable as "fixed parameters". The reality is, they are flexible. It remains the responsibility of the architect to interpret the client needs through the use of the intended principles; allowing for variation and abstraction as required to suit the intended solution; The challenge of architectural design lies in the task of resolving a wide variety of functional and aesthetic requirements (the problem) into a coherent, satisfying structure (the solution). The effort to resolve the varied requirements makes use of specific design elements by assembling the properties of these elements into a coherent whole. Our recommendation the planning of the school should be seen not merely as a grouping of rooms listed in the schedule, it is important that the school be flexible and capable of future expansion. Flexibility incorporating design aspects and features that will enable the built accommodation to be used for a range of activities, not only by the school, but also for the benefit of the community. Ensuring colour contrast throughout the building, where glazing is used, ensure daylight glare is manageable, either by carefully selection of internal surfaces or provision of blinds. This result gives sets of new ideas to improve the quality of schools by adding new architectural elements especially on site layouts, plans and elevations to be more attractive.
European Journal of Academic Essays 2(1), 2015
ISSN (online): 2183-1904
ISSN (print): 2183-3818
www.euroessays.org
Perspective solutions for modern schools design in the
Gaza Strip. (Study case- UNRWA schools)
< Badawy, Ussama >1
1 Former professor Dr. at Bir-zeit University West Bank, Palestine. , Currently United Nation-UNRWA, GAZA.
ubadawy@yahoo.com
___________________________________________________________________________________________________
Abstract: Architectural design is the result of solutions carried out through a design process to solve the individual issues
while at the same time resolving the global issue of the building proper. It is an intense and complex mix that involves all
sections of this curriculum using the design elements defined herein to fulfill the purpose of the design. This paper explores
the factors affecting school design generally and in the Gaza Strip especially. Architectural design principles are not neatly
identifiable as "fixed parameters". The reality is, they are flexible. It remains the responsibility of the architect to interpret
the client needs through the use of the intended principles; allowing for variation and abstraction as required to suit the
intended solution; The challenge of architectural design lies in the task of resolving a wide variety of functional and
aesthetic requirements (the problem) into a coherent, satisfying structure (the solution). The effort to resolve the varied
requirements
makes use of specific design elements by assembling the properties of these elements into a coherent whole. Our
recommendation the planning of the school should be seen not merely as a grouping of rooms listed in the schedule, it is
important that the school be flexible and capable of future expansion. Flexibility incorporating design aspects and features
that will enable the built accommodation to be used for a range of activities, not only by the school, but also for the benefit of
the community. Ensuring colour contrast throughout the building, where glazing is used, ensure daylight glare is
manageable, either by carefully selection of internal surfaces or provision of blinds. This result gives sets of new ideas to
improve the quality of schools by adding new architectural elements especially on site layouts, plans and elevations to be
more attractive.
Keywords: Design Brief, Process of Design, Design Philosophy, Shape, Concept of Space
___________________________________________________________________________________________________
1. Introduction
Ever y design is comp leted in order to serve
a defined funct i onal aspect of our existence.
The success of a design solutio n is evide nt
when it resolves the Problem by providi ng a
suitable environment.
The failur e of function is evide nt when the
design does not achieve this goal . All
refugee childr en of school age are eligible
to enroll in UNRWA schools, which pro vide
free basic education across nine grades in
the West Bank, the Gaza Strip, Syria and
Lebanon, and ten grades in Jordan. This
includ es six years of pri m ar y schooling and
three or four yea rs at a preparatory level.
Over time, UNRWA schools have built a
repu tation for high academic achieve m e n t s
and low dropout rates, while
groundbrea k ing progress has been
achieved in gender parity since the 1960s.
Today, lite racy and levels of educational
attain m en t amon g Palestine refugees are
among the highest in the Middle East.
Respondin g to the evolvi ng needs and
educatio nal priori t ies of the learner, and in
the cont ext of majo r refor ms of the
educatio n programme, the Agency strives
to ensure that refugees recei ve an
educatio n which reflects inter national
standar ds, and is guided by three mutuall y
reinfor cing pillars: the educato r , kno wled g e
and skills, and tools and resources.
Resource constraints within the UNRWA
educatio n programm e remai n a recurr ent
challenge. Since the 1950s, the Agency has
operated man y of its schools on a 'double-
shift' basis, where b y one group of pupils
1
Prof Dr.Ussama Ibrahim Badawy, E-mail:ubadawy@yahoo.com, Phone +972599342123
European Journal of Academic Essays 2(1): PP-PP, 2015
attends in the morni ng and a second in the
afte rnoon .
This research Paper aims at discussing and
explore s the measures that should be done
to impro v e the UNRWA new schools design;
the proposed measures are based on the
feedback collected during the discussion
with the related educat ion staff for
Optimizati o n of School Desig n cond ucting.
This Paper will shaded lights on the curran t
School design and it will present a tool for
better understand and enhanc ing the
coordination betwe en different
stakeho lders; Education Progra m,
Archi tects, Struc t ural Engineers,
constr uction and mai n tenance enginee rs.
2. The Process of Design
Archi tectural design as a conscious act
begins wi t h a level of organ izat ion [1]. The
specific steps in the order of this
organizatio n vary on a person al level wi th
each individ ual, howe ver a general outl ine
for the process involves:
• Defini t ion of the projec t
• Analysis of the possibili t ies
• Defini t ion of the specific problem
• Examin a t ion of the alterna t i v es
• Select ion of characteris t ics
• Product ion of the solutio n
Clarifications/revisions to provide a final
result .
The tools and devices used in the process of
architec t u r al design can be defined as
either design elemen t s or design principles.
Design ele ments are those which can be
defined as specific "parts " of a design
solution. Design principl es are those ite m s
which influence, direct or resolve the
overall composit ion of the design elem ents.
Archi tectural design ele ments include:
• Materials
• Colour
• Line
• Shape
• Mass
• Space
• Texture
Though these elem e nts are revie wed
indepen dentl y, it should be reme m be re d
that they are inhere nt l y linked, acting on
and contrib u t i n g to each other 's inf luence in
the design soluti on [2]. Architect ural design
is the m ethod of organizing materials and
form s in a specif ic way to satisf y a defi ned
purpose. Two key aspects of hum a n
involvement are contai ned in the design
process. The first aspect relates to the
architec t , the secon d aspect rela tes to the
user or participant of the solution .
The archite c t contributes to the process of
creatio n through int erpretation of the
problem, inspira t ion in the design solution
and original it y stem ming fro m personal
style which defines the work as individ ual
and unique . The user or partic ipant
contributes to the process by provision of a
clearly defined set of needs as well as
throug h the use of the comple t e d struc ture,
recognizing the aspects of archi tectural
design that cont r ibute to the success of the
solution. Due to the lim i t a t i o n of this
research I will discuss only thr ee important
aspects which have direc t impact on school
design.
-Colour is an aspect of archit ectural design
which prov ides a wide array of Potential
affects. A summary of the colour definition
divides colour into two categor ies: war m
and cool. Each category provides an
emotion al response to the colour [2], [3]. The
psychological aspects summarized here
represent an overv iew of the m ajor i t y, not
necessaril y the definitive response by ever y
individu a l. These colours are related to our
Psychological response to colours produce d
by ligh t (the sun), heat and fire. The
relationship of warm colours to heat/ light
define the colour range as having a cosmic
influen ce, linked to overriding principl es of
life. Items finished in this colour range ma y
tend to have more visual weight, thus
appear i ng as dom inant when comp ared to
cool colours. The influenc e of daylight as
well as artificial ligh t i ng (speci fic typ e,
intensity, focus) will alter the effect of
colour, possibly minimizi ng or eliminat ing
the intended resul t . Brilliant light ing can be
focused to crea te em phas is relat i ve to the
colour; softer warm hued lightin g casts
more of a glow which will provide a calm i ng
effect. Lighting when designed in
conjunction wit h colour and text u r e can
greatly enhance the int ended aspects of a
design. The researche r advice to res tudyi n g
the colouring system on the UNRWA schools
from inter nal and exte rnal walls in order to
give an attractiv e coloured inter nal spaces
and mod ern view from outsid es.
-Shape as a design elem e nt rela tive to
architec t u r al principles refers to the two
dimensiona l represe ntation of form. Shape
is the outline , shadow or basic form of
structure that whic h is the simplest to
European Journal of Academic Essays 2(1): PP-PP, 2015
realize in built for m . Shape evokes a
responsive emo t i on in the viewer , pro vidin g
the "first"
affect of the buildi ng solut ion. The for ms
and types of shape will provide varied
responses, util ized by the architect to
create an emo t ion in accordance with the
intended design solution. Shape is
categor ized by four dist inct typ es:
geo m e t r ic, natura l, abstract and non-
object i ve. These basic shapes domina te our
built
environment as almost every building form
can be deri ved from them. These shapes
are common to our cult u re, simplistic and
understood by the mass population as they
are easily interp r e t e d. They are considered
to be "perfec t " shapes and therefore elicit a
sense of stabili t y and order. The concep t of
shape as a t wo- dimens iona l object leads
our analysis directly into th e next level of
three dimensions.
-The Concept of Space Architectural design
involves the practice of enclosing undefined
space to serve defined use or need.
Archi tecture as an entity contributes to the
richness, effective n ess and variet y
experie nce of huma n life within the spaces
created .
There is sensation in every centimeter of it
(Architec t u re space), and an
accommodation to ever y
architec t u r al necessit y with a determined
variation in
arrangement, which is exact l y like the
related proper ties and provis ion in the
structure of organic
form . The concep t of undefined space is
sufficien t l y vast to encumber the mind in
limitle ss thou ght. Space stretc hing on
outside our borders and wo rld into inf inity
defies the imagination . It may be said that
space exists in the absence of form. We do
not begin to gras p the concept of space
until it is enclosed by form . A positive space
is one that presents the enclosur e, th e
actual form. It contains a measured volu m e
of enclosure tha t is visual and tangible. A
negative space is the void enclosed by the
form . Nega tive spaces may be said to be
the inte rior volumes of a design (See fig.3).
2. 1 Function of schools
The funct ion of school is a place where
students receiv e education in order to fully
improve themsel ves, and education is an
action aim ed at per fect l y formi n g the
charac ter of students. In my opinio n, the
primar y mission of school is teaching
students knowl edge. A ne w design would
also incorpor a t e the most appropr i ate
technolo g y available. It would includ e
designing the curric ulum for teaching the
staff. Every design is comple t e d in order to
serve a defined functi onal aspect of our
existence. The success of a design solution
is eviden t when it resolv es the problem by
providing a suita ble environment . The
failure of functio n is evident when the
design does not achieve this goal. Functio n
relates to the essence of the design
solution. Function also has to respec t the
rhythm of life relat ing to those who occupy
the spaces [4]. Architectural design must be
consider ed in its con text tha t is relative to
the intended location, ti m e and space. Good
design is only good for a one time specific
use application repet i t i on elsewh ere withou t
change or modi ficat i o n will not achieve the
same successful result . Along with this
consider a t ion, one must realize that no
design solution exists in isolat ion for there
is always a cont ext ual elem ent present. A
design solutio n that is completed relati v e to
its conte x t u a l applicati o n is mor e likely to
be accepte d (judg ed) as appropr iate. A
design solution comple t e d in contrast to its
context must be done so with inten t .
2.2 Approaches to School Design
The school should be lively and welco m ing,
a place that the pupils will mak e their own
with an atmo sphere and sense of scale that
is not over- powe ring, or im personal.
-The plannin g of the school should be seen
not merel y as a grouping of rooms listed in
the schedule of accom m o d a t i o n but as a
comp lex of spaces per mi t t ing th e optimum
degree of varie t y in use. The need is for a
buildin g tha t can accommo da t e that varie t y
of activities; a school tha t will stimu l at e
experiment will support and encourag e
interest in the pupils.
-It is important that the school be flexible
and capable of future expansion . The design
of the school should allow for future change
and the possible addition of furthe r
accommodation. The possibilit y of
expansion should be considered when
dete r m i n i n g the organizati o n and layou t of
the school so tha t it can still operate
effecti vely if the school grows in size. First,
we should consider a philosoph y of site
design. It should be expecte d that the new
schools should consider th e followi n gs
poi nts:
European Journal of Academic Essays 2(1): PP-PP, 2015
-Educa tionally Effecti ve prov ides super ior
teaching and learni ng environments that
accommodates present and future needs.
-Healthy and Productive ‐ enable stude nts
and teachers to achieve maxim u m Potentia l
by pro vidin g healt h y, safe, and com fortable
environments.
- Cost Effecti ve ‐ provi de facilities that save
both, capital as well as operatin g costs over
time by being efficient to buil d, maintain,
and operate.
- Sustain able min i m ize environ m ental
impact s and maxi m ize the use of
nonpoll u t in g, rene wable resourc es.
- Com m u nit y Centered and Culturall y
Appropriate ‐ create schools that are
integral parts of their surrou n ding
communities’ role duri ng the design
process in order to:
• Suggest options
• Clarify expectation
• Explain approved policies
• Ensure coor dina t i on between the parties
• Review design subm issions for
comp lianc e with Design policies and
requirements.
• Recom m e nd the approva l of each design
phase
Design teams are encourage d to seek
solutions that heigh t e n educat ional
effecti veness and provide long ter m value.
Imagination should be put to work by
lookin g at exam pl es of othe r build ing types,
solutions already adopted in ot her latitudes
with similar clima t e and socioeconomic
condit ions, by a thorough review of the
latest publications, and active par t icipa t i o n.
Inspiratio n about images, shapes, textures
and colors shou ld be dra wn from the
community and cultural cont ext which the
project will serve [5]. Respect for local
culture and natura l environment are
mandatory, though design solution s must
also seek creative approaches to highlight
and add value to the local contex t . Suitab le
and well designed school buildings
are essentia l for the successful
implementat ion of educati on programm e s .
The UNRWA schools follow
a sligh tly modified Version of the academic
process. They only cover nine grad es, which
in Gaza strip com pletes the Basic cycle
according to Palestin ian Authority
requirements. After the nin th grade,
UNRWA student s can either enro ll in
governmen t a l secondary Vocational
Training Centers award successful stude n ts
with a diplo m a [6]. Due to popula t ion bulge
clearly apparent in the younger ages, an
increased pressure is put on education. In
absence of adequa te funds it is qui te
possible that more schools will have to
move over to a two- shif t system.
Therefore the researcher aim s to giv e
directio n for th e future designed schools
meeting the latest standa rd of school
design improv e me nt.
3.0 Types of schools
The UNRWA school follo ws from design
poi nt view of two standar d types of design:
-Double side school (See fig.1)
-Single side school (See fig. 2)
Figure 1: Sam ple of Dou ble side school
Figure 2: Sam ple of Single side school
Disadv an t a g e of double side
school
-Disturbance (no sound isola ted)
-None enou g h ventilatio n .
-Electrical lighting is necessary.
-Difficult to get inside and
emp t yi ng.
-There is no control on utilities
cleani n g.
-A consideration of safety is not
available.
-There is no store.
European Journal of Academic Essays 2(1): PP-PP, 2015
No control fro m adminis t r ation on
stud e n ts. Tem pera t u re is
undesirable.
Disadv an t a g e of single side
school
- Occupy very large spaces fro m
the land.
-It’s costly more than another type
and the main tenance too.
-It’s hard to provi de playi n g and
opining spaces.
-The buildings are exposed to steal
or destruction especially after the
formal day hours.
Advan ta g e of Doub le sid e school
-Easy to control the building.
-Occupy Specific place from th e
whole land.
-Beautiful shape all th e empty
-Save cost
-Maintenance cost is cheap er.
-Can save outdo o r spaces for
another usage.
Advan ta g e of Single side
school
-Ability to extension of building.
-(Staircase movem e n t)
considerations of safety are
available.
-Lighting and natural ventil a tion is
available.
-The administratio n staff can
cont r ol all facilities of school.
-Outdoor is charring with indoor.
3. 1 School re quir e m e n t s
According to the UNRWA education
departm e n t at the Gaza field office th ere
are th e followi ng requi red for schools:
30 classroom/30- 50 studen t per class
(curren t l y )
2 Head teach ers rooms
2 Assistant head teache rs’ roo ms
2 Teachers rooms
2 Ho me economic units for girls were
cancelled.
2 Hand craft units for boys were
cancelled.
1 Compu t er lab for above 27 classes the
number will be t wo.
1 Science lab for above 27 classes the
number will be t wo.
1 Multip u r pose room
1 Library
1 Guidance & counseling roo m .
1 Medical roo m
1 Special educa tion room
2 latrine units for students
2 latrines for teac hers one for male, one
for female
1 Latri ne for handicapped studen t s
2 stores
Shading shed
Canteen
Stage
Playground
Guard roo m (new requirement)
Time, budget and land- use constraints
faced by school design developers can lead
to buildings bein g assem bled with lit t le
consider a t ion for durability, sustain abilit y or
environmental health . The researcher
tries by the follo wings figures 3-8 to
sho ws all existing types of UNRWA
schools .the selecti o n criteria for the
shape of schools depends most likely
from the size of lands and the existing
site layouts.
Figure 3: Sha p e Types of Stan d ar d
Used UNRWA Schools
Figure 4: Ι−σηαπε σχηοολ Φλοορ Πλαν
European Journal of Academic Essays 2(1): PP-PP, 2015
Figure 5: Λ−σηαπε σχηοολ Φλοορ Πλαν
Figure 6 Υ−σηαπε σχηοολσ Φλοορ Πλαν
Figure 7 Σεχτιοναλ ελεϖατιον οφ τηε µαιν βλοχκ Α
οφ Υ σηαπε σχηοολ
Figure 8 Ελεϖατιον Σαµ πλε
3.2 Site Selection Criteria
Site layout dimensions should be sufficient
for prope r school desig n and to
accommodate the building footprin t to the
most favorable orientations, adequa t e
outdoor learning and physical educat i on
spaces, access to convenient parki ng, and
have well designed pedestria n and
vehicular paths, as well as ample green
area. Except in densely populated urban
areas school sites should prov ide for not
less than a 30 % increase in the footprint
agains t either possible growth or the
addition of other facilities [7].
Site selec tion will star t with the analysis of
sever al possible options that are to be
graded in conside ration of safety, suit abili t y
and convenie nce. The cost of land shall not
be a consideration for site selection. If no
suitable site is found in a given com m u ni ty
that needs a school, a change of land use
and/or the demoli t i on of existing structures
in an appropri a t e location shall be
addressed with the Pertinent authorities.
Charact eristics of undesirab le sites for
school develo p m e n t include: The dista nce
shall be measured from the nearest portion
of the runway to the mos t adjacent portion
of the school site.
Sites within potentiall y unsafe distanc es
from high voltage power transmissio n lines.
Distances are from the edge of the power
line easeme n t
Site Securi ty and Site Access Learning
activities require secur able sites that
feature control led access for the prot ection
of the students, staff and visit ors . The
following are the mos t important
requirements for all school projects:
Perim e t er walls and/or fences around
school sites that provide securit y for the
enti re cam pus, including play fields and
green areas, fences and/or walls at boy’s
schools ma ybe of a more open design which
allow for views into the Campus. Girl’s
schools must have a more opaque design
that prohibi t s views to the recreat ional and
sports areas of the school campus.
When possible, walls and fencin g shall be
integrated into archite c t u r al designs to
enhanc e and compl i m e n t the characte r istics
of buildings that occupy the campus.
Designers are encouraged to find
interestin g text u r es, colors and shapes for
peri m e t e r walls. Perimeter walls shall not
block views to the entrance of the school
and to the access to communit y facilit ies.
Buildin g façades shall to be designed and
integrated visual ly with the boundar y wall
and landscape.
Specially mar k ed entry locatio ns into
community use spaces shall be provided.
Clear and safe routes for com m u n i t y use
spaces from public ways and from parkin g
areas shall be prov ided. Lighting syste ms to
connect school entra nces, walk wa ys, and
parking areas for night use by the
community shall be designed .
European Journal of Academic Essays 2(1): PP-PP, 2015
A well defined shaded pedest r ian path
shall be established from the parking and
drop off areas to the main entrance.
Condu ct shade studies to ensur e proper
shading of pathwa ys and drop‐ off areas.
Visual super v ision of the main ent r y from
admin istrative areas shall be provi ded.
School sites for mor e than 1500 students
shall be conside red as very exceptiona l and
designs for these large campuses shall
allow for multipl e, smaller and distinct,
entry areas for each cycle within the school.
• Blind spots tha t prohibit the ability of the
staff to adequat el y supervise all areas of
the site and wi thin the school shall be
avoided.
4.0 Community Integration
Schools have the potentia l to be integ ral
part s of comm u n i t y life. The involv e m e n t of
famil ies and pro m i nent me m bers of society
in educa tion, throug h the shared use of
facilities can positive ly influence the cult u re
of schools as well as impact positive l y on
the surroun ding society. Further, this wil l
hel p to build a poli tical constituency tha t
shows suppo rt for public education and
emphasize to educators their responsibilit y
for ongoing imp r ovem e n t s .
Parent al cooperation increases confidence
in teache rs and administrators, reduces
behavio r problems, and boosts student
achievemen t ; it also demons t r a t e s to
educato rs that paren ts specifically, and the
adult comm u n i t y at large, are proact i v e
part icipa n t s in the education process.
Educati onal facilities shall be designed to
meet a varie t y of community needs by:
Helping meet some of the communit y s
educatio nal, recreat ional, and welln ess
needs.
• Being accessible to people of all ages and
physical abilities.
Encouragi ng active parental involv e m e n t
and presenc e in school activit i es.
Supporting relati onshi ps with local
businesses that are productiv e to student s
and supportive of the local economy.
Promotin g participation by members of
the com m un i ty in a variet y of ways,
Inclu ding ment o r ships, appren t icesh ips and
other learn ing oppor t u n i t ies based on work
and service.
Containin g shared public spaces that are
accessible year round, on alternate
schedules.
Being places where creativ e space
config urations expand school use, where
learning occurs after school, at night, and
on weeken ds, and where school‐ toschool
part nershi ps, links with businesses, and
collabora t i ons with highe r education are
encouraged and supported. All of the above
mentioned ideas should study careful ly to
be considerin g on the future school design.
4.1 Sustainability
Sustainable building is a fully integra t e d ;
wh o l e buildingapproach to design,
constr uction, renovation, and operat ion.
This approach differs from the tradi t ional
design/build process, as the design team
exam ines the integ ration of all building
comp onents and syste m s and determines
how they best work together to save energy
and reduce envir onmen t a l impact.
Considera t ion must be given to site
selectio n, architect u ral design, buildi n g
me thod and mater ials, and landscapin g
practices for both new buildin gs and those
undergoin g impr oveme n t s [8].
Designers should consider the
environmental imp act of the school when
making design decisions. Oppor t u ni t i es
should be taken to utilize passive and acti ve
energy systems which will demons t r a t e
prudent envir on m e n t al stewar d ship to
students and the co m m u n i t y .
Incorporate shades as much possible into
the desig n of outdo or learni ng areas and
circulation spaces throug h ou t the cam pus.
Options include, but are not limited to:
overhang s, awnin gs, trellises, and sail or
fabric t ype shade structures.
All windows shall be protected from the
direct incidence of the sun.
Design walls with ther mal masses high
enough to prev ent heat gain within its
peri m e t e r .
Consider use of vegeta t e d roofs for some
port ions of the building. I reco m m e n d
implementing these typ es of roofs for
UNRWA Schools in order to increase the
green areas facto rs.
Incorporate, when possible , trad itional
passive system s such a drip irrigation
system .
Design outdoor water featu res and
garden spaces that are approp riately
scaled, that create a soothing ambia nce,
provide positive effects on the microc limat e
and which ma y also prov ide learning
opportunities for studen ts .
Provide all hot wate r needed for toilets
blocks with a sustainable solar water
European Journal of Academic Essays 2(1): PP-PP, 2015
hea ting syste m appropr i ate to the local
climate.
Reduce as economic a lly possible the need
for electrici t y from off site sources.
Integrate sustaina ble elect rical stra t egies
such as incorpor at ion of photovol t a ic panels
for the generation of electricit y on site.
Explore strategie s for capture of
rainwater for small‐scale buildin g or
irrigation use.
Sustainable design requirements and
stra tegies are not limi t e d to this section,
but also can be found in the follo wing
sections: landscap e, utilit i es, lig hting,
thermal com f ort, day lightin g , energy
efficienc y, constr uctability and durabil i t y.
The above analysis shall include several
alternatives along with inte grated stud ies of
constr uction costs, the effec ts of buildi ng
constr uction ma terials, building orien t a t i o n,
lighting, usage schedules, fuels equip m e n t ,
maintenan ce costs, and other factors that
relate to the init ial capital cost of the
buildin g versus the annual ope rating costs.
Sustainable schools allo ws us to go above
and beyond just mee t ing th e needs of today
withou t Compromis i ng the ability of fut ure
generatio ns to mee t their own needs.
Sustainable schools give stu dents and
teachers what they deserv e: comf ortable,
healthy learnin g envi ronmen ts cont r ibuting
to acade m ic success and the achievemen t
of each students maximu m potential,
necessary to be responsible and productive
cit izens and life- long learner s beyond the
classroom [9].
4. 2Concluding Remarks
Any project should attempt to:
-find social and physical appr opria t e
planning and design metho ds to help
advanci ng the post- war reconstruction
efforts in the Gaza Strip. Such an approac h
is require d not just to rebuil d what has been
destroye d in the fighting; rath er it should
establish a strat e gic plan towa r ds more
sustainable develop m e n ts for the
Palestin ian society in the Gaza Strip.
- School buildings shall be equ ippe d to
allow for computer techn ology in ever y
educatio nal and admin istrative space, and a
central server shall be placed in a room not
accessible to students and close to the
admin istration area.
The newly designed facilities will encou rage
and support a varie t y of individua l, smal l
group and large‐g roup learni ng modali t i es.
These faciliti es will con tain resourc es and
spaces that will enhance the deliv e r y of
personalized educati onal progra m s and
services to all stude n ts, encoura ge student
to‐stude n t , adult‐ t ostuden t , and adultto
adult colla borat i o n.
-The new schools to be built will be places
of cult u r e and tradition that reach out to
local communit i es as multi‐ f unctional local
resources that encour age paren ts and
famil ies to become partne rs in the
educatio nal process.
-These new schools will embrace qualit y
teaching and learni ng in wa ys that meet the
aspir ations of the Palestine in gener al and
its fu ture generations.
-Communi t ies will have a space and a
function in the new school designs. Using
the purp osely
designed communit y meeting room as their
base, parents are to be welcomed to the
school in a var iety of roles such as assist ing
in classes, meet i ng with teachers, planning
all‐school activities, or the like. After school
hours, and subject to ma nage m ent
agreements, diff erent port ions of the school
buildin g may be open to com m u n i t y
me m bers for education al and recreatio nal
activities includi ng the gymnasi u m ,
swi m m ing pool, aud itorium, libr ary,
cafeter ia, design and technology wor kshop ,
etc.
-It is expected that the design quality of the
school bui ldin gs defined in design manual,
includ ing aesthet i cs, function ality,
durabili t y , cost effect i veness, sustaina bility,
and long term planned maintenanc e, will be
an asset for the local commu ni t y and serve
as an exampl e to be follo wed by other
governmen t and privat e facilit ies in
Palestin e .
-The imp r ovemen t process should exceed
the structural upgrading to urban ones
reaches all the com ponents of the
community (envir o n m e n t, socio- econo m ics,
infrast r u c t u r e , urban planning .etc).
Towards improv e m ent of design steps you
can
Find new proposed elements for elevations
and site layouts arrangement which was
prepared from my side to get clear
indicat ion about the proposed
develop me n ts. Figure 9-16.:
European Journal of Academic Essays 2(1): PP-PP, 2015
Figure 9: Proposed elevati on with
symmetrical archit ectural ele m ents.
Figure 10: Proposed elevation with mix ed
ma terials
Figure 11: Proposed elemen ts of eleva t ion
Figure 12: Proposed elevation with different
coulor
Proposed elemen ts of eleva t ion and roof
Figure 13: Proposed elevation elements with
sample of internal space design use
European Journal of Academic Essays 2(1): PP-PP, 2015
Figure 14: Proposed new design shape for
school
Figure 15: Prop ose d new d esign sha p e
Figure 16: Propos e d new d esign shape
wi th staircase cover
References
[1] Wiggins, G., & Mctighe, J. (2005). Understanding by Design
(expanded 2nd ed.). Alexandria,
VA: ASCD.
[2] Sowell, E. (2004). Curriciulum: An Integrative Approach.
Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Merrill.).
[3] Stephenson, Michael. (2005). the Architecture Time charts
London, England; Worth Press Ltd.
[4] Willenberg, Heiner (2006): Vom Wort zum mentaleModell.Die
Lesetheorie von DESI in der unterrichtspraktischen
Anwendung. In: Zeitschrift des baden-württembergischen
Landesinstituts (LEU). Stuttgart (in press).
[5]Badawy Ussama, 2012 ;( Palestinian Contemporary
Architecture, analysis of the current situation in Gaza Strip),
published in English by the Fourth International Engineering
Conference (IEC4), 16 October 2012, IUG.
[6] UNRWA fact sheet various years 2008,20012,2015. UNRWA
field office Gaza public information
[7] Diefendore, J.M. ( 2009). Reconstructing Devasted Cities:
Europe after World War II and New Orleans after Katrina.
journal of Urban Design, 14 (3), 377-397
[8]von Paumgartten, Paul, (2001). Going Green, Sustainable
Facilities on Campus, Johnson Controls Overview of
Building Green in Higher Education.
[9] Badawy Ussama, 2010(Enhancing the quality and cost by
using Value engineering steps; in school design and construction).
Published by the SAVE Value engineering magazine USA 2010.
ResearchGate has not been able to resolve any citations for this publication.
ResearchGate has not been able to resolve any references for this publication.