Conference Paper

Incremental Relay Based Cooperative Communication in Wireless Body Area Networks

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Abstract

Energy efficient and reliable communication is extremely crucial in most of the applications of Wireless Body Area Networks (WBANs). Communication between sensor nodes is the major energy guzzler that limits the network lifetime and hence, disrupt WBAN's operation. Moreover, unreliability in wireless communication caused by the channel impairments, such as shadowing and fading, further exacerbate the situation. This paper presents a new three-stage cooperative relaying scheme which proves to be energy efficient and reliable for WBANs. Analytical expressions for the Energy Efficiency (EE) and Packet Error Rate (PER) are also derived in this study.

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... In [23], the authors stated that the energy consumption of implants is directly related to the transmission distance and therefore, energy efficient routing protocols are an effective approach in minimizing the overall length of communication paths. Moreover, by deploying an incremental relaying strategy, the complexity and energy consumption are transferred from the implant device to the on-body relay, which is a device that can be easily replaced and recharged, in contrast to the in-body sensor nodes [10,34]. QoS requirements in WBANs vary between applications [35]. ...
... Comparison of the Proposed Protocol With Other State of Art Techniques[21,34,37]. ...
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... A modified superframe structure of IEEE 802.15.4 based MAC protocol was presented in [38] to reduce energy consumption. A relay-based cooperative communication scheme for WBAN was proposed in [53]. However, none of those schemes employ fog computing. ...
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The growth of remote patient monitoring technology introduces new opportunities for improving patient outcomes, and Wireless Body Area Networks (WBANs) are a key piece in building a successful system. However, due to the limited power and computational resources of WBAN sensor nodes, combined with user mobility and large network coverage areas, integrating WBANs with cloud and fog computing presents one of the most viable options for successful remote monitoring. In order to help maintain the real-time operations of a fog-assisted WBAN, we propose a secure and efficient data delivery protocol that will reduce delay and protect against malicious attacks on the wireless signal. The protocol is composed of three custom algorithms that address channel assignment, gateway association, and introduce a new delay- and energy-aware routing metric. The channel assignment algorithm is designed to minimize and avoid interference, including jamming nodes. The fog gateway association algorithm helps to improve the efficiency and security of the connection between the WBAN and the remote resources. Similarly, the proposed routing metric is used to construct routes that both minimize delay and conserve power at the nodes along the path for improved efficiency and lifespan of the network. The system was simulated and tested under a variety of conditions to evaluate its performance in regards to mutual interference, human mobility, fog density, and attacks by jamming nodes. The results showed clear improvements in the efficiency and resiliency of the fog-assisted WBAN system when utilizing our protocol.
... In what follows, the drawbacks and limitations of [27][28][29][30][31][32][33][34] are shown in Table 1 and can be summarised as follows: MAC protocol was not considered (such as IEEE 802.15.6), e2e delay was not analysed, the best relay node selection was not considered, the duty cycle was not analysed, and the ...
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Wireless Body Area Networks (WBANs) are single-hop network systems, where sensors gather the body's vital signs and send them directly to master nodes (MNs). The sensors are distributed in or on the body. Therefore, body posture, clothing, muscle movement, body temperature, and climatic conditions generally influence the quality of the wireless link between sensors and the destination. Hence, in some cases, single hop transmission ('direct transmission') is not sufficient to deliver the signals to the destination. Therefore, we propose an emergency-based cooperative communication protocol for WBAN, named Critical Data-based Incremental Cooperative Communication (CD-ICC), based on the IEEE 802.15.6 CSMA standard but assuming a lognormal shadowing channel model. In this paper, a complete study of a system model is inspected in the terms of the channel path loss, the successful transmission probability, and the outage probability. Then a mathematical model is derived for the proposed protocol, end-to-end delay, duty cycle, and average power consumption. A new back-off time is proposed within CD-ICC, which ensures the best relays cooperate in a distributed manner. The design objective of the CD-ICC is to reduce the end-to-end delay, the duty cycle, and the average power transmission. The simulation and numerical results presented here show that, under general conditions, CD-ICC can enhance network performance compared to direct transmission mode (DTM) IEEE 802.15.6 CSMA and benchmarking. To this end, we have shown that the power saving when using CD-ICC is 37.5% with respect to DTM IEEE 802.15.6 CSMA and 10% with respect to MI-ICC.
... The existing literature spans EE calculations over direct link [22], incremental relaying with single and two-stage relays [17], and a similar incremental relaying scenario extended to three-stage relay [18,19]. In our work, a two-way relaying scenario is presented particularly for WBAN to reduce the number of transmissions and the number of sensor nodes, which provide better results compared to previously used techniques. ...
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The fabrication of lightweight, ultra-thin, low power and intelligent body-borne sensors leads to novel advances in wireless body area networks (WBANs). Depending on the placement of the nodes, it is characterized as in/on body WBAN; thus, the channel is largely affected by body posture, clothing, muscle movement, body temperature and climatic conditions. The energy resources are limited and it is not feasible to replace the sensor's battery frequently. In order to keep the sensor in working condition, the channel resources should be reserved. The lifetime of the sensor is very crucial and it highly depends on transmission among sensor nodes and energy consumption. The reliability and energy efficiency in WBAN applications play a vital role. In this paper, the analytical expressions for energy efficiency (EE) and packet error rate (PER) are formulated for two-way relay cooperative communication. The results depict better reliability and efficiency compared to direct and one-way relay communication. The effective performance range of direct vs. cooperative communication is separated by a threshold distance. Based on EE calculations, an optimal packet size is observed that provides maximum efficiency over a certain link length. A smart and energy efficient system is articulated that utilizes all three communication modes, namely direct, one-way relay and two-way relay, as the direct link performs better for a certain range, but the cooperative communication gives better results for increased distance in terms of EE. The efficacy of the proposed hybrid scheme is also demonstrated over a practical quasi-static channel. Furthermore, link length extension and diversity is achieved by joint network-channel (JNC) coding the cooperative link.
... Due to shadowing and fading effects in the networks, the energy consumption rate of sensor nodes increases, and also the reliability in data transmission decreases, periodically. To increase the energy efficiency and reliability in data transmission, Yousaf et al. [23] proposed a new three-stage cooperative relaying scheme for WBANs. As body sensor nodes produce medical data at a variable rate, their corresponding traffic pattern is uncertain in nature. ...
... A critical question is in particular constituted by the peculiar high-loss propagation behaviour of wireless signals through and over the human body: in contrast to canonical wireless networks, where high losses can be handled by increasing power emissions (see e.g.,[7,8,9]), in BANs power emissions must be contained to both avoid damages to human tissues, due to overheating, and to preserve the charge of sensor batteries, whose substitution can result very uncomfortable for patients. Controlling energy consumption is thus a major aim in BAN design and is typically achieved through multi-hop routing, implemented through relay nodes, which are wireless devices that act as intermediate nodes between sinks and sensors and allow transmission of reduced power over shorter distances[10,11,12], Nowadays there is a rich literature about BANs, in particular about technical aspects concerning the definition of energy-efficient routing protocols and the study of the peculiar propagation condition in human bodies[2,6]. In contrast, there is still a limited amount of work devoted to the design of BANs in terms of optimization models and algorithms. ...
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Advances in wireless communication tech- nologies, such as wearable and implantable biosensors, along with recent developments in the embedded com- puting area are enabling the design, development, and implementation of body area networks. This class of networks is paving the way for the deployment of inno- vative healthcare monitoring applications. In the past few years, much of the research in the area of body area networks has focused on issues related to wireless sen- sor designs, sensor miniaturization, low-power sensor circuitry, signal processing, and communications proto- cols. In this paper, we present an overview of body area networks, and a discussion of BAN communications types and their related issues. We provide a detailed investigation of sensor devices, physical layer, data link layer, and radio technology aspects of BAN research. We also present a taxonomy of BAN projects that have been introduced/proposed to date. Finally, we highlight some of the design challenges and open issues that still need to be addressed to make BANs truly ubiquitous for a wide range of applications.
Channel model for body area network (BAN)
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