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  • The Univrsity of Agriculture, Peshawar

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Barley was procured from the local market to prepare malt flour. The process involved cleaning, washing, steeping , germination, drying, grinding and packaging. All these processing steps were standardized. Chemical analyses of raw barley and barley malt flour were carried out. The data revealed that raw barley had moisture, ash, crude protein , crude fat, crude fiber and carbohydrate contents of 11.42, 2.05, 12.01, 1.34, 6.12 and 67.06%, respectively, while malt flour had those of 4.5% (moisture), ash (1.78%), crude protein (10.50%), crude fat (1.05%), crude fiber (4.84%) and carbohydrates (77.33%). Significant reduction in protein content and increase in moisture content was observed in malt flour during storage at room temperature. The prepared flour was of white color having a good flavor. The flour could serve as a nutritional tool to fight against malnutrition.
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... Malted barley is a highly nutritious food but is rarely used in making baked products. The use of malted barley increases biofunctional substances and improves organoleptic qualities due to softening of texture and increase of flavor in grains which leads to particular flavor given to the derived products (Arif et al., 2014). During the malting process, hydrolytic enzyme production and/or release is maximized leading to cell-wall degradation and protein solubilization with a minimal starch breakdown (Hornsey, 2013). ...
... Fat content in wheat flour and malted barley flour was found to be 1.35% and 1.05% which are similar as per the reports of Arif et al. (2014) respectively. However, the fat content of oats flour is 8.3% which is quite higher than that reported by Zhao et al. (2014). ...
... higher in comparison to wheat flour and oats flour. A similar amount of fiber content in malted barley flour is also reported by Arif et al. (2014). The ash content in oats flour and malted barley flour is almost four times that in wheat flour and similar quantities of ash content in oats flour and malted barley flour were reported by Bhaduri (2013) and Arif et al. (2014) respectively. ...
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The study aimed to determine the potential of oats and malted barley flours incorporation on cookie making. D-optimal mixture design was employed for formulating the recipe of cookies. Seven different formulations of recipe containing oats flour: malted barley flour: wheat flour in the ratio of 20:25:55, 15:30:55, 13:32:55, 10:35:55, 7:38:55, 5:40:55 and 100:0:0 was prepared. The prepared cookies were subjected to sensory evaluation for consumer acceptability and the data obtained were statistically analyzed using two-way ANOVA (no blocking) at a 5% level of significance. From the mean sensory scores, the formulation 10:35:55 was selected as the optimized formulation and subjected to proximate analysis. The optimized cookies were significantly (p<0.05) superior in the case of protein (7.50%), fat (22.93%), fiber (2.90%), and ash content (0.97%) to wheat cookies (6.43%, 18.83% 0.83% and 0.41% respectively) as seen higher in oats and malted barley flours than wheat flour. The calcium content was found to be significantly (p<0.05) higher in optimized cookies (35.3 mg/100g) than wheat cookies (18.40 mg/).
Soluble nitrogen, total malt nitrogen, Kolbach index, filtration rate of wort, β-amylase activity, malt friability and malt homogeneity increased significantly over control with the application of 10 t/ha Vermicompost. Vermicompost (10 t/ha) also increased diastatic power in malt significantly over control during first year only. Fertilizer levels also caused a significant increase in soluble nitrogen and total malt nitrogen with each successive increase in fertilizer levels only upto N60P30 level. With increase in fertilizer levels Kolbach index also increased significantly. Vermicompost level and fertilizer levels led to a significant reduction in malt yield and hot water extract. With each successive increase in fertilizer levels, there was a significant increase in malt friability and homogeneity during first year only. Wort colour expressed as European brewing convention (EBC) units ranged from 3-3.5 with 10 t/ha vermicompost and the range decreased with the increase in fertilizer levels. Fertilizer levels also influenced the filtration rate of wort and recorded the maximum value of 262.5 and 268.5 ml/h with 90 kg N + 30 kg P2O5/ha level during 1998-99 and 1999-00, respectively. Fertilizer levels also affected the diastatic power significantly over control and recorded the maximum value of 83.1 and 83.8 °L in two years with 90 kg N + 30 kg P2O5/ha level of fertilizer, β-amylase increased significantly with each successive increase in fertilizer level, however, 30 N + 30 P2O5 and 60 N + 30 P2O5 levels were at par.
Barley grains were dehulled, soaked for 17 h, germinated for 48 h and malted after steeping for 18 h and germinating for 4 days. The changes in the phytate phosphorus and its influence on availability of iron in vitro were studied. On processing of barley the phytate phosphorus (% of total phosphorus) significantly decreased from 48.8 to 25.4% in dehulled, 41.4% in soaked, 33.5% in germinated and 28.9% in malted barley which caused a significant improvement in the content of ionizable iron (% of the total iron) being maximum in malted (84.0%), soaked (80.4%) and dehulled (51.4%).
Barley is the fourth most grown cereal in the world. It is mainly cultivated in the northern hemisphere. Only 10% of the total harvest is required for brewing. The quality demands are best met by 2-rowed spring varieties, although, in those countries which use unmalted grain, 6-rowed enzyme-rich varieties are also highly valued. The breeding of quality brewing barley, which is over 100 years old and expanded from Europe, was mainly concentrated on spring barleys. However, particularly in the last 20 years, attempts have been made in several countries to also improve the brewing quality of 2- and 6-rowed winter barleys. True winter barleys are essentially only of interest in Europe. The breeders aim to combine high yield with good brewing quality is also difficult for spring barleys. Only a small group of varieties are acceptable nationally. The most important barley producing countries, which carry out breeding programmes and also have world market significance, are Canada, USA, Great Britain, France, Federal Republic of Germany, Denmark and Australia.
Purple waxy hull-less barley cv. Daishimochi accumulates purple pigments in the stem, awn, lemma, palea, and pericarp during seed maturation. Four major anthocyanin constituents from the grains of cv. Daishimochi were isolated and identified as cyanidin 3-O-(3,6-di-O-malonyl-beta-D-glucopyranoside) (55%), cyanidin 3-O-(6-O-malonyl-beta-D-glucopyranoside) (21%), cyanidin 3-O-(3-O-malonyl-beta-D-glucopyranoside) (12%), and cyanidin 3-O-beta- d-glucopyranoside (4%) by mass spectrometry and one- and two-dimensional NMR spectroscopy. These anthocyanins were observed after 28 days after flowering (DAF); they were most abundant at 35 DAF when the dry weight of grains was maximum. This accumulation time was later than that of proanthocyanidins, which are the most abundant polyphenol constituents in barley grains. These anthocyanins, especially cyanidin 3-O-(3,6-di-O-malonyl-beta- d-glucopyranoside), decreased at 42 DAF and during drying preparation after harvest. Most anthocyanins are localized in the outer parts of grains and distributed into bran by the pearling process. Whole grain flour and bran of cv. Daishimochi are good sources of malonylated cyanidin derivatives.
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