BookPDF Available

Figures

Content may be subject to copyright.
imAGES:
INTERVENTION PROGRAM TO
PREVENT AGEISM IN CHILDREN
AND ADOLESCENTS
SIforAGE -Social Innovation for Active and Healthy Ageing
Santa Casa da Misericórdia de Lisboa
2
CREDITS
ImAGES: intervention program to prevent ageism in children and adolescents
Authors from ISTCE-IUL: Sibila Marques, Melanie Vauclair, Ricardo Rodrigues and
Joana Mendonça
Authors from SCML: Filomena Gerardo e Filipa Cunha
Colaboration: Conceição Sena and Eugénia Leitão
Publisher: Santa Casa da Misericórdia de Lisboa
Front cover and design: Catarina França
Epub: Leya
2015@Santa Casa da Misericórdia de Lisboa
ISBN: 978-989-8712-12-7
E-book´s citations
Marques, S., Vauclair, C.M., Rodrigues, R., Mendonça, J., Gerardo, F., Cunha, F., Sena,
C & Leitão, E. (2014). imAGES: intervention program to prevent ageism in children.
Lisboa: Santa Casa da Misericórdia de Lisboa & Leya
3
CONTENTS
1. Presentation ................................................................
2. The importance of the imAGES program:
Fighting ageism in children/adolescents .................
3. Targets of this manual ................................................
4. Organization of the manual .......................................
5. Theoretical background .............................................
6. Needs Assessment Study ..........................................
6.1. Sample description .............................................
6.2. Results of the Needs Assessment Study ...........
7. The imAGES program: Main objective and model .
7.1. Positive intergroup contact ................................
7.2. Learning about the out-group and creating
emotional bonds ........................................................
7.3. Perspective taking ...............................................
7.4. Exposure to counter stereotypical images and
more variable representation of stereotypes ..........
7.5. Implementation intentions .................................
8. The Program: detailed description ...........................
8.1. Sample description .............................................
8.2. General Overview of the Program......................
8.2.1. Intervention Group ......................................
8.2.2. Control Group ..............................................
6
16
19
19
20
22
22
22
24
24
25
25
26
26
27
29
31
32
37
4
8.3. Detailed description 3 .....................................
8.3.1. Intervention Group ...................................
8.3.1.1. Learning session 1 ................................
8.3.1.2. Learning session 2 ................................
8.3.1.3. Contact session .....................................
8.3.2. Control Group ..........................................
8.3.2.1. Learning session 1 ................................
8.3.2.2. Learning session 2 ................................
8.3.2.3. Contact session .....................................
9. Evaluation of the Intervention ................................
9.1. Evaluation instruments ....................................
9.2. Results .............................................................
10. Conclusions and recommendations .....................
11. References ............................................................
Annexes ......................................................................
40
40
40
43
44
48
48
50
51
54
54
55
57
63
67
5
“Intergenerationality is the concept that we adopted
as an inspiration and work rule. Thus, among other
purposes, we intend to move away the generational
ghettos and deeply change the paradigm of ageing.”
Chairman of Santa CaSa da miSeriCórdia de LiSboa,
dr. Pedro Santana LoPeS
“This work is an excellent example of the virtues of
research in a context of partnership among Universities
and Organizations that act nearby, as the Santa Casa da
Misericordia de Lisboa, to whom I am grateful for the
long lasting collaboration with ISCTE-IUL in numerous
projects.”
reCtor of iSCte, ProfeSSor LuíS reto
“This book is part of a Mutual Learning process of
researchers, older and young people to prevent ageism.
It has been developed in the framework of SIforAGE
project and between the close collaboration of two
institutions (ISCTE and SCML) and with an international
approach. I hope that our young people have a new
vision empowering older people and make them
important in our society.”
SCientifiC Coordinator of ProjeCt SiforaGe,
ProfeSSor eLena urdaneta
6
1. Presentation
The work presented in this training manual was
developed within the framework of the SIforAGE - Social
Innovation for Active and Healthy Ageing - project
funded under the EU FP7 framework. SIforAGE - pursues
to strengthen cooperation among the stakeholders
working on active and healthy ageing. The ultimate
goal is to put together scientists, end-users, civil society,
public administrations and companies in order to
improve the competitiveness of the European Union
regarding the promotion of research and innovative
products for longer and healthier lives.
The rst phase of this work involved the creation and
testing of the program in Lisbon, Portugal. This work was
developed with close cooperation between two partners
of the SIforAGE project, i.e. a team of the Centre for
Social Research and Intervention at the University
Institute of Lisbon (ISCTE-IUL) and a team from Santa
Casa da Misericórdia de Lisboa, (see a brief description
of the prole of the team members below).
The ultimate goal is that this team be joined by several
other partners in the SIforAGE project to apply the
program within their national contexts, thus allowing the
dissemination of this program in different countries in
Europe as well as in Brazil.
We would like to thank all the staff, specially SCML users
and technicians, who have displayed a huge commitment
so that the intergenerational programs could take place,
7
as well as Vergílio Ferreira School for its willingness to
participate in this project.
We would like to thank Dirk Jarré (EURAG), Elena del
Barrio (INGEMA), Ruta Malaskeviciene (Senior Initiative
Centre) and Xavier Allirot (Basque Culinary Centre) for
reading and commenting on a draft version of this book.
We would also like to thank Raquel V. Oliveira and Ana
Ventura for their collaboration in the translation of parts
of this manual into English.
8
AUTHORS: ISCTE-IUL
Sibila MarqueS
Sibila Marques obtained her PhD at ISCTE-IUL in 2009.
She has worked as an invited lecturer at ISCTE-IUL since
2005. She is member of the EURAGE research group,
an international project investigating attitudes to age
across Europe. She has participated in several projects
related with ageing, among other “Age, ageism and
misconceptions” of the European Social Survey and
“Aging of people with mental disabilities”. She has
published a number of papers related with aging in high
impact scientic journals in the eld since 2005. She is the
author of the essay “Discrimination of older people”.
She has participated in EQUAL initiatives projects
“FE-FORMEMPREGO” and “RUMO À QUALIDADE” and
in 2011 she was a contributor to the FUTURAGE road
map. Since 2013, she has been the scientic coordinator
in ISCTE-IUL of the FP7 European Project SIforAGE – social
innovation for healthy and active ageing (www.siforage.eu).
9
ChriStin-Melanie VauClair
Christin-Melanie Vauclair obtained a Masters in
Psychology at the University of Regensburg (Germany)
and completed her PhD in Cross-cultural Psychology at
the Centre for Applied Cross-cultural Research (Victoria
University of Wellington, New Zealand). She was a
postdoctoral student at the University of Kent (UK) and
is currently a Marie Curie Research Fellow at CIS-IUL
(Portugal) studying ageism across different societies. Her
work has made an important contribution to the scientic
community through publications in psychology and
gerontology, as well as to policy-makers and stakeholders
through numerous reports and policy recommendations
for government and (non-)prot organizations. She is
a core member of the European Research Group on
Attitudes to Age (EURAGE, www.eurage.com) and part of
the ISCTE-IUL team that is involved in SIforAge.
10
riCardo borgeS rodrigueS
Ricardo Rodrigues Borges, Ph.D. in Social and
Organizational Psychology, is a lecturer and the Director
of the Master’s in Psychology of Intercultural Relations at
ISCTE-Lisbon University Institute. He is also a researcher
in CIS-IUL, where he has been developing work on the
reduction of prejudice and discrimination in children
across the domains of age, race, and poverty, with
published national and international articles and book
chapters on these topics. In the last years he has also
served as a consultant on organizational change for
public school districts with a signicant prevalence of
students at risk of academic and social exclusion.
11
Joana Maria Mendonça
Joana Maria Mendonça holds a Masters in Social and
Organizational Psychology from ISCTE – Lisbon University
Institute (Portugal). She has professional experience
in human resources, manly in the areas of recruitment
and selection and also training. Her experience as a
trainer was especially relevant in the development of the
activities described in this manual. She is a member of
the ISCTE-IUL team that is involved in SIforAGE Project
and has developed reports about ageing programs and
policies at national level and across several European
countries. She is presently preparing her PhD project in
the eld of ageism.
SCML
12
AUTHORS: SCML
FiloMena gerardo
Filomena Gerardo Ponciano holds a PhD in Sociology
from the University of PARIS 5 – René Descartes –
Sorbonne and ISCTE – IUL and a Master’s Degree in
Culture and Social Behaviors from University of PARIS 5 –
Sorbonne.
She is advisor of the Department of Social Action
and Health of SCML and she develops studies and
participates in international projects. She is the scientic
coordinator of the International project SIforAGE –
framework programme FP7, in Santa Casa da
Misericórdia de Lisboa. She is member of the Scientic
Committee of the project UAW (United at Work) and
member of the Board of Directors of the International
REIACTIS Network (Network of International Research on
Age and Citizenship) since 2012. She is also a researcher
at DinamiaCET ISCTE-IUL.
13
Filipa Cunha
Filipa Cunha has a Master’s Social and Organizational
Psychology from ISCTE – University Institute of Lisbon.
She has been working in social responsibility projects
focused on social exclusion, ageing and education.
Additionally, she has spent some time researching
ageism and has won the Social and Economic
Responsibility Best Master’s Thesis Award for her work
with ISCTE – IUL and the Portuguese Social Security in
2012.
She was also part of Santa Casa da Misericórdia de
Lisboa’s team in SIforAge project.
She is, currently, the president of Inspiring Future, an
NGO dedicated to educational and vocational guidance
projects, providing training in personal and professional
competencies in Secondary Schools.
14
ConCeição Sena (collaborator)
She holds a Degree in Childhood Education from the
School of Education of the University of Lisbon.
She is a childhood educator of the Direction of
Development and Proximity Intervention of Santa Casa
da Misericórdia de Lisboa (SCML), an organization of
social responsibility.
She has had diverse professional experiences along a 34-
year career path.
She is, currently, developing her activity as an educator
in Technical Development and Proximity Intervention
Unit, giving Advice to the management of childhood and
youth units.
15
eugénia leitão (collaborator)
She holds a Degree in Childhood Education from the
School of Education Mª Ulrich (1981).
She is specialized in special education-EESC – School of
education Jean Piaget (1991).
She has performed functions in Santa Casa da
Misericórdia of Lisbon since 1981. From that date until
1992, as a kindergarten teacher. In 1992 she assumed
Technical functions of Education Support to Local Social
Action Directorate, to direct administration equipment
Managers and IPSS’s.
She has participated in projects related to the
study of educational contexts, promoting learning
in differentiated groups, child development, early
prevention, among others. She has a special interest in
the discussion of educational issues and dynamics of
territorial development.
Member of the Professional Association of Childhood
Education, having integrated the direction for 4 years.
16
2. The importance of the imAGES
program: Fighting ageism in children/
adolescents
Most people know the Disney Pixar movies. Almost
everyone has seen or heard of movies like Toy Story or
Finding Nemo. It is noteworthy that since Toy Story was
released, it sold worldwide more than 25 million dollars
of Buzz Lightyear’s toys and the same happened with
countless other heroes of these lms. The truth is that at
the outset, these movies always have a great potential
for creating prot at the box ofce. However, one of
the last Disney Pixar lms was at the centre of a strong
controversy, with several investors strongly questioning
the success of the movie and marketing products
associated with it. Scheduled for release in 2009 the
lm Up was the rst movie ever that featured an older
person as a hero. Up tells the story of a widower, Carl
Frederiksen, who is 78 years old and shares an exciting
adventure with a little boy in South America. The movie
received very positive reviews from the critics and some
international awards (e.g., Cannes) showing the merit of
the movie. However, this vision was initially not shared
by nancial analysts, which even led to a decrease in the
Disney Pixar shares during a certain period. The problem
arose because the toy manufacturers assumed that
there would be no market for the dolls associated with
this lm, as children would not want to play with a doll
representing a senior citizen of 78 years old. When the
movie was nally released, in fact all these fears proved
17
unfounded. The lm was a major box ofce success and
made, as always, considerable marketing prots.
Taking up on this controversy, the major U.S. newspaper
New York Times questioned its readers: What is the
reason behind these behaviours in relation to the movie
Up? Would it be a matter of ageism against the lm
simply because the hero was 78 years old?
Generally we can think of ageism as the negative
attitudes towards people because of their age. Unlike
what happens with other types of negative attitudes
towards certain groups (e.g. racism and sexism),
ageism has the special characteristic of being a type of
belief still very socially acceptable in various spheres
of our everyday life, and there is strong evidence that
older people are frequently the target of this sort of
discriminatory practices. The reactions to the lm Up
illustrate the type of thinking that occurs with some
frequency in our everyday lives.
Data from the European Social Survey in 2008/2009,
considering representative samples of 28 European
countries (over 50,000 personal interviews), showed
that 40.1% of people aged 65 to 74, and 37.5% over
75 years old, stated that they have been treated in a
discriminatory way (i.e., patronized) because of their age.
In fact, 30.5% of people aged between 65 to 74, and
29.3% of people over 75 years old, said that they were
even treated with insults or abuses due to age. These
gures show the prevalence of this type of discrimination
in our societies.
18
The ght against age discrimination is fundamental
and has recently increased in importance in the
European context. The article 21 from the Charter of
Fundamental Rights of the European Union, recognizes
the discrimination of people because of their age as a
violation of fundamental rights of the human being.
The majority of countries in the European Union have
adopted by now anti age-discrimination laws, both
regarding employment and other areas (e.g., health,
social services). However, there is still need to assure
an adequate implementation of these laws, in order to
build truly more inclusive age societies (see the European
Network of Legal Experts in the Non-Discrimination Field
at http://www.non-discrimination.net). It is in this context
that the imAGES program assumes a central role.
Several studies show that children as young as 6 years old
also share an ageistic view of older people and that these
types of negative representations need to be addressed
as early as possible. If the children of today learn that
older people are not a homogenous age group and that
their capabilities and competences are not necessarily
connected to their biological age, they should become
adults that are less prone to ageist stereotypes and
behaviour. This is the main goal of the imAGES program:
to deconstruct the negative images and stereotypes
usually associated with older people, by creating a more
varied and positive representation of this age group
among children and adolescents.
19
3. Targets of this manual
This manual is directed to trainers who wish to conduct
actions to prevent ageism in children and adolescents
(11-14 years). It is based on the work of a pilot study
conducted in Lisbon and provides in detail the actions
and the evaluation methodology followed in this
intervention program. Although the imAGES program
was originally created within the specic Portuguese
background, it is possible to adapt it to other cultural
backgrounds.
4. Organization of the manual
This manual is organized in ve main sections. First we
present a brief theoretical background of the intervention
and the main variables considered in this program.
Afterwards we present the preliminary diagnosis study
conducted exploring ageism and ageistic stereotypes
of older people in our sample. This initial study was
important because it shows the need of intervention in
this domain.
In the following sections of the book, we present a
detailed description of the activities developed in
the program. The goal is that this procedure can be
replicated and adapted by trainers while applying the
program. We also present the evaluation procedure,
along with the appropriate questionnaires. Finally,
we draw the main conclusions and point to future
implications of this work.
20
5. Theoretical background
Age is likely to be one of the rst and most important
dimensions children use in order to organize their
perceptions of others (Lewis, Brooks & Gunn, 1979).
Categorizing others into broad categories such as
‘young’ and ‘old’ goes along with making automatic
and stereotypical inferences about people’s abilities
and interpersonal characteristics (Nelson, 2002). There is
empirical evidence that stereotypical beliefs about old
age can cause young adults to behave in prejudicial ways
towards older targets (e.g., Kwong See & Heller, 2004;
Kwong See et al., 2001).
Equally important, is the nding that exposing older
adults to negative age stereotypes can have profound
effects on their functioning across different domains, such
as their physical health (e.g., Whitbourne and Sneed,
2002), mental capabilities (Hess, Auman, Colcombe
& Rahhal, 2003; Abrams, et al., 2008; Chasteen,
Bhattacharyya, Horhota, Tame & Hasher, 2005; Hess et
al., 2003; Levy, 1996) and even their will to live (Levy,
Ashman, Dror, 1999-2000). Understanding when and what
kinds of ageist beliefs children develop is crucial for the
design and evaluation of intervention schemes aimed
at reducing stereotyping and at increasing the focus on
individual differences in ageing (Giles & Reid, 2005).
One of the most important evidence regarding ageism
towards older people is based on a well-established
social psychological model of stereotyping, and that can
21
be used to compare age stereotyping across different
age groups. The stereotype content model (SCM,
Fiske et al, 2002), holds that there are two underlying
dimensions that organize stereotypical beliefs towards
any social group in society: (1) competence, i.e., the
degree to which a group is characterized as intelligent
and capable, and (2) warmth, i.e., the degree to which
a group is regarded as friendly and likeable. Numerous
studies show that older people are evaluated in
an ambivalent way, i.e., they are seen as warm, but
incompetent (Cuddy & Fiske, 2002; Fiske, Cuddy, Glick, &
Xu, 2002; Fiske et al., 1999; Heckhausen, Dixon, & Baltes,
1989; Kite, Deaux, & Miele, 1991). Cross-cultural studies
suggest that this “doddering but dear stereotype” is
pervasive across national and cultural boundaries (Cuddy
et al., 2002). A recent study conducted by our own team
shows that, children as young as 6 years of age share this
stereotypical representation of older people (Vauclair et
al., in prep).
In order to ascertain that this stereotypical representation
of older people is also shared among young adolescents,
we conducted a so-called “Needs Assessment Study”
with adolescents of 11-14 years of age.
6. Needs Assessment Study
In order to assess the need of an intervention program
that aims at changing stereotypical representations of
older people, we conducted a pilot study with the target
age group. Attitudes towards age and stereotypical
22
perceptions about older people (over 70 years of age)
and young people´s own age group were assessed
through the application of a questionnaire in a sample of
34 adolescents, from a public school in Lisbon.
6.1. Sample description
The sample of the Needs Assessment Study was
composed by 34 students (16 female) of a public school
in Lisbon. The average age of the sample was 13.36
years, with the youngest participant being 11 years old
and the oldest 15 years old.
Most of the respondents (n = 32), had Portuguese
nationality and only 2 students were born in another
country, but they stated having been living in Portugal for
more than one year.
When asked about whom the youngsters live with, most
of them reported living with both their parents (58.8%),
35.3 % with just one of their parents and, two of them
reported living with someone else. Only 18.2% reported
living with their grandparents.
Participants took an average of 12.33 minutes to answer
the questionnaire (standard deviation = 3.69).
6.2. Results of the Needs Assessment Study
As can be seen in the graphic presented below (Figure
1), the key results obtained with this questionnaire
23
are consistent with those reported with adults in the
literature: older adults were more perceived as warm
(mean=3.77; SD = 0.32) than competent (mean = 3.19; SD
= 0.57). Younger people were perceived as equally warm
(mean=3.41; SD = 0.56) and competent (mean=3.50; SD
= 0.62)1.
Figure 1. Perceptions of the dimensions of competence and warmth
regarding older people (n = 34)
These results reinforced the need for an intervention in
order to counteract the ambivalent stereotype associated
with older people in adolescents.
1. To analyze these differences we used a Repeated Measures ANOVA where AGE
(Young vs. Old) and Stereotype Content (Warmth vs. Competence) were entered as
within-participants factors. The analyses revealed a signicant interaction between
these two factors, F(1,33) = 17, p=.000, η2p = .34. Planned comparisons revealed
that older people were perceived as a more warm than competent group, F(1,33) =
40.89, p=.000, η2p = .55. There were no signicant differences between perceptions
of warmth and competence regarding younger people, F<1.
4
3,5
3
2,5
2
1,5
1
Youngsters Older People
Competence 3,5 3,19
Warmth 3,41 3,77
24
7. The imAGES program:
Main objective and model
Based on the literature review and the Needs Assessment
Study, we established the main objectives of the imAGES
program. The program had two main goals: 1) to reduce
ageism by deconstructing negative stereotypes of
ageing, and consequently 2) to reduce ageist behaviour.
Based on these goals, we identied the main factors
referred in the literature as having a possible inuence in
changing negative stereotypes. Below we present a brief
denition of each factor considered in the theoretical
model that served as a basis for our intervention (Figure 2).
7.1. Positive intergroup contact
Contact between groups has been show to decrease
prejudice and has effects that last beyond the
intervention. It has the potential to increase the affective
ties between groups and enhances perspective-taking,
leading to a more positive view of the other groups
interests and expectations. However, the success of
contact as a way of reducing prejudice depends on the
existence of some key factors: equal status between
groups (awareness that groups have an equal status
during activities), authority support (institutional
credibility of the intervention), sharing common goals
(orientation towards goal-sharing), and intergroup
cooperation (development of common work to attain
25
a meaningful result for all). According to Pettigrew and
Tropp (2006), the design of intervention programs that
include all of these factors is more successful than those
that ignore some of them.
7.2. Learning about the out-group and
creating emotional bonds
Studies suggest that learning about other groups and
creating emotional bonds can positively inuence the
reduction of prejudice. Acquiring new and positive
information about the discriminated group, and
participating in conversations and tasks that build
emotional closeness, help changing the widespread and
negative ideas we may have about members of other
groups.
7.3. Perspective taking
Assuming the perspective and role of others is a powerful
way to break stereotypic images (Galinsky & Moskowitsz,
2000). Seeing things from the other’s eyes allows for a
perspective on how it is like to be discriminated, and
what kind of specic experiences these people bear
in their daily lives. It can also be a powerful way to
experience the positive characteristic and events in other
people’s lives.
26
7.4. Exposure to counter stereotypical
images and more variable representation of
stereotypes
Stereotypes are not easy to change. These are strong
held beliefs about certain groups of people that
are widely shared in our societies and that have a
conservative function of guiding social life.
The literature in social psychology shows that one of
the most effective methods to ght stereotypes is to
present contradictory information, that is, examples that
contradict what is usually expected. The presentation of
a set of contradictory examples has been shown to give
individuals the idea that not everyone is alike, leading
to a more individualized view of members of these
groups (Garcia-Marques & Mackie, 1999). For instance
showing young people a set of older competent older
people may help deconstruct the “doddering, but dear
stereotype”.
7.5. Implementation intentions
Finally, the literature has demonstrated the effectiveness
of a practical method to change our behaviours towards
people from different groups: the implementation
intentions model (Mendoza, Gollwitzer & Amodio,
2010). This strategy allows you to think of behavioural
alternatives when faced with situations involving the
discriminated group. For instance, when presented
with a situation of a possible interaction with an
27
older person, the subject is asked to think about a
positive and non-discriminatory mode of interaction.
Practicing this exercise acts directly on the individuals’
attitude, instigating different types of behaviours and
communication with older people.
The model below summarizes the main variables of the
imAGES program.
Figure 2. Theoretical model of the intervention
8. The Program: detailed description
The imAGES program is based on a quasi-experimental
design, which includes the participation of two groups:
a control group and an experimental group. Participants
were randomly assigned to these groups. Consequently,
Intention
implementation
Perspective
taking
LESS AGEIST
BELIEFS
LESS AGEIST
BEHAVIOURS
Exposure to
contra-stereotypical
information
Individualization
Positive
intergroup contact
Learning about the
outgroup
+
Creation of
affective ties
28
participants in the control and experimental groups have
identical demographic characteristics. They only differ in
regard to the intervention they take part in. The inclusion
of a control group in this intervention is a key element
to ensure that the results obtained with this program are
due to the specic intervention and not to other factors.
The gure presented below illustrates the general design
of this study. First of all, it is important to note that both
the intervention and the control groups were subjected
to an evaluation procedure aimed at measuring the
impact of the intervention program. So, a questionnaire
was applied to both groups (intervention group and
control group) in order to measure their attitudes toward
ageing and older people before, during and after the
intervention took place.
Hence, both groups were subjected to three main
intervention moments: two learning sessions and
one contact session. The results of the program were
evaluated after each one of these moments. Both
the intervention and the control group followed a
similar procedure. However, while the intervention
group focused on activities regarding age and ageing
stereotypes, the control group focused on a topic
unrelated to ageism (environment). The goal was to
assess whether any change in the stereotyping of older
people was indeed due to the content of the anti-ageism
intervention program, or due possible extraneous factors
not directly related with the content of the anti-ageism
program. We describe the activities in more detail below.
29
Figure 3 – Design of the Intervention Program
8.1. Sample description
The sample of this study is composed by 55 students,
from the 7th year of a public school in Lisbon, who where
distributed by the intervention and control groups . Of
these, 27 were included in the intervention group and
16 (59.3%) were female. Regarding age, the youngsters
were, in average, 12.04 years old (standard deviation of
0.52), the youngest participant was 11 years old and the
oldest was 13 years old.
Most of the youngsters (96.3%) had Portuguese
nationality and only 2 students were born in another
country. Of these, one reported living in Portugal for
more than one year.
Intervention
Group
2 Learning
Session
“All about
imAGES”
Week 1 Week 2
Contact
Session
Control
Group
2 Learning
Session
“All about the
Environment”
Contact
Session
Pre-TesT PosT-TesT
1
PosT-TesT
2
30
When asked about whom the youngsters live with, most
stated living with both their parents (57.7%), and the rest
living with just one of their parents.
In the present study, it was important to know if
youngsters lived with their grandparents, but the majority
reported not being in this situation (92.3%).
The control group was composed by 28 youngsters
and of these 66.7% were female. Regarding age, the
youngsters are in average 12.04 years old (standard
deviation of .52), the youngest participant was 11 years
old and the oldest was 14 years old. All the participants
had Portuguese nationality and only 1 was born in
another country, but stated living in Portugal for more
than one year.
When asked about whom the youngsters lived with the
most part reported living with both their parents (73.1%),
and the rest living with one of their parents. Only 7%
reported living with their grandparents.
This intervention program also had the collaboration of
49 active older people from day centres (Santa Casa da
Misericórdia de Lisboa). Of these, 43 were female (87.8%).
The mean age of these participants was 77.10 years,
with the youngest participant being 60 years old and the
oldest 88 years old.
31
Regarding their health status, the most part of the older
people rated their health as median (55.1%) and good
(20.4). However, 14.3% of these participants stated to
have a bad health status.
8.2. General Overview of the Program
In this section we present a description of the steps
followed in the program. First we will present the
intervention group and then the control group. Both
interventions had a similar structure and they only
differed in the content addressed in each version. In
the intervention group participants were presented
with tasks related with anti-age discrimination contents.
This was the target of the imAGES program. In the
control group participants were presented with an age-
unrelated content – environmental activities. The goal
was to present the control group with a similar type of
tasks as in the intervention group, but that differed in
the specic content being addressed. In this way we can
directly compare whether the results obtained by the
imAGES program were related with the specic anti-age
discrimination content being addressed, or if they were
just due to the specicities of the being part of this sort
of intervention, regardless of the specic content being
addressed. This type of evaluation design, involving
a comparison of an intervention and control group,
represents a major advantage to guarantee the quality
of the intervention when achieving its intended goal
(Wholey, Hatry, & Newcomer, 2010).
32
8.2.1. Intervention Group
A pre-test (annex 14) was applied to the intervention
group one week before the beggining of the activities
described below.
The intervention group went through two learning
sessions and one contact session.
The rst learning session, had the goals of promoting the
discussion of real examples of positive and active ageing,
and making youngsters realize that the consequences
of age are different in each person. In that sense, each
group of youngsters was given a description of positive
and active real examples of ageing in order to expose
them to counter-stereotypical information regarding
older people and, thus, promote a more balanced and
diversied idea of this group (see Annex 4). Then, one
young person of each group personied a real and
active example of ageing with the goal of stimulating
perspective taking and making youngsters learn more
about the group of older people. After this activity, a
deconstruction of the stereotype about older people, by
discussing and comparing these positive examples, with
those that are more negative and typically portrayed in
society, was carried out.
This rst learning session ended with the assignment of
two homework exercises (see annex 6), which had the
goal of reinforcing what they had learned and reections
based on the positive examples of ageing. These
exercises, again, promoted perspective taking by asking
33
the youngsters to think about their own ageing and
positive behaviour intentions regarding future situations
involving interaction with older people.
The second learning session began with a discussion
of the homework assignments, with a special emphasis
on Exercise 2, which provided information about the
diversity of youngsters’ behaviours when interacting
with older people they know. Moreover, this exercise
had the goal of promoting good behaviour intentions in
youngsters, regarding interaction situations with older
people.
In the end of the second learning session, a questionnaire
was applied (Post-test 1; see annex 15) to test for the
impact of the session by comparing with the answers
previously given in the pre-test.
The contact session had the main goal of promoting
a situation of positive intergroup contact between
youngsters and older people, enabling youngsters to
learn about the out-group while facilitating the creation
of affective ties. In this intergenerational activity,
youngsters and older people were invited to work in
teams towards a common goal, namely to create a
campaign to make Lisbon a better city, a city where
all people feel included. More specically, youngsters
and older people were divided into groups of 4 to 5
members, and asked to develop posters with appealing
messages to motivate others to make Lisbon a better city.
The choice of a theme not related to the topic of ageing,
but comparably relevant and known to both age groups,
34
was instrumental to establish a relation of equality
between the groups.
After the posters had been prepared, they were
displayed in the classroom to be seen by all, and a
light snack was provided to all the participants, also to
promote further interaction between the two age groups.
At the end of the contact session, the evaluation
questionnaire was applied again (Post-test 2, see annex
15) to test for the impact of the session by comparing the
answers with those given in the Pre-Questionnaire (see
annex 14).
Table 1 – Intervention Group – “All about imAGES”
INTERVENTION GROUP – “ALL ABOUT imAGES”
pre-teStSt
Type and number
of session Theoretical
variables Session goals Activities
Learning Session
1
(Week 1)
Duration: 1 hour
and 15 minutes
Icebreaker; To
prepare the
deconstruction of
stereotypes about
older people
Youngsters report
how society inclu-
ding themselves
views older people
Exposure to coun-
ter-stereotypical
information; Indivi-
dualisation
To discuss positive
real examples of
ageing
Group discussion
about an example
of an active older
person
Exposure to coun-
ter-stereotypical
information;
Perspective taking
To learn about
the out-group; To
adopt less ageist
beliefs
One young partici-
pant of each group
personifies a real
and active example
of ageing
35
INTERVENTION GROUP – “ALL ABOUT imAGES”
pre-teSt
Type and number
of session Theoretical
variables Session goals Activities
Learning
Session 1
(Week 1)
Duration: 1 hour
and 15 minutes
Exposure to coun-
ter-stereotypical
information; Indivi-
dualisation
To deconstruct the
stereotype about
older people.
To learn about the
existing inter-indivi-
dual diversity within
the group of older
people
Comparison
between the
attributes that are
attributed in society
to older people
(discussed in the
beginning of the
session) with those
that resulted from
discussing the real
and positive exam-
ples of ageing
Homework
Exercise 1
Exposure to
counter-stereo
typical information;
Perspective taking
To reflect about the
real and positive
examples of ageing
and to take the
perspective of
being older. To pro-
mote the identifica-
tion of youngsters
with the positive
examples of older
people presented
The youngsters
analysed and chose
one of the active
and real examples
of older people
that they would like
to be in the future.
Homework
Exercise 2
Intention
Implementation
To promote positive
behaviour inten-
tions in youngsters
regarding interac-
tion situations with
older people
The youngsters
have to imagine
possible situa-
tions in which
they interact with
older people and
to describe their
behaviour in each
of these possible
situations
36
INTERVENTION GROUP – “ALL ABOUT imAGES”
pre-teSt
Type and number
of session Theoretical
variables Session goals Activities
Learning
Session 2
(Week 1)
Duration:
45 minutes
Perspective taking
To promote the
youngsters’ iden-
tification with the
active examples of
ageing
Homework –
Discussion of
Exercise 1
Intention
Implementation
To promote positive
behaviour inten-
tions in youngsters
regarding interac-
tion situations with
older people
Homework –
Discussion of
Exercise 2
Exposure to
counter-stereo
typical information
To deconstruct the
stereotypes about
older people.
To learn about the
inter-individual
diversity within
the group of older
people
Comparison
between the ste-
reotypical attributes
of older people and
the real positive
examples of ageing
presented in Lear-
ning Session 1
poSt-teSt 1
Contact Session
(Week 2)
Duration:
2 hours
Positive intergroup
contact: learning
about the outgroup
and development
of affective ties
To promote a
positive and direct
intergroup contact
between yougsters
and older people
Youngsters and
older people work
together in teams,
developing a pos-
ter on how to make
Lisbon a better city
poSt-teSt 2
37
8.2.2. Control Group
A pre-test (annex 14) was applied to the control
group one week before the beggining of the activities
described below.
The control group included (similarly to the intervention
group) two learning sessions and one contact session.
The rst learning session aimed at promoting the
discussion of positive and real examples of environmental
projects, and making youngsters realize that there are
several types and different environmental projects.
Specically, each group of youngsters was given a
small description of a positive and real example of an
environmental project (see annex 11). After each group
had analysed their specic environmental project,
one spokesperson of each group presented their
environmental project to the rest of the class. Then,
a discussion was stimulated by the trainer in order to
highlight the variety of environmental projects and the
different focus of each of them.
This rst learning session ended with the assignment
of two homework exercises, which aimed to reinforce
what youngsters had learned and reected regarding
existing environmental projects, and to promote
behaviour intentions towards the participation in similar
environmental projects and adopting ecological actions
in their daily life.
The second learning session began with a discussion of
Exercise 1 of the homework assignment, in which the
38
youngsters were asked to choose one environmental
project they would like to participate in and to justify
their choice. As for Exercise 2, the youngsters were asked
to indicate daily ecological behaviours that they intended
to perform, and to share these intentions with the class.
At the end of the second learning session, Post-test 1
(see annex 15) was applied to test for changes following
this learning session when compared to the pre-test (see
annex 14).
The contact session aimed to promote a situation of
positive intragroup contact between the youngsters.
In the case of the control group only youngsters were
included. In this activity, the youngsters were invited to
work in teams in order to achieve a common goal, namely
to create a campaign to make Lisbon a better city.
Specically, the youngsters were divided into 7 groups
(each one composed by 4 elements) and assigned the
task of designing posters with appealing messages that
would motivate others to make of Lisbon a better city.
After the posters were completed, they were displayed
in the classroom to be seen by all, while a light snack was
distributed by all the participants, to facilitate further the
interaction between the youngsters. The contact session
ended with the administration of Post-test 2 (see annex
15), to test for changes comparing with the beginning of
the intervention (Pre-test) and after the learning session
(Post-test 1).
39
CONTROL GROUP – “ALL ABOUT THE ENVIRONMENT”
pre-teSt
Type and number
of session Learning session goals Activities
Learning
Session 1
(Week 1)
Duration:
1 hour and
15 minutes
Icebreaker
Youngsters report actions that
they regularly do to protect
the environment
To discuss positive and real
environmental projects
Group discussion about
an example of a real
environmental project
To learn that there are several
types of environment projects
One youngster of each group
presents one environmental
project to the rest of the class
Homework
Exercise 1
To reflect about real and posi-
tive examples of environmen-
tal projects. Promote youngs-
ters’ intention to participate
in environmental projects like
those presented
The youngsters analyse and
choose one of the real envi-
ronmental projects’ examples
presented as the one that they
would like to participate in
Homework
Exercise 2
To promote positive beha-
viour intentions in youngsters
towards the environment
The youngsters have to think
of possible situations in which
they will adopt a behaviour
that protects the environment
(e.g., avoid polluting).
Learning
session 2
(Week 1)
Duration:
45 minutes
To promote the youngsters’
identification and motiva-
tion to participate in one of
the environmental projects
presented
Homework –
Discussion of Exercise 1
To promote good behaviour
intention in youngsters regar-
ding environmental actions
Homework –
Discussion of Exercise 2
Deconstruction of stereotypes
about environmental projects
Comparison between the
stereotypical attributes given
to environmental projects and
the attributes of the real exam-
ples presented in the Learning
Session 1
poSt-teSt 1
Table 2 – Control Group – “All about the Environment”
40
CONTROL GROUP – “ALL ABOUT THE ENVIRONMENT”
Contact Session
(Week 2)
Duration:
2 hours
To promote contact between
the youngsters
Youngsters are assigned to
teams and are asked to work
towards the common goal of
developing a campaign to
make Lisbon a better city
poSt-teSt 2
8.3. Detailed description
In annex 20 there is a step-by-step guide on how to use
the imAGES program. There we present the sessions
described in sufcient detail in order to be replicated or
adapted as needed in other cases. Below, we present a
brief outline of the intervention in order to present the
general idea of the activities conducted.
8.3.1. Intervention Group
A pre-test (annex 14) was applied to the intervention
group one week before the beggining of the activities
described below. Each youngster answered this
questionnaire individually and the trainer claried
eventual doubts.
8.3.1.1. Learning session 1
The trainer started learning session 1 by welcoming the
participants and presenting the objective of the session
as “learning more about age”. Then, an icebreaker task
was presented by the trainer in order to achieve two
goals: promoting the empathy between the trainer and
the participants, and serving as an introductory task to
the ageing subject. In this context, the participants were
41
asked to tell their names and one characteristic normally
attributed by society to older people.
Throughout this exercise, the trainer wrote all the
attributes mentioned by the youngsters on the board.
Then, the trainer presented the next task and asked
participants to organize themselves into groups of three
people, giving each group an identication card with
relevant information about a real older person (see
annex 4). In the case of the pilot study, 6 proles of older
people were presented. The trainer explained that the
participants should analyse in the group the example
of a real and active older person, with the support of an
instructions sheet (see annex 5). After that analysis, each
group should select a spokesperson who would pretend
to be the person indicated in the Identication Card, and
would introduce himself/herself to the rest of the class.
Moreover, a mask (the face of each person presented
in the Identication Cards) was given to the youngsters
for them to put in front of their faces, to make the
presentation seem more authentic and real.
Before the participants started this proles game, the
trainer gave them an example, demonstrating how they
should do the presentation. During the youngsters’
representations, the trainer wrote on the board (with a
different marker that the one used in the initial task of
the session) the main characteristics and attributes they
mentioned about each example of real older people
(e.g., proactive, worker, enterprising, sporty).
42
At this stage, the trainer already had the necessary
material to stimulate the discussion, focusing on the
differences between the initial characteristics reported
by the participants as the “society’s perspective about
older people”, and the characteristics revealed through
the real proles of older people presented in the class.
By making this comparison, the trainer highlighted the
diversity regarding older people and promoted the
deconstruction of stereotypes concerning this age group.
Almost at the end of the session, the trainer gave
instructions for the homework (see annex 6), and
explained that youngsters should do two exercises
at home with or without the help of their parents or
grandparents, and bring the completed exercises in the
next session. More specically, it was explained that in
the rst exercise they would be taking copies of all the
Identication Cards (see annex 4) with them in order to
choose their favourite person, and who they would like to
be as an adult.
Furthermore, the trainer explained that in the second
exercise they should complete the sentences presented
by imagining how they would act with an older person
who is a friend of theirs. The trainer gave an example
concerning this exercise and made sure that this task was
clear to everyone.
Finally, the trainer ended the session by thanking
everyone’s participation and reminding the date of the
following session.
43
ACTIVITY:
Silvína became a volunteer teacher o lliterate
workers (gardeners, electricians, street sweepers)
from the Parish she lives in. Her task is to transmit
knowledge to these pupils at primary school
level, in Portuguese, Mathematics, History and
Geography.
CURIOSITY:
Silvína prepares these pupils for the exam cor-
responding to the 1st level of basic education
(primary school) and many of them managed to
obtain their diploma with distinction.
Name: Sílvina Carvalho
Nationality: Portuguese
Age: 83
8.3.1.2. Learning session 2
The trainer started learning session 2 by asking
participants if they had done their homework, if they
had any doubts while doing the exercises, and if they
had done them autonomously or had asked for help
from their parents or grandparents. After that, the
trainer started correcting the homework by asking to the
youngsters what answers they had given to exercise 1,
that is, which character they liked the most and which
they would like to be in the future.
Then, the trainer asked what answers the youngsters had
given to the second exercise, asking for each to give his/
her answer, in order to show the diversity of behaviours in
the context of interaction with an older person known to
them.
After the discussion regarding the homework, the trainer
confronted the youngsters with stereotypical sentences
Photo By Mariana Castanheira
44
about older people, deconstructing them and showing
that they are not true. To do this in a more credible
way, the trainer compared the stereotypical sentences
regarding older people with the information describing
the real older people represented in the proles
game. The trainer ended this task, by highlighting the
big diversity that exists in the society and specically
regarding older people.
Post-test 1 – To evaluate the efciency of this session,
the trainer asked the participants to complete a
questionnaire about the two learning sessions,
highlighting the importance of the participants’
spontaneous and sincere answers.
8.3.1.3. Contact session
The contact session started with the creation of small
groups of youngsters and older people distributed in an
equitable way (one group should have the same number
of youngsters and older people), and they sat in chairs
around several tables.
45
Afterwards, the trainer welcomed the participants and
transmitted the main goal of this activity: the creation of a
campaign on the theme “Lisbon: a better city”.
Before the beginning of this task, participants were
invited to know each other, forming pairs of different
generations inside each group (a young person and
an older person). This icebreaker task was about each
46
participant getting to know the colleague through a list
of questions given by the trainer (see annex 7).
After that, the trainer asked for each pair to share with
all the participants the response to the last question,
which was: “If you had to choose a place in Lisbon to
go together, what would that place be?” and the trainer
wrote the answers given on the board.
Before starting the intergenerational activity of creating
a campaign, the trainer presented and highlighted the
theme and its importance to all the participants, referring
that there are a lot of different people living in Lisbon
and that the city should be a place where all people feel
included. After that, the trainer informed participants that
each group would be responsible for the development of
one poster and that all the posters would be part of the
campaign “Lisbon: a better city”.
The trainer distributed one poster per group and other
necessary material, highlighting the importance of having
a title before developing the rest of the poster. Once
all the groups had the necessary material, the trainer
47
encouraged the participants to think together about
what should be changed in Lisbon in order to make the
city better and more inclusive for everyone.
After giving these orientations, the trainer guaranteed
the activity was developed within the available time,
and made sure that all the members of the groups
participated, preventing the isolation and exclusion of
members from the tasks.
At the end of this activity, the trainer congratulated all the
groups for the excellent work developed, and informed
them that the suggestions given about how to make
Lisbon a better city were very important and should be
shared with others. In that sense, the trainer informed the
posters would be exhibited at the school, where everyone
would be able to see them.The trainer thanked all for
their participation and invited them to a light snack.
After this, the trainer applied a post-test 2 to the
youngsters (see annex 15) and to the older people (see
annex 16), saying that it was very important to obtain
their opinion on the session in order to improve the
activities.
48
8.3.2. Control Group
A pre-test (annex 14) was applied to the control
group one week before the beggining of the activities
described below. Each youngster answered this
questionnaire individually and the trainer claried
eventual doubts.
8.3.2.1. Learning session 1
Learning session 1 begun with the trainer presenting
himself/herself and the theme of the session, as well as
several aspects related to environmental projects.
Before starting the activity, the trainer asked for each
participant to say his/her name and also an action he/she
regularly does in favour of the environment. At the same
time, the trainer wrote on the board what the participants
said.
After this icebreaker task, the trainer presented the
activity called “All about the Environment”, asking for
them to form groups of 3 people and giving to each
group a description of a different environmental project
(see annex 11). In the case of the pilot study 6 proles
49
of environmental projects were presented. The trainer
explained that participants should analyse, with the
group, each environmental project intervention and
choose a spokesperson in order for him/her to present
their environmental project. Before the participants
began this analysis, the trainer gave an example of a
presentation of an environmental project as if he/she was
the spokesperson of a group.
Then, the groups analysed the environmental
programmes with the support of an instructions’ sheet
(see annex 12) and each spokesperson presented
the environmental project to the class. During these
presentations, the trainer wrote on the board (next to
the words mentioned by the participants during the
icebreaker phase) the words they mentioned and which
were important to emphasize.
After this activity, the trainer stimulated reection by the
participants about the activity developed, highlighting
the diversity regarding the existing environmental
intervention programmes and the common goal they
share: the preservation of the environment.
At the end of this learning session, the trainer gave
instructions to the youngsters about the homework (see
annex 13), explaining that they would be taking home the
descriptions of the various environmental projects. The
trainer explained that in exercise 1 they should choose
the environmental project they would like to participate
in and why. In the second exercise the participants
50
should describe a behaviour they think they will adopt
in possible daily life situations regarding environmental
protection. This explanation was complemented with an
example given by the trainer specically regarding the
second exercise, clarifying possible doubts.
Then, the trainer reinforced the importance of the
participants doing the homework, which would be the
subject of the following class.
Photo By Mariana Castanheira
8.3.2.2. Learning session 2
The trainer started the learning session 2 by asking
participants if they had done their homework, if they
had doubts while doing the exercises, and if they had
done them autonomously or asked for help from their
51
parents or grandparents. After that, the trainer started
the homework correction by asking the youngsters what
answers they had given to the exercise 1, that is, which
environmental intervention program they liked the most
and which they would like to participate in.
Then, the trainer asked what answers the youngsters
gave to the second exercise, asking each of them to
say their answer in order to show the diversity of daily
behaviours concerning the environmental preservation.
After the discussion regarding the homework, the
trainer confronted the youngsters with stereotypical
sentences about environmental intervention programs,
deconstructing them and showing that they were not
true. To do this in a more credible way, the trainer
compared the stereotypical sentences, regarding this
kind of projects, with the information describing the
effective and diversied environmental intervention
programs presented in learning session 1.
Post-test 1 (see annex 15) – To evaluate the efciency
of this session, the trainer asked the participants to
answer a questionnaire about the two learning sessions,
highlighting the importance of their spontaneous and
sincere answers.
8.3.2.3. Contact session
The contact session started with the creation of small
groups of youngsters from different classes distributed in
an equitable way (each group should have the same
52
number of participants from each class; a total of 4
members per group) and they sat in chairs around several
tables.
Afterwards, the trainer welcomed the participants and
transmitted the main goal of this activity: the creation of
a campaign on the theme “Lisbon: a better city”. Before
the beginning of this task, participants were invited to
get to know each other, forming pairs inside each group.
This icebreaker task was about each participant getting
to know the colleague through a list of questions given
by the trainer (see annex 7).
After that, the trainer asked each pair to share with all the
participants the response to the last question, which was:
“If you had to choose a place in Lisbon to go together,
what would that place be?” and then the trainer wrote
the answers given on the board.
Before starting the activity of creating a campaign, the
trainer presented and highlighted the theme and its
importance to all the participants, referring that there
are a lot of different people living in Lisbon and that the
city should be a place where all people feel included.
After that, the trainer informed the participants that
each group would be responsible for the development
of one poster and that all the posters would be part
of the campaign “Lisbon: a better city”. Then, the
trainer distributed one poster per each group and other
necessary material, highlighting the importance of having
a title before the development of the rest of the poster.
Once all the groups had the necessary material, the
53
trainer encouraged the participants to think together
about what should be changed in Lisbon in order to
make the city better and more inclusive for everyone.
After giving these orientations, the trainer guaranteed
the activity was developed within the available time,
and made sure that all the members of the group
participated, preventing the isolation and exclusion of
members from the tasks.
At the end of this activity, the trainer congratulated all the
groups for the excellent work developed, and informed
them that the suggestions given about how to make
Lisbon a better city were very important and should be
shared with others. In that sense, the trainer also said
that the posters would be exhibited at the school, where
everyone would be able to see them.
The trainer thanked all for their participation, and invited
them to a light snack.
After that, the trainer applied a post-test 2 (see annex 15
to the youngsters, saying that it was very important to
obtain their opinion on the session in order to improve
the activities.
54
9. Evaluation of the Intervention
This intervention was developed with the goal of
reducing ageism among youngsters. The Needs
Assessment Study showed that, similarly to what happens
in adults (Fiske et al., 2002), children and adolescents
also share a paternalistic view of older people, perceiving
them as an incompetent but warm group. These types
of negative representations reect a subtle form of
prejudice against people of this age group, and may
have signicant consequences for the way older people
are treated (Marques, 2011).
Hence, the specic goal of the imAGES program was
to deconstruct these types of negative stereotypical
representations of older people, by organizing a
theoretically structured set of activities with younger
people. As referred before, in order to assess the efcacy
of the program we used a quasi-experimental study
where we compared the outcomes of participants in the
program (“All about imAGES” group) with participants
in a control group (“All about the environment” group).
In the two cases we used similar set of evaluation
instruments. Below there is a more detailed description
of these tools and main results found.
9.1. Evaluation instruments
Both groups lled in the same questionnaire in the
three different stages of the intervention: before the
intervention, after the two learning sessions and after the
55
contact session. A control group was included to make
sure that differences between the different stages in the
intervention group were due to the impact of the learning
and/or contact sessions rather than other uncontrolled
factors that could co-occur in-between the sessions.
The average time the participants took to ll in the
questionnaires was 15 minutes in the pre-questionnaire,
10 minutes in the rst post-questionnaire and 10 minutes
in the second post-questionnaire.
9.2. Results
In order to assess the impact of the intervention in
reducing youngsters’ ageism, the answers given in
the three stages were compared, particularly looking
for differences between the pre-intervention and the
learning/contact sessions. In support of efcacy of the
intervention, results show a signicant change in the
representation of aging in the intervention group, in
particular, after the intervention group of youngsters
expressed a more positive view of older people
perceived as both competent and warm. These results
were evident after the two learning sessions and after
the contact session1. Importantly, the representations
of aging in the control group did not show a signicant
change, thus showing that the activities carried out in the
intervention group had a specic and signicant effect in
1. To analyze these differences we used a Repeated Measures ANOVA where AGE
Stereotype Content (Warmth vs. Competence) and TIME (Time1, Time2, Time3) were
entered as within-participants factors.
56
reducing youngsters’ ageist views2.
Perceptions of the Intervention Group
Figure4. Perceptions of the dimensions of competence and warmth
regarding older people for the intervention group
2. The analyses revealed a signicant interaction between these two factors, F(2,34)
= 15.31, p=.000, η2p = .47. Of interest, planned comparisons revealed that older
people were perceived as more competent from Time 1 to Time 2, F(1,17) = 6.16,
p=.023, η2p = .27, and than from Time 2 to Time 3, F(2,34) = 6.69, p=.019, η2p =
.28, revealing that the intervention had the intended effect of increasing the percep-
tion of older people as more competent throughout the sessions. Both the learning
and the contact sessions had the power to improve the perceptions of older people.
More details regarding the results of the evaluation process may be found by direct
contact with the authors (sibila.marques@iscte.pt, melanie.vauclair@iscte.pt, lomena.
gerardo@scml.pt, lipacunha.s@gmail.com). Currently the team is working towards
the preparation of papers to be submitted to scientic journals on the details of this
process. Hopefully, these will be available in a near future as a complement to the
information provided in this book.
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
Baseline Post-test 1 Post-test 2
Competence 4,70 5,54 6
Warmth 6,59 6,09 6,50
57
10. Conclusions and recommendations
Evidence shows that ageism against older people is a
signicant phenomenon in our societies, assuming neg-
ative consequences for older people. Children, as young
as 6 years old, share these types of negative beliefs
(Vauclair et al., in prep). Several studies show that when
older people are presented with negative stereotypes of
ageing (e.g., portraying them as incompetent and ill) this
has signicant negative consequences for their health
(Marques et al., 2014) and for their competence and
performances in several domains (e.g., memory perfor-
mance; Levy, 1996).
The children of today will be the adults of tomorrow. The
ght against ageism should start as early as possible in
order to guarantee a positive improvement of attitudes
toward ageing in the present and in the next generations.
This change in mentality is crucial in order to face the
coming challenges of an ageing society as the one we
will live in the near future.
The imAGES program is a signicant contribution in
this domain in the sense that it represents an efcient
intervention to change children’s and adolescent’s
representations of older people. It holds some important
key features that make it a valuable contribution in this
eld. The imAGES Program has four main strengths:
1. EXPERTISE - This program was developed by a team
of social psychologists with a extensive experience on
social intervention programs;
58
2. THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK - The imAGES program
is based on a solid theoretical framework - stereotype
content model (SCM, Fiske et al, 2002);
3. FLEXIBILITY - It is a exible program given that that it
is possible to adapt, with the necessary changes, to other
cultural backgrounds or to specic situations;
4. EFFECTIVENESS - The pilot project developed in
Lisbon, Portugal, had signicant results, which reinforce
its reliability and consistency.
In this manual we presented a detailed description of
the steps followed in the Lisbon pilot testing of the
program. We hope this facilitates future applications of
the program in different contexts. Having this goal in
mind it is important to recognize what are the central
features of the program that should be maintained in
order to guarantee the success of the intervention and
possibilities of adaptation for specic contexts and
backgrounds.
Do we need to develop all the activities and follow the
examples given?
Like it was pointed out before, one of the strengths of
this program is its exibility, which means that it can
be adapted to specic situations or constraints. The
positive results obtained in the pilot study revealed that
this intervention program was effective both after the
two learning sessions and after the contact session. This
means that, if by some reason there is no possibility to
develop both the learning and contact sessions, one can
59
choose just one of them and this will be already reducing
ageism.
Besides, there is also the possibility to adapt the activities
of the program, if we maintain their main key features.
The theoretical model we follow in the imAGES program
describes the main factors that should be worked in
the intervention. However, the actual format of each
of the specic activities developed may be subjected
to changes as long as some characteristics of the
intervention are maintained.
Below we present a table where we describe the
main features that should be kept in each session and
possibilities of adaptation. However, it is important to
guarantee an adequate evaluation procedure, and we
recommend the use of the questionnaire suggested in
this manual. We hope this helps in the dissemination of
this program, which we believe represents an important
contribution of the SIforAGE European project.
Table 3 – Possibilities of adaptation – “All about imAGES”
60
INTERVENTION GROUP – “ALL ABOUT IMAGES”
pre-teSt
Type and number
of session Theoretical variables Session goals Present Activities Possible adaptations
Learning
Session 1
(Week 1)
Duration:
1 hour and 15 minutes
Icebreaker; To prepare the decons-
truction of stereotypes about older
people
Youngsters report how the society
views older people
Any exercise that makes
youngsters report freely
their views about older
people
Exposure to counter-ste-
reotypical information;
Individualisation
To discuss positive real examples
of ageing
Group discussion about an example
of an active older person
In this activity it is essential
to show a sample of active
examples of older people.
If we show just one or two
examples this could have
a counter effect of actually
increasing or not changing
the stereotype (Garcia
-Marques & Mackie, 1999).
Any activity developed
should have this main
guideline as a mandatory
requirement
Exposure to counter-ste-
reotypical information;
Perspective taking
To learn about the out-group; To
adopt less ageist beliefs
One young participant of each
group personifies a real and active
example of ageing
Perspective taking of older
people’s experiences is
a major factor to change
stereotypic perceptions
(Galinsky & Moskowitz,
2000). Any exercise that
guarantees the use of
this strategy would be
adequate
61
INTERVENTION GROUP – “ALL ABOUT IMAGES”
Learning
Session 1
(Week 1)
Duration:
1 hour
Exposure to counter-
stereotypical information;
Individualisation
To deconstruct the stereotype
about older people.
To learn about the existing inter-
individual diversity within the
group of older people
Comparison between the characte-
ristics that are attributed in society
to older people (discussed in the
beginning of the session) with
those that resulted from discussing
the real and positive examples of
ageing
Any activity that compa-
res initial views with the
new representations of
older people shared in
the session is adequate
Homework
Exercise 1
Exposure to counter-s-
tereotypical information;
Perspective taking
To think about the real and positive
examples of ageing and to take
the perspective of being older. To
promote the identification of youn-
gsters with the positive exemplars
of older people presented
The youngsters analysed and chose
one of the active and real examples
of older people that they would like
to be in the future
The homework should
allow youngsters to work
and strengthen the pers-
pective taking of older
people
Homework
Exercise 2 Intention Implementation
To promote positive behaviour
intentions in youngsters regarding
interaction situations with older
people
The youngsters have to imagine
possible situations in which they
interact with older people and to
describe their behaviour in each of
these possible situations
This exercise should be
maintained as designed.
Implementation of inten-
tions needs to be done
in a specific manner in
order to achieve the
desired results
Learning
Session 2
(Week 1)
Duration:
45 minutes
Perspective taking
To promote the youngsters’ iden-
tification with the active examples
of ageing
Homework –
Discussion of Exercise 1
In any case, in learning
session 2 it is important
to do the homework’s
correction
Intention Implementation
To promote positive behaviour
intentions in youngsters regarding
interaction situations with older
people
Homework –
Discussion of Exercise 2
In any case, in learning
session 2 it is important
to do the homework’s
correction
62
INTERVENTION GROUP – “ALL ABOUT IMAGES”
Learning
Session 2
(Week 1)
Duration:
45 minutes
Exposure to
counter-
stereotypical
information
To deconstruct the stereo-
types about older people.
To learn about the inter-in-
dividual diversity within the
group of older people
Comparison between the
stereotypical attributes of
older people and the real
positive examples of ageing
presented in Learning
Session 1
It is fundamental to end the
learning session discussing with
youngsters changes in their
representations of older people
Post-test 1
Contact Session
(Week 2)
Duration:
2 hours
Positive intergroup
contact: learning
about the out-group
and development of
affective ties
To promote a positive and
direct intergroup contact
between youngsters and
older people
Youngsters and older people
work together in teams, de-
veloping a poster on how to
make Lisbon a better city
Regardless of the actual activity
developed between older and
younger people, it is fundamental
to maintain the four characteristics
of successful contact situations as
defined by Pettigrew and Tropp
(2006):
- equal status between groups
(awareness that groups have an
equal status during activities)
- authority support (institutional
credibility to the intervention)
- sharing of common goals
(orientation to goal sharing)
- intergroup cooperation (de-
velopment of common work to
attain a meaningful result for all)
poSt-teSt 2
63
11. References
Abrams, D., Crisp, R. J., Marques, S., Fagg, E.,
Bedford, L., & Provias, D. (2008). Threat inoculation:
Experienced and imagined intergenerational contact
prevents stereotype threat effects on older people’s math
performance. Psychology And Aging, 23(4), 934-939.
Chasteen, A. L., Bhattacharyya, S., Horhota, M., Tam,
R., & Hasher, L. (2005). How Feelings of Stereotype
Threat Inuence Older Adults’ Memory Performance.
Experimental Aging Research, 31(3), 235-260.
Cuddy, A. C., & Fiske, S. T. (2002). Doddering but
dear: Process, content, and function in stereotyping
of older persons. In T. D. Nelson (Ed.), Ageism:
Stereotyping and prejudice against older persons (pp.
3-26). Cambridge, MA US: The MIT Press.
Fiske, S. T., Cuddy, A. C., Glick, P., & Xu, J. (2002).
A Model of (Often Mixed) Stereotype Content:
Competence and Warmth Respectively Follow From
Perceived Status and Competition. Journal Of Personality
& Social Psychology, 82(6), 878-902.
Fiske, S. T., Lin, M., & Neuberg, S. L. (1999). The
continuum model: Ten years later. In S. Chaiken, Y. Trope
(Eds.). Dual-process theories in social psychology (pp.
231-254). New York, NY US: Guilford Press.
Galinsky, A. D., & Moskowitz, G. B. (2000). Perspective-
taking: Decreasing stereotype expression, stereotype
64
accessibility, and in-group favoritism. Journal of
Personality and Social Psychology, 78, 708-724.
Garcia-Marques, L. & Mackie, D. M. (1999). The Impact
of Stereotype-Incongruent Information on Perceived
Group Variability and Stereotype Change. Journal Of
Personality and Social Psychology, 77, 979-990.
Giles, H., & Reid, S. A. (2005). Ageism Across the
Lifespan: Towards a Self-Categorization Model of Ageing.
Journal Of Social Issues, 61(2), 389-404.
Heckhausen, J., Dixon, R., & Baltes, P. (1989). Gains
and losses in development throughout adulthood as
perceived by different adult age groups. Developmental
Psychology, 25 (1), 109-121.
Hess, T.M., Auman, C., Colcombe, S., & Rahhal,
T. (2003). The impact of stereotype threat on age
differences in memory performance. Journal of
Gerontology: Psychological Sciences, 58, 3-11.
Kite, M. E., Deaux, K., & Miele, M. (1991). Stereotypes
of young and old: Does age outweigh gender?.
Psychology And Aging, 6(1), 19-27.
Kwong See, S. T., & Heller, R. B. (2004). Judging Older
Targets’ Discourse: How Do Age Stereotypes Inuence
Evaluations?. Experimental Aging Research, 30(1), 63-73.
Kwong See, S. T., Hoffman, H. G., & Wood, T. L. (2001).
Perceptions of an old female eyewitness: Is the older
eyewitness believable?. Psychology And Aging, 16(2),
346-350.
65
Levy, B. (1996). Improving memory in old age through
implicit self-stereotyping. Journal Of Personality And
Social Psychology, 71(6), 1092-1107.
Levy, B., Ashman, O., & Dror, I. (2000). To be or not to
be: the effects of aging stereotypes on the will to live.
Omega: Journal Of Death & Dying, 40(3), 409 420.
Lewis, M. & Brooks-Gunn, J. (1979). Social cognition
and the acquisition of self. New York: Plenum Press.
Marques, S. (2011). Discriminação da Terceira Idade.
Lisboa: Relógio d’Água.
Marques, S., Swift, H.J., Vauclair, C.M., Lima, M.L.,
Bratt, C. & Abrams, D. (2014). Being old and ill´ across
different countries: Social status, age identication and
older people´s subjective health. Psychology & Health.
E-pub ahead of print. DOI: 10.1080/08870446.2014.938742
Mendoza, S.A., Gollwitzer, P.M. & Amodio, D.M. (2010).
Reducing the expression of implicit stereotypes: reexive
control through implementation intentions. Personality
and Social Psychology Bulletin, 36, 512-523.
Nelson, T. D. (2002). Ageism: Stereotyping and
prejudice against older persons. Cambridge, MA US:
The MIT Press.
Pettigrew, T. F., & Tropp, L. R. (2006). A meta-analytic
test of intergroup contact theory. Journal Of Personality
And Social Psychology, 90(5), 751-783.
66
Whitbourne, S., & Sneed, J. R. (2002). The paradox of
well-being, identity processes, and stereotype threat:
Ageism and its potential relationships to the self in
later life. In T. D. Nelson (Ed.), Ageism: Stereotyping
and prejudice against older persons (pp. 247-273).
Cambridge, MA US: The MIT Press.
Wholey, J.S., Hatry, H.P., and Newcomer, K.E. (2010).
Handbook of practical program evaluation (3rd ed.). San
Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.
67
ANNEXES
ANNEX 1. LOGICAL MODEL OF LEARNING SESSION “ ALL ABOUT imAGES”- SESSION A1
Task DescripTion DuraTion resources proDucTs clienTs
objecTives
shorT Term meDium Term long Term
Entry into the room
and tolerance period
Tolerance period for possible
delays 10 min List of
participants
Youngsters
from the
7th school
grade
• Decrease
ageism between
generations
• Promoting
inclusion and
pro-age
behaviours
1) Welcome, presenta-
tion of the trainer and
purpose of the activity
The trainer thanks the participants
for attending and introduces him/
herself if it is the first contact. He/
she also mentions the purpose of
the activity
5 min
Projector,
computer,
slides of the
Session A1
• Creating em-
pathy with the
participants
• Familiarizing
the
participants with
the activity
2) Icebreaker
The icebreaker consists of two
distinct tasks: first the youngster
says his/her name and then states
a characteristic he/she considers
that society attributes to older
people in general. The trainer takes
note of this information on the
whiteboard
15 min
Whiteboard or
flipchart; dif-
ferent colour
markers
Participants’
responses
3) Profiles’ game
The trainer asks participants to
form groups with 3 people each,
and gives each group an identity
card that contains information
about a good example of active
aging along with the worksheet to
support the implementation of the
task. The trainer asks the group
to study the profile and choose a
spokesperson to embody the real
character and present it to the
large group. During the presenta-
tion of the character the trainer
takes notes on the whiteboard of
the most important features of the
character that spokesperson refers
in contrast with the characteristics
of older people revealed earlier
30 min
Identification
cards; char-
acters’ faces;
worksheet;
pens; different
colour markers
ANNEX 1. LOGICAL MODEL OF LEARNING SESSION “ ALL ABOUT imGES”- SESSION A1
Task DescripTion DuraTion resources proDucTs clienTs
objecTives
shorT Term meDium Term long Term
4) Discussion of the
task
The discussion of the task focuses
on the differences between the
initial characteristics attributed to
older people (by society), and the
characteristics revealed through
the seniors’ profiles; emphasizes
the understanding of the differ-
ences between everyone and the
importance that each person has,
regardless of their age; and that
what people like or do, does not
change or stops being important
due to age
10 min
Whiteboard
or flipchart,
projector,
computer,
slides for
Session A1;
different col-
our markers
5) Homework and
conclusion
The homework aims at implement-
ing more positive intentions in
youngsters towards older people.
The trainer hands each student a
copy of all the identity cards from
the previous task and a home-
work sheet. Here they will have to
choose a profile with which they
identify themselves the most, and
complete the exercise on possible
behaviours to adopt regarding an
older person. After explaining the
homework, the trainer announces
the date of the next session
5 min
Homework
sheet; copies
of the identi-
fication cards
per participant
• Implementing
pro-age intentions
• Promoting more
inclusive and positive
attitudes towards
older people
ANNEX 2. LOGICAL MODEL OF LEARNING SESSION “ ALL ABOUT imAGES” - SESSION A2
Task DescripTion DuraTion resources proDucTs clienTs
objecTives
shorT Term meDium Term long Term
Entry into the room
and tolerance period
Tolerance period for possible
delays 10 min List of young
participants
Youngsters
from the
7th school
grade
• Decrease ageism
between
generations
• Promoting inclusio
n and pro-age
behaviours
1) Analysis of the
homework
The trainer should start the session
by asking if the students had ques-
tions when doing the homework
and if they did it independently or
with the help of family members.
Afterwards, the actual analysis of
the second exercise (implementa-
tion intentions) will be done
10 min Homework
sheet
Homework
done
2) Summary of the
training; overall
conclusion
Resorting to the slides, the trainer
will confront students with stereo-
typical phrases about older people,
deconstructing them and demon-
strating that they are not true.
For such, the trainer will compare
these stereotypical phrases with
the profile pictures of older people
with an active lifestyle analysed in
the previous session
10 min
Computer,
projector,
slides of
session A2
3) Evaluation
questionnaire
Application of the post-test 1 to
the younger people 15 min Evaluation
questionnaire
ANNEX 3 - LOGICAL MODEL OF INTERGENERATIONAL CONTACT ACTIVITY “ ALL ABOUT imAGES” - SESSION B
Task DescripTion DuraTion resources proDucTs clienTs objecTives
shorT Term meDium Term long Term
Entry into the room
and tolerance period
Tolerance period for possible
delays 10 min List of
participants
Youngsters
from the
7th school
grade
• Decrease
ageism
between
generations
• Promoting
inclusion
and pro-age
behaviours
1) Constitution of the
teams
The constitution of the intergen-
erational teams is made through
the random distribution of seniors
and youth through the tables in the
room. It is necessary to take into
account the number of participants
in the classroom
10 min
2) Welcome, presenta-
tion of the trainer and
purpose of the activity
The trainer thanks the participants
for attending and introduces him/
herself if it is the first contact. He/
she also mentions the purpose of
the activity
5 min
Projector,
computer,
slides of
session B,
Whiteboard or
flipchart dif-
ferent colour
markers
• Creating
empathy with
participants
• Familiarize
participants with
the activity
• Develop inclusion
3) Icebreaker
For the icebreaking activity, it is
necessary that, within each group,
intergenerational pairs be created
so questions can be made to the
partner according to a predefined
script. The trainer asks each pair to
share with the group the answer to
the last question
15 min
Worksheet
“Let’s get to
know each
other?”; Pens,
Whiteboard or
flipchart dif-
ferent colour
markers
Worsheets
with par-
ticipants’
responses
• Encourage
understanding
among participants
• Promote the creation
of emotional bonds
between participants
4) Introduction to the
topic
The trainer reflects with the group
about the theme of diversity and
inclusion within the city of Lisbon
5 min
Projector,
slides of
session B;
Computer
• To foster reflec-
tion on the subject
• Potentiate behav-
iours of inclusion and
activism toward the
city where they live
ANNEX 3 - LOGICAL MODEL OF INTERGENERATIONAL CONTACT ACTIVITY “ ALL ABOUT imAGES” - SESSION B
Task DescripTion DuraTion resources proDucTs clienTs objecTives
shorT Term meDium Term long Term
5) Creation of the
campaign: “Lisbon: a
better city”
Through the distribution of a
poster for each group, participants
will need to undertake a campaign
in favour of a better Lisbon for
everyone. Each group will choose
a Title (phrase) for their poster
based on the general theme of the
campaign. They will also have to
include in the poster ideas of how
we can improve Lisbon
45 min
Projector,
computer,
slides of
session B;
blank posters;
miscellane-
ous material:
butcher paper,
coloured
sheets, mark-
ers, pencils,
etc
Posters for
the cam-
paign
• Potentiate coop-
eration between
generations
• Understand the im-
portance of a city that
respects all people
regardless of the per-
ceived differences
6) Activity summary,
posters’ display and
snack
The trainer concludes the activity
by summarizing the main ideas
discussed, and helps participants
hang the posters on the wall of the
classroom, while sharing a snack
15 min
Projector,
computer,
slides of
session B.
Snack tables,
plates, silver-
ware, glasses,
napkins, sticky
tape
• To consolidate the knowledge acquired in
the session
7) Evaluation
Post-test 2 to be applied to the
younger people; Post-test to be
applied to the older people
15 min
Evaluation
questionnaire
for young
people;
evaluation
questionnaire
for older
people
ANNEX 4 – EXAMPLE OF AN IDENTIFICATION CARD
“ALL ABOUT imAGES
ACTIVITY:
Silvínia became a volunteer teacher o lliterate
workers (gardeners, electricians, street sweep-
ers) from the Parish she lives in. Her task is to
transmit knowledge to these pupils at primary
school level, in Portuguese, Mathematics, Histo-
ry and Geography.
CURIOSITY:
Silvínia prepares these pupils for the exam cor-
responding to the 1st level of basic education
(primary school) and many of them managed to
obtain their diploma with distinction.
Name: Silvínia Carvalho
Nationality: Portuguese
Age: 83
Photo By Mariana Castanheira
ANNEX 5 – WORKSHEET “ALL ABOUT imAGES”
1. Read carefully the identication card of the aged person assigned
to you and ll in the following blank spaces:
Name: ____________________________
Age:_____________________________
What does that person do?
_____________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________
A curiosity about that person: ________________________________
_____________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________
______________________________________
2. Now that you know well the aged person assigned to you, please
chose the spokesperson for your group. This spokesperson will
personify this aged person and will introduce himself /herself to the
class as if he/she actually were that person!
Name of the spokesperson: ___________________________________
ANNEX 6 – HOMEWORKSHEET “ALL ABOUT imAGES”
Class: __________ Birth date:________________
1. In the activity “All about imAGES”, did you get to know the life
stories of real seniors? To help you remember and so that you do
not forget any important detail, we give you the Identication Cards
of those people.
After you read these cards again, answer:
Which of the people presented would like to be when you grow
older? Why?
_____________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________.
2. In our day-to-day life, we usually are with many people, and we
do not behave in the same way with everyone. In the next exercise,
you are going to imagine how you are with senior people you know.
How will you behave yourself and where?
See this example:
EXAMPLE: If I nd a senior person in the GARDEN then I will INVITE
HIM/HER TO DO SOMETHING TO ME.
Now do you do it:
2.1. If I nd a senior person in the ______________________ then I will
_________________________________.
2.2. If I nd a senior person in the _____________________ then I will
_________________________________.
LET’S GET TO KNOW EACH OTHER?
1) Ask your partner the following questions and record the answers
in this worksheet:
1. What is your name? ________________________________________
2. Do you live in Lisbon? _____________________________________
3. How long have you lived in Lisbon? __________________________
4. What do you most enjoy doing in Lisbon?
____________________________________________________________
1) After answering the questions above, along with your partner,
answer the following question together:
If you had to choose a place to go together in Lisbon, what would
it be?
_____________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________
ANNEX 7 – CONTACT SESSION ICEBREAKER
ANNEX 8. LOGICAL MODEL OF LEARNING SESSION “ ALL ABOUT THE ENVIRONMENT” - SESSION A1
Task DescripTion DuraTion resources proDucTs clienTs objecTives
shorT Term meDium Term long Term
Entry into the room
and tolerance period
Tolerance period for possible
delays 10 min List of
participants
Youngsters
from the
7th school
grade
• Promoting
pro-envi-
ronmental
behaviours
1) Welcome, presenta-
tion of the trainer and
purpose of the activity
The trainer thanks the participants
for attending and introduces him/
herself if it is the first contact. He/
she also mentions the purpose of
the activity
5 min
Projector,
computer,
slides of the
Session A1 • Creating
empathy with the
participants
• Familiarizing the
participants with
the activity
2) Icebreaker
The icebreaker consists of two dis-
tinct tasks: first the youngster says
his/her name and then mentions
an action he/she regularly does
in favour of the environment. The
trainer takes note of this informa-
tion on the whiteboard
15 min
Whiteboard
or flipchart,
different
colour markers
Participants’
responses
3) Game of
environmental
interventions
The trainer asks participants
to form groups with 3 people
each, and gives each group one
description of an environmental
project along with the worksheet
to support the implementation
of the task. The trainer asks the
group to study the environmental
project and choose a spokesperson
to present it to the large group.
During the presentation of the
environmental project the trainer
takes notes on the whiteboard
of its most important features in
contrast with the characteristics
often attributed by society to this
kind of projects (e.g. environmental
projects are all the same)
30 min
Identifica-
tion cards of
environmental
projects; pens;
worksheet; dif-
ferent colour
markers
ANNEX 8. LOGICAL MODEL OF LEARNING SESSION “ ALL ABOUT THE ENVIRONMENT” - SESSION A1
Task DescripTion DuraTion resources proDucTs clienTs objecTives
shorT Term meDium Term long Term
4) Discussion of the
task
The discussion of the task focuses
on the understanding of the
differences between different types
of environmental projects and the
importance that each one has
10 min
Whiteboard
or flipchart,
projector,
computer,
slides for
Session A1;
different col-
our markers
5) Homework and
conclusion
The homework aims at implement-
ing more positive intentions in
youngsters towards their participa-
tion in environmental projects. The
trainer hands each student a copy
of all the environmental project´s
cards from the previous task and
a homework sheet. Here they will
have to choose an environmental
project which they like the most
and complete the exercise on
possible behaviours to adopt
regarding the environment. After
explaining the homework, the
trainer announces the date of the
next session.
5 min
Homework
sheet; copies
of the envi-
ronmental
project´s cards
per participant
• Implementing
pro-environmental
intentions
• Promoting more
positive attitudes
towards environmental
projects
ANNEX 9. LOGICAL MODEL OF LEARNING SESSION “ ALL ABOUT THE ENVIRONMENT” - SESSION A2
Task DescripTion DuraTion resources proDucTs clienTs objecTives
shorT Term meDium Term long Term
Entry into the room
and tolerance period
Tolerance period for possible
delays 10 min List of
participants
Youngsters
from the
7th school
grade
• Promoting
pro-envi-
ronmental
behaviours
1) Analysis of the
homework
The trainer should start the session
by asking if the students had ques-
tions when doing the homework
and if they did it independently or
with the help of family members.
Afterwards, the actual analysis of
the second exercise (implementa-
tion intentions) will be done.
10 min Homework
sheet
Homework
done
2) Summary of the
training; overall
conclusion
Resorting to the slides, the trainer
will confront students with stereo-
typical phrases about environmen-
tal interventions, deconstructing
them and demonstrating that they
are not true. For such, the trainer
will compare these stereotypical
phrases with images of the envi-
ronmental projects analysed in the
previous session.
10 min
Computer,
projector,
slides of
session A2
3) Evaluation
questionnaire
Application of the post- test 1 to
the younger people 15 min Evaluation
questionnaire
ANNEX 10. LOGICAL MODEL OF THE PEER CONTACT ACTIVITY “ ALL ABOUT THE ENVIRONMENT” - SESSION B
Task DescripTion DuraTion resources proDucTs clienTs objecTives
shorT Term meDium Term long Term
Entry into the room
and tolerance period
Tolerance period for possible
delays 10 min List of
participants
Youngsters
from the
7th school
grade
1) Constitution of
teams
The constitution of the teams is
made through the random distribu-
tion of the youngsters through the
tables in the room. It is necessary
to take into account the number of
participants in the classroom
10 min
2) Welcome, presenta-
tion of the trainer and
purpose of the activity
The trainer thanks the participants
for attending and introduces him/
herself if it is the first contact. He/
she also mentions the purpose of
the activity
5 min
Projector,
computer;
slides of
session B;
Whiteboard or
flipchart; dif-
ferent colour
markers
• Creating
empathy with
participants
• Familiarize
participants with
the activity
• Develop inclusion
3) Icebreaker
For the icebreaking activity, it is
necessary that, within each group,
pairs of students from different
classes be created so questions
can be made to the partner accord-
ing to a predefined script. The
trainer asks each pair to share with
the group the answer to the last
question
15 min
Worksheet
“Let’s get to
know each
other?”; Pens,
Whiteboard or
flipchart; dif-
ferent colour
markers
Worsheets
with
participants’
responses
Encourage
understanding
among participants
• Promote the creation
of emotional bonds
between participants
ANNEX 10. LOGICAL MODEL OF THE PEER CONTACT ACTIVITY “ ALL ABOUT THE ENVIRONMENT” - SESSION B
Task DescripTion DuraTion resources proDucTs clienTs objecTives
shorT Term meDium Term long Term
4) Introduction to the
topic
The trainer reflects with the group
about the theme of diversity and
inclusion within the city of Lisbon
5 min
Projector,
computer,
slides of
session B
Youngsters
from the
7th school
grade
• To foster reflec-
tion on the subject
• Potentiate behav-
iours of inclusion and
activism toward the
city where they live
5) Creation of the
campaign: “Lisbon: a
better city”
Through the distribution of a
poster for each group, participants
will need to undertake a campaign
in favour of a better Lisbon for
everyone. Each group will choose
a Title (phrase) for their poster
based on the general theme of the
campaign. They will also have to
include in the poster ideas of how
we can improve Lisbon
45 min
Projector,
computer,
slides of
session B,
blank posters;
miscellane-
ous material:
butcher paper,
coloured
sheets, mark-
ers, pencils,
etc.
Posters
for the
campaign
• Potentiate co-
operation among
young people.
• Understand the im-
portance of a city that
respects all people
regardless of the per-
ceived differences
6) Activity summary,
posters’ display and
snack
The trainer concludes the activity
by summarizing the main ideas
discussed, and helps participants
hang the posters on the wall of the
classroom, while sharing a snack
15 min
Projector,
computer,
slides of
session B.
Snack tables,
plates, silver-
ware, glasses,
napkins, sticky
tape
• To consolidate the knowledge acquired in
the session
7) Evaluation Post-test 2 to be applied to the
younger people 15 min
Evaluation
questionnaire
for young
people
ANNEX 11 - EXAMPLE OF A CARD “ALL ABOUT
THE ENVIRONMENT”
Photo By Mariana Castanheira
1. Read carefully the description sheet of the environmental inter-
vention assigned to you and ll in the following blank spaces:
Name of the Intervention: ____________________________
Who are the participants? ____________________________________
_____________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________
Which actions were carried out in that intervention?
_____________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________
2. Now that you know well the environmental intervention assigned
to you, please chose the spokesperson of your group. This spokes-
person will present this environmental intervention to the class!
Name of the spokesperson: ____________________________________
ANNEX 12 – WORK SHEET “ALL ABOUT THE ENVIRONMENT”
ANNEX 13 – HOMEWORKSHEET “ALL ABOUT THE ENVIRONMENT”
Class: _____________ Birth date:___________
1. In the activity “All about the environment”, you got to know
several different environmental projects. To help you remember and
so that you do not forget any important detail, we give you, in the
appendix, descriptions of the environmental projects we looked at
during the session.
After you read these cards again, answer:
In which of the presented environmental projects would you like to
participate? Why?
_____________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________
2. In our day-to-day life, we usually do several things in favour of
the environment. In the next exercise, you are going to imagine
that you are going to do things for the environment. How will you
behave yourself and where?
See this example:
If I make A PICNIC IN THE PARK then I will CLEAN TRASH I MAKE.
Now do you do it:
2.1. If I am at the beach ______________________________ then I will
_____________________.
2.2. If I am washing __________________________________ then I will
_____________________.
ANNEX 14 – PRE-TEST TO BE APPLIED TO THE YOUNGER PEOPLE
Date: ____ / ____ / ____
We would like to know your opinion about something!
We will ask you about younger people (from 11 to 14 years old) and
older people.
It is very important that your answers are honest, this means that it is
very important that you say what you really think, okay?
Let’s get started!
...
It´s possible that you’ve already heard the word “older person”…
1 – What do you think an older person is?
_____________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________
Let’s make a deal: an older person is someone with more years of
age, who is getting older.
So, for you to understand better, an older person is someone with
more than 70 years of age. Get it?
Please answer, in a scale of 1 to 7, where 1 means “they are
nothing like that” until 7 “they are a lot like that”
QUESTIONNAIRE
OpiniOn regarding Older and yOunger peOple
2. Thinking about older people with more than 70 years of age,
in what degree do you think they are:
2.1. CONFIDENT
They are nothing
like that
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 They are a lot
like that
2.2. CAPABLE
They are nothing
like that
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 They are a lot
like that
2.3 SKILLED
They are nothing
like that
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 They are a lot
like that
2.4. FRIENDLY
They are nothing
like that
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 They are a lot
like that
2.5. THRUSTWORTHY
They are nothing
like that
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 They are a lot
like that
2.6. SINCERE
They are nothing
like that
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 They are a lot
like that
Please answer, in a scale of 1 to 7, where 1 means “I feel nothing
like that” until 7 “I feel a lot like that
3. Thinking about older people with more than 70 years of ag,
say how you feel about them?
3.1. ENVY
I feel nothing like
that
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 I feel a lot like
that
3.2. ADMIRATION
I feel nothing like
that
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 I feel a lot like
that
3.3. PITY
I feel nothing like
that
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 I feel a lot like
that
3.4. CONTEMPT
I feel nothing like
that
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 I feel a lot like
that
Answer using a different scale, that varies between 1 and 7 where 1
means “they are nothing like that” and 7 means “they are a lot like
that”
4. Thinking about younger people from 11 to 14 years old, in
what degree do you think they are:
4.1. CONFIDENT
They are nothing
like that
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 They are a lot
like that
4.2. CAPABLE
They are nothing
like that
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 They are a lot
like that
4.3 SKILLED
They are nothing
like that
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 They are a lot
like that
4.5. THRUSTWORTHY
They are nothing
like that
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 They are a lot
like that
4.6. SINCERE
They are nothing
like that
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 They are a lot
like that
Please answer in a scale from 1 to 7, where 1 means “I really
wouldn’t like to do that” until 7 “I really would like to do that ”
5.1 Please say in what degree would you like to participate in
activities joining older people with more than 70 years of age
and younger people from 11 to 14 years old.
5.2 Please say in what degree would you like to promote activ-
ities joining older people with more than 70 years of age and
younger people from 11 to 14 years old.
Looking at the following gures please say how you perceive older
people (more than 70 years old) and younger people (from 11 to 14
years old).
6. You would say that you see older people (more than 70 years
old) and younger people (from 11 to 14 years old) as…
6.1. Just one group.
I really wouldn’t
like to do that
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 I really would
like to do that
I really wouldn’t
like to do that
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 I really would
like to do that
6.2. Two separate groups that are part of the same community.
6.3. Two separate groups that are not part of the same community.
6.4. Just as individuals, rather than groups.
Answer in a scale of 1 to 7, where 1 means “Never”, 2 “1 time per
month”, 3 “2 times per month”, 4 “3 times per month”, 5 “1 time
per week”, 6 “More than one time per week”, and 7 “Everyday”.
7. Now, thinking about older people with more than 70 years of
age (that are not your grandparents), please answer:
7.1. During the last month, how many times have you been in
contact with older people more than 70 years old?
If your answer was “Never”, please go directly to question number
9. If you answered between 2 and 7, please continue to the next
question.
In this question please answer in a scale of 1 to 7, where 1 means
“It was bad” and 7 means “It was good”
8. What do you think about this contact with older people?
Answer in a scale of 1 to 7, where 1 means “Never”, 2 “1 time per
month”, 3 “2 times per month”, 4 “3 times per month”, 5 “1 time
per week”, 6 “More than one time per week”, and 7 “Everyday”.
9. Now thinking about your grandparents and the relationship
you have with them, please answer:
1234567
NEVER 1 time per
month
2 times per
month
3 times per
month
1 time per
week
More than
1 time per
week
Everyday
It was
bad
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 It was
good
9.1. During the last month, how many times have you been in
contact with your grandparents?
If your answer was “Never”, please go directly to question number
10. If you answered between 2 and 7, please continue to the next
question.
In this question please answer in a scale from 1 to 7, where 1
means “It was bad” and 7 means “It was good”.
9.2. What did you think about being with your grandparents
during the last month?
In this question please answer in a scale from 1 to 7, where 1
means “Very bad” and 7 means “Very good”.
10.1. Think about the older person with whom you spend
more time. How would you rate, in general, this person’s
health?
10.2. How old is this person?
___________________________
1234567
NEVER 1 time per
month
2 times per
month
3 times per
month
1 time per
week
More than
1 time per
week
Everyday
It was
bad
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 It was
good
It was
bad
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 It was
good
Please answer, at last, to the following questions:
Time taken to ll the questionnaire: _______ minutes.
Before we nish, could we ask you to answer 3 questions about
how you feel about the environment?
In what degree do you agree with the following sentences?
Gender Female
Male
Age
Date of birth
Class
Nationality (adapted to each country)
Other
What is your country of
origin?
(adapted to each country)
Other
If you answered “other”,
how long have you been
living in (country of the
intervention)?
Less than 6 months
1 year
More than 1 year
Who do you live with?
Mother and father
Just with mother or father
Joint custody of mother and father
Others
Do you live with your
grandparents?
Yes
No
Thank you for your participation!
I. THE ENVIRONMENT IS VERY IMPORTANT TO ME
I strongly
disagree
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 I strongly agree
II. I AM VERY WORRIED ABOUT THE DAMAGED CAUSED TO
THE ENVIRONMENT
I strongly
disagree
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 I strongly agree
III. I WOULD LIKE TO COLLABORATE IN ACTIONS DO TO DE-
FEND THE ENVIRONMENT
I strongly
disagree
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 I strongly agree
ANNEX 15 – POST-TEST TO BE APPLIED TO THE YOUNGER PEOPLE
QUESTIONNAIRE
OpiniOn regarding Older and yOunger peOple
Date: ____ / ____ / ____
We would like to know your opinion about something!
We will ask you about younger people (from 11 to 14 years old) and
older people.
It is very important that your answers are honest, this means that it is
very important that you say what you really think, okay?
Let’s get started!
...
It´s possible that you’ve already heard the word “older person”…
1 – What do you think an older person is?
_____________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________
Let’s make a deal: an older person is someone with more years of
age, who is getting older.
So, for you to understand better, an older person is someone with
more than 70 years of age. Get it?
Please answer, in a scale of 1 to 7, where 1 means “they are
nothing like that” until 7 “they are a lot like that”.
2. Thinking about older people with more than 70 years of age,
in what degree do you think they are:
2.1. CONFIDENT
They are nothing
like that
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 They are a lot
like that
2.2. CAPABLE
They are nothing
like that
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 They are a lot
like that
2.3 SKILLED
They are nothing
like that
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 They are a lot
like that
2.4. FRIENDLY
They are nothing
like that
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 They are a lot
like that
2.5. THRUSTWORTHY
They are nothing
like that
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 They are a lot
like that
2.6. SINCERE
They are nothing
like that
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 They are a lot
like that
Please answer, in a scale of 1 to 7, where 1 means “I feel nothing
like that” until 7 “I feel a lot like that”.
3. Thinking about older people with more than 70 years of age,
say how you feel about them?
3.1. ENVY
I feel nothing like
that
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 I feel a lot like
that
3.2. ADMIRATION
I feel nothing like
that
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 I feel a lot like
that
3.3. PITY
I feel nothing like
that
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 I feel a lot like
that
3.4. CONTEMPT
I feel nothing like
that
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 I feel a lot like
that
Answer using a different scale that varies between 1 and 7, where 1
means “they are nothing like that” and 7 means “they are a lot like
that”.
4. Thinking about younger people from 11 to 14 years old, in
what degree do you think they are:
4.1. CONFIDENT
They are nothing
like that
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 They are a lot
like that
4.2. CAPABLE
They are nothing
like that
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 They are a lot
like that
4.3 SKILLED
They are nothing
like that
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 They are a lot
like that
4.5. THRUSTWORTHY
They are nothing
like that
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 They are a lot
like that
4.6. SINCERE
They are nothing
like that
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 They are a lot
like that
Please answer in a scale from 1 to 7, where 1 means “I really
wouldn’t like to do that” until 7 “I really would like to do that”.
5.1 Please say to what degree would you like to participate in
activities joining older people with more than 70 years of age
and younger people from 11 to 14 years old.
5.2 Please say to what degree would you like to promote activ-
ities joining older people with more than 70 years of age and
younger people from 11 to 14 years old.
Looking at the following gures please say how you perceive older
people (more than 70 years old) and younger people (from 11 to 14
years old).
6. You would say that you see older people (more than 70 years
old) and younger people (from 11 to 14 years old) as…
6.1. Just one group.
I really wouldn’t
like to do that
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 I really would
like to do that
I really wouldn’t
like to do that
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 I really would
like to do that
6.2. Two separate groups that are part of the same community.
6.3. Two separate groups that are not part of the same community.
6.4. Just as individuals, rather than groups.
Please answer, at last, to the following questions:
Time taken to ll the questionnaire: _______ minutes.
What do you think about your participation in this session?
_____________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________
Gender Female
Male
Age
Date of birth
Class
Nationality (adapted to each country)
Other
What is your country of
origin?
(adapted to each country)
Other
If you answered “other”,
how long have you been
living in (country of the
intervention)?
Less than 6 months
1 year
More than 1 year
Who do you live with?
Mother and father
Just with mother or father
Joint custody of mother and father
Others
Do you live with your
grandparents?
Yes
No
Before we nish, could we ask you to answer 3 questions about
how you feel about the environment?
In what degree do you agree with the following sentences?
Thank you for your participation!
I. THE ENVIRONMENT IS VERY IMPORTANT TO ME
I strongly
disagree
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 I strongly agree
II. I AM VERY WORRIED ABOUT THE DAMAGED CAUSED TO
THE ENVIRONMENT
I strongly
disagree
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 I strongly agree
III. I WOULD LIKE TO COLLABORATE IN ACTIONS DO TO DE-
FEND THE ENVIRONMENT
I strongly
disagree
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 I strongly agree
Date: ____ / ____ / ____
We would like to know your opinion regarding people with different
ages: older people (70 years old or older) and younger people (from
11 to 14 years old).
We would like to know your honest opinions, this means that there
are no right or wrong answers.
Your expressed opinions will remain condential and anonymous,
which means that no one will know your answers.
Thank you for your participation!
...
It´s possible that you’ve already heard the word “older person”…
1 – What do you think a younger person is?
_____________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________
2 – What do you think an older person is?
_____________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________
ANNEX 16 – POST-TEST TO BE APPLIED TO THE OLDER PEOPLE
QUESTIONNAIRE
OpiniOn regarding Older and yOunger peOple
What did you think about this session:
10.1. Did you like this activity?
10.2. In your opinion, was this activity useful?
10.3. Do you think that the trainer was adequate for
conducting this activity?
Please answer, at last, to the following questions:
How do you rate in general your health?
I didn´t like
it at all
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 I liked it very
much
It wasn´t
useful at all
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 It was very
useful
It wasn´t
adequate at all
1234567It was very
adequate
Gender Female
Male
Age
Date of birth
1 2 3 4 5
Very bad Bad Median Good Very good
Time taken to ll the questionnaire: _______ minutes.
I answered the questionnaire:
Alone In an interview Accompanied
Answering this questionnaire was:
Thank you for your participation!
Very
difcult
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Very easy
ANNEX 17 – ENSURING CROSS-CULTURAL EQUIVALENCE IN THE
TRANSLATION OF THE “POSITIVE IMAGES OF AGING”
The “Positive imAGES of Aging” questionnaire, that is included
in this manual, serves to evaluate any changes in the stereotyping
of older people after participation in the intervention programme.
Researchers and research assistants who wish to implement this
questionnaire in their own country, which is not English speaking,
will need to translate the items into their target language. An impor-
tant goal of this cross-cultural translation is to achieve equivalence
between the two different languages. For this purpose, the items
will not only have to be translated linguistically, but also have to be
adapted culturally.
We suggest following a systematic and well-known method for the
translation process in order to achieve this goal. This method has
been designed to maximize semantic, idiomatic, experiential and
conceptual equivalence between the source questionnaire and the
target questionnaire in regard to individual items, the instructions,
and the response options. The following stages illustrate the tasks
that should be accomplished in order to obtain a cross-culturally
equivalent translation of the “Positive imAGES of Aging” question-
naire. We also provide some simple forms that can be used in this
process (see appendices), which should facilitate the implementation
of these tasks.
Stage I: Forward translation (T-1)
A bilingual person translates the questionnaire from English into
the target language (Appendix 17 B). The translator should produce
a written report of the translation with comments on ambiguities,
uncertainties, etc.
QUESTIONNAIRE
Stage II: Discussion of Forward Translated Version (T-2)
The translator and the recording observer (the main responsible
for the translation who is usually also the applicant of the program)
resolve any issues that might occur during the translation process.
This should be documented in a written report (Appendix 17 C). The
resulting version of the questionnaire is passed on to the back-trans-
lator (see next stage).
Stage III: Back-translation (BT-1)
Another bilingual translator back-translates the questionnaire from
the target language into English (Appendix 17 D). In order to reduce
the possibility of any bias, it is important that this translator does
not see the original questionnaire in English. The translator should
again produce a written report of the translation with comments on
ambiguities, uncertainties, etc.
Stage IV: Discussion of Backward Translated Version (BT-2)
The back-translator and the recording observer resolve again any
issues that might have occurred during the translation process.
They develop the nal version of the questionnaire for the target
language (T-3), and should document the process in a written report
(Appendix 17 E).
Stage V: Pre-test using T-3
The nal version of the questionnaire in the target language should
be pre-tested in a sample of 5-10 young adolescents (12-15 years
of age). They should complete the questionnaire using a think-
aloud protocol approach, which means that they verbalize what they
think while answering to the items. This will allow identifying any
difculties with the items’ completion. They should also be probed
about what they thought was meant by each item and the chosen
response scale, which will assess the face validity of the measure.
Based on this feedback, the recording observer might decide to ad-
just any items, response scales or instruction in the target language
of the questionnaire. This should be documented in written using
the adequate form (Appendix 17 F). These adjustments should also
be made in the back-translated version of the questionnaire (BT-3)
so that the changes can be communicated to the developers of the
questionnaires.
Stage VI: Verication of the Equivalence of the
Translated Questionnaire
The nal back-translated version of the questionnaire (= BT-3) should
be sent to the developers (melanie.vauclair@iscte.pt and sibila.
marques@iscte.pt) in order to double conrm whether the original
meaning is still preserved in the translation.
Following these steps will render the translation process as trans-
parent and as scientic as possible, and will ensure that the trans-
lated version of the “Positive imAGES of Aging” questionnaire is
cross-culturally equivalent.
Following these steps will render the translation process as trans-
parent and as scientic as possible, and will ensure that the trans-
lated version of the “Positive imAGES of Aging” questionnaire is
cross-culturally equivalent.
Figure 1: Graphic Representation of the Translation and Cultural
Adaptation of the “Positive imAGES of Aging” questionnaire
Stage 1 and 2:
Forward
tranSlation
Stage 3 and 4:
Back-tranSlation
oF t-2
Stage 5:
Pre-teSt
Stage 6:
VeriFication
• 1 bilingual translator
(different from Stage 1)
• Back-translation into
English
(= BT-1)
• Resolution of issues with
recording observer (= BT-2)
• Adjust T-2 if necessary
(=T-3)
• 5-10 participants
• use version T-2 (or T-3 if
applicable)
• changes in T-2 (or T-3)
should
• be included in the back-
translation (= BT-3)
1 bilingual translator
Translation into target
language (=T-1)
Resolution of issues with
recording observer (=T-2)
use feedback from Stage
5 and adjust BT-2 (or BT-3 if
applicable)
send BT-2 (or BT-3) to
the developers of the
questionnaire to verify the
content’s equivalence
written rePort For t-1
written rePort For t-2
aPPendix B
aPPendix c
written rePort For Bt-1
written rePort For Bt-2
aPPendix d
aPPendix e
written rePort aPPendix F
Name of the recording observer (person responsible for the transla-
tion process): ________________________________________________
Date: __________________(dd/mm/year)
Target group information:
Country where it will be used: __________________________________
Language: ___________________________________________________
ANNEX 17 A – REPORT ON THE CROSS-CULTURAL TRANSLATION OF
THE “POSITIVE IMAGES OF AGING
QUESTIONNAIRE
RESOURCES USED AND REPORTS INCLUDED IN THIS PACKAGE:
Names Report included? Tick box if included
Forward translators
Back-translators
Pre-testing Coordinator
POSITIVE imAGES OF AGING QUESTIONNAIRE
item nr. Original VersiOn item FOrward translated VersiOn t-1
1.
2.
3.
ANNEX 17 B – FORWARD TRANSLATION INTO TARGET LANGUAGE
Name of translator: __________________________________________
Country of origin (where was English spoken as rst language):
_____________________________________________________________
ANNEX 17 C – REPORT ON TRANSLATION ISSUES
(DEALT WITH IN STAGE I TO CREATE T-1)
Issue:
(specify iTem number anD Describe issue)
ResolutIon
(Discussion beTween forwarD
TranslaTor anD recorDing observer)
ANNEX 17 D – TRANSLATION INTO ENGLISH
POSITIVE imAGES OF AGING QUESTIONNAIRE
item nr. Original VersiOn item Back-translated VersiOn (Bt-1)
1.
2.
3.
*** The back-translation is performed without looking at the origi-
nal items. Results are then summarized on this form.
Name of translator: __________________________________________
Country of origin (where was English spoken as rst language):
_____________________________________________________________
ANNEX 17 E – REPORT ON BACK-TRANSLATION ISSUES
(DEALT WITH IN STAGE IV TO CREATE BT-3)
Issue:
(specify iTem number anD Describe issue)
ResolutIon
(Discussion beTween back-TranslaTor
anD recorDing observer)
ANNEX 17 F – PRE-TESTING REPORT
sample DescripTion
Sample Size: ______
DescripTion
Age: (mean, standard deviation) _____________
Gender: males = ________ females = ________
PaRtIcIPant ID
Issue:
(specify iTem # anD
Describe issue )
ResolutIon
(Discussion beTween backwarD
TranslaTor anD recorDing observer)
ANNEX 18 – AUTHORIZATION REQUEST FOR THE PARTICIPATION IN
THE PROGRAM “ALL ABOUT imAGES”
The Centre of Research and Social Intervention from ISCTE – Lisbon
University Institute (CIS – IUL) – and the Santa Casa da Misericórdia
de Lisboa (SCML) are partners of the European project SIforAGE –
Social Innovation for an healthy and active ageing – which includes
two types of programs: “All about imAGES” an intergenerational
program; and “All about the Environment” a program about envi-
ronmental projects. These programs have the main goal of promot-
ing innovative strategies to address social issues. The Portuguese
team is constituted by Dr Sibila Marques, Dr Melanie Vauclair, Dr
Ricardo Borges Rodrigues (researchers and professors at CIS – IUL /
ISCTE-IUL), Dr Filomena Gerardo and Dr Filipa Cunha (SCML).
We would like to ask your permission for your child’s participation in
the program “All about imAGES” that will be developed in two ses-
sions: 2 learning sessions and a contact session with older people,
each of them with the duration of 2.30h.
If you have any doubts about this project, please contact us at the
following email addresses: sibila.marques@iscte.pt; lomena.gerar-
do@scml.pt.
We appreciate your collaboration.
Regards,
_____________________ _______________________
(Sibila Marques (CIS-IUL) Filomena Gerardo (SCML)
I, ______________________________________, legal guardian of the
student______________________________, give authorization/don´t
give authorization for his/her participation in the program “All about
imAGES”, from the European project SIforAGE, which has been
developed in the school Vergílio Ferreira.
ANNEX 19 – EVALUATION OF THE PROCESS
eValuatiOn prOcess OF the prOgramimages”
TRAINER
aTTenDance, planning anD observaTion griD
NAME OF THE ACTIVITY:
DATE: Session:
CLASSE(S): Attendance (nº presences):
1. Level of fullment of the objective/
implementation of the planned activities
12345
2. Participants’ reaction to the proposed
activities (motivation, commitment,
participation, etc.)
12345
3. Difculties encountered and sugges-
tions for change
4. Observations
aTTenDance, planning anD observaTion griD
NAME OF THE ACTIVITY:
DATE: Session:
CLASSE(S): Attendance (nº presences):
SENIORS: Attendance (nº presences):
1. Level of fullment of the objective/
implementation of the planned activities
12345
2. Participants’ reaction to the proposed
activities (motivation, commitment,
participation, etc.)
12345
3. Difculties encountered and sugges-
tions for change
4. Observations
confIguRatIon of the Room
Conguration of the classroom
DescRIPtIon
10 minutes: Entry into the room and tolerance period
5 mInutes: task 1 – Welcome, PResentatIon of the tRaIneR anD PuRPose
of the actIvIty
The trainer welcomes the participants, “Good afternoon everyone.
My name is X. Thank you for coming and I hope you are ready to
start. Today’s activity is called “All about imAGES” and has the pur-
pose of talking about the age of people, okay? With this activity we
want to know more about age”. After having presented the general
purpose of the activity, the trainer presents the following task to the
participants.
15 mInutes: task 2 – IcebReakeR
The icebreaker task aims at promoting the empathy between the
trainer and the participants, as well as an introductory task to the
subject matter in question. The trainer presents the task: “Before
ANNEX 20 – GUIDE OF THE INTERVENTION
A. INTERVENTION GROUP
learning lessOn 1
Necessary materials Young participants’ list
Materials necessary for task 1
Projector and computer
Slides of learning session A1 “All about
imAGES”
starting, I would like to know you better and, for that, I would like
for each of you to speak about two things: rst I would like you to
say your name and then what you think that is society view about
older people, this is, what people usually say about older people.
Did you all understand? Can we start?” The trainer asks the question
to each participant and writes on the board the characteristics that
the youngsters mention about the older people. It is important that
these characteristics initially mentioned stay on the board until the
end of the session.
30 mInutes: task 3 – PRofIles game
In order to prepare the participants for the deconstruction of ideas
concerning the age of older people, the trainer presents the follow-
ing task: “Thank you for your answers. Now I propose a new chal-
lenge. For that, I would like you to form groups of 3 people”.
After the division, the trainer explains: “I am going to give you an
Identication Card like this one (he shows the one assigned to him)
for you to analyse who this real person is. After analysing it, each
group will select a spokesperson who will pretend to be the person
indicated in the Identication Card, and will introduce himself/her-
self to all, okay? To make it easier for you to personify that character,
I will also give you the face of that person for you to place in front
of your face and for everything to seem more real. I will now give
you an example. Pay attention to see how this is done.” The trainer
shows the card assigned to him, puts the face of the character in
front of his face and starts: “Hello! My name is Silvina Carvalho and
I am 82 years old. All my life I was a primary school teacher and,
nowadays, I am already retired, but I continue teaching adults who
didn’t have the opportunity to go to school and, therefore, can’t
read or write. One curiosity is that many of these people I help end
up by making the equivalence exam to primary school, and obtain a
Materials necessary for task 2 Whiteboard or ipchart
Different colour markers
very good result.” After making sure that all the participants under-
stood the task, the trainer distributes an Identication Card to each
group and the face corresponding to the character. The trainer gives
the groups 15 minutes to end the task of electing a spokesperson
and analysing the prole in the Card. After that, each spokesperson
presents the character to the others as if it was himself/herself and
the trainer writes on the board (with a marker with a different colour
from the one used initially and next to the characteristics mentioned
in the initial task) the most important and marked characteristics of
each character mentioned by the participants as they present it, for
instance, “enterprising” or “active”: “After having heard the pres-
entation, which characteristics does this person have?”
10 mInutes: task 4 – DIscussIon of the task
The discussion of the task is focused on the differences between the
initial characteristics assigned to the older people and the character-
istics revealed through the real proles of the older people. “As you
know, people are very different from one another in many things.
For example, looking at what I have been writing, you mentioned
some characteristics that people assign to the older people, howev-
er, we saw with this game that there are many other characteristics
for older people beyond those initially mentioned. This means that
older people are all very different from one another, as children are,
as youngsters are, and as the adults of the same age as their parents
are... and people are not all identical to one another, are they? For
example, not everyone in this classroom likes to do the same things,
or are skilled to do the same things, or are identical physically, or
have the same sense of humour... the same way, senior people are
not all alike and we can’t generalise or think they all have charac-
Materials necessary for task 3
Identication Cards (annex 4)
Characters’ faces
Worksheet “All about imAGES” (annex 5)
Different colour markers
teristics as those you mentioned in the beginning, because we have
seen examples demonstrating the opposite. So, what is important to
understand at this point? It is important to understand that people’s
age has nothing to do with what they can do or like to do.”
5 mInutes: task 5 – homeWoRk anD conclusIon
After ending the reection about the previous task, the trainer gives
instructions for the homework: “We are nearly nishing, but I would
like to give you a very small task to do at home. You can ask your
parents or grandparents for help, for example. I am going to give
you a homework sheet where you have to answer to two things: the
rst one is about the examples of the senior people we have spo-
ken about before. Each of you will take copies of the Identity Cards
with you. You will have to choose one of the people in the Cards as
your favourite, this is, the one with whom you identify the most and
who you would like to be like as an adult. The second thing is the
nal exercise in the sheet. In this exercise, you have to complete the
sentences, imagining how you would act with an older person who
is a friend of yours”. The trainer hands out the homework sheets to
all participants and explains the second exercise making reference
to the example in the sheet. The trainer ends the session by thank-
ing everyone’s participation and reminding the date of the following
session.
Materials necessary
for task 4
Whiteboard or ipchart
Projector
Slide show of learning session A1 “All about imAGES”
Different colour markers
Materials necessary for
task 5
Homework sheet “All about imAGES” (annex 6)
Copies of the identication cards for each participant
(annex 4)
confIguRatIon of the Room
Conguration of the classroom
DescRIPtIon
10 minutes: Entry into the room and tolerance period
10 mInutes: task 1 – analysIs of the homeWoRk
The trainer should start the session by asking the participants if they
had doubts doing the homework and if they did it autonomously or
if they were helped by family members. After that, the effective anal-
ysis of the second exercise will be made (implementation of inten-
tions). “Good afternoon everyone! Did you do your homework? Did
you do the exercise alone or did you ask someone for help? First,
I would like you to tell me which character you liked the most and
why”. After the participants answered the rst question, the trainer
asks what answers they gave to the second exercise. In each item,
the trainer will ask each participant to give his/her answer in order
to show the diversity of behaviours in the context of interaction with
an older person known to the participants. The trainer can expand
this analysis by asking questions such as: “Why did you imagine this
situation? Why would you react like that?”
A.2. LEARNING LESSON 2
Necessary materials Young participants’ list
Materials necessary for task 1 Homework sheets
10 mInutes: task 2 – summaRy of the tRaInIng/oveRall conclusIon
Using the slides, the trainer will confront the pupils with stereotypi-
cal sentences about older people, deconstructing them and show-
ing they are not true. “We will now see some ideas many people
have about older people, which are not true. For example, ‘All the
older people are incompetent’ – It’s not true! We spoke here about
several examples of very competent older people, this is, people
capable of doing things! For example, the veterinarian John Hayes
is 71 years old and wakes up at 2 o’clock in the morning to help
animals in a medical emergency! Another example is: ‘All the older
people are sick’ – It’s not true! As you can remember, we spoke
here about several older people who are healthy and active. Do you
remember Tao? She is 95 and she is a Yoga teacher! The truth is all
older people are different. In fact, we are all different and therefore
we have to respect all people as they are, independently of their
age or any other characteristic.”
Materials necessary for task 2
Projector and computer
Slide show of learning session A2 “All
about imAGES”
15 mInutes: task 3 – evaluatIon questIonnaIRe
To evaluate the efciency of this session, the trainer asks the par-
ticipants to answer a questionnaire about the activity: “I am going
to ask for your attention during 15 more minutes, as I need you to
complete this small questionnaire, can be answered to very quickly.
It is very important for me that you do it because that’s the only way
for me to know your opinion. I also want to tell you that there are no
right or wrong answers, what I want is that you are sincere in your
answers”.
Materials necessary for task 3 Post-test 1 to be applieded to younger people
(annex 15)
confIguRatIon of the Room
Several tables, with chairs around them. The participants should be
seated by teams, alternately: young, senior, young, senior, etc
actIvItys theme
The intergenerational activity proposed was the creation of a cam-
paign with posters under the theme: “Lisbon: a better city”, in spite
of the name of this program, which is “All about imAGES” that has
the purpose of reducing ageism and of promoting inclusion behav-
iours for all ages. We considered it was important to nd a generic
theme in order to carry out an intergenerational contact activity. This
generic theme is fundamental for the existence of the intergroup
contact variable, i.e., it is fundamental to have a theme known to
both generational groups in order to establish a relation of equality
between the parties.
DescRIPtIon
10 minutes: Entry into the room and tolerance period
B. SESSION 3: CONTACT SESSION
Necessary materials Adult participants’ list
Young participants’ list
10 mInutes: task 1 – constItutIon of the teams
This initial task of separating the intergenerational groups is intend-
ed to spare time in the session. Preferably, the organisation of this
program may make arrangements for the seniors group to arrive
rst, and the trainer may indicate each participant to the table where
he/she should seat, taking into consideration the number of older
participants and how many intergenerational groups he will need.
After that, the trainer will distribute the youngsters (preferably by
alphabetic order) into the older people´s groups. It is essential that
the small groups are equitable, i.e., have the same number of older
people and youngsters. In case this situation is not possible, there
should not be more than two youngsters for each older person.
5 mInutes: task 2 – Welcome, PResentatIon of the tRaIneR anD PuRPose
of the actIvIty
The trainer welcomes the participants, “Good afternoon everyone.
My name is X. Thank you for coming and I hope you are ready to
start. The purpose of today’s activity is to create a campaign on the
theme: Lisbon: a better city. With this activity we want to think about
the things that we can do to make Lisbon a better city for everyone.
For that, we will be working in teams”. After having presented the
general objective of the activity, the trainer presents the following
task to the participants.
Materials necessary for task 2
Projector and computer
Slide show of the contact session B
Whiteboard or ipchart
Different colour markers
15 mInutes: task 3 – IcebReakeR
The icebreaker task is intended to make people know each other
inside the intergenerational group and, at the same time, to present
the campaign’s theme. The trainer presents the task; “Now that we
have the team ready to make the campaign, let us know each other
rst. I would like you to form pairs of different generations inside
each group, i.e., a young person and an adult”. Taking into con-
sideration the previous example for the division of the groups into
small teams composed of the same number of adults and young
participants, the trainer suggests the division into intergenerational
pairs (one adult and one young person). In case there are groups
with an odd number of participants, the trainer can suggest that the
task is carried out with the colleague on the right side and so forth.
This way, he prevents the situation of a participant being excluded
or a participant lling in the presentation sheet twice. The icebreaker
is about each participant getting to know the colleague through a
list of questions given by the trainer. “Through this list of questions,
each participant will ask the questions to the colleague and write
the answers. Then they exchange roles. Any question?” The trainer
waits that all the pairs end lling in the list and then encourages
the participants to share the answers to the last question in the list
(If you had to chose a place in Lisbon to go together, what would
that place be?) “Now I would like to know which place each pair
chose to go in Lisbon”. The trainer asks for all the pairs in the room
to give their answers and writes the answers on the board. For the
odd groups, the answer to the last question may be dened by the
whole group.
Materials necessary for task 3
Contact session icebreaker - Worksheet “Let’s
know each other?” (annex 7)
Pens
Whiteboard or ipchart
Different colour markers
5 mInutes: task 4 – IntRoDuctIon to the toPIc
Before starting the task of creating the campaign, the trainer pre-
sents the theme and its importance to the groups: “As I said in the
beginning, the objective of this activity is to make together a cam-
paign about ‘Lisbon: a better city’, so we can tell everyone that it is
very important to live in a city which is good for all and that accepts
people as they are. Do you think that is important?” The trainer
needs to pose this question to the participants to understand the
acceptance of the theme and to guarantee they understood what
is asked. “Lisbon is a city that has people very different from one
another. What are the differences? There are people with different
occupations, with different families, living in different places, liking
different things... they are different in many things, however, all the
individuals are unique and are important for the city. That’s why the
city we live in must be a city where all people feel included. All peo-
ple must feel that the city is their home, do you understand?
Materials necessary for task 4 Projector and computer
Slide show of the contact session B
45 mInutes: task 5 – cReatIon of the camPaIgn “lIsbon: a betteR cIty
“Therefore, today we will make a campaign for Lisbon to be a city
where everyone feels well and included. The general theme of the
campaign is ‘Lisbon: a better city’. Each group will make a poster
and all the posters will be a part of this great campaign. Each group
will have important tasks to do in its poster”. Before continuing, the
trainer distributes one poster per team and the rest of the necessary
material. After that, it is important that all the participants under-
stand the tasks to be carried out in the production of the poster:
“Now that you have the necessary material, you will create a poster
to be included in the campaign ‘Lisbon: a better city’. Therefore,
the rst thing to do is to create a title for your poster. This title can
be a sentence related to the theme ‘Lisbon: a better city’. Imagine
you want to encourage everyone to make Lisbon a better city. What
would you say?” After presenting this small task, the trainer follows
its development and guarantees that all the groups have thought
about a title and have written it on their poster. “Now that your
poster has a title, you have two important tasks to decorate the
poster: rst, you will have to think together what you would change
in Lisbon in order for it to be better and more inclusive for everyone.
You can think of several things that don’t exist (activities, places,
etc.) or things you would like to be improved. You can’t forget
that your ideas must be inclusive, this is, everyone must be able to
participate or use their ideas. Let’s do it? The second important task
is that, after this, you will have to decorate the poster as you wish.
Each group can use the materials I gave for the decoration. You
should use your imagination and all within the group should contrib-
ute. Ready?
After having given the instructions, the trainer guarantees the devel-
opment of the tasks within the available time, guaranteeing the par-
ticipation of all the members of the group, i.e., preventing isolation
and exclusion of members from the tasks
Materials necessary for task 5
Projector and computer
Slide show of the contact session B
Blank posters
Various handwork materials: colour pencils,
colour markers, scissors, glue, thin cardboards
of various colours
15 mInutes: task 6 – actIvIty summaRy, PosteR´s DIsPlay anD snack
The trainer asks the groups to nish the posters and asks for every-
one’s attention to end the activity: “I am very pleased with your
work. Congratulations to all the groups for having managed to
create the campaign ‘Lisbon: a better city’. Your suggestions are
excellent and I am certain we will be able to teach other people that
Lisbon can be a better city for everyone and where all the people
can feel well independently from their differences. The posters will
be exhibited here at the school, where everyone will be able to see
them. Thank you for your participation and I hope you have enjoyed
it”. After this, the trainer supervises the afxing of posters to the
room’s wall and invites the participants to a light snack at the end.
Materials necessary for task 6
Projector and computer
Slide show of the contact session B
Tables for light snack
Plates, cutlery, glasses, napkins
Tape to afx the posters
15 mInutes: task 7 – evaluatIon
After the light snack, it is essential that the trainer calls the par-
ticipants’ attention to the need for obtaining their opinion on the
session in order to improve the activities: “Now I would like you to
pay attention during a few more minutes. We are very interested
in knowing if you enjoyed the activity and your opinion about it.
This questionnaire takes 10 minutes to complete and is really very
important to us that you are sincere and express your opinion.
Thank you!”
As far as the evaluation is concerned, it is necessary that the proce-
dures are as simple as possible for all participants. In this case, our
team opted to collect the older participants’ evaluation after the
activity, due to time constraints of this group and due to the fact that
it would be easy to get back to them. As for the young participants,
it was necessary to collect the data immediately after the activity.
Materials necessary for task 7
Post-test 2 to be applieded to younger people
(annex 15)
Post-test to be applieded to older people
(annex 16)
sPecIal RemaRks
As the reader may see, the activities’ description was made by
separating the tasks, and dening a specic time for carrying out
each one. It is important to establish approximately 10 to 15 min-
utes of tolerance before the beginning of each session;
Bearing in mind that this programme is intended to reduce
ageism of the youngsters, it is necessary to pay attention to the
way treat each other within each group. It is also preferable that
participants are called by their name, individually, and at the time
of explanation of a task, the trainer may refer to “young person”
and to “adult”, avoiding terms as “child”, “aged person”, “sen-
ior”, “old person” or any other term which may be pejorative to
these participants and which can affect the nal results.
CONTROL GROUP
a.1. learning lessOn 1
confIguRatIon of the Room
Conguration of the classroom
DescRIPtIon
10 minutes: Entry into the room and tolerance period
5 mInutes: task 1 – Welcome, PResentatIon of the tRaIneR anD PuRPose
of the actIvIty
The trainer welcomes the participants, “Good afternoon everyone.
My name is X. Thank you for coming and I hope you are ready to
start. Today’s activity is called “All about the Environment” and has
the purpose of talking about several aspects related to environmen-
tal projects.” After having presented the general purpose of the
activity, the trainer presents the following task to the participants.
15 mInutes: task 2 – IcebReakeR
The icebreaker task aims at promoting the empathy between the
trainer and the participants, as well as an introductory task to the
subject matter in question. The trainer presents the task: “Before
starting, I would like you to tell your name and also an action you
regularly do in favour of the environment. For example, to recy-
cle, to water plants.” Did you all understand? Can we start?” The
trainer asks the question to each participant and writes on the board
the participant´s answers. It is important that these answers initially
mentioned stay on the board until the end of the session.
Necessary materials Participants list
Materials necessary for task 2 Different colour markers
Whiteboard or ipchart
30 mInutes: task 3 – game of envIRonmental InteRventIons
After having written the answers on the board, the trainer presents
the most important task of the learning session: “About what we just
talked, I propose a challenge: I’m going to ask you to form groups
of 3 people in order to carry out the following task: I will give each
group a description of a different environmental project. What you
will do is to analyse, in the group, this project, and then the spokes-
person of the group will present that environmental project to the
class.
I’ll give you an example: the description I have here is of a environ-
mental project which took place in Ria Formosa and was carried out
by a group of 400 volunteers (students, youngsters, adults) who got
together and cleaned the entire beach. The volunteers walked along
Ria Formosa to pick up and recycle the garbage which was accu-
mulated in the dunes and beaches: plastic bottles, papers, cork/lid,
cans, among other waste. At the end the effort was worth it because
the river mouth was cleaner and very pleasant. Did you understand
the task well? Are there any doubts?”
The participants will divide themselves into 5 groups of 3 members
each. A description of an environmental project will be assigned to
each group. The group should follow the worksheet to analyse it.
After having elected the group’s spokesperson, this participant will
stand up and present the environmental intervention to the class.
During the presentation, the trainer will write on the board the
words they say and which are important to emphasise, such as “not
using cars, choosing the bicycle”; “recycling”, “cleaning forests and
beaches”. These words/expressions should be written next to the
words mentioned by the participants during the “icebreaker” phase.
Materials necessary for task 3
Different colour markers
Worksheet “All about the Environment”
(annex 12)
Cards of the environmental projects (annex 11)
10 mInutes: task 4 – DIscussIon of the task
In this part of the session, the trainer should stimulate reection by
the trainees about the activity they have just carried out. “As we can
see, there are several different environmental projects in Portugal:
some are focused on cleaning beaches, others on cleaning forests,
waste recycling, and promotion of the use of bicycles as a mean
of transportation. Although they are different, these interventions
always have a great common objective: the preservation of the
environment.” It is important to pose questions to the participants in
order to stimulate discussion.
Materials necessary for task 4
Slide show of the learning session 1”All about
the Environment”
Projector and computer
Whiteboard or ipchart
Different colour markers
5 mInutes: task 5 – homeWoRk anD conclusIon
After the discussion about the environmental projects presented, the
trainer gives instructions for the homework: “I am going to give you
some work to be done at home about the theme we dealt with here
today. There are two exercises that I would like you to do, in order
for us to talk about them in the next session. The rst exercise con-
cerns the environmental projects about which we talked here today.
You will be taking home the descriptions of the several environmen-
tal projects so you can remember them. Then, you will say in which
of them you would like to participate and why.
The second exercise is about possible daily life situations and about
your behaviour in each situation. I am going to give you an example:
In the sheet I gave you there is the example of exercise 2.1: When I
go for a pick-nick in the park, I clean up the litter.
It is very important you do the homework because we are going to
talk about it in the next session. Besides, you will be returning the
homework to me. If you have trouble doing any of the exercises, you
can ask your parents or other family members for help. Are there any
doubts? I hope you have enjoyed this session, thank you for your
cooperation. I’ll see you in the next session.”
Materials necessary for task 5
Homework sheet “All about the Environment”
(annex 13)
Copies of the environmental project’s cards per
participant (annex 11)
a.2. learning lessOn 2
confIguRatIon of the Room
Conguration of the classroom
DescRIPtIon
10 minutes: Entry into the room and tolerance period
Necessary materials Participants list
10 mInutes: task 1 – analysIs of the homeWoRk
The trainer should start the session by asking the participants if they
had doubts doing the homework and if they did it autonomously or
if family members helped them. After that, the analysis of the home-
work will be made. The trainer may start by asking the participants
what was the environmental project with which they identied the
most, and which they would like to participate in and why, then he/
she should start the discussion of exercise two: “I would like each of
you to give me an answer to exercise two”.
Materials necessary for task 1 Homework sheets
10 mInutes: task 2 – summaRy of the tRaInIng; oveRall conclusIon
Using the slide show, the trainer will confront the participants with
stereotypic sentences about environmental interventions, decon-
structing them and showing if they are true. “We will now see some
ideas many people have about environmental projects and which
are not true. For example, ‘All the environmental actions are the
same”– It’s not true! As we have seen in the session, there are very
different environmental interventions: some are focused on cleaning
beaches, others on cleaning forests, waste recycling, promotion of
the use of bicycles as a mean of transportation. Although they are
different, these interventions always have a great common objective:
the promotion of behaviours in favour of the environment. Another
idea many people have is that “the actions carried out concerning
the environment do not work” – It’s not true! As we have seen, in
the environmental interventions we studied, these actions in fact
work and have very positive results for the environment and the
well-being of people – cleaner beaches and forests, purer air...”. It is
important to promote the discussion among all participants.
Materials necessary for task 2
Slide show of the learning session 2”All
about the Environment” A2
Computer and projector
15 mInutes: task 3 – evaluatIon questIonnaIRe
Application of the post-test questionnaire: “I’m going to ask for your
attention during 15 more minutes as I need you to complete this
small questionnaire. It is very important for me that you do it be-
cause this is how I get to know your opinion in detail. I remind you
there are no right or wrong answers, what is important is that you
are sincere in your answers”.
Materials necessary for task 3 Post-test 1 to be applieded to the
younger people (annex 15)
B. sessiOn 3: cOntact sessiOn
confIguRatIon of the Room
Several tables, with chairs around them. The participants should be seat-
ed by teams, with participants from different classes (participant from
class 1, participant from class 2, participant from class 1, and so forth).
actIvItys theme
The theme of this project is “All about the Environment” and meets
the objectives of reducing the preconceived ideas about the in-
efciency of environmental projects and of promoting behaviours
in favour of the environment. However, for the session of contact
between pairs, we considered important to maintain the theme
“Lisbon: a better city”.
10 mInutes: entRy Into the Room anD toleRance PeRIoD
10 mInutes: task 1 – constItutIon of teams
The building of workgroups should be made in the rst moment of
the session. As the participants enter the room, they should receive
the indication of the trainer to seat in groups of four members.
5 mInutes: task 2 – Welcome, PResentatIon of the tRaIneR anD PuRPose
of the actIvIty
The trainer welcomes the participants, “Good afternoon everyone.
My name is X. Thank you for coming and I hope you are ready to
start. The objective of today’s activity is to create a campaign on the
theme: Lisbon: a better city. With this activity we want to think about
the things that we can do to make Lisbon a better city for everyone.
For that, we will be working in teams”. After having presented the
general objective of the activity, the trainer presents the following
task to the participants.
Materials necessary for task 1 Participant’s list
Materials necessary for task 2 Projector and computer
Slide show of the contact session B
15 mInutes: task 3 – IcebReakeR
The icebreaker task is intended to make participants from the two
different classes to get to know each other and, at the same time, to
present the campaign’s theme. The trainer presents the task: “Now
that we have the team ready to make the campaign, let us get to
know each other rst. I would like you to form pairs (composed by
a participant from one class and a participant from the other class)
inside each group”.
The icebreaker is about each participant getting to know his/her
colleague through a list of questions given by the trainer. “Through
this list of questions, each participant will ask the questions to their
colleague and write the answers. One of you starts asking the ques-
tions to the other, and then the other will ask the questions, okay?”.
The trainer waits for all the pairs to nish lling in the list and then
encourages the participants to share the answers to the last ques-
tion in the list (If you had to chose a place in Lisbon to go together,
what would that place be?) “Now I would like to know which place
each pair chose to go in Lisbon”. The trainer asks for all the pairs in
the room to give their answers and writes them on the board.
Materials necessary for task 3
Contact session icebreaker “Let’s get to
know each other?” (annex 7)
Pens
Different colour markers
Whiteboard or ipchart
5 mInutes: task 4 – IntRoDuctIon to the toPIc
Before starting the task of creation of the campaign, the trainer
presents the theme and its importance to the groups: “As I said in
the beginning, the objective of this activity is to make together a
campaign about ‘Lisbon: a better city’, so we can tell everyone that
it is very important to live in a city that is good for all and accepts
people as they are. Do you think that is important?”. The trainer
needs to pose this question to the participants to understand the
acceptance of the theme and to guarantee they understood what
is asked. “Lisbon is a city that has people very different from one
another. What are the differences? There are people with different
occupations, with different families, living in different places, liking
different things... they are different in many things, however, all the
individuals are unique and are important for the city. That’s why the
city we live in must be a city where all people feel included. All peo-
ple must feel that the city is their home, do you understand?
Materials necessary for task 4 Projector and computer
Slide show of the contact session B
45 mInutes: task 5 – cReatIon of the camPaIgn “lIsbon: a betteR cIty
“Therefore, today we will make a campaign for Lisbon to be a city
where everyone feels well and included. The general theme of the
campaign is ‘Lisbon: a better city”. Each group will make a poster
and all the posters will be a part of this great campaign. Each group
will have important tasks to do in its poster”. Before continuing, the
trainer distributes one poster per team and the rest of the necessary
material. After that, it is important that all the participants under-
stand the task to be carried out in the production of the poster:
“Now that you have the necessary material, you will create a poster
to be included in the campaign ‘Lisbon: a better city’. Therefore,
the rst thing to do is to create a title for your poster. This title can
be a sentence related to the theme ‘Lisbon: a better city’. Imagine
you want to encourage everyone to make Lisbon a better city. What
would you say?”. After presenting this small task, the trainer follows
its development and guarantees that all the groups have thought
about a title and have written it on their poster. “Now that your
poster has a title, you have two important tasks to decorate the
poster: rst, you will have to think together what you would change
in Lisbon in order for it to be better and more inclusive for everyone.
You can think in several things that don’t exist (activities, places,
etc.) or things you would like to be improved. You can’t forget
that your ideas must be inclusive, this is, everyone must be able to
participate or use their ideas. Let’s do it? The second important task
is that, after this, you will have to decorate the poster as you wish.
Each group can use the materials I gave you for the decoration. You
should use your imagination and all within the group should contrib-
ute. Ready?
After having given the instructions, the trainer guarantees the devel-
opment of the tasks within the available time, guaranteeing the par-
ticipation of all the members of the group, i.e., preventing isolation
and exclusion of members from the tasks.
Materials necessary for task 5
Projector and computer
Slide show of the contact session B
Blank posters
Various handwork materials: colour pencils,
colour markers, scissors, glue, thin cardboards
of various colours
15 mInutes: task 6 – actIvIty summaRy, PosteR´s DIsPlay anD snack
The trainer asks the groups to nish the posters and asks for every-
one’s attention to end the activity: “I am very pleased with your
work. Congratulations to all the groups for having managed to
create the campaign ‘Lisbon: a better city’. Your suggestions are
excellent and I am certain we will be able to teach other people that
Lisbon can be a better city for everyone and where all the people
can feel well independently from their differences. The posters will
be exhibited here at the school, where everyone will be able to see
them. Thank you for your participation and I hope you have enjoyed
it”. After this, the trainer supervises the afxing of the posters to the
room’s wall and invited the participants to a light snack at the end.
Materials necessary for task 6
Projector and computer
Slide show of the contact session B
Tables for the light snack
Plates, cutlery, glasses, napkins
Tape to afx the posters
15 mInutes: task 7 – evaluatIon of the sessIon
After the light snack, it is essential that the trainer calls the par-
ticipants’ attention to the need for obtaining their opinion on the
session in order to improve the activities: “Now I would like you to
pay attention during a few more minutes. We are very interested in
knowing if you enjoyed the activity and your opinion about it. This
questionnaire takes 10 minutes to answer and is really very impor-
tant for us that you are sincere and express your opinion.
Thank you!”
Materials necessary for task 7 Post-test 2 to be applieded to the younger
people (annex 15)
We would like to thank all the staff,
specially SCML users and technicians, who
have displayed a huge commitment so that the
intergenerational programs could take place,
as well as Virgilio Ferreira School for its
willingness to participate in this project.
... Following the methodology described by Marques et al. (2014), SeniorTec was split in two learning sessions and one contact session. In the learning sessions, older people gave a "Nutrition Workshop" and a "Financial Education Workshop" aiming at providing students with information on some of the Cordon Gris project issues. ...
Article
Full-text available
The SeniorTec program was carried out in the framework of the European project Cordon Gris, its objective was to promote intergenerational relationships. The activity was hosted by the old persons who participate in the European project Cordon Gris and was attended by university students from Higher School of Health of Alcoitão and ISCTE-University Institute of Lisbon. Learning sessions were delivered in this action: a Nutrition Workshop and a Financial Education Workshop. After this, an intergenerational contact session took place by using the Cordon Gris app. The SeniorTec program could promote a more positive image of aging and deconstruct negative stereotypes. Valuing older people in technology can act as a powerful vehicle to improve images of aging and to encourage intergenerational contact
... One important route will be to explore the instruments that have been used in other types of prejudicial attitudes (e.g., racism and sexism) and see how they can be applied to the case of ageism. It will allow further understanding of how ageism develops in childhood and the development of effective intervention programs (Marques et al. 2014b) to reduce ageism at an early age. In an ageing society, understanding how children think, feel and behave regarding older people is fundamental for preparing a better and more inclusive future for all age groups. ...
Chapter
Full-text available
The children of today will be the adults of tomorrow and thus their attitudes toward older people lay the ground for their future self-concept and psychological well-being. Understanding how young children perceive older people is thus of crucial importance in an ageing world. The literature suggests mixed findings regarding the existence of ageism among children, which may be an artifact of the diversity measures used. This chapter presents a literature review that assesses most of these measures to assess children’s attitudes regarding older people and the assorted findings. We propose a classification based on two criteria: (i) the dimensions covered – cognitive, affective and behavioral (tripartite model of attitudes) and (ii) the four automaticity features (consciousness, controllability, intentionality and efficacy) which together led us to classify measures into three categories: solely explicit, solely implicit and partially both explicit and implicit measures. Based on this categorization, we delineate distinct patterns of results, associated with the participant’s age. In studies using explicit measures or a combination of both explicit and implicit measures, children revealed more positive or mixed attitudes regarding older people. The most positive attitudes were found in studies with older children and adolescents (e.g. using the Tuckman-Lorge Older People Scale”). When implicit measures were used, a different pattern of results emerged. Children expressed negative attitudes toward older people across childhood (e.g. behavioral measure). Based on this pattern of evidence, we make recommendations regarding the improvement of measures to assess children’s attitudes toward older people at different points in their social development.
ResearchGate has not been able to resolve any references for this publication.