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A New Species of Hymenaea (Leguminosae: Caesalpinioideae) with a Revised Identification Key to the Genus in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest


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Abstract— New species of the caesalpinioid legume genus Hymenaea (Detarieae s. str. clade) have not been discovered in the last 40 yr. This study describes and illustrates the striking new species Hymenaea fariana from the few known collections made in the Atlantic Forest biome of the Brazilian state of Espírito Santo. The new species has close morphological affinities to H. altissima, from which it is readily distinguished by the mainly shrubby to small tree habit and lanceolate to oblanceolate petals with a well-differentiated petal claw. An updated identification key to the Atlantic Forest species of Hymenaea is also provided.
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Systematic Botany (2015), 40(1): pp. 151–156
©Copyright 2015 by the American Society of Plant Taxonomists
DOI 10.1600/036364415X686440
Date of publication February 12, 2015
A New Species of Hymenaea (Leguminosae: Caesalpinioideae) with a Revised Identification
Key to the Genus in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest
Robson Daumas Ribeiro,
Domingos Benı
´cio Oliveira Silva Cardoso,
and Haroldo Cavalcante de Lima
Instituto de Pesquisas Jardim Bota
ˆnico do Rio de Janeiro, Rua Pacheco Lea
˜o, 915, 22460-030, Rio de Janeiro,
RJ, Brazil.
Departamento de Bota
ˆnica, Instituto de Biologia, Universidade Federal da Bahia, Rua Bara
˜o de Jeremoabo,
s/n, Campus Universita
´rio de Ondina, 40171-970, Salvador, BA, Brazil.
Programa de Po
˜o em Bota
ˆnica, Universidade Estadual de Feira de Santana, Av. Transnordestina,
s/n, Novo Horizonte, 44036-900, Feira de Santana, BA, Brazil.
Author for correspondence (
Communicating Editor: Timothy M. Evans
Abstract—New species of the caesalpinioid legume genus Hymenaea (Detarieae s. str. clade) have not been discovered in the last 40 yr. This
study describes and illustrates the striking new species Hymenaea fariana from the few known collections made in the Atlantic Forest biome
of the Brazilian state of Espı
´rito Santo. The new species has close morphological affinities to H. altissima, from which it is readily distinguished
by the mainly shrubby to small tree habit and lanceolate to oblanceolate petals with a well-differentiated petal claw. An updated identification
key to the Atlantic Forest species of Hymenaea is also provided.
Resumo—Novas espe
´cies de leguminosas do ge
ˆnero Hymenaea (clado Detarieae s.str., Caesalpinioideae) na
ˆm sido descobertas nos
´ltimos 40 anos. Neste estudo, descrevemos e ilustramos a nova espe
´cie Hymenaea fariana a partir de poucas coletas oriundas apenas do bioma
Mata Atla
ˆntica no estado do Espı
´rito Santo, Brasil. Esta nova espe
´cie apresenta maior similaridade morfolo
´gica com H. altissima,daqualse
diferencia facilmente pelo ha
´bito geralmente arbustivo e pelas pe
´talas lanceoladas a oblanceoladas e distintamente unguiculadas. E
apresentada uma chave de identificac¸a
˜o das espe
´cies de Hymenaea ocorrentes na Mata Atla
Keywords—Caesalpinioideae, Detarieae, Fabaceae, morphology, restinga costal forest, taxonomy.
Palavras-chave—Caesalpinioideae, Detarieae, Fabaceae, morfologia, restinga, taxonomia.
The genus Hymenaea L. (Leguminosae, Caesalpinioideae)
comprises 15 species (Lee & Langenheim 1975; Mackinder
2005; Souza et al. 2014). Hymenaea is one of a number of
legume genera with an Amphi-Atlantic disjunct distribution,
largely occurring in the Neotropics but with one species in
coastal East Africa, Madagascar, and the Mascarene Islands
(Mackinder 2005; Schrire et al. 2005). Species of Hymenaea can
be small trees, such as the savanna-inhabiting H. stigonocarpa
Mart. ex Hayne, to very large trees in wet forests, such as the
Amazonian H. intermedia Ducke. Hymenaea is easily recog-
nized by the bifoliolate leaves, relatively large, radially sym-
metrical bat-pollinated flowers, and indehiscent pods with a
farinaceous endocarp. Phylogenetic analyses of chloroplast
DNA sequences confirm the monophyly of Hymenaea and
place the genus together with Guibourtia Benn. and Peltogyne
Vogel in a strongly supported Hymenaea clade (Fouge
Danezan et al. 2007, 2010). This clade is one of several
caesalpinioid radiations of the large resin-producing
Detarieae clade (Fouge
`re-Danezan et al. 2007, 2010; Bruneau
et al. 2008; LPWG 2013).
The diversity of Hymenaea is most geographically concen-
trated in Brazil, where nearly all species occur in almost all
biomes, but mainly in the Atlantic Rain Forest (or Mata
ˆntica) (Lee and Langenheim 1975; Lima et al. 2010). The
Brazilian Mata Atla
ˆntica originally covered more than
1,000,000 km
, but current estimates indicate that deforesta-
tion has severely reduced the biome to less than 8% of its
original vegetation cover (SOS Mata Atla
ˆntica 1998; MMA
2002). Nevertheless, the Mata Atla
ˆntica is still considered
one of the world’s main biodiversity hotspots (e.g. Myers
et al. 2000; Martini et al. 2007), a conclusion supported by
the remarkable number of new species in many different
plant families that have been recently discovered and
described from this biome (e.g. Cardoso and Queiroz 2010;
Fraga and Kollmann 2010; Moraes and van der Werff 2011;
Popovkin et al. 2011; Amaya and Popovkin 2012; Machado
and Vianna-Filho 2012; Mancinelli et al. 2012; Pinto et al. 2012;
Stehmann and Giacomin 2012; Coser et al. 2013; Ferreira et al.
2013; Groppo et al. 2013; Meireles and Lima 2013; Mota et al.
2013; Prado and Hirai 2013; Filardi and Lima 2014; Fraga
et al. 2014; Gil et al. 2014; Goldenberg and Chagas 2014;
Heiden et al. 2014; Riina et al. 2014; Cardoso et al. 2014).
New species of Hymenaea have not been discovered in the
last 40 yr. This study describes and illustrates a striking
new species which came to light as a result of our extensive
fieldwork in the Atlantic Forest of the state of Espı
´rito Santo.
We also present a revised identification key to all known
species of Hymenaea occurring in the Atlantic Forest biome.
Taxonomic Treatment
Hymenaea fariana R. D. Ribeiro, D. B. O. S. Cardoso &
H. C. Lima, sp. nov.—TYPE: BRAZIL. Espı
´rito Santo:
Guarapari, Rodovia do Sol, Setiba, Parque Estadual
Paulo C. Vinha, 205501600S, 402505000 W, 5 April 2007
(fl., fr.), R. D. Ribeiro,H. C. Lima &J. E. Meireles 825
(holotype: RB!; isotypes: CEPEC!, CVRD!, K!, MBM!,
NY!, VIES!).
The new species is similar to H. altissima, but differs in
having a predominantly shrubby or treelet habit and lanceo-
late to oblanceolate and clawed petals. Despite superficial
similarity also to H. rubriflora var. glabra, especially in habit
and fruit characteristics, H. fariana is readily distinguished by
its falcate and non-revolute leaflets, and flowers with white
petals that have a petal claw over 3 mm long.
Shrub to small tree, 110 m tall, rarely a large tree to 20 m
tall, branches glabrous, lenticellate, cut branches and trunk
yielding a resiniferous exudate. Leaves bifoliolate, borne on a
Fig. 1. Hymenaea fariana. A. Flowering branch. B. Bracteoles (adaxial and abaxial views). C. Floral bud. D. Petal when in floral bud. E. Flower. F. Petal
from a mature flower. G. Gynoecium. H. Fruit [All from the holotype, R. D. Ribeiro et al. 825 (RB)].
thin, glabrous, 10–20 mm long petiole; pulvinules 2–5 mm
long, contorted; leaflets 2–6
1.5–3 cm, usually broader on
vegetative branches, chartaceous, glabrous, falcate, apex acute
to cuspidate, base oblique, the inner side acute, the outer side
rounded, midvein and secondary veins conspicuous on both
surfaces, the reticulate tertiaries conspicuous beneath. Inflo-
rescence a short corymbose panicle, 24 cm long, comprised
of several racemose shoots, these 318-flowered, axes and
pedicels covered by brownish, puberulent indumentum;
pedicel 3–5 mm long; bracts and bracteoles 2 4 mm long,
ovate, glabrescent, caducous. Flowers 1.52.2 cm long, radi-
ally symmetrical; floral buds 1015 mm long, ochraceous;
calyx with a hypanthium ca. 7 mm long, campanulate,
4-lobed, the lobes 10–15
5–8 mm, oblong to ovate,
ochraceous-pubescent outside, golden-villous inside; petals
5, 13–18
3– 5 mm, lanceolate or oblanceolate, whitish,
glabrous, prominently clawed, the claw 3–4 mm long;
stamens 10, the filaments 25–30 mm long, white to cream,
anthers 3– 5
1– 2 mm; intrastaminal nectariferous disc
present; gynoecium 2.5–3.5 cm long, shortly stipitate, the
stipe 2–3 mm long, ovary oblique to oblong, glabrous, ovules
5– 8, style 2–3 cm long, stigma capitate. Fruit 5 12
4–5 cm,
indehiscent, oblong to ovate, laterally compressed, woody,
sometimes with slight depressions between the seeds, sur-
face greyish brown, slightly opaque, verrucose, with numer-
ous conspicuous resiniferous pockets and minute lenticels,
endocarp farinaceous. Seeds 3–6 per fruit, 2 3
1– 2 cm,
ellipsoid to obovoid. Figures 1 and 2.
Additional Material Examined—BRAZIL. Espı
´rito Santo: Guarapari,
Rodovia do Sol, Setiba, Parque Estadual Paulo C. Vinha, 5 April 2007 (fl),
R. D. Ribeiro et al. 826 (RB); Vila Velha, Barra do Jucu
´, Parque Municipal
de Jacarenema, 30 Aug 2008 (fr), H. C. de Lima et al. 7004 (RB); Vila Velha a
Guarapari, ca. 25 km na Estrada do Sol, 21 May 1990 (fr), A. M. de Carvalho
3162 (CEPEC, RB); Presidente Kennedy, pro
´ximo a
`Praia das Neves,
propriedade da FERROUS, 14 Jan 2010 (fl), L. Maielo-Silva et al. 97 (RB);
´ria, 20 Mar 1934 (fl), J. G. Kuhlmann 1 (RB, UEC).
Distribution and Habitat—The new species has been
recorded only in a few localities of the municipalities of
Guarapari, Presidente Kennedy, Vila Velha, and Vito
´ria in
Fig. 2. A. The more common shrubby habit of the new species Hymenaea fariana. B C. Inflorescences. D. Close-up of the flowers [All from the
holotype, R. D. Ribeiro et al. 825 (RB)]. All photographs by Jose
´Eduardo Meireles.
´rito Santo state, southeastern Brazil (Fig. 3). It grows in
arboreal or scrub white-sand restinga vegetation, a character-
istic plant formation scattered along the Atlantic coast.
Conservation—Hymenaea fariana is only known from a
few collections, in botanically poorly explored areas. Any
effective conservation assessment of this apparently nar-
rowly restricted endemic species requires a detailed survey
of the many other species-diverse areas of restinga vegeta-
tion in southern Bahia and southeastern coastal Brazil.
We temporarily assess H. fariana as data deficient (DD)
(IUCN 2001).
Phenology—Flowering and fruiting from April to August.
Etymology—The specific epithet of the new species
honours Sergio Miana de Faria, a Brazilian scientist at
Embrapa Agrobiologia in Serope
´dica, Rio de Janeiro, who
has greatly contributed to the study of nitrogen fixation in
nodulating legumes.
Taxonomic Comments—Hymenaea fariana is morphologi-
cally similar to the recently reestablished species Hymenaea
altissima Ducke (Souza et al. 2014), both having falcate, gla-
brous leaflets that are relatively small (up to 6 cm long), small
flower buds (less than 2 cm long), and a glabrous ovary.
However, H. fariana usually grows as a shrub or small tree
and has lanceolate to oblanceolate, clawed petals, with the
claw 3–4 mm long, in mature flowers, and has somewhat
laterally compressed, oblong-ovate pods (versus large trees
up to 40 m tall, ovate to obovate petals with claw absent or
very short, less than 2 mm long, and cylindrical pods in
H. altissima). Additionally, H. fariana is ecologically confined
to sandy coastal restinga vegetation in Espı
´rito Santo,
whereas H. altissima is more widespread in wet forests along
the slopes of the Serra do Mar mountain range in the states
of Rio de Janeiro and Sa
˜o Paulo, as well as in the tabuleiro
coastal moist forests that occur on clay soils from northern
Rio de Janeiro to southern Bahia.
Hymenaea fariana also has some morphological affinity with
H. rubriflora var. glabra, especially the glabrous leaflets and
flowers with oblanceolate petals and a glabrous ovary. The
main differences between these two taxa are the falcate
and non-revolute leaflets and flowers with white petals in
H. fariana (vs. oblong, usually revolute leaflets and flowers
with reddish petals in H. rubriflora var. glabra). Our study of
herbarium collections and of many different populations in
the field also revealed that H. rubriflora var. glabra has its
geographical range limited to the Atlantic coastal forest of
the states of Paraı
´ba and Sergipe, in northeastern Brazil.
The genus Hymenaea is represented in the Brazilian Atlantic
Forest biome by nine species (11 taxa). Phylogenetic analyses
of the resin-producing Detarieae that best sampled within
Hymenaea so far (Fouge
`re-Danezan et al. 2007, 2010) did not
resolve a monophyletic group of Atlantic Forest species.
Some taxa occur in the Atlantic Forest, but they have an
Fig. 3. Geographical distribution of known specimens of Hymenaea fariana. The new species has been recorded only in the state of Espı
´rito Santo,
southeastern Brazil.
ecological preference for habitats in Cerrado (savanna) and
Caatinga (seasonally dry woodland) vegetation. We present
below an identification key for all taxa of Hymenaea recorded
from the Atlantic Forest.
Key to Species of HYMENAEA from the Atlantic Forest Biome
1. Leaflets densely pubescent beneath. . . ............................................................................................ 2
2. Flowers with petals distinctly unguiculate (clawed) and spathulate. ................................................... ............. 3
3. Large trees, to 20 m tall, branches with peeling surface; leaflets 5–9 cm long,
golden brown tomentose beneath; ovary evenly tomentose. . . ......................................................... H. aurea
3. Small trees or shrubs, to 5m tall, branches with smooth to rough surface;
leaflets 2– 4 cm long, pubescent beneath; ovary bearing a tuff of hirsute trichomes at the base. ........................... H. eriogyne
2. Flowers with petals not spathulate and without a differentiated claw. . . . ......... .................................................. 4
4. Flowers with reddish, oblanceolate petals. . ............................................................ H. rubriflora var. rubriflora
4. Flowers with whitish, ovate to obovate petals. . ............................................................................. 5
5. Leaflets usually more than 10 cm long; flowers large, ca. 3.5 cm long, the ovary glabrous
or rarely with a few hairs along the margins, or at the base. ...................................... H. stigonocarpa var. pubescens
5. Leaflets less than 10 cm long; flowers less than 2 cm long,
the ovary commonly bearing a tuff of hairs at the base. . . . ...................................................... H. martiana
1. Leaflets glabrous or glabrescent (then indumentum present only along the midvein). . . .................................................. 6
6. Leaflets falcate, the apex usually acuminate. . . ................................................... ............................... 7
7. Mature flowers with lanceolate or oblanceolate and clawed petals, the claw 3 –4 mm long. ................................. H. fariana
7. Mature flowers with ovate to obovate petals, sessile or rarely shortly clawed,
the claw less than 2 mm long. ........................................................................................... 8
8. Leaflets 3–5 cm long, reticulate venation conspicuous beneath; flowers ca. 15 mm long;
pod surface strongly verrucose. ............................................................................. H. altissima
8. Leaflets 4– 10 cm long, reticulate venation inconspicuous beneath; flowers ca. 18 mm long;
pod with inconspicuous resiniferous pockets. . . ............................................................... H. courbaril
6. Leaflets oblong to obovate, the apex usually obtuse. ............................................................................. 9
9. Leaflets usually revolute; flowers with reddish petals. ...................................................... H. rubriflora var. glabra
9. Leaflets never revolute; flowers with white to cream petals. .................................................................. 10
10. Inflorescences largely paniculate, ca. 18 cm long; flowers ca. 15 mm long,
petals spathulate and clawed; pods ovate, opaque, up to 6 cm long, with 1 3 seeds. . ..... .............. H. oblongifolia var. latifolia
10. Inflorescences shortly paniculate, ca. 8 cm long; flowers ca. 26 mm long, petals obovate,
claw absent; pods oblong, shiny, up to 15 cm long, with 6 –8 seeds. . . ............................ H. stigonocarpa var. stigonocarpa
Acknowledgments. ProjetoBiodiversidadedoBiomaMataAtla
PROBIO II/MCTI/JBRJ supported all fieldwork that resulted in the dis-
covery of the new species. We thank Rafael B. Pinto and Jorge Fontella
Pereira for helpful comments on earlier drafts of the manuscript; the
curators of the cited herbaria are thanked for kindly permitting access to
their collections; Aline S. Oliveira prepared the line drawing, and Jose
Eduardo Meireles helped with fieldwork and kindly provided photo-
graphs of the new species. We also greatly appreciate the careful reading
and suggestions provided by two anonymous reviewers. This study is
wholeheartedly dedicated to the memory of the first author, who tragi-
cally died before he could conclude his master’s dissertation.
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... Meirelles & Goldenberg, 2012;Almeida & Mamede, 2014;Peterle et al., 2015;Giaretta & Peixoto 2015;Pellegrini & Sakuragui, 2017;Chagas et al., 2017;Romão et al., 2017;Tuler et al., 2017;Cardoso et al., 2018) e na descrição de espécies novas para a ciência (p.ex. Machado & Filho, 2012;Filardi & Lima, 2014;Ribeiro et al., 2015;Iglesias et al., 2016;Alves-Araújo & Mônico, 2017;Marinho et al., 2018;Chautems et al., 2019). ...
... Meirelles & Goldenberg, 2012;Almeida & Mamede, 2014;Peterle et al., 2015;Giaretta & Peixoto 2015;Pellegrini & Sakuragui, 2017;Chagas et al., 2017;Romão et al., 2017;Tuler et al., 2017;Cardoso et al., 2018) e na descrição de espécies novas para a ciência (p.ex. Machado & Filho, 2012;Filardi & Lima, 2014;Ribeiro et al., 2015;Iglesias et al., 2016;Alves-Araújo & Mônico, 2017;Marinho et al., 2018;Chautems et al., 2019). ...
... The type of the nectary is determined by the shape of the receptacle, which can be flattened and broad or elongated and concave (Azani et al. 2017). Flowers with a broad or flattened receptacle are equipped with intrastaminal nectaries forming a disc surrounding the base of the ovaries (especially in Duparquetioidea and Dialioideae and in some representatives of the Detarioideae, Caesalpinioideae and Papilionoideae subfamilies) (Erickson and Garment 1979;Herendeen et al. 2003;Horner et al. 2003;Heneidak and Hassan 2007;Bello et al. 2010;Paulino et al. 2011;Ribeiro et al. 2015;Zimmerman et al. 2017). In turn, flowers with a concave tubular or cup-like receptacle (hypanthium) usually have hypanthial nectaries (mainly in Cercidoideae and Detarioideae as well as some members of the Caesalpinioideae and Papilionoideae subfamilies) (Lavin 1988(Lavin , 1990(Lavin , 1993Prenner 2003;Leite et al. 2015;Radosavljevic et al. 2017). ...
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Floral nectaries are important components of floral architecture and significant taxonomic traits facilitating assessment of relationships between taxa and can contribute substantially to studies on the ecology and evolution of a particular genus. Knowledge of nectary structure and functioning allows better understanding of the mutualistic interactions between the pollinator and the plant. Robinia viscosa var. hartwigii (Hartweg’s locust), planted in many European countries as an ornamental plant and used for recovery of degraded areas and urban arborisation, is a valuable melliferous species often visited by honeybees and bumblebees. The aim of this study was to investigate the microstructure of the floral nectaries of R. viscosa var. hartwigii with the use of light, fluorescence, scanning, and transmission electron microscopes. The photosynthetic nectaries were located on the inner surface of the cup-like receptacle. The components of pre-nectar were synthesised in the chloroplasts of the glandular parenchyma and transported via the conducting elements of the phloem. Nectar was released through modified nectarostomata. Nectar secretion presumably proceeded in the eccrine mode, whereas nectar transport represented the symplastic and apoplastic types. The cuticle on the nectary epidermis surface contained lipids, essentials oils, and flavonoids, while proteins and flavonoids were present in the glandular parenchyma cells. Idioblasts containing phenolic compounds, tannins, and polysaccharides were observed between the glandular parenchyma cells. The location of the nectaries and the mode of nectar production in the flowers of the Hartweg’s locust follow the common location and structure pattern characteristic for the nectaries in some members of the subfamily Papilionoideae and can be a significant taxonomic trait for the genus Robinia and the tribe Robinieae.
... Species identification is a formal process in many biological systematics. Several approaches for species identification have been proposed in the litterateur (Norton et al., 2012;Dahms et al., 2006;Ribeiro et al., 2015;Sweeney, 2004). These approaches can be classified into five main categories: 1-Morphometric-based approaches (Cope et al., 2012;Francoy et al., 2008;Jacquiet et al., 1996;De Luna and Gómez-Velasco, 2008), 2-DNA barcoding-based approaches (Meier et al., 2006;Kress et al., 2005;Carvalho et al., 2015;Hebert et al., 2004;Holmes et al., 2009), 3-Crowd sourcing-based approaches (Silvertown et al., 2015;Rahman et al., 2015;Siddharthan et al., 2016;Carvalko and Morris, 2015), 4-Computer vision and machine learning based approaches (Barré et al., 2017;Nikolaou et al., 2010;Larios et al., 2008;Wang et al., 2012;Kumar et al., 2012) and 5-key-based approaches (Gaubert et al., 2008;Nimis et al., 2012;Kirchoff et al., 2011;Martellos, 2010). ...
Identification key represents a powerful tool, which allows users to identify biological species, such as animals, insects, and plants. This key contains several steps leading to the corresponding species name. In this paper, we propose a new method for estimating insects' identification ease from their charecteristics values (CV). To realize that, we have investigated; 1- the variations of the identification ease level (IES) of the SPIPOLL insects, 2- the relation between the CV and the IES. The obtained results showed that the CV can be used to estimate the IES of the SPIPOLL insects.
... Embora ameaçadas, as restingas espiritossantenses são pouco estudadas e o conhecimento botânico existente se resume a alguns estudos ecológicos e fl orísticos (Fraga & Peixoto 2004, Magnago et al. 2011; a trabalhos sobre a fi siologia das plantas ocorrentes na restinga (Neves et al. 2009, Siqueira-Silva et al. 2012); a alguns levantamentos fl orísticos e fi tossociológicos (Fabris 1995, Fabris & Cesar 1996, Pereira & Zambom 1998, 2000, Assis et al. 2004a,b, Colodete & Pereira 2007, Valadares et al. 2011) e a registros de novas espécies (Santos-Gonçalves et al. 2011, Ribeiro et al. 2015. Existem ainda alguns estudos taxonômicos, como o de Weiler Jr. (1998), sobre as Leguminosae: Papilionoideae, o de Fabris & Peixoto (2013), sobre as Sapotaceae e o de Valadares & Sakuragui (2016), sobre as Araceae, além de fl órulas de parques, como as realizadas por Valadares et al. (2010), Chagas et al. (2014) e Peterle et al. (2015) no Parque Estadual Paulo César Vinha, no município de Guarapari, com o gênero Anthurium Schott (Araceae) e as subfamílias de Leguminosae Caesalpinioideae e Mimosoideae, respectivamente. ...
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Jacaranema's Municipal Natural Park is an area that still has fragments of conserved restinga communities, located in an urban area of the city of Vila Velha. Despite the importance of the family, no exclusive survey about the Leguminosae of Espírito Santo's restingas has been performed yet. The present study aims to fi ll this knowledge gap by providing information about the diversity of Leguminosae for this area. Fifty three taxa distributed within 29 genera, 51 species, three subspecies and four varieties, and 24 of these taxa are new citations for Espírito Santo's restingas, and 37 for the park's fl ora. Here we present an identifi cation key, descriptions, illustrations and comments about distribution, habitat, phenology and taxonomy of the recorded species. © 2018 Fundacao Zoobotanica do Rio Grande do Sul. All Rights Reserved.
... Hymenaea L. (Leguminosae) comprises 18 Neotropical species (including one species described herein), a single species found in coastal East Africa, Madagascar, and the Mascarene Islands (Souza et al. 2014;Pinto et al. 2015;Ribeiro et al. 2015), plus several undescribed species. Within the Neotropics, the genus ranges from Mexico and the Caribbean islands to Paraguay and southern Brazil (Paraná state). ...
A new species of Hymenaea from the Caatinga of northeastern Brazil is described and illustrated. H. cangaceira is morphologically similar to H. martiana and H. longifolia, and its geographical distribution overlaps those of both species; however, it differs in the combination of glabrous, ovate to broadly-elliptic leaflets, a glabrous ovary, and relatively short, cylindrical fruit. The new species is well represented in the herbaria of northeastern Brazil. An identification key is provided to distinguish it from other species of Hymenaea that occur in the Caatinga region.
... If we were to give an update of species discovery in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest domain, the figures would show an increasing rate, given the spectacularly rapid pace at which new species in different plant families have been published in the last three years (e.g. Amorim et al. 2014Amorim et al. , 2016Cardoso et al. 2014;Filardi and Lima 2014;Fraga and Saavedra 2014;Fraga et al. 2015;Marinho et al. 2015Marinho et al. , 2016Ribeiro et al. 2015;Snak et al. 2015;Abreu and Giulietti 2016;Asprino and Amorim 2016;Bacci et al. 2016;Ferreira et al. 2016;Fiaschi 2016;Gil et al. 2016;Goldenberg et al. 2016;Parma et al. 2016;Ribeiro et al. 2016;Silva et al. 2016;Zorzanelli et al. 2016). These and other recent species discoveries in the Atlantic Forest have largely contributed not just to reducing its "Linnean shortfall" or lack of taxonomic knowledge on plant biodiversity , but have also revealed novel and remarkable morphological features in several taxa (e.g. ...
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We describe and illustrate the new mimosoid legume Inga bifoliolata (Leguminosae) from the highly endangered Brazilian Atlantic Forest domain. The new species is morphologically unique among all Atlantic Forest-inhabiting taxa because of the leaves consistently bearing only two leaflets. Only a few Amazonian Inga species are known to have bifoliolate leaves, yet they are clearly distinct from the new species described herein, which is further characterized by an unwinged leaf petiole and spicate inflorescences on which the sessile flowers are laxly arranged and have puberulous corollas.
... The former is endemic to the Cerrado biome, and the latter is frequently found in the Atlantic forest and in riverine forests and forest patches within the Cerrado. Despite the lack of phylogenetic studies including all 17 species belonging to this genus (Lee and Langenheim 1975;Ribeiro et al. 2015), Fougère-Danezan et al. (2007) analyzed cpDNA of six species and observed that H. courbaril, H. eriogyne, and H. stigonocarpa are part of a monophyletic, closely related, and unresolved clade within the genus. In addition, an early review of the genus suggested that savanna species like H. stigonocarpa might have derived from forest Hymenaea lineages (Lee and Langenheim 1975). ...
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Studying the genetic structure of vicariant species (i.e., closely related species that occupy ecologically distinct yet adjacent habitats) can shed light on the evolution and divergence of species with different ecological requirements. A previous phylogeographic study identified chloroplast DNA haplotype sharing between two vicariant tree species, one from forest (Hymenaea courbaril) and one from savanna (H. stigonocarpa) habitats. These species co-occur in the Brazilian Cerrado, a biome that encompasses forest patches and riverine forests within a savanna matrix. In order to investigate the evolutionary processes involved in the genetic divergence of these trees, we used nuclear microsatellite markers, statistical methods including approximate Bayesian computation (ABC), and leaf morphology to analyze neighboring and distant populations. Bayesian analysis revealed admixture between the species. ABC analysis supported the scenarios with the occurrence of gene flow between species during the Last Glacial Maximum or from the Holocene to the present, when compared to alternative scenarios of no gene flow or constant gene flow since divergence. However, putative hybrids did not exhibit intermediate leaflet morphology, which could be related to distinct selective pressures maintaining species integrity even in the face of gene flow. Our results suggest that despite morphological differences between savanna and forest species, interspecific barriers to gene flow might not be fully developed between vicariant tree species and that interspecific hybridization in trees from Cerrado biome may be an underdiagnosed process.
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Floral traits associated with functional groups of pollinators have been largely employed to understand mechanisms of floral diversification. Hymenaea is a monophyletic legume genus widely recognized to being bat-pollinated, with nocturnal anthesis and copious nectar. The most of species has short-paniculate inflorescences, white and robust flowers, congruent with a bat-pollination syndrome. However, other Hymenaea species show a different floral pattern (e.g., long-paniculate inflorescences and smaller flowers) which we report here as being bird pollinated. We examined the floral traits and visitors of Hymenaea oblongifolia var. latifolia and identified evolutionary shifts in floral traits associated with potential pollinators of Hymenaea species. Floral traits of H. oblongifolia var. latifolia differ from those expected for bat-pollinated flowers in species of sect. Hymenaea, and we observed hummingbirds collecting nectar legitimately. Our phylogenetic analysis did not support the monophyly of the taxonomic sections and suggests that bat pollination is ancestral in Hymenaea, with bird pollination evolving later. The transition coupling with shifts in the timing of anthesis and other floral traits. Pollinator-mediated evolutionary divergence hypothesis partially explains the Hymenaea diversification in the Neotropics. It is congruent with those species shifting from traits linked traditionally to bat pollination to hummingbird pollination.
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Chusquea Kunth is the most diverse genus of bamboos with about 160 species accepted and an estimate of more than 50 to be described. This is an exclusively American genus with about 40 species recognized in Brazil, these occurring in montane grasslands or more commonly in montane forests. In Bahia State six species are known and a new species ( Chusquea clemirae ) is herein described, illustrated, and compared with sympatric or morphologically similar species. In addition, it is classified as a probable member of C. subg. Chusquea mainly based on internode length, shape and direction of the central bud, type of branching, and length and width of the foliage leaf blades. Its culms are slightly lignified with a spongy medulla and are solid to hollow; a vertically oriented central bud and other vegetative features clearly distinguish it from other Chusquea. This new species was found exclusively in a montane Atlantic Rainforest area in southern Bahia (the Serra Bonita Private Natural Heritage Reserv...
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The new species Prepusa dibotrya from the Brazilian Atlantic Forest in Espírito Santo is described and illustrated, with comments on its ecology, geographical distribution, and conservation status. The new species is similar to P. viridiflora and must be considered "critically endangered" in accordance with the criteria of the IUCN Red List of endangered plant species.
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Neomarica eburnea and N. floscella, two new species of Iridaceae (Trimezieae) from Bahia state (Northeastern Brazil) are here described. Illustrations, diagnostic comparisons with morphologically similar species and an identification key for the species of the genus occurring in Bahia state are presented.
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Baccharis magnifica, a new species endemic to the summits of the Serra do Caparaó along the border between Espírito Santo and Minas Gerais, southeastern Brazil, is described. The new species is easily recognized by its shrubby habit, showy green and slightly wine-tinged, long-petiolate leaves with ciliate margins and corymbiform capitulescences. It is morphologically most similar to the allopatric B. macrophylla, which inhabits the mountain summits of the southerly Serra da Mantiqueira range. Illustrations, a distribution map, habitat information, and a conservation assessment are also provided for the new species.
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Abstract— Alcantarea galactea (Bromeliaceae, Tillandsioideae), a new species of giant bromeliad from the inselbergs of the state of Espírito Santo, southeastern Brazil, is described and illustrated. A distribution map and a table with the main characteristics used to distinguish the new species from its morphologically similar relatives are presented. Alcantarea galactea is among the largest species of this genus, differing from related taxa by its larger habit, leaves densely covered by a thick layer of white epicuticular wax, and spreading stamens. So far, the species is only known from Alfredo Chaves municipality. The areas nearby the type locality have been strongly disturbed by grazing, logging, expansion of coffee plantations, and granite mining. This species may be considered as endangered. Nevertheless, both populations so far known are large enough to be seen from great distances, including aerial photos, and this is one of the motivations for the epithet chosen here, together with the white pulverulent leaves.
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Abstract— We present a detailed morphological study of three South American species of Ormosia (Leguminosae, Papilionoideae, genistoid clade) that have been confused in herbaria and in the literature. The three species are morphologically linked by the shared possession of relatively few leaflets, small, thin-walled fruits, and relatively small seeds, and they each occur in habitats associated with white sand deposits. Individually diagnostic morphology and non-overlapping geographical distributions support their specific distinction from each other and from other closely related species of the genus. Ormosia costulata is recircumscribed to include only populations in Suriname and French Guiana, while Ormosia trifoliolata, previously treated as a synonym of O. costulata, is lectotypified and re-established as a distinct species ranging across much of the Brazilian Amazon and western Guiana Shield. Material formerly identified as O. costulata from the Atlantic Forest domain in the Brazilian state of Bahia is recognized as a distinct and endangered species, herein described and illustrated as O. lewisii .
A new legume species from Southeastern Brazil, Poecilanthe fluminensis, is described and illustrated. It is readily distinguished from the remaining species of the genus by a combination of exclusively unifoliolate leaves with very short petioles (5-9 mm long), red calyx, and strongly dimorphic anthers (short anthers less than 3/4 of the length of the longer ones). The new species, P. fluminensis, appears to be endemic to Rio de Janeiro State, Southeastern Brazil.