Article

Case Report of a 16 year old youth with diagnoses of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), Asperger's syndrome and dyslexia receiving homeopathic and tautopathic treatment

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Abstract

Introduction: ADHD is a common and growing problem which manifests and is diagnosed via a cluster of behaviours such as inability to regulate emotions or manage motivational delay and problems with executive functioning. It frequently accompanies autism spectrum disorders and dyslexia. Homoeopathy is a system of therapeutics based on the Law of Similars where 'like cures like'. Conditions are treated by highly diluted substances that cause, in healthy persons, symptoms like those of the condition to be treated. The aim of this case report is to describe the homoeopathic treatment and progress of one 16 year old youth with diagnoses of ADHD, Asperger's syndrome and dyslexia subjected to in-utero cannabis exposure. Methods: The youth received individualised homoeopathic medicines and additional ultra-molecular dilutions of cannabis. Outcome was measured using the parent completed Conner's Parent Rating Scale-Revised-Long version (CPRS:R-L) every 4 months, with DSMIV total score selected for analysis; and Measure Your Own Medical Outcome Measure (MYMOP) every 6 weeks, completed by parent and patient. Results: At start of treatment the patient's DSMIV total T score was 90+ (highest possible); after 18 months it was 59 (within normal range). MYMOP score at start of treatment was 4.5 and 1.75 after 18 months. Conclusion: Treatment by a homoeopath over 1 1/2 years was associated with improvements in ADHD status and patient generated outcomes. Ultra molecular dilutions of a recreational drug the patient was subjected to in-utero appear to have contributed to improvements. Systematic research with larger numbers would be required to confirm or refute this single case observation.

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... Some children received several different remedies during the course of the year according to the progression of their ADHD symptoms, whilst some received only one. Because parents described environmental substances they thought might have influenced their child's condition, the practitioner implemented a novel methodology, 28 prescribing the perceived toxins in homeopathic potency, additional to their individualized prescription (see 29 for an individual Case Study). The apparent effectiveness of this methodology was a surprise finding of this study, although management of initial adverse effects (or homeopathic aggravations) was also a feature. ...
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Unlabelled: 20 consecutively enrolled children age 5-16 with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) received treatment by a homeopath (8 consultations and individualized remedies) for one year. Ten subsequently enrolled children received similar time and attention for 4 months. The study explored optimum treatment protocols; the effectiveness, deliverability and acceptability of treatment; and the feasibility of outcome measurement and recruitment. Parents completed Conners' Parent Rating Scale, Revised Long Version ( Cprs-r: L) every 4 months, from which DSMIV total scores were extracted; and Measure Your Own Medical Outcome Profile (MYMOP) every consultation. An interaction between time (baseline/4 months) and group (treatment/non-treatment) was found .756 F (1,28)=9.06, p=0.005. The intervention was associated with statistically significant improvements in treated children over the year: Cprs-r: L (t (18)=4.529, p≤0.000); MYMOP (t (18)=6.938, p≤0.000). Mean DSMIV total t scores decreased at each time point: baseline: 85 (SD 5.1); 4 months 76.2 (SD 10.9); and 12 months 71.5 (SD 12.77). Recruitment of control participants was problematic. Recruitment to treatment was feasible via ADHD support groups, charities, police support agencies and social services, not schools or NHS services. Attending appointments was problematic for some participants, but home visits did not improve uptake. The best venue was a familiar clinic. Some participants took medicines inappropriately, but generally taking homeopathic remedies was acceptable and well implemented. Cprs-r: L (80 items) was problematic for some parents. MYMOP was preferred by parents but not acceptable to stakeholders. In this small consecutive sample the intervention was associated with improvements in criminality, anger and children with a concomitant diagnosis of Autism Spectrum Disorder ASD. Treatment by a homeopath was associated with sustained, increasing improvements and the intervention was acceptable to participants. More methodically rigorous research is warranted. "We recommend that future research in this area uses comparative effectiveness randomised controlled trial designs. We also recommend that these trials measure outcomes of relevance to stakeholder needs - the people and services who care for those with ADHD - parents, teachers and social workers and the criminal justice system".
... Some children received several different remedies during the course of the year according to the progression of their ADHD symptoms, whilst some received only one. Because parents described environmental substances they thought might have influenced their child's condition, the practitioner implemented a novel methodology, 28 prescribing the perceived toxins in homeopathic potency, additional to their individualized prescription (see 29 for an individual Case Study). The apparent effectiveness of this methodology was a surprise finding of this study, although management of initial adverse effects (or homeopathic aggravations) was also a feature. ...
Article
Full-text available
20 consecutively enrolled children age 5–16 with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) received treatment by a homeopath (8 consultations and individualized remedies) for one year. Ten subsequently enrolled children received similar time and attention for 4 months. The study explored optimum treatment protocols; the effectiveness, deliverability and acceptability of treatment; and the feasibility of outcome measurement and recruitment. Parents completed Conners' Parent Rating Scale, Revised Long Version (CPRS-R:L) every 4 months, from which DSMIV total scores were extracted; and Measure Your Own Medical Outcome Profile (MYMOP) every consultation. An interaction between time (baseline/4 months) and group (treatment/non-treatment) was found .756 F (1,28) = 9.06, p = 0.005. The intervention was associated with statistically significant improvements in treated children over the year: CPRS-R:L (t (18) = 4.529, p ≤ 0.000); MYMOP (t (18) = 6.938, p ≤ 0.000). Mean DSMIV total t scores decreased at each time point: baseline: 85 (SD 5.1); 4 months 76.2 (SD 10.9); and 12 months 71.5 (SD 12.77). Recruitment of control participants was problematic. Recruitment to treatment was feasible via ADHD support groups, charities, police support agencies and social services, not schools or NHS services. Attending appointments was problematic for some participants, but home visits did not improve uptake. The best venue was a familiar clinic. Some participants took medicines inappropriately, but generally taking homeopathic remedies was acceptable and well implemented. CPRS-R:L (80 items) was problematic for some parents. MYMOP was preferred by parents but not acceptable to stakeholders. In this small consecutive sample the intervention was associated with improvements in criminality, anger and children with a concomitant diagnosis of Autism Spectrum Disorder ASD. Treatment by a homeopath was associated with sustained, increasing improvements and the intervention was acceptable to participants. More methodically rigorous research is warranted. “We recommend that future research in this area uses comparative effectiveness randomised controlled trial designs. We also recommend that these trials measure outcomes of relevance to stakeholder needs – the people and services who care for those with ADHD – parents, teachers and social workers and the criminal justice system”.
Article
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Having developed a pharmacokinetic method for studying the fate of orally administered arsenious anhydride by a radioactive tracer method, the influence of Hahnemannian dilutions of arsenicum album on the elimination and retention of this toxin in the rat was then investigated. The effects of centesimal (cH) and decimal (dH) dilutions were studied. All the dilutions studied were found to be active. The strongest effects were observed after the administration of dilutions corresponding to a concentration of 10-14 (14dH and 7cH). Overall, the decimal dilutions augmented the elimination of arsenic more than the centesimals. The observed results were submitted to mathematical analysis. A mathematical model, which confirms that Hahnemannian dilutions have biological effects which are a direct function of the degree of dilution, was developed.
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Thirty-five percent of 298 treatment-seeking cocaine abusers met DSM-III-R criteria for childhood attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Subjects with childhood ADHD were likely to be male (78%), meet Research Diagnostic Criteria (RDC) for conduct disorder (93%) and antisocial personality disorder (47%), and report a history of conduct disorder in first-degree relatives. With respect to those without the disorder and regardless of co-occurrence with sociopathy, cocaine abusers with childhood ADHD were younger at presentation for treatment and reported more severe substance use, earlier onset of cocaine abuse, more frequent and intense cocaine use, intranasal rather than freebase or intravenous use of cocaine, higher rates of alcoholism, and more previous treatment. This pattern of cocaine use is consistent with clinical descriptions of self-medication of residual symptoms of ADHD in cocaine abusers. Data from this study suggest that there may be more cocaine abusers with a history of ADHD than previously recognized in clinical samples of cocaine users, and that these individuals may differ in clinically meaningful ways from those without childhood ADHD. Moreover, the poorer outcome of subjects with ADHD in this sample underlines the importance of identifying and treating residual symptoms of ADHD in cocaine abusers.
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To assess the sensitivity to within person change over time of an outcome measure for practitioners in primary care that is applicable to a wide range of illness. Comparison of a new patient generated instrument, the measure yourself medical outcome profile (MYMOP), with the SF-36 health profile and a five point change score; all scales were completed during the consultation with' practitioners and repeated after four weeks. 103 patients were followed up for 16 weeks and their results charted; seven practitioners were interviewed. Established practice of the four NHS general practitioners and four of the private complementary practitioners working in one medical centre. Systematic sample of 218 patients from general practice and all 47 patients of complementary practitioners; patients had had symptoms for more than seven days. Standardised response mean and index of responsiveness; view of practitioners. The index of responsiveness, relating to the minimal clinically important difference, was high for MYMOP: 1.4 for the first symptom, 1.33 for activity, and 0.85 for the profile compared with < 0.45 for SF-36. MYMOP's validity was supported by significant correlation between the change score and the change in the MYMOP score and the ability of this instrument to detect more improvement in acute than in chronic conditions. Practitioners found that MYMOP was practical and applicable to all patients with symptoms and that its use increased their awareness of patients' priorities. MYMOP shows promise as an outcome measure for primary care and for complementary treatment. It is more sensitive to change than the SF-36 and has the added bonus of improving patient-practitioner communication.
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To study the alterations in body weight, tissue weight and total protein in mice, caused by a single sublethal injection of arsenic trioxide and to investigate whether treatment by microdoses of arsenic has any antidotal effect. For each fixation interval, altogether 36 individuals of Swiss albino mice, Mus musculus, were used, 27 were injected with As2O3 in a single sub-lethal dose (@1.0 mg/kg body weight) and were divided into three batches. One batch was fed with diluted potentized alcohol (Alcohol control), one batch was fed with potentized homoeopathic drug Ars.Alb-30 (Active treatment), while the remaining one neither fed with potenized alcohol nor with the potentized homoeopathic drug (As-intoxicated control). The remaining batch of nine mice were injected with normal saline which served as negative control (Saline control). The mean body weights before and after injections and weights of different tissues like liver, kidney, spleen and testis were recorded at seven fixation intervals, 12 hours, 24 hours, 48 hours, 7 days, 21 days, 30 days, and 90 days. In arsenic treated mice orally administered with the homoeopathic drug statistically significant increases were noted in the weights of individual tissue weight, protein content as well as the mean body weight as compared to their respective controls. Arsenicum album can be considered as an antidote to arsenic poisoning.
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To determine whether the potentized homoeopathic drug Arsenicum Album-30 can induce enzymatic and some other biochemical changes to repair tissue damage caused by the injection of arsenic trioxide in mice. Controlled laboratory study. Methods: Mice injected with arsenic trioxide and then orally administered the homoeopathic drug were compared with control animals who either received saline only, or injections of arsenic trioxide, or injections of arsenic trioxide followed by orally administered dilute alcohol. Activities of the enzymes acid and alkaline phosphatases, lipid peroxidation and reduced glutathione, which are used as 'marker' enzymes for cytotoxicity levels, were assessed by standard methods. Histopathological slide preparations of liver were made by routine microtechnique method of tissue sectioning and staining with haematoxylin- eosin for histological examination. The mice fed homoeopathic drug showed positive results of tissue recovery both in terms of enzymatic and histological changes, compared to controls. The homoeopathic drug is capable of preventing or repairing liver damage induced by arsenic trioxide and the positive changes were also confirmed by the activities of the enzymatic markers.
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Development of children aged 5 to 12 years born to mothers with heroin dependency raised at home or adopted was studied in comparison with: (1) children with environmental deprivation alone (i.e. low parental socioeconomic status [SES] and evidence of neglect), (2) children born to fathers with heroin dependency fathers, and (3) control individuals of average SES. One hundred and sixty children (84 males and 76 females; average age at examination 8 years) were evaluated between 1998 and 1999. All were attending mainstream schools. All participants were examined by a paediatrician and a psychologist using standard neurological and psychological age-appropriate tests, as well as tests and questionnaires to assess learning ability and attention span. The Conners and Achenbach questionnaires and the Pollack Taper test were used to assess possible presence of attention-deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Mothers were assessed for ADHD using Wender's questionnaire. Children born to parents with heroin dependency raised at home and those of low SES exhibited intellectual impairment both on verbal and performance skills. They also had impaired reading and arithmetic skills. Children born to mothers with heroin dependency but who were adopted at a young age had normal intellectual and learning abilities, except for some reduced function on the performance Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Revised. We found a high rate of ADHD among all children born to parents with heroin dependency, including those adopted, as well as in children with low parental SES. The highest rate of ADHD was in children born to mothers with heroin dependency raised at home, being twice that observed in the other groups. Mothers of these groups of children also had a high rate of ADHD.
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An outcome questionnaire that is patient-centred should encompass the aims, values and treatment effects that are prioritised by individuals, and should enable each individual to provide an unambiguous assessment of change over time. There is little evidence about how well outcome questionnaires perform in this regard. This paper describes how interviews that combined in-depth enquiry and cognitive techniques were used to explore patients' experiences of completing three outcome questionnaires over a 6 month period. The 23 interviewees all had chronic disease and were receiving acupuncture treatment for the first time. Many of the problems uncovered by this study can be ameliorated by attention to questionnaire design. For example, by the provision of at least five response options, by being explicit about including co-morbidity, and by measuring medication change as a separate outcome. The study also highlighted more fundamental conceptual difficulties, such as response shift and the respondent's conflict between scoring external function and internal distress (what they did, vs. what they felt). These issues relate to the co-existence of different perspectives and the impossibility of reducing health status to one 'single truth'. The study concludes that qualitative evaluations have an important role to play in questionnaire design and development and are likely to lead to more modest and realistic appraisals of outcome questionnaire performance.
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Groundwater arsenic contamination has become a menacing global problem. No drug is available until now to combat chronic arsenic poisoning. To examine if a potentized homeopathic remedy, Arsenicum Album-200, can effectively combat chronic arsenic toxicity induced by repeated injections of Arsenic trioxide in mice, the following experimental design was adopted. Mice (Mus musculus) were injected subcutaneously with 0.016% arsenic trioxide at the rate of 1 ml/100 g body weight, at an interval of 7 days until they were killed at day 30, 60, 90 or 120 and were divided into three groups: (i) one receiving a daily dose of Arsenicum Album-200 through oral administration, (ii) one receiving the same dose of diluted succussed alcohol (Alcohol-200) and (iii) another receiving neither drug, nor succussed alcohol. The remedy or the placebo, as the case may be, was fed from the next day onwards after injection until the day before the next injection, and the cycle was repeated until the mice were killed. Two other control groups were also maintained: one receiving only normal diet, and the other receiving normal diet and succussed alcohol. Several toxicity assays, such as cytogenetical (chromosome aberrations, micronuclei, mitotic index, sperm head anomaly) and biochemical (acid and alkaline phosphatases, lipid peroxidation), were periodically made. Compared with controls, the drug fed mice showed reduced toxicity at statistically significant levels in respect of all the parameters studied, thereby indicating protective potentials of the homeopathic drug against chronic arsenic poisoning.
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