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Health effects of erythritol


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Erythritol (1,2,3,4-butanetetrol) is a non-caloric C4 polyol made by fermentation that has a sweetness 60–70% that of sucrose. The safety of erythritol has been consistently demonstrated in animal and human studies. Erythritol has a higher digestive tolerance compared to all other polyols because about 90% of the ingested erythritol is readily absorbed and excreted unchanged in urine. Erythritol is used in a wide range of applications for sweetening and other functionalities, e.g., in beverages, chewing gum and candies. In this review, we summarise the health effects of erythritol described in the literature. We focus on studies involving the anti-cariogenic and endothelial protective effects of erythritol. We conclude that erythritol could be of great importance and could be considered to be the preferred sugar substitute for a rapidly growing population of people with diabetes or pre-diabetes to reduce their risk of developing diabetic complications.
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Nutrafoods (2015)
DOI 10.1007/s13749-014-0067-5
Health effects of erythritol
Daniëlle M.P.H.J. Boesten, Gertjan J.M. den Hartog, Peter de Cock,
Douwina Bosscher, Angela Bonnema, Aalt Bast
Received: 7 August 2014 / Accepted: 3 November 2014
© Springer – CEC Editore 2015
Correspondence to:
Daniëlle Boesten
Erythritol (1,2,3,4-butanetetrol) is a non-caloric C4
polyol made by fermentation that has a sweetness
60–70% that of sucrose. The safety of erythritol has
been consistently demonstrated in animal and hu-
man studies. Erythritol has a higher digestive toler-
ance compared to all other polyols because about
90% of the ingested erythritol is readily absorbed
and excreted unchanged in urine. Erythritol is used
in a wide range of applications for sweetening and
other functionalities, e.g., in beverages, chewing
gum and candies. In this review, we summarise the
health effects of erythritol described in the literature.
We focus on studies involving the anti-cariogenic
and endothelial protective effects of erythritol. We
conclude that erythritol could be of great importance
and could be considered to be the preferred sugar
substitute for a rapidly growing population of people
with diabetes or pre-diabetes to reduce their risk of
developing diabetic complications.
General characteristics
Erythritol (1,2,3,4-butanetetrol) is a four-carbon
sugar alcohol, or polyol, and a meso-butanetetrol
(Fig. 1). It occurs naturally in some mushrooms,
some fruits (e.g., watermelon, grapes and pears) and
in fermented foods including wine, cheese, sake
and soy sauce [1, 2]. Consumption of erythritol nat-
erythritol, sweetener,
health effects,
endothelial, diabetes
Daniëlle M.P.H.J. Boesten (), Gertjan J.M. den Hartog, Aalt Bast
Department of Toxicology
Maastricht University
PO Box 616
6200 MD Maastricht, The Netherlands
tel: +31 43 3881340
Peter de Cock, Douwina Bosscher
Cargill R&D Center Europe
1800 Vilvoorde, Belgium
Angela Bonnema
Cargill R&D Center
Minneapolis, MN, USA
Figure 1 Two possible stereoisomers of 1,2,3,4-butanetetrol are
shown. On the left: erythritol, the 2R,3S isomer.
Although this compound contains two asymmetric
carbon atoms, the overall molecule is achiral because
it contains an intramolecular plane of symmetry.
This plane of symmetry is absent in the compound
on the right, D-threitol, which is therefore chiral: it has
an enantiomer (mirror image) L-threitol (not shown)
erythritol does not affect reproductive performance
or fertility of parental rats. In addition, no adverse
effects on the developing foetus were observed [2,
5–7]. Erythritol does not have mutagenic potential,
as observed in the Ames test and chromosomal
aberration test [2, 5, 8, 9].
In summary, animal toxicological studies and clin-
ical studies have consistently demonstrated the
safety of erythritol. Therefore, it is not expected
that erythritol will cause adverse effects under the
conditions of its intended use in food.
Metabolic fate
The metabolic profile of erythritol is not like that
of any other polyol, which gives rise to some of
erythritol’s unique properties. Erythritol is readily
and virtually completely absorbed from the small
intestine via passive diffusion similar to fructose.
Fructose transport can also occur via GLUT2 trans-
port with absorption enhanced in the presence of
glucose due to greater GLUT2 insertion in the apical
membrane as SGLT1 transports glucose. This ex-
plains the enhanced absorption of fructose in the
presence of glucose. In addition, the presence of
glucose has been shown to enhance paracellular
flow due to the opening of tight junctions resulting
in increased absorption of small solutes [10]. En-
hanced GLUT2 insertion and enhanced paracellular
flow in the presence of glucose has been hypothe-
sised to be the same pathway with altered functions
in the absence/presence of glucose. However, this
hypothesis does not support the differences noted
for minor increases in small solute transport com-
pared to the greatly enhanced transport of fructose
when glucose is present [11, 12]. As erythritol is
readily absorbed on its own, the impact of the pres-
ence of glucose on erythritol absorption would be
minimal and has not been investigated to date. Af-
ter absorption, erythritol is distributed throughout
the body, with maximum plasma concentrations
occurring within the first 2 h of digestion. Up to
90% is excreted unchanged in the urine [5, 13, 14].
Unabsorbed erythritol may be subjected to microbial
urally occurring in foods has been estimated to be
80 mg/day (~1.3 mg/kg body weight/day) in the
United States [2]. Erythritol is also found endoge-
nously in human and animal tissues and body fluids
including blood, urine and cerebrospinal fluid [2].
Erythritol is a white, anhydrous, non-hydroscopic
and crystalline substance. It is 60–70% as sweet as
sucrose [3]. Although erythritol was first isolated in
1852, it took until 1990 for it to be marketed as a
new natural sweetener in Japan. Currently, the use
of erythritol in foods has been approved in more
than 60 countries. The range of applications includes
as a tabletop sweeteners and in beverages, chewing
gum, chocolate, candies and bakery products [3].
Manufacturing process
Large-scale production of erythritol uses fermenta-
tion. Pure glucose, sucrose or glucose from maize
(as a source of starch) is used as a starting material.
Starch is extracted from the maize, and through hy-
drolysis the starch chains are broken down into glu-
cose molecules, which are fermented into erythritol
using an osmophilic yeast, like Moniliella pollinis.
After fermentation, yeast cells and other impurities
are removed by filtering. Once the fermentation
broth is filtered, erythritol is purified by ion ex-
change resin, activated charcoal and ultrafiltration.
In the last step, crystallisation, the broth is cooled
down and erythritol precipitates from the solution
yielding crystals with over 99% purity [3, 4].
A number of toxicological studies have been per-
formed to evaluate the safety of erythritol. These
have been extensively discussed in reviews by Bernt
et al. and Munro et al. [2, 5].
In summary, based on acute toxicity studies, ery-
thritol is classified as essentially non-toxic after
oral administration. Subchronic studies further sup-
port the safety of erythritol. Chronic studies (up to
2 years) revealed that erythritol has no effect on
survival or carcinogenicity [2, 5].
Even at high doses (up to 16 g/kg body weight),
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patients. No effect on plasma glucose or insulin
levels was observed within 3 h after ingestion of 1
g/kg body weight erythritol [14]. Ingestion of 0.3
g/kg body weight erythritol did not influence serum
glucose or insulin levels, whereas the same dose of
glucose rapidly increased these levels [21].
Health effects
Dental health
Mutans streptococci play an important role in the
development of dental plaque. They attach to the
biofilm on teeth and produce glucosyltransferase.
This enzyme is responsible for the synthesis of in-
soluble glucan plaque material. Glucans and the
bacteria accumulate on the teeth and are known
as dental plaque. When large amounts of plaque
form on teeth in the presence of sugar, the mutans
streptococci produce lactic acid. The acid weakens
tooth enamel through demineralisation, ultimately
causing dental caries [3, 22].
When erythritol was incubated with a range of mu-
tans streptococci species, no lactic acid production
was observed. Furthermore, it was not used for
growth or plaque formation by the mutans strep-
tococci [23]. Another study showed that erythritol
inhibited the growth of several strains of mutans
streptococci strains [24]. A study by Hashino et al.
showed that erythritol has inhibitory effects on
Porphyromonas gingivalis and Streptococcus gordonii
heterotypic biofilm development via several path-
ways, including a decrease in DNA/RNA synthesis,
decreased extracellular matrix production and al-
terations of dipeptide acquisition and amino acid
metabolism [25].
This was also supported by an in vivo study into
the effects of 6-month use of erythritol, xylitol and
glucose (in the form of chewable tablets and tooth-
paste). Erythritol and xylitol led to a significant re-
duction in the amount of plaque and saliva levels
of mutans streptococci. In addition, a reduction in
the amount of dental plaque was observed in sub-
jects that had received erythritol and xylitol [24].
A 3-year clinical trial also found that erythritol pro-
fermentation in the colon. However, studies with
13C-erythritol showed no increase in breath 13CO2
and H2, which indicated that erythritol was not
metabolised by the host [15]. The inability of faecal
flora to metabolise erythritol was confirmed in in
vitro studies with fermentation times of up to 24 h
[15, 16]. The potential for erythritol fermentation
exists with exceedingly high doses, much greater
than those represented with current intake [17].
Erythritol has much higher digestive tolerance than
other polyols. This can mainly be attributed to the
fact that it is readily absorbed and only a small
fraction reaches the colon. Other polyols are poorly
absorbed, which can provoke undesirable intestinal
effects when they are consumed in excessive quan-
tities. These effects can occur due to gas formation
by fermentation (leading to flatulence) or as a result
of osmotic effects (leading to laxative effects). Gas-
trointestinal responses of persons ingesting erythri-
tol at up to 0.8 g/kg body weight were comparable
to those of sucrose [13]. Repeated ingestion of ery-
thritol at daily doses of 1 g/kg body weight did not
show more frequent gastrointestinal effects than
sucrose, indicating that erythritol was well tolerated
[18]. When 35 g of erythritol was consumed in a
drink, it was well tolerated, while at a dose of 50 g,
only significant increases in borborygmi and nau-
sea were observed. The consumption of 35 and 50
g of xylitol in the same study induced significant
gastrointestinal distress [19]. The maximum dose
of erythritol not causing laxation was calculated
to be 0.80 g/kg body weight for females and 0.66
g/kg for males [20]. However, the maximum dose
is also dependent on the delivery method. Con-
sumption of erythritol with solid foods is tolerated
at a higher intake level than with beverages, be-
cause digestion of food products is slower, provid-
ing a longer period for absorption to occur [19].
Because of its metabolic profile, erythritol does not
provide energy to the body and therefore has a
caloric value of 0 calories/g [3]. In addition, ery-
thritol does not raise plasma glucose or insulin lev-
els and can therefore be regarded as safe for diabetic
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jor structural requirement for superoxide scav-
engers. The ability of erythritol to scavenge radicals
in a cellular system was tested with a haemolysis
assay. Erythritol delayed radical-induced haemolysis
in red blood cells in a concentration-dependent
manner [30].
The reaction of erythritol with hydroxyl radicals
was also demonstrated in an in vivo model using
diabetic rats. The rats were fed 1000 mg/kg per day
for a period of 3 weeks after diabetes was induced
by streptozotocin. The urine of the rats was inves-
tigated for the presence of two oxidative metabo-
lites of erythritol: erythrose and erythrulose. The
amount of erythrose in the urine was highest in
the diabetic group fed with erythritol, indicating
that erythritol scavenged hydroxyl radicals pro-
duced during hyperglycaemia in these rats [30].
In another in vivo study, by Yokozawa et al., an-
tioxidant properties of erythritol were also investi-
gated [31]. Several doses of erythritol (100, 200 and
400 mg/kg body weight) were orally administrated
to streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats for 10 days.
The highest dose resulted in a decrease of 5-hy-
droxymethylfurfural (5-HMF) levels, a marker for
the extent of glycosylation of serum protein. In
addition, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances
levels of serum, liver and kidney were lower in the
groups that received erythritol, indicating a reduc-
tion of lipid peroxidation (a marker of oxidative
stress). This study also found a reduction in serum,
liver and kidney glucose levels and a reduction in
serum creatinine when rats were given erythritol.
They conclude that erythritol is able to affect glu-
cose metabolism and reduce lipid peroxidation and
kidney damage caused by hyperglycaemia [31].
Endothelial protective effects
Most of the complications that arise from chronic
hyperglycaemia find their origin in damaging the
endothelium, a thin layer of cells lining the car-
diovascular system [32–34]. The endothelium plays
an important role in numerous physiological func-
tions with one of the most important endothe-
motes dental health [26]. In this study, initially, 7–
8-year-old children were given erythritol, xylitol
or sorbitol candies containing 7.5 g of the polyol
daily for three years. Erythritol consistently reduced
the amount of dental plaque during the follow-up
period. In addition, the plaque of erythritol-receiv-
ing subjects showed a reduction in the levels of
acetic acid, propionic acid and lactic acid. Further-
more, erythritol consumption led to lower salivary
and plaque mutans streptococci counts compared
with other groups. This long-term study also in-
vestigated the impact of polyol consumption on
dental caries development [27]. It was found that
less children in the erythritol group developed
enamel or dentin caries over the three years (4.6%
vs. 5.5% in the sorbitol and 5.8% in the xylitol
group). In addition, in the erythritol group, a lower
number of enamel caries tooth surfaces developed
to dentin caries (1.3% vs. 1.7% in the sorbitol and
2.0% in the xylitol group). Furthermore, the time
to development of enamel/dentin and dentin caries
lesions (surfaces) was statistically significantly
longer in the erythritol group compared to the sor-
bitol or xylitol group. These studies demonstrate
that erythritol can reduce the risk of dental caries
Antioxidant properties
It is well known that the polyol mannitol is a hy-
droxyl radical scavenger [28, 29]. Since erythritol
closely resembles the structure of mannitol, den
Hartog et al.investigated the hydroxyl radical scav-
enging capacity of erythritol and several other poly-
ols with a test tube assay. A correlation between
the number of hydroxyl groups in the investigated
compound and its rate constant for the reaction
with hydroxyl radicals was found. Erythritol proved
to be an excellent hydroxyl radical scavenger, with
a rate constant of 1.18×109M–1 s–1 [30].
In the same study, the ability of erythritol to scav-
enge superoxide radicals was investigated in a test
tube assay. Erythritol proved to be inert towards
superoxide radicals, probably because it lacks a ma-
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lium-dependent vascular relaxation was prevented
by erythritol in these rats [30].
To further investigate the endothelium protective
effect, a study in endothelial cells was performed
[36]. The cells were exposed to normal and high
glucose concentrations and targeted and transcrip-
tomic approaches were used to examine the effect
of erythritol under these conditions. Overall, it was
found that erythritol by itself (i.e., under non-dia-
betic conditions) has no effect on the endothelial
cells. However, under high glucose conditions, ery-
thritol was able to reverse a number of deleterious
effects. The most striking observation was that ery-
thritol reversed the direction of change of 148 of
the 153 transcripts altered by high glucose incuba-
tion. Another finding was that erythritol did not
seem to affect single endpoints, but rather had an
effect on multiple targets – a mode of action which
is not uncommon for natural compounds [37, 38].
A pilot study on the effects of erythritol in patients
with type 2 diabetes also revealed protective effects
on vascular function [39]. In this study, 24 subjects
consumed 12 g of erythritol three times daily for 4
weeks. Subjects were tested at baseline and after 4
weeks. In addition, acute and acute-on-chronic ef-
fects before and 2 h after consumption of 24 g ery-
thritol at baseline and follow-up visit were meas-
ured. Acute consumption of erythritol improved
small vessel endothelial function as measured by
fingertip peripheral arterial tonometry (EndoPAT).
Chronic erythritol consumption showed a decrease
in central pulse pressure and a trend towards a
lower carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity. These
findings suggest that erythritol can reduce arterial
stiffness and improve small vessel endothelial func-
tion. However, this was a pilot study without a
control group and a modest sample size. To validate
the findings of this study, a randomised, placebo-
controlled study is required [39].
Erythritol is a non-caloric bulk sweetener which
has been shown in multiple studies to reduce the
lium-derived mediators being the soluble gaseous
radical nitric oxide (NO), responsible for vascular
relaxation. Endothelial dysfunction occurs when
the endothelium loses its physiological properties.
This has been linked to diabetes through the
demonstration of impaired endothelial-dependent
vasodilatation [35].
The study of den Hartog et al. also focused on the
effect of erythritol on endothelial function. This
was investigated in rings prepared from the thoracic
aorta. Carbachol concentration response curves
were recorded for the different groups (Fig. 2). In
diabetic rats, the ex vivo carbachol response is
smaller and requires higher concentrations than
in control rats. This indicates that the endothelium
of these rats is damaged. Since the carbachol re-
sponse is mediated by NO, the diabetic rats seem
to be incapable of generating sufficient NO to in-
duce maximum relaxation. In diabetic rats fed with
erythritol, the carbachol response curve was similar
to control rats, indicating that the loss of endothe-
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Figure 2 Carbachol concentration–response curves recorded
with aortic rings from normoglycaemic rats (N),
diabetic rats (D), normoglycaemic rats that
had consumed erythritol (NE) and diabetic rats
that had consumed erythritol (DE). In diabetic rats,
the ex vivo carbachol response is smaller and requires
higher concentrations than in control rats.
Erythritol prevents the loss of response to carbachol,
thus maintaining endothelium-dependent vascular
relaxation. Adapted from den Hartog et al. [30].
Relaxation (g)
-7 -5 -4-6
log [carbachol]
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pound with mild protective effects like erythritol.
Erythritol could therefore be of great importance
and could be considered to be the preferred sugar
replacer for a rapidly growing population of people
with diabetes or pre-diabetes to reduce their risk of
developing diabetic complications.
Conflict of interest
This research was financially supported by Cargill Inc. Cargill is
a manufacturer of erythritol and the employer of Peter de Cock,
Douwina Bosscher and Angela Bonnema. Daniëlle Boesten, Gert-
jan den Hartog and Aalt Bast received funding from Cargill.
Human and Animal Rights
This review article does not contain any studies with human or
animal subjects performed by any of the authors.
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... Erythritol is a four-carbon polyol used for foods, pharmaceutical and cosmetic products manufacture, among others [1][2][3][4][5]. Its high relative sweetness [1,2], and low caloric content [3,4] makes erythritol a competitive sugar substitute with promissory increases of demand in the market [6]. ...
... Erythritol is a four-carbon polyol used for foods, pharmaceutical and cosmetic products manufacture, among others [1][2][3][4][5]. Its high relative sweetness [1,2], and low caloric content [3,4] makes erythritol a competitive sugar substitute with promissory increases of demand in the market [6]. Erythritol is produced as an extracellular product in submerged cultures by various osmotolerant microorganisms from yeast, fungi-like yeast and fungi, including Moniliella tormentosa pollinis, Yarrowia lipolytica, Moliniella Pollinis, Candida magnoliae, Candida sorbosivorans, and Pseudozyma tsukubaensis [7][8][9][10][11]. ...
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Sustainability and circularity are currently two relevant drivers in the development and optimisation of industrial processes. This study assessed the use of electrodialysis (ED) to purify synthetic erythritol culture broth and for the recovery of the salts in solution, for minimising the generation of waste by representing an efficient alternative to remove ions, ensuring their recovery process contributing to reaching cleaner standards in erythritol production. Removal and recovery of ions was evaluated for synthetic erythritol culture broth at three different levels of complexity using a stepwise voltage in the experimental settings. ED was demonstrated to be a potential technology removing between 91.7–99.0% of ions from the synthetic culture broth, with 49–54% current efficiency. Besides this, further recovery of ions into the concentrated fraction was accomplished. The anions and cations were recovered in a second fraction reaching concentration factors between 1.5 to 2.5 times while observing low level of erythritol losses (<2%), with an energy consumption of 4.10 kWh/m3.
... Because of the controversial data on artificial LCS in humans, low-caloric bulk sweeteners are attractive alternatives. Erythritol, a sugar alcohol with zero calories and a relative sweetness of 60-70% relative to sucrose, and according to some references even up to 80% [20][21][22], is associated with several positive physiological effects. In humans, acute ingestion of erythritol leads to an increase in GI satiation hormones (cholecystokinin (CCK), glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1), and peptide tyrosine tyrosine (PYY)), slows down gastric emptying without affecting glucose and insulin concentrations, as well as blood lipids [23][24][25][26]. ...
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The impact of oral erythritol on subsequent energy intake is unknown. The aim was to assess the effect of oral erythritol compared to sucrose, sucralose, or tap water on energy intake during a subsequent ad libitum test meal and to examine the release of cholecystokinin (CCK) in response to these substances. In this randomized, crossover trial, 20 healthy volunteers received 50 g erythritol, 33.5 g sucrose, or 0.0558 g sucralose dissolved in tap water, or tap water as an oral preload in four different sessions. Fifteen minutes later, a test meal was served and energy intake was assessed. At set time points, blood samples were collected to quantify CCK concentrations. The energy intake (ad libitum test meal) was significantly lower after erythritol compared to sucrose, sucralose, or tap water (p < 0.05). Before the start of the ad libitum test meal, erythritol led to a significant increase in CCK compared to sucrose, sucralose, or tap water (p < 0.001). Oral erythritol given alone induced the release of CCK before the start of the ad libitum test meal and reduced subsequent energy intake compared to sucrose, sucralose, or tap water. These properties make erythritol a useful sugar alternative.
... Other natural sweeteners, such as erythritol and xylitol, are also preferred in the beverage industry. Erythritol is natural moderately sweet bulk sweetener (60 to 70 % as sweet as sucrose) with unique sensorial and functional properties which alone or in combination with intense sweeteners improves the flavor and mouthfeel characteristics of lowcalorie and diet beverages throughout their shelf-life (Boesten et al., 2015;Tiefenbacher, 2017). Therefore, the food industry faces the challenge of developing new FBs with natural sweeteners, which requires an innovative approach to satisfy the demands of consumers and the market. ...
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The functional beverages (FBs) are an important segment of functional food products due to health benefits they provide and their appealing sensory characteristics, suitability and affordability. FBs market offers many opportunities for new product development (nutraceuticals, colorants, plant-based medicines and products) with desirable and effective composition of nutrients and bioactive molecules (BAMs) aimed to deliver health benefits and improve human well-being. Recently, the use of medicinal and aromatic plants (MAPs) in the production of FBs has become increasingly popular due to specific content of nutrients (amino and fatty acids) and BAMs (volatile and non-volatile) attributed to the biological effects and health benefits. BAMs are stored in leaves, flowers, fruits, seeds, barks and roots, and they mostly include phenolics (phenolic acids, flavonoids, tanins, anthocyanins, lignans and stilbenes), essential oils (EOs), terpenoids, alkaloids, phytosterols and saponins. The aromatic features of MAPs are mainly related to volatile compounds of EOs, but the presence of non-volatile compounds, such as phenolics, also contributes to the specific sensory properties. Phytochemical profiling of plant species containing specific and complex mixtures of BAMs, provides numerous opportunities for the development of new categories of FBs, but also opens new challenges in their isolation using conventional and advanced extraction techniques, as well as determination of potential biological effects. This review summarizes the categories of the most common FBs, BAMs from selected MAPs and their biological effects, extraction techniques suitable for production of plant extracts and EOs, product quality and prediction trends, and several directions towards future research on FBs development strategies.
... Studies assessing the toxicity and carcinogenicity of Ery generally reported a good safety profile (Carocho et al., 2017). Ery does not promote hyperglycemia or hyperinsulinemia in humans (Boesten et al., 2015;Noda et al., 1994), and was hypoglycemic with improved glucose uptake in vivo (Chukwuma et al., 2018;Wen et al., 2018a). ...
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Low‐calorie sweeteners are substitutes for sugar and frequently used by patients with cardiometabolic diseases. Erythritol, a natural low‐calorie sugar alcohol, was linked to cardiometabolic diseases in several recent metabolomics studies. However, the characterization of its role in disease development is lacking. Macrophage polarization orchestrates the immune response in various inflammatory conditions, most notably cardiometabolic disease. Therefore, the physiological effects of Erythritol on THP‐1 macrophages were investigated. We observed an increased cellular abundance of proinflammatory M1 macrophages, characterized by CD11c, TNF‐α, CD64, CD38, and HLA‐DR markers and decreased anti‐inflammatory M2 macrophages, characterized by mannose receptor CD206. The, Erythritol increased ROS generation, and the activation of the AKT pathway, cytosolic calcium overload, and cell cycle arrest at the G1 phase. Concomitantly, an increased population of necroptotic macrophages was observed. In conclusion, we provide evidence that Erythritol induced the proinflammatory phenotype in THP‐1 macrophages and this was associated with an increased population of necroptotic macrophages. Practical applications This assessment provides evidence of the effects of Erythritol on macrophages, particularly THP‐1–derived macrophages. Our results support the role of Erythritol in driving the inflammation that is associated with cardiometabolic diseases and provide insights in the role of Erythritol as an inducer of necroptosis in THP‐1 derived macrophages that could be associated the disease.
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Functional foods have been developed as a response to the demands from modern society for a heathy life style. In this way, synthetic colorants have been replaced by natural counterparts. The potential use of several natural pigments such as anthocyanins, betalains, carotenoids, annatto, β-carotene, lycopene, lutein, paprika, carminic acid, chlorophylls, and curcumin as food colorants have been explored in recent years. These pigments can be used to impart different colors in foods such as red, pink, orange, blue, green, and yellow, among others. Most of these natural colorants can be isolated from vegetal sources, with exception of lutein which can be also isolated from animal sources. However, natural pigments are sensitive to heat, oxygen, and light, as well as to modifications of pH, limiting their use as food colorants. This chapter reviews the state of the art with regard to the sources and properties of natural colorants, as well as their food applications.
High-pressure processing, ultrasound, pulsed light, UV-light, cold plasma, and pulsed electric field are emerging nonthermal treatments for food industry application due to being cleaner, more environment-friendly, and sustainable. This processing occurs near to room temperature, and from applying the external fields – pressure or electromagnetic – several physical and chemical changes occur, resulting in desirable or undesirable food properties. This chapter describes changes caused by these techniques in natural food components/additives. Structural modifications caused by nonthermal treatments in cell membranes can increase mass transfer, improve compound extraction, and trigger defense response in plant tissues that increases phenolic compounds. Structural proteins and starch modifications are also reported. The effects promoted by nonthermal treatments in natural additives will result in increased antioxidant activity, improved digestibility, water-binding ability, and alterations of sensory, thickening, and texture characteristics. However, to obtain the benefits of nonthermal processing and avoid undesirable compound degradation, it is necessary to define the appropriate operating parameters and optimize the process. In this sense, increasing the mechanistic understanding of each treatment and its impact on the food product is necessary.
Sugar, as an essential component of beverages, not only provides sweetness in beverages but also plays a significant role in their flavor, texture, and preservation. In recent years, global sugar consumption has continued to increase, causing a variety of health concerns. Currently, there is growing awareness of the adverse effects of high-sugar consumption. Since beverages are the primary source of daily sugar intake, sugar reduction in beverages is imperative. In this work, the necessity of sugar reduction in beverages was first introduced. Furthermore, four primary sugar reduction strategies (direct sugar reduction, multi-sensory integration, sweeteners, and sweetness enhancers) employed in the beverage industry were systematically summarized. Each sugar reduction strategy was critically compared, while the current research progresses as well as challenges were discussed. The application of sweeteners is the most effective and widely used strategy for sugar reduction in spite of flavor and health concerns of sweeteners. Meanwhile, multi-sensory integration is also a promising strategy for sugar reduction. In addition, different evaluation methods (chemical, cell-based and sensory methods) for sweetness were overviewed. Given the current challenges of sugar reduction, the prospects of sugar reduction in beverages were also discussed. The present work can provide the current progress for sugar reduction in the beverage industry.
The excessive dietary consumption of sugars is currently one of the key factors that have been associated with the development of the global obesity pandemic. To avoid high sugar intake, alternative sweeteners are of increasing interest and play an important role in food and beverage industry. Among sweeteners, natural sugar substitutes, which possess low/no calorie or intense sweetness, and various biological activities, provide ideal alternatives to caloric sugars such as sucrose and high fructose corn syrup. Therefore, this review focuses on several representative natural sweeteners: low-calorie carbohydrates (e.g., erythritol, l -arabinose, d -allulose, and d -tagatose) and high-potency sweet-tasting compounds (e.g., steviol glycosides, mogrosides, glycyrrhizin, and thaumatin). A comprehensive review of sugar substitutes is presented, including their characteristics and practical applications as well as a discussion on their effect on the obesity issue and emerging technologies that offer an alternative biosynthesis pathway to the traditional extraction method.
Microorganisms, such as fungi and bacteria, are crucial players in the production of enzymatic cocktails for biomass hydrolysis or the bioconversion of plant biomass into products with industrial relevance. The biotechnology industry can exploit lignocellulosic biomass for the production of high-value chemicals. The generation of biotechnological products from lignocellulosic feedstock presents several bottlenecks, including low efficiency of enzymatic hydrolysis, high cost of enzymes, and limitations on microbe metabolic performance. Genetic engineering offers a route for developing improved microbial strains for biotechnological applications in high-value product biosynthesis. Sugarcane bagasse, for example, is an agro-industrial waste that is abundantly produced in sugar and first-generation processing plants. Here, we review the potential conversion of its feedstock into relevant industrial products via microbial production and discuss the advances that have been made in improving strains for biotechnological applications.
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Erythritol is a sugar alcohol that is widely used as a natural sugar substitute. Thus, the safety of its usage is very important. In the present study, short-term genotoxicity assays were conducted to evaluate the potential genotoxic effects of erythritol. According to the OECD test guidelines, the maximum test dose was 5,000 μg/plate in bacterial reverse mutation tests, 5,000 μg/ml in cell-based assays, and 5,000 mg/kg for in vivo testing. An Ames test did not reveal any positive results. No clastogenicity was observed in a chromosomal aberration test with CHL cells or an in vitro micronucleus test with L5178Y tk (+/-) cells. Erythritol induced a marginal increase of DNA damage at two high doses by 24 hr of exposure in a comet assay using L5178Y tk (+/-) cells. Additionally, in vivo micronucleus tests clearly demonstrated that oral administration of erythritol did not induce micronuclei formation of the bone marrow cells of male ICR mice. Taken together, our results indicate that erythritol is not mutagenic to bacterial cells and does not cause chromosomal damage in mammalian cells either in vitro or in vivo.
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Sugar substitutes are important in the dietary management of diabetes mellitus. Erythritol is a non-caloric dietary bulk sweetener that reverses endothelial dysfunction in diabetic rats. We completed a pilot study to examine the effects of erythritol on vascular function in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Participants (n = 24) consumed erythritol 36 g/day as an orange-flavored beverage for 4 weeks and a single dose of 24 g during the baseline and final visits. We assessed vascular function before and after acute (2 h) and chronic (4 weeks) erythritol consumption. Acute erythritol improved endothelial function measured by fingertip peripheral arterial tonometry (0.52 ± 0.48 to 0.87 ± 0.29 au, P = 0.005). Chronic erythritol decreased central pulse pressure (47 ± 13 to 41 ± 9 mmHg, P = 0.02) and tended to decrease carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (P = 0.06). Thus, erythritol consumption acutely improved small vessel endothelial function, and chronic treatment reduced central aortic stiffness. Erythritol may be a preferred sugar substitute for patients with diabetes mellitus.
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In healthy individuals, the vascular endothelium regulates an intricate balance of factors that maintain vascular homeostasis and normal arterial function. Functional disruption of the endothelium is known to be an early event that underlies the development of subsequent cardiovascular disease (CVD) including atherosclerosis and coronary heart disease. In addition, the rising global epidemic of type 2 diabetes is a significant problem conferring a significantly higher risk of CVD to individuals in whom endothelial dysfunction is also notable. This review first summarises the role of endothelium in health and explores and evaluates the impact of diabetes on endothelial function. The characteristic features of insulin resistance and other metabolic disturbances that may underlie long-term changes in vascular endothelial function (metabolic memory) are described along with proposed cellular, molecular and epigenetic mechanisms. Through understanding the underlying mechanisms, novel targets for future therapies to restore endothelial homeostasis and drive' a reparative cellular phenotype are explored.
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Diabetes is characterized by hyperglycemia and development of vascular pathology. Endothelial cell dysfunction is a starting point for pathogenesis of vascular complications in diabetes. We previously showed the polyol erythritol to be a hydroxyl radical scavenger preventing endothelial cell dysfunction onset in diabetic rats. To unravel mechanisms, other than scavenging of radicals, by which erythritol mediates this protective effect, we evaluated effects of erythritol in endothelial cells exposed to normal (7 mM) and high glucose (30 mM) or diabetic stressors (e.g. SIN-1) using targeted and transcriptomic approaches. This study demonstrates that erythritol (i.e. under non-diabetic conditions) has minimal effects on endothelial cells. However, under hyperglycemic conditions erythritol protected endothelial cells against cell death induced by diabetic stressors (i.e. high glucose and peroxynitrite). Also a number of harmful effects caused by high glucose, e.g. increased nitric oxide release, are reversed. Additionally, total transcriptome analysis indicated that biological processes which are differentially regulated due to high glucose are corrected by erythritol. We conclude that erythritol protects endothelial cells during high glucose conditions via effects on multiple targets. Overall, these data indicate a therapeutically important endothelial protective effect of erythritol under hyperglycemic conditions.
矯正治療で便宜抜歯した第一小臼歯のプラーク形成過程での唾液タンパクの推移を1週間にわたって免疫組織学的に検索した。グルタール・アルデハイドで固定した歯を頬舌的に2分割し, パラフィンまたはLR whit eresin包理した後, EDTAで脱灰した。抗全唾液タンパク抗体と抗耳下腺タンパク抗体を用いたstre上ptavidin-biotin染色で, 1日後の菲薄な皮膜中や, それ以後の菌増殖部に唾液タンパクの局在を認めた。免疫電顕法では, その皮膜のdendritic networkを伴うsubsurface layerにも唾液タンパクを認め, その表面の球菌の付着部にも, 線毛で付着しているものを除いて金粒子の介在を認めた。2日以降の著しい細菌増殖に伴って, 唾液タンパクはそれらの細菌間物質中にも局在した。以上から, 唾液タンパクは獲得皮膜の形成に加えて, 同部への細菌付着や細菌凝集に際して, 付着因子や凝集素として機能することが示唆された。
Erythritol is a non-caloric bulk sweetener, suitable for diabetics and safe for teeth. It occurs naturally in many fruits and vegetables and is produced by fermentation. Erythritol may have potential as antioxidant and prevention or treatment of vascular complications. Main applications are diet beverages and dairy products, sugar-free chewing gum chocolate and candies.
Objective: The aim of this study was to test the efficacy of long-term, daily intake of erythritol and xylitol candy, compared with sorbitol candy, on the development of enamel and dentin caries lesions. Methods: The study was a double-blind randomized controlled prospective clinical trial. Altogether 485 primary school children, first- and second-graders at baseline, from southeastern Estonia participated in this 3-year intervention. Each child consumed four erythritol, xylitol or sorbitol (control) candies three times per school day. The daily intake of polyol was about 7.5 g. The International Caries Detection and Assessment System (ICDAS) was used in the clinical examinations by four calibrated examiners at baseline and at 12, 24 and 36 months. Results: The annual examination analyses and the follow-up analyses confirmed that the number of dentin caries teeth and surfaces at 24 months follow-up and surfaces at 36 months follow-up was significantly lower in the mixed dentition in the erythritol group than in the xylitol or control group. Time of enamel/dentin caries lesions to develop and of dentin caries lesions to progress was significantly longer in the erythritol group compared to the sorbitol and xylitol groups. Also the increase in caries score was lower in the erythritol group than in the other groups. Conclusions: In the follow-up examinations, a lower number of dentin caries teeth and surfaces was found in the erythritol group than in the xylitol or control groups. Time to the development of caries lesions was longest in the erythritol group. Trial registration: Identifier NCT01062633.
The objective of the present paper is to report results from oral biologic studies carried out in connection with a caries study. Samples of whole-mouth saliva and dental plaque were collected from initially 7- to 8-year-old subjects who participated in a 3-year school-based programme investigating the effect of the consumption of polyol-containing candies on caries rates. The subjects were randomized in three cohorts, consumed erythritol, xylitol, or sorbitol candies. The daily polyol consumption from the candies was approximately 7.5g. A significant reduction in dental plaque weight from baseline (p<0.05) occurred in the erythritol group during almost all intervention years while no changes were found in xylitol and sorbitol groups. Usage of polyol candies had no significant or consistent effect on the levels of plaque protein, glucose, glycerol, or calcium, determined yearly in connection with caries examinations. After three years, the plaque of erythritol-receiving subjects contained significantly (p<0.05) lower levels of acetic acid and propionic acid than that of subjects receiving xylitol or sorbitol. Lactic acid levels partly followed the same pattern. The consumption of erythritol was generally associated with significantly (p<0.05) lower counts of salivary and plaque mutans streptococci compared with the other groups. There was no change in salivary Lactobacillus levels. Three-year consumption of erythritol-containing candies by initially 7- to 8-year old children was associated with reduced plaque growth, lower levels of plaque acetic acid and propionic acid, and reduced oral counts of mutans streptococci compared with the consumption of xylitol or sorbitol candies.
The effects of sugar alcohols such as erythritol, xylitol, and sorbitol on periodontopathic biofilm are poorly understood, though they have often been reported to be non-cariogenic sweeteners. In the present study, we evaluated the efficacy of sugar alcohols for inhibiting periodontopathic biofilm formation using a heterotypic biofilm model composed of an oral inhabitant Streptococcus gordonii and a periodontal pathogen Porphyromonas gingivalis. Confocal microscopic observations showed that the most effective reagent to reduce P. gingivalis accumulation onto an S. gordonii substratum was erythritol, as compared with xylitol and sorbitol. In addition, erythritol moderately suppressed S. gordonii monotypic biofilm formation. To examine the inhibitory effects of erythritol, we analyzed the metabolomic profiles of erythritol-treated P. gingivalis and S. gordonii cells. Metabolome analyses using capillary electrophoresis time-of-flight mass spectrometry revealed that a number of nucleic intermediates and constituents of the extracellular matrix, such as nucleotide sugars, were decreased by erythritol in a dose-dependent manner. Next, comparative analyses of metabolites of erythritol- and sorbitol-treated cells were performed using both organisms to determine the erythritol-specific effects. In P. gingivalis, all detected dipeptides, including Glu-Glu, Ser-Glu, Tyr-Glu, Ala-Ala and Thr-Asp, were significantly decreased by erythritol, whereas they tended to be increased by sorbitol. Meanwhile, sorbitol promoted trehalose 6-phosphate accumulation in S. gordonii cells. These results suggest that erythritol has inhibitory effects on dual species biofilm development via several pathways, including suppression of growth resulting from DNA and RNA depletion, attenuated extracellular matrix production, and alterations of dipeptide acquisition and amino acid metabolism.