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Drumstick (Moringa oleifera) as a Food Additive in Livestock Products

  • Civil Veterinary Hospital
  • ICAR-Central Institute for Research on Goats


Purpose The search of natural food additives for the processing and preservation of high quality, ready-to-eat products has been notably increased due to adverse effects of chemical additives on human health. This article focuses on natural food additives identified in the Drumstick (Moringa oleifera) and their probable application as novel ingredients in the development of functional food products. This plant additive have attracted interest as one of the prominent candidates for the purpose of improving processing, quality, and the safety of various livestock foods such as meat, milk, fish and their products. Design/methodology/approach Traditionally Moringa is a pan-tropical plant species, which is well known for its nutritional and medicinal properties in human nutrition. Its leaves, seeds, flowers, pods (fruit), bark and roots are extremely valuable source of nutrition for people of all ages. Moringa are nowadays also considered as an important source of nutraceuticals which may find wide application in food industry. These nutraceuticals have a positive impact on the body’s function or condition by affecting the digestive, endocrine, cardiovascular, immune, and nervous systems, and may ultimately influence health. Findings Several additives that are released in vitro or in vivo from various parts of Moringa have been attributed to different health effects, including antimicrobial properties, antioxidant activities,anti-tumour, anti-inflammatory, anti-ulcer, anti-atherosclerotic, anti-convulsant activities and enhancement of nutritional and organoleptic attributesvarious livestock foods. Extensive research has been undertaken to identify and characterize these additives as a new source of biologically active ingredients for the development of functional foods with specific benefits for human health. Originality/value This paper focuses on the properties, utilization and scope of M. oleifera in livestock products, all of which indicate that its effective utilisation is the need of the hour.
Drumstick (Moringa Oleifera)
as a food additive in livestock
Tarun Pal Singh
Department of Livestock Products Technology,
Indian Veterinary Research Institute (IVRI), Bareilly, India, and
Parminder Singh and Pavan Kumar
Department of Livestock Products Technology, College of Veterinary Science,
Guru Angad Dev Veterinary and Animal Sciences University, Ludhiana, India
Purpose The purpose of this paper is to focus on natural food additives identied in the drumstick
(Moringa Oleifera) and their probable application as novel ingredients in the development of functional
food products. This plant additive has attracted interest as one of the prominent candidates for the
purpose of improving processing, quality and the safety of various livestock foods such as meat, milk,
sh and their products. The search of natural food additives for the processing and preservation of
high-quality, ready-to-eat products has notably increased due to the adverse effects of chemical
additives on human health.
Design/methodology/approach Traditionally, Moringa is a pan-tropical plant species, which is
well-known for its nutritional and medicinal properties in human nutrition. Its leaves, seeds, owers,
pods (fruit), bark and roots are extremely valuable sources of nutrition for people of all ages. Moringa is
nowadays also considered as an important source of nutraceuticals which may nd wide application in
the food industry. These nutraceuticals have a positive impact on the body’s function or condition by
affecting the digestive, endocrine, cardiovascular, immune and nervous systems, and it may ultimately
inuence health.
Findings Several additives that are released in vitro or in vivo from various parts of Moringa have
been attributed to different health effects, including antimicrobial properties, antioxidant activities,
anti-tumour, anti-inammatory, anti-ulcer, anti-atherosclerotic, anti-convulsant activities and there is
enhancement of nutritional and organoleptic attributes of various livestock foods. Extensive research
has been undertaken to identify and characterize these additives as a new source of biologically active
ingredients for the development of functional foods with specic benets for human health.
Originality/value This paper focuses on the properties, utilization and scope of Moringa Oleifera in
livestock products, all of which indicate that its effective utilization is the need of the hour.
Keywords Moringa Oleifera, Drumstick, Nutraceutical, Livestock products
Paper type General review
Presently, consumers are rather conservative and conscious in accepting entirely new
ingredients and products, and they prefer to look for new benets in more or less
familiar products (Jongen and Meulenbery, 2005). However, the demands of consumers
keep changing from time-to-time, and these demands range from basic considerations
such as improving food safety, shelf life and reducing wastage to demands for
The current issue and full text archive of this journal is available on Emerald Insight at:
Food additive
in livestock
Received 26 February 2015
Revised 26 February 2015
Accepted 6 March 2015
Nutrition & Food Science
Vol. 45 No. 3, 2015
pp. 423-432
© Emerald Group Publishing Limited
DOI 10.1108/NFS-02-2015-0018
increasingly sophisticated foods having special characteristics in terms of nutritional
value, palatability and convenience. Today, innovation in food technology plays a
crucial role in translating nutrition information into consumer products to produce new
health food ingredients and added specic nutrient or functional ingredients (Hsieh and
Ofori, 2007). In the area of food processing, food manufactures are adding value to their
products to meet the current consumer demand for healthier food products (Hsieh and
Ofori, 2007). The use of synthetic chemicals is always debatable due to their ill effects on
human health; therefore, modern trends towards the natural preservatives have obliged
the food industry to include certain ingredients such as nutraceuticals in livestock
products. The use of phytochemicals from plants in food products has become an
interesting area for the food industry to explore these functional extracts with
antioxidative and antimicrobial properties to replace the current usage of synthetic
chemicals in the development of designer food products. Among various nutraceuticals,
drumstick has gained much importance in recent years, as it has a number of benets. It
is regarded as a miracle plant, and it is one of the most useful tropical trees (Ashfaq et al.,
2012). Moringa Oleifera Lam. (Moringaceae) is native to the Indian subcontinent and has
become naturalized in the tropical and subtropical areas around the world, and it
belongs to one of the 14 species of the family Moringaceae (Iqbal and Bhanger, 2006). It
is adaptable to a wide range of environmental conditions such as hot and dry, humid and
wet conditions (Anwar et al., 2007). The tree is known by various regional names, such
as Benzolive, drumstick tree, Horseradish tree, Kelor, Marango, Mlonge, Mulangay,
Saijihan, Sajna ben oil tree, miracle tree and “Mother’s Best Friend”(Fahey, 2005). In
India, it is cultivated on a large scale in nurseries and orchards. The leaves, seeds,
owers, pods (fruit), bark and roots are all seen as a vegetable and consumed by humans
throughout the century in diverse culinary ways (Iqbal and Bhanger, 2006) for its
nutritional value, purported medicinal properties and industrial purposes (Khalafalla
et al., 2010). The food system balanced with M. Oleifera could have unique nutrients and
a vast array of bioactive constituents of varying polarity for feeding and nourishing the
immune system, thereby alleviating most of the nutrition-based diseases (Ashfaq et al.,
2012). This review focusses on the properties, utilization and scope of M. Oleifera in
livestock products.
Characteristic features of M. Oleifera
M. Oleifera is among the most promising species with respect to their high antioxidant
activity, high contents of micronutrients (Table I) and phytochemicals and processing
properties. M. Oleifera leaves are a good source of nutrition and exhibit anti-tumor,
anti-inammatory, anti-ulcer, anti-atherosclerotic and anti-convulsant activities
(Chumark et al., 2008;DanMalam et al., 2001;Dahiru et al., 2006). The leaves of
M. Oleifera can be eaten fresh, cooked or stored as a dried powder for many months,
reportedly without any major loss of its nutritional value (Arabshahi et al., 2007;Fahey,
2005). For example, fresh leaves are picked, shade dried, ground to a powder and then
stored for later as a food avouring or additive. Moringa leaves contain ten times the
vitamin A content of carrots, 17 times the calcium content of milk, 15 times the
potassium content of bananas, 25 times the iron content of spinach, 9 times the protein
content of yogurt and much more vitamin C than in oranges (Manzoor et al., 2007).
Leaves rich in biologically active carotenoids and tocopherols have a health-promoting
potential in maintaining a balanced diet and preventing free-radical damage that can
initiate many illnesses (Smolin and Grosvenor, 2007). In addition to the provitamins,
Moringa leaves are also considered a rich source of minerals (Gupta et al., 1989),
polyphenols (Bennett et al., 2003), avonoids (Siddhuraju and Becker, 2003;Lako et al.,
2007), alkaloids and proteins (Soliva et al., 2005). These essential nutrients can help
decrease nutritional decit and can combat many chronic inammatory diseases. A
number of natural compounds have been isolated from M. Oleifera leaves, including
fully acetylated glycosides bearing thiocarbamates, isothiocyanates, malonates,
carbamates or nitriles (Faizi et al., 1994;Bennett et al., 2003;Miean and Mohamed, 2001).
In particular, quercetin and kaempferol glycosides are broken down to yield the natural
Table I.
Nutritional value of
M. Oleifera
Nutrients analyzed Pods Fresh (raw) leaves Dried leaf powder
Moisture (%) 86.9 75 7.5
Protein (g) 2.5 6.7 27.1
Fat (g) 0.1 1.7 2.3
Carbohydrate (g) 3.7 13.4 38.2
Fibre (g) 4.8 0.9 19.2
Calories 26.0 92.0 205.0
Minerals (g) 2.0 2.3
Ca (mg) 30.0 440.0 2003.0
Mg (mg) 24.0 24.0 368.0
P (mg) 110.0 70.0 204.0
K (mg) 259.0 259.0 1324.0
Cu (mg) 3.1 1.1 0.6
Fe (mg) 5.3 0.7 28.2
S (mg) 137 137 870
Oxalic acid (mg) 10.0 101.0 0.0
-carotene (mg) 0.1 6.8 16.3
Choline (mg) 423.0 423.0
Thiamin (mg) 0.05 0.21 2.6
Riboavin (mg) 0.07 0.05 20.5
Nicotinic acid (mg) 0.2 0.8 8.2
Ascorbic acid (mg) 120 220 17.3
Tocopherols acetate (mg) 113.0
Essential amino acids
Histidine (mg) 110 149.8 613
Isoleucine (mg) 440 299.6 825
Leucine (mg) 650 492.2 1950
Methionine (mg) 140 117.7 350
Phenylanaline (mg) 430 310.3 1388
Threonine (mg) 390 117.7 1188
Tryptophan (mg) 80 107 425
Valine (mg) 540 374.5 1063
Note: Moringa pods, fresh (raw) leaves and dried leaf powder have been shown to contain the
following per 100 grams of edible portion
Sources: 2006-2008 Dolcas Biotech LLC,; Moringa an ECHO Technical
Note (2007); The Moringa tree, By Dr Martin L. Price
Food additive
in livestock
antioxidant avonoids, quercetin and kaempferol, indicating these glycosides can be
efciently hydrolyzed to their respective aglycones (Miean and Mohamed, 2001;Bennett
et al., 2003;Wu et al., 2003).
The fatty acid compositions of solvent andenzyme-extracted oil from M. Oleifera
seeds showed 67.9 per cent oleic acid in the solvent extract and 70.0 per cent in the
enzyme extracts (Abdulkarima et al., 2005). Other prominent fatty acids in Moringa oil
include palmitic (7.8 per cent and 6.8 per cent), stearic (7.6 per cent and 6.5 per cent) and
behenic (6.2 per cent and 5.8 per cent) acids for the solvent and enzyme-extracted oils,
respectively (Abdulkarim et al., 2005). Due to the high monounsaturated to saturated
fatty acid ratio, Moringa seed oil could be considered an acceptable substitute for highly
monounsaturated oils such as olive oil (Tsaknis and Lalas, 2002). Oils with high
amounts of monounsaturated (oleic type) fatty acids are desirable due to their
association with decreased risk of coronary heart disease (Abdulkarim et al., 2007).
Applications of M. Oleifera
Plants have been and will remain vital to mankind. They produce nutraceutical
compounds which encompass a wide array of functions and have a diverse array of
applications in food industry. Protection of food from microbial or chemical
deterioration has traditionally been an important concern in the food industry.
Moringa leaves have been reported to be a good source of natural antioxidants and,
thus, enhance the shelf life of fat-containing foods due to the presence of various
types of antioxidant compounds such as ascorbic acid, avonoids, phenolics and
carotenoids (Siddhuraju and Becker, 2003). Polyphenolic compounds acts as
chain-breaking peroxyl radical scavengers which lead to the inhibition of lipid
peroxidation and also prevent low-density peroxidation (O’ Byme et al., 2002). The
crude extract of Moringa leaf can actively scavenge free radicals, thus preventing
cellular damage (Sreelatha and Padma, 2009).
Moringa in preservation
It is an important criterion in the food industry to protect the livestock food and food
products from microbial or chemical deterioration. Chemically synthesized
preservatives have been classically used to reduce both microbial spoilage and
oxidative deterioration of food (Roller, 1995). This fact has led to an increasing interest
in developing more “natural” alternatives to enhance shelf life and safety of the food
(Buker et al., 2010). A;though there is no extensive work on the plant under review,
Caceres et al. (1991) stated that the juice of fresh drumstick leaves is found to have
antimicrobial properties. The fresh leaf juice, powder from fresh leaves and cold water
extract of fresh leaves from drumstick have displayed a potential antibacterial activity
against both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria as determined by disc diffusion
and minimum inhibitory concentration method (Rahman and Sheikh, 2009). Moringa
seeds also possess antimicrobial properties (Madsen et al., 1987). Broin et al. (2002)
reported that a recombinant protein in the seed is able to occulate gram-positive and
gram-negative bacteria cells. A recent study indicated that seeds exhibited the potential
as preservatives by inhibiting the growth of organisms such as E. coli, S. aureus, P.
aeruginosa, S. typhi, S. typhimurium and E. aerogenes which range from pathogenic to
toxigenic organisms liable to cause food-borne illnesses to spoilage-causing organisms
liable to spoil food products (Daljit et al., 2013).
Utilization of Moringa in livestock products
Meat and meat products
Moyo et al. (2014) concluded that supplementing cross-bred Xhosa lop-eared goats with
M.Oleifera leaf meal produced chevon with higher meat quality attributes, improved
lightness (L*), redness (a*) values, Warner-Bratzler shear force and higher sensory
consumer scores compared with the control group. Mukumbo et al. (2014) concluded that
the inclusion of M.Oleifera leaf meal (2.5, 5 and 7.5 per cent) in nisher pig feed, had no
detrimental effects on carcass characteristics or physico-chemical meat quality, and it
signicantly improved the acceptability of pork colour, odour and lipid prole.
Nkukwana et al. (2014) stated that diets supplemented with or without M.Oleifera leaf
meal (1, 3 and 5 per cent of dry matter intake) and with the high saturated fatty acid
content, improved the fatty acid prole and reduced lipid oxidation in broiler breast
meat. Najeeb et al. (2014) stated that the appearance, avour, juiciness and overall
acceptability value of the restructured chicken slices, containing Moringa leaf powders
(1 per cent level), were not affected and were safely stored without much loss in quality
up to 20 days under refrigeration with lower microbial counts. Muthukumar et al. (2014)
reported that Moringa leaf extract (600 ppm) was more effective in reducing lipid
oxidation compared to Moringa leaf extract (450 and 300 ppm), but less effective
compared to BHT (200 ppm) in both raw and cooked pork patties during storage at 4°C.
Ologhobo et al. (2014) concluded that M.oliefera leaf meal at the inclusion levels showed
improvement in the breast and drumstick when compared with percentage of
eviscerated weight, as a good replacement for oxy-tetracycline for broiler birds. Teye
et al. (2013) determined the effects of Moringa leaf meal on sensory characteristics and
nutritional qualities of frankfurter-type sausages. Moringa (6g/kg meat) had improved
crude protein and reduced fat contents. Therefore, with higher crude protein levels in
Moringa-enriched products, a small quantity will be required by consumers to meet
their nutrient requirement, and hence, reduce expenditure on meat and meat products.
Qwele et al. (2013a) concluded that dietary supplementation of Moringa-formulated
diets for broilers was effective in enhancing the oxidative stability of chicken meat, but
it did not result in differences in the physico-chemical characteristics of meat. Qwele
et al. (2013b) determined the chemical composition, fatty acid content and antioxidant
capacity of meat from goats supplemented with M.Oleifera leaves and indicated that
their anti-oxidative potential may play a role in improving meat quality (chemical
composition, colour and lipid stability). Hazra et al. (2012) concluded that the use of
crude extract of M.Oleifera leaves (1, 1.5 and 2 per cent) had signicant antioxidant and
antimicrobial effects and improved the organoleptic quality by enhancing the
tenderness and juiciness in cooked ground buffalo meat. Das et al. (2012) observed that
the M.oleiferia leaves’ extract (0.1 per cent) was more effective than BHT for preventing
increased TBARS number of precooked goat meat patties during storage at 4°C.
Ayssiwede et al. (2011) assessed the effects of M.Oleifera leaves inclusion in diets of
growing indigenous Senegal chickens and reported signicantly better growth
performances, feed costs, economic margins and no adverse impact on carcass and
organ characteristics. Sharaf et al. (2009) determined the effects of defatted– detoxied
Moringa meal our (3, 6, 9 and 12 per cent) as a meat extender in the manufacture of beef
burgers and caused an improvement or retention of physio-chemical, microbiological
quality and good sensory properties and better acceptability during frozen storage.
Replacement of our with Moringa meal our in meat products improves the
Food additive
in livestock
nutritional, physiochemical, microbiological and sensory quality criteria with low
production cost.
Milk and milk products
Moringa leaves are popularly distributed as a dry, smooth, free-owing powder for
making your own natural milk drinks and nutrients-enriched beverage for infants. Such
a beverage would not only add to the nutritional and health benets that Moringa is
reported to have. Organoleptic evaluation revealed that M.Oleifera-enriched milk
beverage is generally acceptable, but the colour is not (Madukwe et al., 2013). Salem et al.
(2013) evaluated the effect of dry M.Oleifera leaves (1, 2, or 3 per cent) in Labneh cheese
and concluded that it improved nutritional, biological, microbiological and organoleptic
properties. Nadeem et al. (2012) used the dry M.Oleifera leaves (1, 2 and 3 per cent) to
formulate fortied butter milk with increased health benets and acceptable sensory
attributes. Mahami et al. (2012) reported that the Moringa seed extract (0.5, 1, 1.5 and 2
per cent) enrichment resulted in signicant increases in the yield, protein content and
mineral content of cottage cheese; therefore, it has the potential to be used in improving
the yield and quality of cottage cheese.
Fish and sh products
Adeyemi et al. (2013) stated that M.Oleifera marinade 1, 2 and 3 per cent (w/v) and
5 per cent Brine (w/v) solutions could be used to protect stored smoke-dried catsh from
microbial and fungal spoilage, limiting economic loss and possible health risk to
consumers and thus enhancing food safety and security.
Future prospects
The recent revivals of consumer interest in the plant-derived nutraceuticals are of
greater importance and have led to an increase in consumer demand for food products
enriched with nutraceuticals. M.Oleifera is coming to the forefront as a result of
scientic evidence that Moringa is an important source of naturally occurring
phytochemicals, and this provides a basis for future viable developments in the food
industry. Owing to their anti-oxidant and anti-microbial properties, they are widely
used for extending the shelf life of food products. Further research could investigate the
extract in combination with hurdles currently in use, which may enhance its effect.
Future studies may be focussed on extensive work determining the applicability of such
systems in livestock food products with the objective of replacing or reducing synthetic/
chemical preservatives.
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Further reading
Luqman, S., Srivastava, S., Kumar, R., Maurya, A.K. and Chanda, D. (2012), “Experimental
assessment of M.Oleifera leaf and fruit for its antistress, antioxidant, and scavenging
potential using in vitro and in vivo assays”, Evidence-Based Complementary and
Alternative Medicine, available at:
Corresponding author
Tarun Pal Singh can be contacted at:
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... It was found that in comparison to control plants, all spinach plants treated with these biostimulants had higher levels of free sinapic acid . At an early stage, the leaves of B. rubra contained 6.4 mg 100 g −1 FW betalains, which increased to 80 mg 100 g −1 at 20 weeks and then dropped during senescence (S. S. Kumar, Singh, et al. 2015). Raphanus sativus is a hub of anthocyanins containing 5 pelargonidin glycosides, 22 cyanidin glycosides, and 1 delphinidin glycoside exhibiting 59%, 80%, and 90% of phenolics present in leaf petiole, root periderm and root xylem . ...
... ). Miracle GLV Moringa Oleifera is known for its excellent nutritional characteristics. In several studies, different applications of Moringa Oleifera were reported by different authors such as food additives, fortificant, shelf life enhancer, food dye and color in different products(Hodas, Zorzenon, and Milani 2021;Kaltsa et al. 2021;Kumar, Singh, et al. 2015; Nahriana and Tawani 2019; Namrata and Kumar 2021; Rani and Vijayarani 2019; ...
From the ancient period, Green leafy vegetables (GLV) are part of the daily diet and were believed to have several health beneficial properties. Later it has been proved that GLV has outstanding nutritional value and can be used for medicinal benefits. GLV is particularly rich in minerals like iron, calcium, and zinc. These are also rich in vitamins like beta carotene, vitamin E, K, B and vitamin C. In addition, some anti-nutritional elements in GLV can be reduced if it is grown properly and processed properly before consumption. Tropical countries have a wide variety of these green plants such as Red Spinach, Amaranth, Malabar Spinach, Taro Leaf, Fenugreek leaf, Bengal Gram Leaves, Radish Leaves, Mustard Leaves, and many more. This review focuses on listing this wide range of GLVs (in total 54 underutilized GLVs) and their compositions in a comparative manner. GLV also possesses medicinal activities due to its rich bioactive and nutritional potential. Different processing techniques may alter the nutritional and bioactive potential of the GLVs significantly. The GLVs have been considered a food fortification agent, though not explored widely. All of these findings suggest that increasing GLV consumption could provide nutritional requirements necessary for proper growth as well as adequate protection against diseases caused by malnutrition.
... Produk olahan pangan tersebut meliputi produk olahan peternakan dan perikanan. Menurut Singh et al. (2015) pemanfaatan daun kelor pada industri peternakan telah dimanfaatkan dalam pemberian pakan, pengempukan daging, peningkatan mutu kualitas susu, dan peningkatan mutu kualitas daging yang ditinjau dari nilai TBARS dan aktivitas antioksidannya. Adapaun tujuan dari studi ini adalah mengkaji pemanfaatan ekstrak daun kelor (Moringa oleifera) pada berbagai produk olahan daging sebagai sumber antioksidan terhadap sifat fisik, kimia, mikrobiologi, dan sifat sensorisnya. ...
Moringa Leaves (Moringa Oleifera) have high nutrition contents and bioactives substances, such as vitamins (B1, B2, B3, C, dan D), phenolic compounds, carotenoids, and nitrogen compounds. Therefore, Moringa leaves are often added to various processed meat products in order to increase the nutritional value and prevent oxidation reactions during product processing and storage. The aim of this study was to review the application of moringa leaves extract on processed meat products and study for their physicochemical, antioxidant, microbiological and sensory properties. The highest antioxidant activity measured using the DPPH method was found in using ethanol and methanol solvent with maceration techniques. Meat products that were added with Moringa leaf extract caused increased in antioxidant activity and protein content, reduced fat content and TBARS values, changed in pH, and increased in panelists’ preference if previously remove the unpleasant odors from Moringa leaves.
... Moringa is a deciduous fast growing plant which is native to Northern India and Pakistan [12]. Scientists has noted that this plant is one of the most promising species due to its high levels of micronutrient compounds and phytochemicals [13]. Previous study reported that M. oleifera was full of phenolic acids, flavonoid, chlorogenic acid, gallic acid, kaempferol and quercetin glycosides, which exhibited antioxidant activity both in vitro and in vivo [14][15][16]. ...
We evaluated the effect of dietary supplementation with Moringa oleifera leaf extract on the resistance to Aeromonas hydrophila infection in crucian carp. The fish were randomly divided into five groups: the basal diet, the basal diet supplied with 0.25% (0.25 M), 0.5% (0.5 M), 0.75% (0.75 M) and 1.0% M. oleifera leaf extract (1.0 M) for 8 weeks. The growth, antioxidant capabilities, related immune genes as well as resistance to A. hydrophila infection were determined. The results showed that compared with the control group, the weight gain, specific growth rate in the group of 0.5% M. oleifera leaf extract, serum superoxide dismutase (SOD), albumin (ALB) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), the gene expression of hepatopancreas BTB and CNC homolog 1 (Bach1), NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), peroxidases (PRX) and NADPH oxidase (NOX) in the group of 0.5%–1.0% M. oleifera leaf extract increased, while feed conversion ratio, serum cortisol, red blood cell (RBC), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), malonaldehyde (MDA) decreased in the group of 0.5%–1.0% M. oleifera leaf extract before the stress. After the infection, the group of 0.5% or 0.75% M. oleifera leaf extract also could improve the serum ALB, hepatopancreas Kelch-like-ECH-associated protein 1 (Keap1), Bach1, Nrf2, TOR, PRX and NOX and reduce cortisol compared with the control group. In summary, this study suggested that 0.5% M. oleifera leaf extract inclusion increased the growth performance, even had positive effects on physiological and immune function, and enhanced resistance against pathogenic infections in crucian carp. The optimum level of M. oleifera leaf extract for crucian carp was estimated to be 0.35%–0.48% based on polynomial comparison with FCR and SGR.
... M. oleifera leaves are a rich source of various bioactive compounds such as rhamnetin, isoquercitrin, kaempferol, kaempferitrin, saponins, triterpenoids, tannins, anthraquinones, alkaloids, terpenoids (Singh et al., 2015); concentration varies with maturity of plant, and arjuna tree bark extract (2.0%) and observed decreased sensory scores, moisture content and increased microbial load, TBARS value, and free fatty acids (FFA) with the advancement of the storage period, treated products maintained better quality attributes as compared to control up to 21 days of refrigeration storage. ...
Plant extracts are obtained by extracting bioactive compounds from various plant sources such as leaves, seeds, fruits, roots, stems, and agro‐industry byproducts. These are rich sources of bioactive molecules such as polyphenols (flavonols, anthocyanins, flavanols, benzoic acid, tannin, lignin, stilbenes, cinnamic acid, phenolic acids), terpenoids (carotenoids, terpenes, triterpenes, phytosterols, iridoids), organo‐sulfurs, and alkaloids. These molecules exert antioxidant and antimicrobial effects; hence widely utilized as potential natural preservatives by partial or fully replacing the synthetic preservatives. Plants extracts could be used in cured and smoked meat products as nitrites/nitrates replacer by reducing residual nitrite, N‐nitrosamine formation, and antimicrobial effect. The application of plant extracts by replacing synthetic additives helps in improving the functionality of meat products, the development of wellness foods or clean‐label foods, and the production of healthier meat products without or with minimum use of synthetic additives. There should be a proper focus on using green, non‐toxic solvents, exploring the novel, sustainable and economical source of bioactive compounds, efficient agro‐industrial waste utilization, and novel environmentally friendly, sustainable green processing technologies to extract bioactive compounds from the plant source. The present review is intended to provide recent insights on technological aspects of extracting functional compounds from plant biomass and the utilization of these plant extracts as a potential alternative to synthetic preservatives in the meat matrix.
... Due to the presence of numerous phytochemicals, the M. oleifera plant may improve the physicochemical, functional, and sensory characteristics of meat and find multiple application in the livestock industry (Qwele et al., 2013;Singh et al., 2015). ...
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Moringa oleifera is a multi-purpose plant and a comprehensive source of dietary components such as proteins, essential amino acids, vitamins, antioxidants, etc. The plant is also a rich source of other bioactive components, including flavonoids, glucosinolates, isothiocyanates, alkaloids, terpenoids, phenolics, etc. Incorporating M. oleifera in diet can improve the nutritional status of pregnant and nursing mothers and helps to combat malnutrition and iron deficiency anemia (IDA) among children. The phytochemicals and secondary metabolites, especially the polyphenolic compounds from Moringa, have a significant free-radical scavenging effect attributed to this plant's therapeutic potential. Investigations targeting to explore M. oleifera for its nutritional makeup, novel bioactive components, and analysis of their health-promoting attributes have received much attention. This review demonstrates an overview of recent (past ten years) advancements and patenting activity in discovering different parts of M. oleifera plant for providing adequate nutritive and bioactive components. The pharmacological potential and action mechanisms of M. oleifera in many diseases like diabetes mellitus, cancer, hypertension, ulcer, etc., are also discussed. Practical applications Moringa oleifera is a vital plant that has a varied set of nutritional and therapeutic properties. The indigenous components of Moringa can treat humankind of its diseases and contribute to overall health. The qualitative and functional characteristics of its components indicate possible commercial exploitation of this high-value plant by utilizing its plant parts in many proprietary medicines and nutraceuticals. In conclusion, the Moringa plant needs to be used commercially. It can lead to tremendous economic development if the industries and researchers exploit its potential for highly nutritional super food and therapeutic application by undertaking further research to corroborate earlier studies.
... Moringa oleifera a common vegetable in South Asian and African countries, is widely explored for its use as natural preservatives, owing to its various bioactive compounds viz. rhamnetin, isoquercitrin, kaempferol, kaempferitrin, saponins, triterpenoids, tannins, anthraquinones, alkaloids, and terpenoids [171], with concentration varying with the maturity of the plant and climatic and geographical conditions. M. oleifera is a rich source of protein, provitamins, vitamin C, A and E, zinc, calcium, iron, and potassium along with anti-cancerous agents such as glycerol-1-9-octadecanoate, glucosinolates, isothiocyanates, and glycoside compounds. ...
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Plant extracts are rich in various bioactive compounds exerting antioxidants effects, such as phenolics, catechins, flavonoids, quercetin, anthocyanin, tocopherol, rutin, chlorogenic acid, lycopene, caffeic acid, ferulic acid, p-coumaric acid, vitamin C, protocatechuic acid, vitamin E, carotenoids, β-carotene, myricetin, kaempferol, carnosine, zeaxanthin, sesamol, rosmarinic acid, carnosic acid, and carnosol. The extraction processing protocols such as solvent, time, temperature, and plant powder should be optimized to obtain the optimum yield with the maximum concentration of active ingredients. The application of novel green extraction technologies has improved extraction yields with a high concentration of active compounds, heat-labile compounds at a lower environmental cost, in a short duration, and with efficient utilization of the solvent. The application of various combinations of extraction technologies has proved to exert a synergistic effect or to act as an adjunct. There is a need for proper identification, segregation, and purification of the active ingredients in plant extracts for their efficient utilization in the meat industry, as natural antioxidants. The present review has critically analyzed the conventional and green extraction technologies in extracting bioactive compounds from plant biomass and their utilization in meat as natural antioxidants.
Plants produce a diverse group of large number of organic compounds that appear to have no direct role in their growth and development. These compounds are called as secondary metabolites, secondary products, or natural products. Such compounds do-not have direct roles in primary processes like photosynthesis, respiration, solute transport, etc. or the formation of the primary metabolites like carbohydrates, proteins, nucleic acids, and lipids etc.
There are some vegetal principles which modify the taste to sour, cause reduction in sweetness, induction of sweetness and flavor in the non sweet food. Few among those, induce sweetness in drinking water i.e. water and beverages taste sweet during drinking after their consumption. These chemicals are important because they substitute sugre (calorie rich) and zero calorie super sweet principle as they are calorie free and help in providing different tastes and rectifying different ailments e. g. diabetes and cardiovascular, kidney and liver disorders, high calories sugar consumption is restricted. Some of such natural organic acid like gymnemic acid not only reduce sweetness in mouth but also interact with sugar in intestine and reduce their calories. These taste modifiers are protein, triterpenoid, polysaccharides, polyphenol, ester of quinic acid etc. in nature. They are found in different plants as mentioned in Table 15.1.
With rising health awareness, consumer demand for chemical preservative free organic products is also increasing. Incorporation of traditional medicinal herbs and plant sources in daily diet is becoming a trend in society. Hence, the present study aims to formulate baked product like bread using medicinal plant source moringa. Further the proximate composition and antioxidant activity of the moringa bread (MB) were evaluated along with sensory analysis. For the preservation of MB, it was treated with natural plant extract (Prosopis juliflora leaf extract) and gamma irradiation using Cesium‐137 source (137Cs). P. juliflora leaf extract was used as coating and injected solution for the process. The treatments were given alone and in combination. Obtained data depicted significant rich nutrient composition and antioxidant activity (DPPH RSA) (p < 0.05) of MB. Among treated MB samples, combined dose of gamma radiation and P. juliflora leaf extract (injected) showed the significant effect on the storage stability with retained quality of the product (15 days), stored at room temperature. The current study indicated probable use of novel preservation methods along with formulation of baked product utilizing natural health booster like moringa.
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Several works have shown different aspects of the use of the plant Moringa oleifera. However, few review studies bring an approach to its use in food preparation, specifying its role as a functional food and its use as a natural additive, focusing on food biochemistry and including sensory acceptance and safety. Composed by multiple bioactive substances, Moringa oleifera has the potential to be used as a food additive, mainly as a preservative with the potential to prevent lipid oxidation and other unwanted chemical reactions that lead to product deterioration. Furthermore, it can improve the physicochemical characteristics of food, increasing its quality and shelf life. It also promotes nutritional improvement, elevating protein, mineral, and vitamin levels. Despite this, the sensorial characteristics of this plant result in a low consumer acceptance of the fortified products, which is a problem for the food industry. Apart from inconclusive works, some data involving Moringa's safety are contradictory, resulting in its commercialization prohibition in Brazil in 2019. This review focused on important data about Moringa use to contribute to the literature and to the food industry, describing information about this medicinal plant effects on food products.
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The use of natural preservatives to increase the shelf-life of meat products is promising as they possess antioxidant and antimicrobial properties. Earlier, a highly acceptable restructured chicken slice without the addition of extra fat was developed in the same laboratory which was acceptable up to 10th day of storage under refrigeration and spoilage was mainly due to oxidation. Hence, the present study was planned to determine the efficacy of certain plant leaves' (drumstick, mint and curry leaves) powder at 1 % level as natural preservatives to enhance the shelf life of restructured chicken slices under refrigerated storage. The quality attributes of the products containing different natural preservativs were compared with the control and reference products. The control product contained no preservative and the reference product contained BHT (200 ppm) only. Incorporation of the leaf powders at 1 % level did not show any significant differences for both cooking yield (99.5-99.6 %) and proximate composition (moisture 72.2-72.3 %, protein 19.2-19.4 %, fat 4.2-4.3 % and total ash 2.3-2.4 %) of the restructured chicken slices compared to both control and reference products during storage. All products containing leaf powders showed significantly (P < 0.01) lower microbial counts (2.9-3.7 log10 CFU/g) compared to both control and BHT added products. Yeast and mould were not detected in any of the products throughout the storage period. Sensory evaluation scores showed that the restructured chicken slices incorporated with the leaf powders were as acceptable as the reference product and rated good to very good for appearance, flavor, juiciness and overall acceptability. Restructured chicken slices with the leaf powders could be safely stored without much loss in quality up to 20 days under refrigeration.
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Plants produce primary and secondary metabolites which encompass a wide array of functions. Some of these have been subsequently exploited by humans for their beneficial role in a diverse array of applications. However, out of 750,000 species available on earth, only 1 to 10 % is being potentially used. Moringa is one such genus belonging to the family of Moringaceae, a monotypic family of single genera with around 33 species. Most of these species have not been explored fully despite the enormous bioactivity reports concerning various potentials such as: cardiac and circulatory stimulants; anti-tumor; antipyretic; antiepileptic; anti-inflammatory; antiulcer; antispasmodic; diuretic antihypertensive; cholesterol lowering; antioxidant; antidiabetic; hepato protective; antibacterial and antifungal activities. They are claimed to treat different ailments in the indigenous system of medicine. Surprisingly, some of the species have been reported to be extinct from the face of earth before their exploration and exploitation for economic benefits. This review focuses on the bio-prospects of Moringa particularly on relatively little explored area of their microbiological applications Keyword: Applied microbiology, Antimicrobials, Moringa species.
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The purpose of this study carried out from July to October 2010 was to assess the effects of Moringa oleifera leaves meal inclusion in diets on growth performances, carcass and organs characteristics and economics results of growing indigenous Senegal chickens. Ninety six (96) indigenous Senegal chicks of 5 weeks old were randomly allocated into four groups of 24 chicks each with similar body weight. Each group subdivided in two repetitions of 12 birds, corresponded to each of the four (4) dietary treatments MO0, MO8, MO16 and MO24 containing respectively 0, 8, 16 and 24% of Moringa leaves meal in substitution of groundnut cake meal. During the experiment (6-17th week old), zootechnical parameters of birds and economical data were recorded and analyzed per dietary treatment. At the end of the 12 weeks trial, the final Live Body Weights (LBW) were 721.60 g, 911.70 g, 812.85 g and 720.05 g/bird, the average daily weight gain (ADWG) were 6.49 g, 8.77 g, 7.61 g and 6.50 g/day, the Daily Feed Intake (DFI) of 39.10 g, 39.76 g, 36.28 g and 34.24 g/bird and the Feed Conversion Ratio (FCR) of 7.58, 5.75, 6.11 et 7.24 respectively for birds fed MO0, MO8, MO16 and MO24 diets. The Moringa leaves meal inclusion in the diets up to 24% had not caused any adverse impact on LBW, ADWG, FCR, mortality, carcass and organs characteristics in birds compared to their controls. Except the significantly decrease of DFI obtained in birds of MO16 and MO24 treatments, significantly better growth performances, feed costs and economic margins were recorded in birds fed MO8 and MO16 diets. Thus these two dietary treatments were the only most economically profitable (respectively 357 and 206 FCFA/kg carcass of additional profit) compared to the control.
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The objective of this study was to determine the physico-chemical characteristics and consumer sensory scores of chevon from crossbred Xhosa lop-eared goats supplemented with Moringa oleifera leaf meal (MOL). Twenty-four goats, aged 8 months, were divided into three groups with eight goats in each. All three groups were fed a basal diet of grass hay (GH) ad libitum and wheat bran at 200 g/head/day. In addition to the basal diet, the MOL and sunflower seed cake (SC) groups were fed 200 g dried M. oleifera leaf meal and 170 g sunflower seed cake, which contained 238 g and 233 g crude protein/kg, respectively, with GH having 141 g. Diet influenced chevon colour. Chevon from MOL- and SC-fed goats had higher values for lightness (L*) 24 h post mortem. The redness (a*) values of chevon 24 hours post mortem were significantly higher in MOL supplemented goats. Warner Bratzler shear force (WBSF) values of chevon from SC (30.1 N) and MOL (29.8 N) were lower than those for meat from GH diet (32.6 N). Chevon from goats fed GH diet had significantly higher cooking losses (29.5%) than that from the MOL (25.4%) and SC (25.6%) fed groups. Diet influenced the consumer sensory scores of chevon from goats supplemented with MOL, which had higher first bite, aroma, flavour and juiciness scores. Supplementing crossbred Xhosa lop-eared goats with an MOL diet produced chevon with the highest physico-chemical characteristics and consumer sensory scores.
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The study examined the antimicrobial effect of Moringa oleifera marinade on smoke-dried catfish stored at ambient temperature (37±20C) for two months. The experimental treatments are the control, 1%, 2% and 3% (w/v) Moringa oleifera Marinade (MOM) and 5% Brine (w/v) solutions. Seventy-five fishes of average weight of 260±8g were gutted, washed and randomly assigned to the treatments. Thereafter, the fishes were soaked in the treatments for 2 hours and later hot smoked for 12hours. After smoking, the fishes were stored in netted boxes and placed on laboratory shelves for two months. Microbial counts were conducted at 7-day interval while biochemical tests were conducted on the 8th week. Seven bacterial species namely; Staphylococcus sp, Bacillus sp, Klebsiella sp, Corynebacterium sp, Pseudomonas sp, Escherichia coli and streptococcus sp and six fungal species namely; Penicillium italicum, Cladosporium sp, Neurospora crassa, Candida sp, Aspergillus niger and Saccharomyces cerevisiae were observed in the study. There was a general increase in microbial load as storage progressed. However, the increment was pronounced in the control and brine treated fish samples. In all levels of MOM and 5% Brine, there was decrease in the bacterial and fungal counts as compared with the control samples. 3% MOM exhibited the highest antibacterial potency while 5% Brine exhibited the highest antifungal potency. Moringa oleifera marinade could be use to protect stored smoke-dried catfish from microbial spoilage thus limiting economic loss and possible heath risk to consumers.
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Moringa oleifera Lam. (Syn.M. pterygosperma Gaertn.) is a small graceful tree used for food and medicinal purposes in many countries. It is used in traditional medicine for the treatment of various diseases including fertility control and as an arbortifacient. M. oleifera Lam. has been reported to exhibit antitumour, anti-inflammatory, anti-ulcer and anti-convulsant activities. Macro- and micromorphology, and some pharmacognositic constant for the leaves and powder of M. oleifera, which could be used to prepare a monograph for the identification of the plant, were determined.
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The effect of dietary inclusion of Moringa oleifera leaf meal (MOLM) on feed conversion ratio (FCR) of finisher pigs, physico-chemical meat quality, fatty acid (FA) composition and shelf life of pork was investigated. A six week feeding trial was conducted with 24 Large White x Landrace gilts at14 weeks of age. Each pig was individually housed and randomly allocated to one of four dietary treatments containing either r0, 2.5, 5 or 7.5% MOLM with six replicates per treatment. Feed intake was measured daily, pig liveweight was measured weekly and average daily gains and FCR were calculated.Pigs were slaughtered at 20 weeks of age and measurements of backfat thickness, pH45minandpH24hwere taken. Muscularis longissimus thoracis et lumborum muscle samples from each carcass were analysed for physico-chemical quality. Muscle, subcuataneous fat and feed samples were analysed for fatty acid composition and health lipid indices of atherogenicity (AI) and thrombogenicity (IT) were calculated. A 10-day shelf life study was conducted during which instrumental and sensory meat colour and odour was assessed. Pigs fed 7.5% MOLM had significantly higher average daily feed intake (3.563 kg/day) than pigs fed 0, 2.5 and 5% MOLM (3.054, 3.135 and 3.067 kg/day, respectively). The FCR of pigs fed 0, 2.5 and 5% MOLM did not differ significantly (3.34, 3.44 and 3.22, respectively), however the FCR of pigs fed 7.5% MOLM was significantly poorer (3.78).No significant differences were observed for carcass and physico-chemical quality traits. MOLM inclusion improved shelf life, as meat samples from MOLM fed pigs exhibited significantly prolonged acceptability of colour and odour during 10 days of refrigerated storage. Although the n-6:n-3 FA ratios of the dietary treatments containing MOLM was significantly improved (T1=35.45, T2= 22.08, T3 = 14.24, T4 = 15.90), no significant differences were observed for this ratio in the fat composition of the meator subcutaneous fat samples between treatments. A significant reduction in intramuscular fat and stearic acid content was observed with increasing levels of MOLM, however allother FA profiles, ratios and health lipid indices did not differ significantly across treatments. In conclusion, up to 5% MOLM may be included in finisher pig feed with no negative effect on feed conversion efficiency, carcass and meat quality traits; and may improve shelf life of pork. However, inclusion levels of 7.5% MOLM may lower FCR. The MOLM inclusion significantly improved the FA composition of the feed but did not produce the desired improvements in FA composition of meat, likely due to the prominence of fat deposition by de novo lipogenesis in finisher pigs rather than direct incorporation of dietary fatty acids.
Dry leaves of Moringa oleifera (DLMO) were added to Labneh cheese at concentration 1, 2, or 3%. Subsequently, the chemical, microbiological and organoleptic properties of Labneh cheese during storage 3 weeks at 5±1°C were determined. Nutritional and biological values of Labneh were evaluated when fresh. Addition of DLMO had considerable effect on Total Solid (TS), protein, acidity, carbohydrate and ash. The highest values were recorded with Labneh fortified with DLMO (innovative Labneh). The addition of DLMO had a significant effect on carbohydrate. Acidity increased gradually for all treatments during storage. The highest values were obtained with Labneh fortified with DLMO. Labneh fortified with DLMO can be considered as a good source of minerals (Ca, Fe, Zn and Si) and vitamins (A, B1, B2 and E). The results indicated that total counts were higher in Labneh fortified with DLMO. Yeast & mould and coliform bacteria were not detected in Labneh fortified with DLMO when fresh and till the end of storage. Labneh fortified with DLMO characterized with high biological value (BV), true protein digestibility (TD) and net protein utilization (NPU). Organoleptic scores revealed that the Labneh fortified with DLMO was acceptable during storage period.