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Modernity and Self-Identity, Self and Society in the Late Modern Age

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Modernity and Self-Identity, Self and Society in the Late Modern Age

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... The agent is awareor has an intuitive awareness -of the logic of the action he/she is performing. In this logic, action becomes agency when it is not generally related to an activity, nor to the simple appropriateness of action with respect to its aims, but it has acertaindegreeofreflexiveawareness (Giddens, 1991). This conceptualization of agency is implicitly related to a projective attitude towards the future, and it accordingly refers to the modern idea of the subject as a choosing autonomous agent.ThissameideaisalsoapparentintheveryfirsttheoreticalphaseofTalcott Parsons especially in The structure of Social Action, published in 1937 and deeply influencedbyMaxWeber,whereactionischaracterizedbypurposeandintention. ...
... For example, Bourdieu is more focused on structural developments arising from routines, inequalities and powerrelations,withspecificattentiontothepowerofinertiasineverydaylife; instead, Touraine mainly considers agency as the product of individual capacity of dissidence from socialization patterns. Midway along the cline, with a more phenomenologicalandhermeneuticalapproach,wefindGiddens'andMelucci's recognition that there is not an ontological priority of agency vis-à-vis to the context;noristhereadirectunfilteredstrugglebetweentheheroismofaresistant subject and the manipulative structures of a society, but rather a process of selfreflexivity (Giddens, 1991;Melucci, 1989). ...
... For Bourdieu, there was a tension between interiorized dispositions (habitus) and practice as creative 'sense of the game', but the possibility of change was situated more outside the social actorthat is, in structural historical changes -rather than in agency itself (Bourdieu, 1980). For Giddens, on the contrary, the focus was more on the way in which agencycontributestostructurationthroughindividualreflexivityandthecapacity to learn from experience and information (Giddens, 1991). Yet, these approaches did not completely unhinge the classic overlap between agency and autonomy: that is, the idea that agency is related to intentionality, while -especially in Bourdieu -practice recalled the inevitable constraints reproduced by societies in everyday life (Schatzki, 2002). ...
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This is a critical cartography of the notion of agency, of its current transformations, and interdisciplinary intertwining. Whilst in modern social sciences, agency used to be conceptualized as a property of the subject, and the discussion was focused on the extension of such properties, such as intentionality, more recently agency has been expanded to include other actors and theoretical approaches beyond the boundaries of the humanities and social sciences. The chapter identifies different cultures of agency originating from different theoretical debates and research fieldwork. ‘Agency’ is a concept widespread in social sciences, and it is usually evoked to refer to autonomous action, capacity of choice, human freedom as traditionally opposed to actions determined by structural constraints or interiorized forms of dressage . However, although we are accustomed to anthropocentrism, we are still uncomfortable with the evidence that we are losing control of the material and social environment. The chapter analyses the intersecting trajectories of different epistemological and theoretical traditions and the new social issues that they highlight.
... The participants in my study are former garment factory workers who have taken a bold step to undertake a 5-year long under-graduate course in the medium of English at a prestigious international university in Bangladesh that has set as its mission the empowerment of women and the creation of a generation of women leaders. My aim is to uncover how the daily life of these women shapes and is shaped by the larger structure as a constituent part of it (Giddens 1991). My study focuses on the lived experiences of a group of students persevering in the hope of finding social and economic prosperity in the future through an education in English and by mastering certain skills in leadership which in my research site are believed to be necessary for "becoming empowered". ...
... The fact that affect has become one of the defining features of late capitalism is increasingly seen as related to a conceptualisation of citizenship which draws on an understanding of the self as a free-but-responsibilised subject (Harvey 2005: 5) Emotions of hope and desire in anticipation of promised prosperity and pressure to compete are some of the affective features that characterise current times, in addition to fear and anxiety arising out of uncertainty as well as precariousness and self-responsibility involving risk-taking in modern conditions of life (Giddens 1991). Ideas about the 'promise of happiness' (Ahmed 2010) and related 'technologies of hope' (Ibid) as a means to self-exert pressure for future success or to resort to alternative ways of well-being (Pérez-Milans and Xiaoyan 2020), in addition to 'regimes of anticipation' (Adams et al. 2009) as a defining feature of current socio-economic times characterised by 'thinking and living toward the future' and as 'a politics of temporality and affect' (p. ...
... The ways in which language is stylized and strategically presented in the persuasive genre of promotional and authorial texts at the educational institution in my study can be analysed as acts of stance and stance ascription. These units of identity or meaning making over time through 'repetition and routinization (they) may become habituated and 'structurated'' (Giddens 1991) into a 'more extensive narrative of self and a lifestyle (italics in original) … [thus making] stance and style (…) ideologically and interactionally co-constitutive' (Jaworski and Thurlow 2009 :196). ...
Thesis
This thesis focuses on the impact of global capitalism on women’s empowerment programmes in higher education in Bangladesh. The topic has warranted a nuanced attention ever since world organisations and philanthropic foundations have directed their attention to women in so called developing countries to accelerate economic growth. Drawing on a sociolinguistic ethnographic approach, I investigate the trajectories of empowerment of three women from socio-economically underserved backgrounds studying at the focal university which endeavours to empower women and produce future leaders by offering leadership skills and English language as part of a liberal arts education. In so doing, I adopt Foucault’s concepts of governmentality and subjectivation with the aim of illuminating the tensions between a moral obligation to transform and the promise of social mobility. Through an analysis of stance-taking and affect as communicative social practices in daily interactions and narrations, I demonstrate how the women come to understand that learning English and developing leadership skills entail working on themselves to become desired. I argue that the women’s construction of ‘becoming empowered’ shapes and is shaped by the discourses of women’s empowerment they are engaging with, sometimes showing alignment and sometimes contestation. My study of their trajectories also details an interplay of capitalist logic and inequalities of class, patriarchy and coloniality which complexly shape their subjectivities. The thesis documents what drives these women to pursue a neoliberalised education system with English as the language of promise despite the struggles and the precarity of such a system; more than their internalisation of neoliberal values it is their desperation to liberate themselves from a life of deprivation and discrimination which they hope a transformation into a neoliberal corporate self-hood would engender.
... Scholars in various fields have offered various definitions of lifestyle. Giddens (1991) said that lifestyle is a relatively harmonious set of all the behaviors and activities of a certain person in daily life, requiring a set of habits and orientations and, therefore, having a kind of unity. Often in social sciences, lifestyle is used as a concept in discussing social inequalities, and new forms of social differentiation in postmodern contexts are described by this concept [3][4][5]. ...
... Giddens (1991) said that lifestyle is a relatively harmonious set of all the behaviors and activities of a certain person in daily life, requiring a set of habits and orientations and, therefore, having a kind of unity. Often in social sciences, lifestyle is used as a concept in discussing social inequalities, and new forms of social differentiation in postmodern contexts are described by this concept [3][4][5]. The concept of lifestyle was first introduced in 1929 by the social psychologist Alfred Adler. ...
... According to Cockerham [51], the lack of research may be partly due to Veblen's theory and limitation of lifestyle to upper-class styles, equating it with conspicuous consumption. Then, Cockerham [51] cited from the study by Giddens (1991) as follows: "It was a major mistake to suppose that lifestyles are confined to those who are in more privileged materialistic circumstances. Everybody has a lifestyle, even the poorest of the poor". ...
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Today, elite athletes form an important social group, and the non-sport facets of their lives matter as much as their sports performances. However, there has been little empirical research on the lifestyles of elite athletes. Therefore, this study aimed to develop knowledge about the Iranian elite athletes’ lifestyle. The study was conducted with a qualitative approach in two phases. Glaserian grounded theory was used in the first phase, and thematic analysis was used in the second phase. Participants of the first phase included 19 sports experts, such as sports sociologists, sports psychologists, and sports coaches, who were selected by purposive and snowball sampling methods for holding unstructured in-depth interviews. The data were simultaneously analyzed using a set of open, theoretical, selective coding and memos. The codes were grouped into three different categories with different natures. The emerged theory advanced our understanding of the lifestyle shaping structures of elite athletes, lifestyle indicators, and even professionalization of their lifestyles. According to the results, the Iranian elite athletes’ lifestyles include indicators, such as professional mindset, competencies, life vision, financial literacy, responsibility, consumption, leisure, personal issues, and religious behavior. Subjects of the second phase were 44 Iranian athletes in the national levels who participated voluntarily in the study. The data were analyzed by thematic analysis method, and lifestyles typologies were identified. Based on results, five dominant lifestyles among the Iranian elite athletes were identified: consumerist, easy going, socially useful, profit-oriented, and professional. Finally, the features of each lifestyle were discussed.
... 2 Background of the study 2.1 Migration, language and transnational identities In the early 1990s, the juxtaposition of migration and language aroused researchers' interest in thinking about what role language plays in transnational practises. The theory that underpinned this significant realisation in studies on migration and language is the concept of "late modernity", which refers to a social condition that involved socio-economic, institutional, cultural, and linguistic changes (Bauman 2005;De Fina 2016;Giddens 1991), leading to further shift in sociolinguistics in which mobility became the key factor (Bloomaert 2014;Canagarajah 2012). With the rise of "late modernity", scholars started to shift from the stable and fixed concept of speech community to a non-binary, fluid, and socially constructed concept (De Fina 2016;Pérez-Milans 2015). ...
... Moreover, De Fina (2013) points out that transnational identities are constructed via using and appropriating cultural resources such as language, concepts, or narratives concerning groups, nations, spaces even communities. Under such views of transnationalism, research on how language and migration lead to changes in investigations towards transnational identities, such as negotiating identities in intercultural settings (Li and Zhu 2013;Zhu 2010Zhu , 2015aZhu , 2015b; using reflexive self-identification as a mean to negotiate the relationship between self and social structure (Giddens 1991;Pérez-Milans 2015). ...
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This study examines how Hong Kong returnees negotiate and construct their transnational identities in their post-sojourn period via two indexical cues, stance taking, and self-labelling. Based on the narratives about remigration, this study investigates how returnees construct their identities discursively by taking stances to evaluate and align with sociocultural values and using self-labelling to index their transnational identities in their post-sojourn period. In doing so, this study hopes to contribute to the existing migration studies on Hong Kong returnees in terms of language and identity construction.
... Karapetyan, 2018), és annak gyakorlati manifesztációját vizsgálta (Baeva & Bordovskaia, 2015;Edmondson & Lei, 2014;Wang et al., 2019). Másrészt, ezzel párhuzamosan, a szubjektív biztonságot többen a Giddens-féle (1991) modernizációs elméletben megjelenő, ontológiai megközelítésből kutatták (Giddens, 1991;Rényi et al., 2014;Rossdale, 2015, Sik, 2013, egyebek mellett városlakók (Jabareen et al., 2017;Harries, 2008;Lindenberg, 2002), ingatlantulajdonosok biztonságérzete (Hiscock et al., 2001), valamint további gyakorlati vonatkozások tekintetében (Kekovic & Markovic, 2009;Mantere & Whittington, 2020). ...
... Az ontológiai biztonság az emberek önazonosságukba, társadalmi és anyagi környezetük állandóságába vetett hite. Az ennek eredményeként kialakuló ontológiai biztonságérzet az egyént körülvevő személyek és dolgok megbízhatóságán alapul (Giddens, 1991). Az ontológiai biztonság kialakításában a rutinok különös jelentőséggel bírnak, mivel a poszttradicionális kor kihívásai (a lét hagyományos kereteinek elmosódása, a tradíciók szerepvesztése stb.) megnehezítik, hogy az egyén otthonosan érezze magát a világban (egzisztenciális szorongás) (Rényi et al., 2014;Sik, 2013). ...
Article
A biztonságfogalom értelmezése körül zajló, egyre fokozódó diskurzus következményként napjainkra a biztonság elvont, országhatárhoz köthető, a nemzetbiztonságra leszűkítő értelmezése alapjaiban megváltozott. A kilencvenes évektől a tradicionális államközpontú, biztonságpolitikai megközelítés ellenpontjaként megjelentek a humán-, illetve a személyes biztonság létjogosultságát hangsúlyozó paradigmák, amelyek a biztonságot szubjektív, percipiált érzésként definiálják. A pszichológiai biztonság, valamint az ontológiai biztonság összetevői a fent leírt változások nyomán kerültek a tudományos érdeklődés fókuszába. A tanulmány célja, hogy képet adjon arról, hogyan ítélik meg a fogyasztók a vállalatok általános biztonságérzethez való hozzájárulását, milyen a biztonsághoz köthető feladatokat várnak el a gazdasági szereplőktől, és miként viszonyulnak a vállalatok ezen a területen nyújtott teljesítményéhez. A szerzők elemzésük eredményként felállítják a fogyasztók ontológiai biztonságának modelljét, amelybe az egyéni szociopszichológiai jellemzők és a makrokörnyezeti elemek mellé, beemelik a vállalati teljesítmény megítélésére vonatkozó dimenziót, amely tényező lehetséges összetevőit kvantitatív, primer kutatás során vizsgálják.
... Yhteiskunnallisen eriytymisen kehitykseen liittyy keskeisesti yleinen yksilöllistymiskehitys, yksilöiden näkeminen yhä itsenäisempinä, jolloin he voivat valita -ja joutuvat valitsemaan -elämänpolkujaan ja myös maailmankatsomuksiaan itsenäisesti, vapaampina yhteisöjen ja yhteiskunnan normeista ja odotuksista (Giddens 1991). Yksilöllistymisen vastakohta, kollektiivisuus, nähdään yksilöiden vahvana ja itsestään selvänä sitoutumisena yhteisöihin, jolloin yhteisö määrittää yksilön elämäntapoja ja myös uskonnollisuutta. ...
... Näin ollen aktiivisen ja refleksiivisen työstämisen osuus identiteetin rakentumisessa kasvaa. (Giddens 1991.) Identiteetti koostuu monista elementeistä ja paikka on yksi mahdollinen tekijä (Castells 1997, 21). ...
... To safeguard the customs, languages, and traditions of a nation, there is an urgent need to maintain cultural equality [31]. According to [32], multiculturalism provides an environment for people from different cultures to establish a dialogue with each other, influence each other, and provide mutual benefit. With the interaction of different cultures, traditions, moral, artistic, literary, and musical values, question each other, investigate, and challenge each other. ...
... With the interaction of different cultures, traditions, moral, artistic, literary, and musical values, question each other, investigate, and challenge each other. With the effect of the different ideas put forward, ideas are exchanged, and communities with more prosperous, more developed cultures and knowledge are formed [32]. In socio-economic conditions, populism is a strong determinant of globalization [33]. ...
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Multicultural education plays a significant role in eliminating prejudices and developing concepts such as tolerance, understanding, respect for differences, and empathy. The northern part of Cyprus exhibits the characteristics of a society that has received increasing numbers of immigrants in recent years, and where the experiences of living together with individuals from different cultures begin to differ rapidly. As a result of increasing immigration to the northern part of Cyprus in recent years and the changing lives based on digitalization, students from different cultures have started to receive education in schools. The aim of this research is to evaluate the multicultural education policies to contribute to the creation and implementation of multicultural education policies according to the results of the evaluation of the role of digital educators in transforming cultures. In addition, the qualitative research model was adopted, and the Case Study pattern was used. The interview technique was used for data collection. The research universe consisted of 31 participants, including teacher training faculty members, administrators, and teachers working in public schools in the 2020–2021 academic year in the northern part of Cyprus. Educators participating in the research expressed more positive views on multiculturalism, multicultural education, and multicultural education.
... Identity theory is an approach that aims to capture the complexity of human behaviour (Brown 2019;Schwartz, Luyckx & Vignoles 2011;Alvesson, Ashcraft & Thomas 2008;Giddens 1991;Stryker 1980). Two main components of identity interest scholars in organisation studies. ...
Thesis
In Australia, governance in the independent schooling sector has increasingly been recognised in the social, economic and political domains as critical to ensuring school success. Yet, its effectiveness has gained little scrutiny from researchers. A key aspect of school governance is for directors to meet the mandatory governance standards to assure registration and school funding continuity. As ‘responsible persons’, directors utilise component elements of their professional identity and volunteer their time to achieve each of the four main elements of governance: compliance, accountability, transparency and leadership. However, recurring incidents of non-compliance, like those found in the Islamic schooling sector, raise questions about the role of directors’ professional identity on school boards. Essentially, there is concern that directors only engage in standard reporting practices, thus providing only part of what is required for governance in Islamic schools. This study challenges the perspective that the universal mandatory governance standards of agency and control are sufficient elements of board effectiveness. It departs from the notion that boards govern exclusively through the four main elements (compliance, accountability, transparency and leadership). Instead, this study argues that governance is a more complex phenomenon that requires a behavioural approach. For Islamic school boards, a behavioural approach to governance must have a faith-based perspective because schools adopt a faith-based ethos and provide Islamic education, discipline, safety and care for Muslim children. Unlike the economic perspectives of agency and control, this study draws on sociology and seeks to explore the human side of governance through the utility of a professional identity framework. With this framework, informed by an Islamic worldview, the study adopts an unconventional approach to governance research, and is the first in Australia to undertake empirical research on the governance of Islamic school boards in this way. Three critical strands of the literature framed the main research question. The first strand provided a context for the development, regulation and funding of the Islamic schooling sector. The second strand examined the board governance literature and explained the behavioural and Islamic governance perspectives. The third strand underscored identity theories, Muslim identity according to an Islamic worldview, and the conceptual elements of professional identity as the framework for this research. The paucity of research in the school governance scholarship, particularly the Islamic schooling sector, led to the development of the research question: What role does the professional identity of directors play in the governance of Islamic school boards in New South Wales? The inherent assumption in the research question that there is a connection between professional identity and governance led to the identification of five research objectives. First, the research objectives address an understanding of the Islamic schooling sector as the field of investigation. Second, they identify the elements of governance in the context of Islamic school boards and, third, discover the conceptual elements of professional identity. Fourth, the objectives identify the component elements of directors’ professional identity. Last, they examine the dynamics of boards and how professional identity relates to the governance of boards. Informed by a constructivist methodology, the empirical research for this study was data collection through semi-structured interviews with directors (14 drawn from seven Islamic school boards in New South Wales) and focus groups and interviews of parents (29 participants). Data analysis via themes was undertaken through six phases. An outcome of the study was participants’ perspectives of Islamic values, principles and practices. So, an Islamic worldview informed the data analysis. The findings from parents indicated that Islamic schools are complex, dynamic and unique institutions. They play an essential role in maintaining Australian Muslim students’ cultural and religious freedoms and providing children with Islamic education. As the data revealed, parents considered Islamic discipline and academic achievement as critical characteristics of Islamic schooling. Safety emerged as a vital element of schooling. It had two dimensions; first, from fears of secular cultures in the public schooling system; and second, Islamophobia and anti-Islamic sentiments experienced by the community. For parents, safety was an expectation, obligation and responsibility of the school principal and board. However, parents highlighted disparities between the board and school communities. In exposing the hidden truths of Islamic schooling from the voices and experiences of parents, the study identified that Islamic school boards needed to incorporate additional elements of governance. It was revealed that governance frameworks in use failed to yield transparency between school boards and the Muslim community. The findings from directors confirmed parents’ concerns that most Islamic school boards engaged in compliance-focused practices, which appeared mostly to benefit the institution’s continuity. This left little room for boards to focus on more essential elements of schooling like strategic planning, education and the well-being of the school community. Parents, a key stakeholder group, felt disempowered and neglected, creating uncertainty about the future of Islamic schooling. This study argues that governance deficiencies can be understood through board behaviours that are in turn shaped by directors’ identities. As found in the study, the work of boards was impacted by directors’ professional identity (their professional qualifications and expertise, values, attributes and beliefs) and their Muslim identity. In connecting directors’ professional identity with governance, the findings revealed that boards were specialised institutions. While directors identified with specific professions, they interpreted component elements of professional identity in the context of the board. The findings also show that directors used their professional qualifications and expertise for compliance. Their values, attributes and beliefs guided much of the values-based practices in the boardroom, and reflections on their purpose, attitude and actions demonstrated directors’ awareness of their Muslim identity. This highlighted an understanding of the types of governance frameworks needed in Islamic school boards. Using the study’s unconventional approach, this research identified the complexities of governance beyond the traditional elements of agency and control. The findings underscore that board dynamics play an essential role in developing a school climate that reflects the essence of a genuinely Islamic ethos. Also, the findings underline the importance of adopting a behavioural and faith-based lens when developing governance frameworks. Essentially, directors need to consider, more broadly, elements beyond compliance, accountability, transparency and leadership. This requires the cooperation, consultation and interaction of multiple stakeholder groups that include the Muslim community. This study makes three contributions to knowledge in the fields of inquiry: the organisational, behavioural and Islamic fields. The first contribution confirms that in Islamic school boards, component elements of directors’ professional identity do in fact influence governance practices in the boardroom. The second contribution extends existing knowledge in the board and behavioural governance scholarship by incorporating additional elements of governance that align with a school’s religious ethos and address the needs of stakeholders. The third contribution expands the Islamic governance scholarship by adopting an Islamic worldview in understanding the Muslim identity of directors and uncovering Islamic values and principles that shaped directors’ behaviours in the boardroom. The study also makes three contributions to practice that Commonwealth and State governments, independent school regulators and the Muslim community may find beneficial. The contributions to knowledge and practice point to the need for governance renewal in the Islamic schooling sector.
... Evaluamos en los diarios elegidos el tipo de persuasión comercial que se presenta; asimismo, los planteamientos proporcionados por Fowler (1986), Hodge y Kress (1993) y Fairclough (1995, nos ayudan a someter a análisis cómo las elecciones de las formas de tratamiento responden a motivaciones ideológicas. De manera complementaria, las teorías de Anderson (1983) y Giddens (1991) son fundamentales para determinar cuáles pronombres favorecen la constitución de nación e identidad nacional y cuáles pronombres no son propicios para tales fines de construcción identitaria. ...
Thesis
Notre recherche nous a mené au constat selon lequel les formes de désignation de l’allocutaire en espagnol costaricien sont dans une lutte constante entre standardisation et changement linguistique, ainsi qu’entre norme et variation. Par exemple, l’approche diachronique (chapitre 1) nous a permis de conclure que le pronom usted a toujours été lié à une analyse explicative et descriptive. Lors de l’analyse de la catégorie fonctionnelle et structurelle de ce pronom, les études tendent à l’objectivité et à la neutralité. Vos et tú ont quant à eux fait l’objet d’une lutte entre prescriptivisme et descriptivisme. Dans le chapitre 2, centré sur les attitudes, perceptions et jugements linguistiques afférents aux formes de désignation de l’allocutaire dans l’espagnol du Costa Rica, les informateurs attribuent à usted diverses estimations positives. Les enquêtés s’attachent surtout à préciser comment ils utilisent le pronom usted pour affirmer leurs positionnements et actes identitaires. En revanche, pour ces mêmes informateurs, différents stéréotypes continuent de circuler autour de vos et de tú. Dans les chapitres suivantes (3 et 4), et plus précisément concernant la langue écrite, les journaux, en tant que médias de masse, penchent plus pour tú dans le contexte d’usage d’une modalité standardisée. En revanche, dans la langue parlée, concernant la publicité orale, le Costa Rica suit actuellement sa propre norme linguistique. Vos, surtout, et usted, dans une certaine mesure, sont les outils d’expression des médias de masse. De même, hors de l’espace publicitaire, tú est le pronom normatif de l’écriture électronique (chapitre 5). En somme, les statuts des pronoms diffèrent autant que les normes. Par exemple, au niveau diachronique et perceptif, le point de repère pour l’usage est usted. En revanche, pour la publicité orale, il s’agit de vos, et pour la publicité écrite et l’écriture électronique, de tú. Cette optique vient confirmer de nouveau la complexité inhérente aux formes de désignation de l’allocutaire dans l’espagnol du Costa Rica, car celle-ci oscille entre différentes normes en fonction du registre.
... Norske studentoppgaver er mer eksplisitte, selvrealiseringsorienterte og refleksive i tråd med teori om senmodernitet (Bergersen, 2017;Giddens, 1991) og lavkontekstuell kommunikasjonsstil (Dahl, 2013), slik også Henry (2020) og Juul-Wiese og Adriansen (2019) fant. Valg av tema, litteratur og metodisk interkulturell diskusjon gjenspeiler norske studenters søkelys på å forstå noe en ikke forstår, i en ny kontekst. ...
... On the other hand, persons who have a polychronic time perception might value themselves as flexible, friendly, spontaneous, relaxed, and realistic, and interpret persons behaving according to a monochronic time to be self-centred, materialistic, naïve, rigid, and less emotional (Dypedahl & Bøhn, 2017, p. 100). Monochronic time orientation can be linked to linear time, where time is considered as objective and partial, and is highly emphasised in high modern societies (Giddens, 1991). Hølleland (1999, pp. ...
... As such, while no silver bullet, care offers some tools to think about what a sustainable world could look like, and how it could engage individuals in their everyday activities as it brings together the most private, intimate aspects of our lives and the broader social organisation, in relation to what is needed to perpetuate both. Indeed, consuming and consumption practices are an integral part of self-identity and how we present ourselves to the world (Giddens, 2008). This is unlikely to fundamentally change, as consumption is one of the main ways we, as social beings, relate to the material world, but its meaning could easily be transformed if care and caring become central to our priorities throughout society, from intimate lives to macroeconomic policy. ...
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In this article, I argue that care is a useful tool to think about consumption as embedded in social relations within and outside the market, and draw the consequences for moving towards sustainable lifestyles. To do so, I engage in a review of the literature that brings together consumption and care in its various forms. I review three main bodies of work: the literature on consumption that links care to consumer behaviour and consumption practices; the work addressing the commodifications of care and how it feeds in the neoliberal organisation of society; and the literature on climate change and the development of sustainable lifestyles. I close with a reflection on some lessons of care for academic researchers studying sustainability, consumption and a transition towards more sustainable and just societies.
... It becomes a component of social relations and it occurs in everyday situational contextthe sphere of politics (Landemore, 2011) religion (Magier, 2015), morality DOI:10.17951/j.2022.35.2.125-138 (Dorsey, 2016), science (Bijker, Bal, hendriks, 2009), law (Raz, 2009), education (Olubiński, 2012) and others. Due to the above, an authority as a term and phenomenon is diverse when referred to its meaning, kinds or types (haugaard, 2010(haugaard, , Weber, 2013Omer, Schlippe, 2016) and its functions (Giddens, 1991;Rogers, 1983). ...
... Through my research project on geographic approaches to the future, I am studying how human geographers can best contribute to researching and understanding problems of the future. This is done through analyzing major structures in society and how they influence individual behaviour and group processes (see also Giddens, 1971Giddens, , 1976Giddens, , 1979Giddens, , 1982Giddens, , 1984Giddens, , 1987Giddens, , 1991Giddens, , 2003Giddens, , 2006Kutor et al., 2022;Simandan, 2002Simandan, , 2006Simandan, , 2012Simandan, , 2016Simandan, , 2022Stinchcombe, 2020;Toffler, 1984Toffler, , 2007. The main structures that will be discussed include racism, feminism, and capitalism. ...
... El pensamiento moderno incluye y explica todo en términos de una racionalidad única (Bauman 2007). La Modernidad es distinguida por un marco filosófico particular e implicó cambios que transformaron las ideas y las «formas de ver» el mundo generando los esquemas conceptuales propios a la sociedad occidental (Giddens 1991;Giddens y Pierson 1998). En este marco el pensamiento moderno incorporó nuevos espacios a partir de un proceso de objetivación y apropiación plasmado en la producción cartográfica (para el caso de la Antártida ver Salerno et al. 2010;Zarankin et al. 2011). ...
... Another fruitful way to analyze both the construction and alteration of self in reference to language use in conditions like ASD, SCZ and synesthesia is to investigate the narrative dimension (e.g., Giddens, 1991;McAdams & McLean 2013;Allé et al. 2015;Adornetti and Ferretti 2021). This view is founded on the position that human beings construct their own identities by means of stories, e.g., by producing autobiographical narratives (Schechtman 1996;McAdams 2001;Habermas & de Silveira 2008;Altavilla et al. 2020;Canali et al. 2021). ...
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Recent research has proposed that certain aspects of psychosis, as experienced in, e.g., schizophrenia (SCZ), but also aspects of other cognitive conditions, such as autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and synesthesia, can be related to a shattered sense of the notion of self. In this paper, our goal is to show that altered processing of self can be attributed to an abnormal functioning of cortico-striatal brain networks supporting, among other, one key human distinctive cognitive ability, namely cross-modality, which plays multiple roles in human cognition and language. Specifically, our hypothesis is that this cognitive mechanism sheds light both on some basic aspects of the minimal self and on some aspects related to higher forms of self, such as the narrative self. We further link the atypical functioning in these conditions to some recent evolutionary changes in our species, specifically, an atypical presentation of human self-domestication (HSD) features. In doing so, we also lean on previous work concerning the link between cognitive disorders and language evolution under the effects of HSD. We further show that this approach can unify both linguistic and non-linguistic symptoms of these conditions through deficits in the notion of self. Our considerations provide further support for the hypothesis that SCZ and ASD are diametrically opposed cognitive conditions, as well for the hypothesis that their etiology is associated with recent human evolution, leading to a deeper understanding of the causes and symptoms of these disorders, and providing new cues, which can be used for an earlier and more accurate diagnostics.
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This thesis ethnographically examines two instances of high socio-economic status, multilingual, multinational families resident in the UK, in the aftermath of the 2016 Brexit referendum. For each, I explore the discursive creation and presentation of ‘our family’, enacted in ‘our home’, and the (language) socialization of the family’s children into this, through the lens of Bourdieu’s (1993) notion of habitus. I draw upon both verbal and visual fieldnotes, resulting from an eighteen-month ethnographic study that used participant observation as its principal method. The fieldnotes included not only records of interactions and observed speech, but also notes of paralinguistic communication and the participants’ engagement with material objects. My analysis is inspired by Goffman’s (1959) dramaturgical approach. Through it, I reveal how the habitus of each family was characterised by (language) ideologies and practices that reflected the ideals of the neoliberal self (Urciuoli, 2008), and those of cosmopolitanism. I consider how the ways of being of the participant families, and family members, were discursively / semiotically constructed through their everyday rituals, language / semiotic practices, and interactions, moment to moment. I further explore the mechanisms by which the children were socialized, in and through language and the families’ broader semiotic repertoire, into ‘our family’, and how this notion was (co-)created, contested, and negotiated with, and by, them. Taking a critical stance, I explore the essential role of (language) socialization within the family in the socio-economic stratification of society. I reveal how the participants’ belief in the deterministic potential of the dispositions and orientations into which they were socializing their children, the forms of capital at their disposal, and the sense of agency afforded by their Bourdieusian habitus, created an enacted belief that through the ‘right’ choices and (language) socialization practices today, ‘our family’ can (will?) win tomorrow.
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Shared Space – A Way to the Pedestrian City The negative effects of car traffic in cities continue to grow, despite the goals that the sustainable mobility paradigm put forward almost three decades ago. Measures to reduce them mainly focus on improving road safety by reducing vehicle speed and reducing traffic (traffic calming). However, the overriding goal of calming traffic is to create the desired communication behavior of residents and to create such spaces in the city where the needs of pedestrians and cyclists are a priority. The Shared Space project is an unusual, completely innovative and increasingly popular solution that allows you to calm traffic. It means a space shared between individual vehicles, delivery vehicles and pedestrian traffic. In this paper, we address the question of whether such a solution to build a sense of community and promote a city for pedestrians and create such spaces that encourage to stay on there. Schlüsselwörter/KeywordsStadtlogistiköffentliche Räumeshared spaceRaum für alleCity logisticspublic spaceshared space
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Shared Space – A Way to the Pedestrian City … The negative effects of car traffic in cities continue to grow, despite the goals that the sustainable mobility paradigm put forward almost three decades ago. Measures to reduce them mainly focus on improving road safety by reducing vehicle speed and reducing traffic (traffic calming). However, the overriding goal of calming traffic is to create the desired communication behavior of residents and to create such spaces in the city where the needs of pedestrians and cyclists are a priority. The Shared Space project is an unusual, completely innovative and increasingly popular solution that allows you to calm traffic. It means a space shared between individual vehicles, delivery vehicles and pedestrian traffic. In this paper, we address the question of whether such a solution to build a sense of community and promote a city for pedestrians and create such spaces that encourage to stay on there. Ключевые слова/KeywordsГородская логистикаобщественные пространстваshared spaceобщее пространствопространство для всехcity logisticspublic spaceshared space
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Si son étymologie est incertaine (Hacking, 2003), le mot risque renvoie généralement à la probabilité qu'une menace extérieure s'actualise et s'accompagne de conséquences négatives (Ericson et Haggerty, 1997). Les sociétés humaines ont longtemps interprété ces menaces comme des punitions divines, et plutôt que de les subir passivement, elles ont tenté de les écarter par le biais de prières, d'offrandes et autres rituels culturellement contingents (Douglas et Wildavsky, 1982; Douglas, 1966). Aujourd'hui, la gestion, la gouvernance, le management et le contrôle des risques passent par une multitude de dispositifs qui reposent sur des fondements propres à notre époque, mais les risques n'en demeurent pas moins des constructions sociales. Pour qu'une menace se mette à exister en tant que risque, il faut d'abord qu'elle soit identifiée, qualifiée, quantifiée, qu'on lui attribue une cause, qu'on lui assigne des responsables chargés de la surveiller et que l'on cherche à intervenir sur elle. Cette intervention ne relève d'ailleurs plus exclusivement de l'évitement des risques (contrairement à la plupart des pratiques historiques, documentées par Mary Douglas) car ceux-ci sont désormais associés à des opportunités. C'est pourquoi ils suscitent un « appétit » plus ou moins important, qui varie d'une organisation ou d'un individu à l'autre et influence les heuristiques de prise de décision en situation d'incertitude (Buchak, 2013). Qu'impliquent de telles décisions ? Elles supposent, au préalable, de s'être interrogé sur les risques que l'on peut se permettre d'ignorer, ceux qu'il est opportun de prendre dans l'espoir d'un gain, ou ceux qu'il faut déjouer coûte que coûte. Une fois ce travail de sélection des risques effectué, se posent alors plusieurs questions sur les modalités de l'intervention pertinente : dans quel but doit-on agir ? De quelle manière procéder ? Avec quels dispositifs ? Avec l'assistance de quels experts ? Or les pratiques d'intervention sont extrêmement diversifiées, même s'il existe quelques cadres de référence largement partagés, nous y reviendrons. Chaque domaine de spécialisation est un prisme qui permet de « voir » les risques différemment et de discerner des styles d'intervention jugés efficaces. Dans le domaine de l'assurance, par exemple, on mutualise les risques personnels en les agrégeant pour mieux les « couvrir ». En finance, on prend volontairement des risques en fonction du taux de rendement espéré, et on les couvre grâce à des fonds propres ou à des mécanismes de transfert tels que les produits dérivés. En comptabilité, on les provisionne. En conseil fiscal, on factorise le risque de redressement avant de proposer telle stratégie d'optimisation à un client. En audit externe, on cherche à diminuer le risque qu'il existe des erreurs significatives dans les états financiers d'une entreprise. En contrôle-champ qui nous intéresse plus particulièrement dans ce chapitre-le risque est parfois considéré comme un objet à contrôler (on parle de contrôle du risque de crédit, par exemple) et parfois comme un mode de contrôle (les auditeurs internes, notamment, utilisent une approche basée sur les risques pour planifier leur travail d'évaluation de la qualité des systèmes de contrôle interne). Ainsi, le risque est un construit social qui appartient à la modernité : si nos ancêtres étaient aux prises avec le sort (fatum), nous sommes aux prises avec des risques soigneusement circonscrits et calculés, que nous prenons ou évitons sciemment,
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