Article

Ageism: Negative and Positive

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Abstract

In this updated edition, Palmore provides a comprehensive review of many different forms of ageism - including the interesting notion of positive ageism, which projects onto the elderly as a group traditional virtues like wisdom and thrift. He discusses both the individual and social influences on attitudes toward the aged; analyzes institutional patterns of ageism; and explores ways to used to reduce the impact of ageism on the elderly. This book is a valuable resource and text for students and professionals interested in the sociology of aging in our society. Erdman Palmore has studied prejudice and discrimination toward older people in various ways throughout his distinguished career. Since publication of his ground breaking first edition, 10 years ago, there has been a growing interest and acceleration of research on the topic of ageism. In nontechnical language, Palmore provides a comprehensive review of the many different forms of ageism, including positive ageism, discusses the individual and social influences on ageism, analyzes institutional patterns, and explores methods that could be used to reduce ageism. This book is a valuable resource and text for students and professionals interested in the problems and opportunities of aging in our society. Useful educational tools include: A revised Appendix of the Facts on Aging Quizzes, as well as a totally new Appendix of Abstracts of recent publications on ageism.

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... In general terms, old age is measured by an accumulation of time, as time gone by [2]. It has been observed that the representation of old age is ambivalent; that is, on some occasions it is associated with experience and wisdom, while on others it is seen as a time of illness and difficulty [3]. ...
... Specifically, this concept refers to "stereotypes, prejudices and discriminatory behavior against older people" [7]. Palmore (1999) suggests that there are at least nine major categories of negative stereotypes associated with old age: illness, impotency, ugliness, mental decline, mental illness, uselessness, isolation, poverty, and depression. Thus, older adults are often perceived to be sick, lonely, bored, living in poverty, and often irritable and angry [3]. ...
... Palmore (1999) suggests that there are at least nine major categories of negative stereotypes associated with old age: illness, impotency, ugliness, mental decline, mental illness, uselessness, isolation, poverty, and depression. Thus, older adults are often perceived to be sick, lonely, bored, living in poverty, and often irritable and angry [3]. Ageism towards older people would be determined by age norms and related to a social construct instilled from birth and varied according to age and sex of the person; in this way, the social norms to be followed by a child, an adolescent, an adult, or older people will be different from each other [8]. ...
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Article
Current evidence suggests that attitude towards older people may be associated with sociodemographic and educational variables; hence, a positive attitude towards older people is key when training new university professionals. However, there is little evidence of this association in Chilean university students. The objective was to analyze students from a Chilean university’s attitudes towards older people, according to sociodemographic and educational variables. Analytical and cross-sectional study; 515 students from a Chilean university were consulted online about their attitude towards older people using Kogan’s Attitudes towards Old People scale. Additionally, sociodemographic and educational variables were recorded. The average score for positive attitude was 70.8 (±9.7), while the negative attitude score was 68.3 (±11.6). The total score was 139.1 (±16.6). Mostly, university students perceive themselves with a low-level positive attitude (61.2%). Additionally, older university students (26–42 years old); women; Chileans; students of law, speech therapy, and occupational therapy; students in their final years of the programs; and those who had training in older people outside the university have a more positive attitude towards older people. In Conclusion, a profile of sociodemographic and educational characteristics of students with a lower and higher attitude towards older age was investigated. These results are relevant since the way of seeing the aging process could regulate the training of future professionals and consequently generate changes in dealing with older people. Young people’s perception of ageing would affect the treatment and incorporation of the older people in society and the adaptation of policies in this age group.
... Ao longo dos anos, o termo ageísmo apresentou diferentes conceitos. Pode ser definido como um preconceito entre grupos etários distintos (BUTLER, 1969) ou, de forma abrangente, como o preconceito ou a discriminação contra ou a favor de qualquer faixa etária, independente de serem adultos jovens ou velhos (PALMORE, 1999;RUDOLPH;ZACHER, 2015). Para outros autores, ainda pode ser chamado de Idadismo (ou Etarismo) (BUTLER, 1980;SOUSA et al., 2014), que se manifesta na forma de preconceito geracional (FERREIRA-ALVES; FERREIRA NOVO, 2006) subjacente a percepções estereotipadas, sentimentos de preconceito e modos de tratamento discriminatórios (PALMORE, 1999). ...
... Pode ser definido como um preconceito entre grupos etários distintos (BUTLER, 1969) ou, de forma abrangente, como o preconceito ou a discriminação contra ou a favor de qualquer faixa etária, independente de serem adultos jovens ou velhos (PALMORE, 1999;RUDOLPH;ZACHER, 2015). Para outros autores, ainda pode ser chamado de Idadismo (ou Etarismo) (BUTLER, 1980;SOUSA et al., 2014), que se manifesta na forma de preconceito geracional (FERREIRA-ALVES; FERREIRA NOVO, 2006) subjacente a percepções estereotipadas, sentimentos de preconceito e modos de tratamento discriminatórios (PALMORE, 1999). ...
... Nesse sentido, a Escala do Clima Intergeracional do Ambiente de Trabalho (ECIAT) (Workplace Intergenerational Climate Scale -WICS) (KING; BRYANT, 2016) avalia as atitudes em relação às diferentes gerações por meio de cinco subescalas inter-relacionadas: (1) falta de estereótipos geracionais; (2) afeto intergeracional positivo; (3) contato intergeracional; (4) inclusão geracional no local de trabalho; (5) e retenção intergeracional no local de trabalho. Vale ressaltar que tal escala está alinhada com o conceito de ageísmo proposto por Palmore (1999), ou seja, preconceito baseado na idade, relacionado a qualquer faixa etária, o que conferiu adequação ao objetivo deste trabalho: identificar percepções e atitudes sobre ageísmo entre os funcionários de uma organização, independentemente de suas idades. ...
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Article
Ageísmo caracteriza-se por meio de estereótipos, preconceito, ou discriminação contra pessoas em virtude da idade, podendo ser representado por ações negativas em direção a um determinado indivíduo ou grupo etário. O estudo objetiva identificar percepções e atitudes de ageísmo em uma organização do setor público. Realizou-se uma pesquisa com 156 funcionários (docentes e técnicos administrativos) de uma Universidade Pública. Na análise dos dados, utilizaram-se técnicas de Análise Fatorial Exploratória, Análise de Cluster e Regressão Linear Múltipla. Além de uma postura de inclusão e de um relacionamento intergeracional saudável, indícios de ageísmo foram identificados. Ademais, foram identificados clusters de trabalhadores para a organização estudada. Identificou-se o maior nível em relação à pressão para demissão e/ou aposentadoria, além dos mais jovens, com renda mais elevada, estarem preocupados com as consequências inerentes a essa questão (cluster 1). Docentes com pouco tempo de serviço tendem a identificar comportamentos preconceituosos; técnicos administrativos são propensos a perceber atitudes discriminatórias de outras gerações (cluster 2). O terceiro grupo contou com mulheres (64%) em sua maioria, funcionários entre 36 e 46 anos, técnicos administrativos (69%) e aqueles que apresentavam um tempo de serviço entre sete e 15 anos (48%) na universidade (cluster 3). Não foram identificados achados de perfil associados aos fatores obtidos neste cluster, uma vez que este não apresentou significância estatística em nenhuma das variáveis explicativas. A propensão à inclusão de indivíduos de outras gerações e à valorização da comunicação pelos docentes com mais tempo de serviço foi marcante (cluster 4). Esta pesquisa empírica estende a literatura sobre ageísmo no Brasil ao associar a temática com a noção de relações intergeracionais no local de trabalho, além de trazer a investigação para o contexto de organizações do setor público. Como implicações, a identificação de ageísmo pode aproximar indivíduos de diferentes gerações, propiciando relacionamento mais construtivo entre gerações, maior diversidade geracional e melhores resultados para organizações do setor público, como é o caso deste estudo.
... Erdman Palmore described ageism as comprised of both negative and positive stereotypes (Palmore, 1999). Negative ageism denigrates aging as less valuable than youth or presumes an association between aging and disease, decline, or disability. ...
... Negative age stereotypes may include: "illness, impotency, ugliness, mental decline, mental illness, uselessness, isolation, poverty, and depression" (Palmore, 1999, p. 20). Positive ageism, however, occurs when individuals assign qualities of wisdom and respect toward all older adults unrelated to context, which in turn may cause older people to feel pressure to live up to such expectations (Palmore, 1999). Positive ageism may come across to older people as paternalistic or infantilizing rather than empathic in its message (Chonody, 2016). ...
... It is important to note, however, that this study's hypothesis was not validated. We hypothesized that volunteering would decrease both internalized negative and positive age stereotypes, given that both negative and positive age stereotypes have been conceptualized in seminal literature as essential components of ageism (Palmore, 1999). However, this study did not find a significant association between volunteering and internalized negative age stereotypes. ...
Article
The productive aging literature describes a wide range of psychosocial benefits of volunteerism for older adults. A growing, compelling body of research drawing from stereotype embodiment theory identifies significant, negative public health impacts of internalized age stereotypes. Yet, little research explores which activities may reduce internalized ageism and enhance psychosocial health as people age. This cross-sectional parallel mediation study examines whether internalized age stereotypes mediate the relationship between volunteering and social connectedness for adults over 50. A convenience sample of volunteers (n = 165) 50+ years of age in the U. S. Mountain West completed an online survey primarily during the COVID-19 pandemic. The independent variable is volunteer hours per week (M = 6.45, SD = 5.38). The dependent variable is social connectedness measured by five positively worded items from the UCLA loneliness scale (M = 4.32, SD = 0.63, and α = 0.86). The indirect effects of five internalized positive (e.g., "wise" and "capable") (M = 4.85, SD = 0.68, α = 0.72) and five negative (e.g., "grumpy" and "helpless") (M = 1.20, SD = 1.02, α = 0.74) age stereotypes were tested. Results (n = 154) indicate that increased internalized positive, but not negative, age stereotypes partially mediate the relationship between volunteer hours and increased social connectedness, while holding constant relevant covariates. Although positive age stereotypes have long been considered a form of ageism, the results of this study suggest that internalizing positive age stereotypes may function as a form of esteem (particularly during the pandemic) to promote enhanced psychosocial health as people age.
... En annan central innebörd i ett flertal ålderismdefinitioner är diskriminering (se t.ex. Palmore 1999, Andersson 1997, 2002. Diskriminering har påpekats innefatta såväl människors beteenden som institutionella praktiker (se t.ex. ...
... Diskriminering har påpekats innefatta såväl människors beteenden som institutionella praktiker (se t.ex. Andersson 1997, 2002, Palmore 1999, Levin & Levin 1980) och vi har därför valt att benämna denna typ av innebörder för diskriminerande praktik. Ett exempel där både fördomar och diskriminerande praktik ingår är en definition som Butler (1980) ger: ...
... Ett sätt att definiera fenomenet har varit att se det såsom riktat mot äldre (Kalish 1979, Butler 1980, Palmore 2001, ett annat att hålla riktningen öppen och betrakta det som en diskriminering utifrån ålder (se t.ex. Bytheway 1995, Palmore 1999, Andersson 1997, 2002. Redan Butler (1969) poängterade att ålderism kan drabba alla ålderskategorier men behandlade sedan i praktiken endast ålderism riktad mot de äldre. ...
... While it can theoretically be directed toward any age group, the vast majority of studies focus on older adults or late adolescents (Nelson, 2005). Although ageism can be shown in terms of positive stereotypes or attitudes, it is most closely associated with negative stereotypes or attitudes (Palmore, 1999). Ageism can manifest in two main ways: implicitly, through unconscious thoughts, feelings, and behaviors, or explicitly, through intentional actions or verbal expressions triggered by conscious awareness (Iversen et al., 2009). ...
... Ageism can be direct or indirect, and it tends to be reproduced and unconsciously reflected in social or cultural spheres (Iversen et al., 2009). While ageism toward older adults might also be demonstrated in a positive stereotype or attitudes toward them (Palmore, 1999), ageism in this study was confined to only negative attitudes and feelings. Furthermore, we included studies on self-directed ageism, which refers to ageism directed at oneself, in order to examine how internalized age stereotypes affect older adults' psychological well-being. ...
... 38% (n = 5/13) used established scales that have been used and evaluated. Three studies used Palmore's (1999Palmore's ( , 2001 ageism scale Lee & Kim, 2016;Lyons et al., 2018). Zhang et al. (2018) and Zhang et al. (2018) used the Image of Aging Scale developed by Levy et al.(2004). ...
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Article
Ageism may have harmful effects on the psychological well-being of older adults, leading to mental health issues, such as depression and anxiety. However, there are insufficient data to establish this hypothesis, and most work on the subject has appeared only in the form of conceptual or theoretical papers. This study reviewed quantitative studies of the relationship between ageism and psychological well-being of older adults. We conducted a comprehensive review using searches of academic databases, the grey literature, hand searches, and reference mining. A total of thirteen articles were selected using the inclusion criteria. All the reviewed studies showed a negative association between ageism and the psychological well-being of older adults. The study confirmed a negative association between ageism and older adults’ psychological well-being, finding that older adults with a high level of psychological well-being may be less negatively affected by ageism, especially those who were proud of their age group, experienced less negative emotions, were more optimistic about aging and their future, were more self-confident about their bodies, and were flexible in setting goals. The identified mediators of the association can inform intervention development to the effects of ageism and improve older adults’ psychological well-being.
... Otro ejemplo es Reino Unido, donde la mayoría de los abuelos juegan y cuidan a sus nietos tanto o más de lo que lo hicieron en su momento con sus propios hijos. Poco más de 1.6 millones de menores de 15 años en este país pasan el tiempo con sus abuelos, quienes se ocupan de ellos mientras los padres trabajan, según un estudio sobre este sector de la población que publica el diario The Sun. 6 Un caso más cercano es el de Estados Unidos, donde para el año 2005 se contabilizaba que habían 4.5 millones de niños viviendo con sus abuelas, lo que representaba un aumento del 30 %, considerando como parámetro la década 1990(AARP, 2005. Para algunos estudiosos del tema, este dato pese a lo revelador está subestimado, asegurando que el número de niños, niñas y adolescentes tutelados por sus abuelos supera los 5.8 millones desde el año 2002 (U.S. Census Bureau, 2002). ...
... La percepción actual de la imagen de las personas adultas mayores en la sociedad está relacionada de forma negativa a la pérdida de la funcionalidad, capacidad, habilidad, y del rol social. Según Palmore (1990) se ha puesto al envejecimiento las etiquetas de enfermedad, discapacidad, impotencia, inservible, soledad, pobreza y depresión. Dichas actitudes negativas hacia los adultos mayores y al proceso de envejecimiento asociadas a enfermedad, padecimientos y soledad son parte del fenómeno de discriminación conocido como viejismo (traducción del término anglosajón ageism), que subyacen por miedo y rechazo al envejecimiento como una etapa más del curso de vida (Butler, 1969). ...
... Dichas conductas asociadas al viejismo son complejas y se elaboran de manera consciente e inconsciente para devaluar el estatus social de la vejez (Salvarezza, 2002). Con relación a este fenómeno, las actitudes, creencias y conductas discriminatorias, así como las prácticas institucionales, se conectan y fortalecen entre sí, favoreciendo a la transformación de la vejez no solo como un proceso natural sino como un problema social a través del cual las personas adultas mayores toleran condiciones que les afectan (Palmore, 1990). ...
Chapter
Ante el inminente envejecimiento poblacional, profesiones que suelen quedarse al margen en torno a lo que tienen que ofrecer a la población envejecida han empezado a surgir como agentes importantes para mejorar la calidad de vida de las personas. Erradamente se piensa que el diseño, entiéndase a este como el que engloba al diseño urbano (relacionado con la traza urbana, parques y jardines), arquitectónico (casa habitación, centros comerciales, edificaciones de todo tipo y diseño de interiores), industrial (productos de uso cotidiano, mo- biliario, puntos de venta, joyería y medios de transporte), gráfico (empaques, embalajes, sitios web, apps, carteles, revistas y periódicos) entre muchos otros, no ha estado interesado en su papel dentro de la vejez y envejecimiento del ser humano. Desde hace varias décadas el diseño enfocado en productos, espacios y servicios para adultos mayores ha sido investigado....
... Sociology has a long-standing concern with prejudices and stereotypes that social groups develop towards different kinds of age groups, this practice is called ageism (Palmore, 2005). It is recognized that social institutions and policies are developed and addressed towards age cohorts also known as generations (Palmore, 1999). However studies emphasize that in order for these policies to be effective they should avoid negative ageism, that is to say, assuming characteristics for a specific age cohort based on stereotypes. ...
... Medical and sociological literature have agreed upon to understand a life course by cycles. Until now, a life cycle has been understood as three thirds in which later-life is regarded to be the third part of that cycle, or the third age (Maddox, 1979, p. 113;Phillipson, 1998, p. 116), but there is no inherent relation between frailty and later-life (Butler, 1980;Palmore, 1999). In this respect, video-audio-based AAL development needs to consider frailty as a condition, a circumstance in the course of a life that may appear at any point of a life cycle and that may prompt the need to use these devices. ...
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Technical Report
Ambient assisted living (AAL) technologies are increasingly presented and sold as essential smart additions to daily life and home environments that will radically transform the healthcare and wellness markets of the future. An ethical approach and a thorough understanding of all ethics in surveillance/monitoring architectures are therefore pressing. AAL poses many ethical challenges raising questions that will affect immediate acceptance and long-term usage. Furthermore, ethical issues emerge from social inequalities and their potential exacerbation by AAL, accentuating the existing access gap between high-income countries (HIC) and low and middle-income countries (LMIC). Legal aspects mainly refer to the adherence to existing legal frameworks and cover issues related to product safety, data protection, cybersecurity, intellectual property, and access to data by public, private, and government bodies. Successful privacy-friendly AAL applications are needed, as the pressure to bring Internet of Things (IoT) devices and ones equipped with artificial intelligence (AI) quickly to market cannot overlook the fact that the environments in which AAL will operate are mostly private (e.g., the home). The social issues focus on the impact of AAL technologies before and after their adoption. Future AAL technologies need to consider all aspects of equality such as gender, race, age and social disadvantages and avoid increasing loneliness and isolation among, e.g. older and frail people. Finally, the current power asymmetries between the target and general populations should not be underestimated nor should the discrepant needs and motivations of the target group and those developing and deploying AAL systems. Whilst AAL technologies provide promising solutions for the health and social care challenges, they are not exempt from ethical, legal and social issues (ELSI). A set of ELSI guidelines is needed to integrate these factors at the research and development stage.
... Previous studies have reported that people who are more susceptible to death are likely to have higher disease avoidance and tend to avoid targets related to death [9]. It has also been reported that older adults are often perceived to be associated with death [21]. Accordingly, the perceived threat of death may strengthen the degree of disease avoidance, resulting in more negative attitudes toward older adults. ...
... This process should be empirically examined in future studies. A previous study [11] reviewed three factors that can strengthen ageist attitudes: specifically, these are less frequent contact with the old [12], lack of knowledge about aging [16], and low life satisfaction and high anxiety about life in old age [21]. Although the relationship between these factors and ageist attitudes has been shown empirically [11], disease avoidance is qualitatively different from any of these factors. ...
... However, this scale did not include any positive forms of ageism. While ageism generally tends to be negative in nature, older people are sometimes also perceived in a positive light [40], such as the stereotype that older adults are wise and know how to respond in complex situations such as social conflicts [7]. Positive ageism may have different, and possibly even opposite, effects on self-perceptions of aging and/or (in)directly on physical, mental and cognitive measures [22,26,[41][42][43]. ...
... Most importantly, we found that the reliability was higher when considering the individual subscales of the PAQ-8 (negative: α = 0.75, positive: α = 0.81), and that the EFA resulted in reliable two-factor structure, distinguishing negative ageism from positive ageism items. This pattern confirms that positive and negative ageism reflect two distinct dimensions of ageism and that they should preferably be examined as separate constructs [40]. On average, individuals in our sample perceived more positive than negative ageism, which paints a relatively favorable picture. ...
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Article
Ageism as perceived by older individuals has been recognized as a potential risk factor for physical and mental health. We aimed to develop a comprehensive scale that can quantify perceived ageism among aging individuals (55+), including both positive and negative stereotypes, prejudices, and discriminations. This effort resulted in an 8-item Perceived Ageism Questionnaire (PAQ-8), with good psychometric properties and a two-factor structure distinguishing a positive (3 items) and negative (5 items) subscale (Analysis 1; n = 500). This dimensionality was confirmed in a separate cross-validation sample (Analysis 2; n = 500). The subscales’ correlation patterns with individuals’ self-perceptions of aging and mental health variables (i.e., quality of life, mental well-being, depression, anxiety, loneliness and perceived stress) accorded with theoretical hypotheses and existing knowledge of the concept of ageism. The PAQ-8 can help to gather more standardized data of the level, role and impact of perceived ageism.
... Sociology has a long-standing concern with prejudices and stereotypes that social groups develop towards different kinds of age groups, this practice is called ageism (Palmore, 2005). It is recognized that social institutions and policies are developed and addressed towards age cohorts also known as generations (Palmore, 1999). However studies emphasize that in order for these policies to be effective they should avoid negative ageism, that is to say, assuming characteristics for a specific age cohort based on stereotypes. ...
... Medical and sociological literature have agreed upon to understand a life course by cycles. Until now, a life cycle has been understood as three thirds in which later-life is regarded to be the third part of that cycle, or the third age (Maddox, 1979, p. 113;Phillipson, 1998, p. 116), but there is no inherent relation between frailty and later-life (Butler, 1980;Palmore, 1999). In this respect, video-audio-based AAL development needs to consider frailty as a condition, a circumstance in the course of a life that may appear at any point of a life cycle and that may prompt the need to use these devices. ...
Full-text available
Research
Ambient assisted living (AAL) technologies are increasingly presented and sold as essential smart additions to daily life and home environments that will radically transform the healthcare and wellness markets of the future. An ethical approach and a thorough understanding of all ethics in surveillance/monitoring architectures are therefore pressing. AAL poses many ethical challenges raising questions that will affect immediate acceptance and long-term usage. Furthermore, ethical issues emerge from social inequalities and their potential exacerbation by AAL, accentuating the existing access gap between high-income countries (HIC) and low and middle-income countries (LMIC). Legal aspects mainly refer to the adherence to existing legal frameworks and cover issues related to product safety, data protection, cybersecurity, intellectual property, and access to data by public, private, and government bodies. Successful privacy-friendly AAL applications are needed, as the pressure to bring Internet of Things (IoT) devices and ones equipped with artificial intelligence (AI) quickly to market cannot overlook the fact that the environments in which AAL will operate are mostly private (e.g., the home). The social issues focus on the impact of AAL technologies before and after their adoption. Future AAL technologies need to consider all aspects of equality such as gender, race, age and social disadvantages and avoid increasing loneliness and isolation among, e.g. older and frail people. Finally, the current power asymmetries between the target and general populations should not be underestimated nor should the discrepant needs and motivations of the target group and those developing and deploying AAL systems. Whilst AAL technologies provide promising solutions for the health and social care challenges, they are not exempt from ethical, legal and social issues (ELSI). A set of ELSI guidelines is needed to integrate these factors at the research and development stage.
... Ageism means marginalizing, overgeneralizing, and discriminating individuals or a group of individuals due to their age (Abrams, 2010). As one gets older, it is almost inevitable for him or her to be marginalized and subjected to ageist stereotypes and discrimination (Calasanti et al., 2006;Nemmers, 2005;Ng et al., 2015;Palmore, 1990;Williamson, 1997). Furthermore, the attitudes toward aging are influenced by the interplay between age and gender so that men's and women's experiences in old age differ (Barker et al., 1998;Bergman, 2017;Freixas et al., 2012;Henneberg, 2010;Hollis-Sawyer & Cuevas, 2013;Hooyman et al., 2002;Krekula, 2007;Lemish & Muhlbauer, 2012;Paz et al., 2018;Rovner-Lev & Elias, 2020;Twigg, 2004;Woodward, 1999;WHO, 2002;Zurcher & Robinson, 2018). ...
... Children's attitudes toward older adults include both negative and positive stereotypes (Bertram et al., 2018;Flamion et al., 2019;Robinson & Howatson-Jones, 2014;Vauclair et al., 2018). Negative stereotypes are associated with the physical (walking difficulties, vision difficulties, etc.) and cognitive (slow perception, forgetfulness, etc.) characteristics of older adults, while positive stereotypes are associated with their personality characteristics (fun, warm, friendly, etc.; Bertram et al., 2018;Flamion et al., 2020Flamion et al., , 2019Palmore, 1990;Thomas, 2004;Vauclair et al., 2018;Woodward, 2003). These negative representations of older adults are observed in children's drawings as distortions in the physical appearance (wrinkles, baldness, dentures, hunched over posture) and the use of physical aids (walking stick, wheelchair; Villar & Fabà, 2012). ...
... Ageism means marginalizing, overgeneralizing, and discriminating individuals or a group of individuals due to their age (Abrams, 2010). As one gets older, it is almost inevitable for him or her to be marginalized and subjected to ageist stereotypes and discrimination (Calasanti et al., 2006;Nemmers, 2005;Ng et al., 2015;Palmore, 1990;Williamson, 1997). Furthermore, the attitudes toward aging are influenced by the interplay between age and gender so that men's and women's experiences in old age differ (Barker et al., 1998;Bergman, 2017;Freixas et al., 2012;Henneberg, 2010;Hollis-Sawyer & Cuevas, 2013;Hooyman et al., 2002;Krekula, 2007;Lemish & Muhlbauer, 2012;Paz et al., 2018;Rovner-Lev & Elias, 2020;Twigg, 2004;Woodward, 1999;WHO, 2002;Zurcher & Robinson, 2018). ...
... Children's attitudes toward older adults include both negative and positive stereotypes (Bertram et al., 2018;Flamion et al., 2019;Robinson & Howatson-Jones, 2014;Vauclair et al., 2018). Negative stereotypes are associated with the physical (walking difficulties, vision difficulties, etc.) and cognitive (slow perception, forgetfulness, etc.) characteristics of older adults, while positive stereotypes are associated with their personality characteristics (fun, warm, friendly, etc.; Bertram et al., 2018;Flamion et al., 2020Flamion et al., , 2019Palmore, 1990;Thomas, 2004;Vauclair et al., 2018;Woodward, 2003). These negative representations of older adults are observed in children's drawings as distortions in the physical appearance (wrinkles, baldness, dentures, hunched over posture) and the use of physical aids (walking stick, wheelchair; Villar & Fabà, 2012). ...
Article
In response to population aging observed globally, the active aging model has been proposed to preserve the well-being of more individuals in old age. Since raising awareness about a comprehensive life course perspective of aging, the importance of a sense of well-being in old age, and resources needed to age well early on carries great importance, this exploratory study investigated children's picture storybooks as a source for active aging. The recognized determinants of active aging, as well as ageist stereotypes associated with older characters by gender and family affiliation were examined in a sample of 41 books published between 2008 and 2018 in Turkey for three- to eight-year-olds children. Findings show that there is limited information given implicitly about the factors that determine active aging in the books. They also indicate that ageist and sexist stereotypes, which are considered as obstacles to active aging, are used explicitly, especially while describing older women and older characters outside the family. In addition, the variety in physical characteristics, roles and experiences of older adults in real life is not reflected in the picture books. The discussion of these findings draws attention to some major concerns about how these representaions could affect children's understanding of aging and old age.
... Butler'e göre yaş ayrımcılığı üç farklı şekilde kendini göstermektedir; tutumlar ve inançlar, davranışsal ayrımcılık ve resmileştirilmiş politikalar ve uygulamalar (19). Yaş ayrımcılığı her ne kadar "özelliklerin, yeteneklerin, sınırlamaların veya olayların yalnızca zamanın geçmesine atfedilmesi" olarak tanımlanırsa da (20) Palmore, yaşlı ayrımcılığının genel olarak ileri yaştaki bireylere yönelik uygulanan olumsuz tutum ve davranışları tanımlamak için kullanıldığını ifade etmiştir (21). ...
... Yaş ayrımcılığı (ageism) kavramı daha sonra Butler tarafından 1975 yılında geliştirilmiştir. Butler damgalanmanın en yaygın biçimi olarak tanımlanan yaş ayrımcılığının, ırkçılık ve cinsiyetçiliğin ardından gelen üçüncü büyük ayrımcılık türü olduğu ve yaşlı yetişkinlerin neredeyse üçte birinin yaş ayrımcılığına maruz kaldığını bildirmektedir (21,22). Yaş ayrımcılığı, yaşlılara yaş temelinde yapılan ayrımcılıktır. ...
... Sociology has a long-standing concern with prejudices and stereotypes that social groups develop towards different kinds of age groups, this practice is called ageism (Palmore, 2005). It is recognized that social institutions and policies are developed and addressed towards age cohorts also known as generations (Palmore, 1999). However studies emphasize that in order for these policies to be effective they should avoid negative ageism, that is to say, assuming characteristics for a specific age cohort based on stereotypes. ...
... Medical and sociological literature have agreed upon to understand a life course by cycles. Until now, a life cycle has been understood as three thirds in which later-life is regarded to be the third part of that cycle, or the third age (Maddox, 1979, p. 113;Phillipson, 1998, p. 116), but there is no inherent relation between frailty and later-life (Butler, 1980;Palmore, 1999). In this respect, video-audio-based AAL development needs to consider frailty as a condition, a circumstance in the course of a life that may appear at any point of a life cycle and that may prompt the need to use these devices. ...
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Technical Report
Ambient assisted living (AAL) technologies are increasingly presented and sold as essential smart additions to daily life and home environments that will radically transform the healthcare and wellness markets of the future. An ethical approach and a thorough understanding of all ethics in surveillance/monitoring architectures are therefore pressing. AAL poses many ethical challenges raising questions that will affect immediate acceptance and long-term usage. Furthermore, ethical issues emerge from social inequalities and their potential exacerbation by AAL, accentuating the existing access gap between high-income countries (HIC) and low and middle-income countries (LMIC). Legal aspects mainly refer to the adherence to existing legal frameworks and cover issues related to product safety, data protection, cybersecurity, intellectual property, and access to data by public, private, and government bodies. Successful privacy-friendly AAL applications are needed, as the pressure to bring Internet of Things (IoT) devices and ones equipped with artificial intelligence (AI) quickly to market cannot overlook the fact that the environments in which AAL will operate are mostly private (e.g., the home). The social issues focus on the impact of AAL technologies before and after their adoption. Future AAL technologies need to consider all aspects of equality such as gender, race, age and social disadvantages and avoid increasing loneliness and isolation among, e.g. older and frail people. Finally, the current power asymmetries between the target and general populations should not be underestimated nor should the discrepant needs and motivations of the target group and those developing and deploying AAL systems. Whilst AAL technologies provide promising solutions for the health and social care challenges, they are not exempt from ethical, legal and social issues (ELSI). A set of ELSI guidelines is needed to integrate these factors at the research and development stage.
... A lo largo de la historia han surgido opiniones y juicios sobre la vejez, que han ido configurando una imagen social, sobre todo vista desde una perspectiva negativa de los adultos mayores, alimentada por creencias, prejuicios (Baron & Byrne, 1998) y estereotipos (Palmore, 1990), que interrelacionados entre sí han dado lugar al "edadismo" (Butler, 1969) y al "viejismo" (Toledo, 2011). Fenómenos que han profundizado, en el imaginario colectivo, una visión reduccionista sobre los adultos mayores, considerándolos como diría Matras (1990) "físicamente disminuidos, mentalmente deficitarios, económicamente dependientes, socialmente aislados y con menos estatus social" (p. ...
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Chapter
Este capítulo pretende reflexionar sobre los modelos que sustentan el concepto de parentalidad en el ámbito de la investigación psicológica, así como proponer pistas metodológicas que permitan reconocerlos. Como se expondrá a continuación, los hallazgos de las investigaciones en parenta- lidad responden a ciertas lógicas conceptuales y políticas, que configuran modos de entender, estudiar e intervenir en la parentalidad. Es así como aparece el modelo de parentalidad positiva, propuesto desde los años 90 y que parece ser el único modelo de parentalidad, sin embargo resultados medianamente bajos sobre la presencia de agotamiento parental en Ecua- dor en Roskam et al. (2021) sugieren, como se expondrá al final del capí- tulo, que junto a ese modelo positivo de parentalidad co-existirían otros modelos. ¿Qué elementos componen estos modelos? y ¿Qué proponen los modelos sobre la parentalidad? serán las preguntas centrales en la argu- mentación de este capítulo.
... Wilson [42] asserted that these differences stem from the physical demands of certain activities, the diverse socializing experiences of males and females and the fact that females mainly stay at home. The study findings are also not consistent with the findings of other studies that show drops in physical activity in older adults, while they are consistent with those showing the engagement of older adults in physical activity and exercise [43,44] (Table 2). ...
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Article
The objective of the present study was to examine the relationship between resistance to ageism-based frailty (A-BF) and physical activity (PA) and sport in a cohort of women, aged 65 and older, living in Central Italy. The study was conducted in the spring of 2021 when rigorous COVID-19 containment measures were in force across Italy. A quanti-qualitative investigation was carried out in the cohort. A questionnaire to evaluate older women’s engagement in (PA) and sport was administered and subsequently semi-structured phone interviews with those subjects who were found to be physically active were conducted to evaluate their forms of resistance to the crisis. A total number of 88 subjects responded and participated in the survey. Two tools were used to determine the study outcomes in the quantitative investigation. An altered version of Godin and Shephard’s Leisure-Time Exercise Questionnaire (GSLTPAQ) was used to evaluate the engagement of women in PA and sport. Moreover, subjects’ motivation to exercise was evaluated when they completed the survey using the Behavioral Regulation in Exercise Questionnaire (BREQ-2), a tool that assesses exercise regulation according to the Self-Determination Theory (SDT) framework. The active women resulting from the quantitative investigation were then interviewed in the qualitative investigation, using an interview grid. In the quantitative investigation it was found that PA is correlated with autonomy. Identified and intrinsic regulations prevail in women who are engaged in medium or high PA, vice-versa external regulation, introjected regulation and amotivation prevail in women who are engaged in insufficient PA or who are sedentary. In the qualitative investigation it was found that the participants experienced ambivalence, conflicts and crises at multiple levels (individual, interpersonal and institutional), generating contrasting feelings, which they faced by developing an active, peaceful and silent form of resistance by caring for their bodies and minds engaging in PA and sport.
... Positive views of older adults in modern culture as capable, active, and contributors to society (e.g., providers of childcare to grandchildren, as volunteers in the community) are less common. In the past few decades, researchers, gerontologists, and public health officials have raised concerns about ageism toward older adults including rising rates of abuse (economic, physical, psychological, and sexual), discrimination (in employment and healthcare) and negative depictions of older adults (Ayalon & Tesch-Roemer, 2018;Levy et al., 2020;Levy & Macdonald, 2016;Nelson, 2016;Palmore, 1990). Older adults have often been portrayed negatively as senile, sickly, and a burden on families, healthcare, the economy, and society as a whole in countries such as Canada, China, Colombia, Israel, the United Kingdom, and the United States Bai et al., 2016;Cohn-Schwartz & Ayalon, 2021;Derrer-Merk et al., 2022;North & Fiske, 2013b;Ramírez et al., 2019;Sutter et al., 2022;WHO, 2021). ...
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Article
The COVID‐19 pandemic exacerbated ageism (stereotyping, prejudice, and discrimination) toward older adults in the United States, highlighting the belief that older adults are a burden. Prior to the pandemic, a growing body of research sought to reduce ageism using the PEACE (Positive Education about Aging and Contact Experiences) model. Extending that research, participants were randomly assigned to watch three videos (less than 10 min total) that challenged stereotypes about aging and older adults, depicted positive intergenerational contact, and highlighted older adults as contributors to society (experimental condition) or three videos on wallpaper (control condition). Experimental participants (undergraduate students in Study 1 and a national community sample of young adults in Study 2) reported increased endorsement of older adults as contributors to society and positive stereotypes of older adults. In addition, in Study 2, negative stereotypes of older adults and views of intergenerational conflict were also reduced among experimental (vs. control) participants. These promising findings show that relatively brief ageism reduction interventions are effective during the pandemic and for the first time, that the perception of older adults as contributors to society can be increased. Future directions and implications for social policies are discussed.
... Fifteen years after, Palmore (1990) stressed that ageism is the third type of discrimination against people (after racism and sexism), when he differentiated this 'ism' from the previous ones. The researcher asserted that ageism is the best representative example of negative prejudices against people as the other kinds of discrimination only cause harm in specific circumstances and target certain people, wherease ageism can harm everyone, as there is no one that has no age. ...
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Article
This study investigated if people are acquainted with the term ‘ageism’, and to what extent acquaintance with this term corresponds with reports of discrimination, due to age. The study included an online survey, answered by 1,025 Israeli respondents. The questionnaire began by asking the respondents to define ‘What is ageism?’ ( gilanut in Hebrew) and then to mark ‘If and what types of discrimination they experienced in the last year’. Subsequently, we defined and demonstrated the term ageism and asked participants to share experiences of this phenomenon; 457 (45%) participants were not familiar with the term. In the group that was unfamiliar with the term, only 46 (10%) reported that they had such experiences. In the group that was acquainted with the term, 208 (30%) reported that they had experienced ageism. In contrast, once the term, ageism, was defined and demonstrated in the survey, 638 (62%) respondents shared experiences of ageism in their lives. Of those who shared their experiences of ageism, 202 (31%) were initially unfamiliar with the term. The study's results show that there is an association between the linguistic representation of the phenomenon of ageism and reports of ageism. In the wider sense, the study shows that language and words have the power to help people understand and interpret social and human experiences.
... (BUTLER, 1969, p. 243). No geral, o idadismo é manifestado por meio de atitudes, preconceito positivo ou negativo, estereótipos, comportamentos de discriminação, bem como práticas institucionais e políticas que têm como alvo as pessoas idosas (BUTLER, 1969;PALMORE, 1999; Segundo a autora, a comparação entre sociedades permitiu à antropologia esquematizar características comuns a estes grupos sociais, assim como suas distinções. ...
... (BUTLER, 1969, p. 243). No geral, o idadismo é manifestado por meio de atitudes, preconceito positivo ou negativo, estereótipos, comportamentos de discriminação, bem como práticas institucionais e políticas que têm como alvo as pessoas idosas (BUTLER, 1969;PALMORE, 1999; Segundo a autora, a comparação entre sociedades permitiu à antropologia esquematizar características comuns a estes grupos sociais, assim como suas distinções. ...
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Article
Diante de diretrizes amplas quanto às políticas dirigidas aos trabalhadores mais velhos e raras iniciativas estruturadas de PPA registradas em pesquisas em Saúde do Trabalhador, pontua-se a relevância de realizar um estudo específico para a descrição de um PPA com características próprias e metodologia consolidada há mais de uma década dirigido a trabalhadores em seus ciclos finais de trabalho e em fase de transição para aposentadoria. Esse capítulo se propõe a realizar uma descrição de experiência do Trilhando Novos Caminhos, que faz parte das ações de saúde dirigidas aos trabalhadores da Fundação Oswaldo Cruz (Fiocruz). O programa se apresenta como um modelo de prática inovadora em Saúde do Trabalhador, tendo como missão oferecer espaço de reflexão, planejamento e cuidado para com o processo de transição para a aposentadoria e ciclos finais de trabalho dentro da lógica de prevenção de agravos e de promoção da saúde por meio de uma metodologia crítico-reflexiva e de autonomia.
... (BUTLER, 1969, p. 243). No geral, o idadismo é manifestado por meio de atitudes, preconceito positivo ou negativo, estereótipos, comportamentos de discriminação, bem como práticas institucionais e políticas que têm como alvo as pessoas idosas (BUTLER, 1969;PALMORE, 1999; Segundo a autora, a comparação entre sociedades permitiu à antropologia esquematizar características comuns a estes grupos sociais, assim como suas distinções. ...
... (BUTLER, 1969, p. 243). No geral, o idadismo é manifestado por meio de atitudes, preconceito positivo ou negativo, estereótipos, comportamentos de discriminação, bem como práticas institucionais e políticas que têm como alvo as pessoas idosas (BUTLER, 1969;PALMORE, 1999; Segundo a autora, a comparação entre sociedades permitiu à antropologia esquematizar características comuns a estes grupos sociais, assim como suas distinções. ...
... (BUTLER, 1969, p. 243). No geral, o idadismo é manifestado por meio de atitudes, preconceito positivo ou negativo, estereótipos, comportamentos de discriminação, bem como práticas institucionais e políticas que têm como alvo as pessoas idosas (BUTLER, 1969;PALMORE, 1999; Segundo a autora, a comparação entre sociedades permitiu à antropologia esquematizar características comuns a estes grupos sociais, assim como suas distinções. ...
... As illustrated through the history of Canadian LTC systems, ageism (and, particularly, ageism as it intersects with classism and (dis)ablism) is the foundation upon which Canadian LTC systems were built [7,8]. Ageism upholds a system of oppression that (re)produces stereotypes (i.e., how we think about), prejudice (i.e., how we feel about), and discrimination (i.e., how we act toward) with respect to ourselves or others based on age [9][10][11]. Ageism is associated with worse physical and mental health outcomes, including reduced longevity, greater presence of chronic conditions, increased number of acute medical events and hospitalizations, increased cognitive and functional impairment, onset and worsening of depression, and inappropriate prescribing [12]. ...
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Article
Healthcare policy reform is evident when considering the past, present and future of long-term care (LTC) in Canada. Some of the most pressing issues facing the LTC sector include the changing demographic composition in Canadian LTC homes, minimal consideration for the role of intersectionality in LTC data collection and analysis, and the expanding need to engage diverse participants and knowledge users. Using the Transtheoretical Model of Change (TTMC) as a framework, we consider opportunities to address intersectionality in LTC research. Engaging diverse knowledge users in LTC (e.g., unpaid caregivers, paid care staff), community (e.g., advocacy groups, service providers) and policy decision-makers (e.g., provincial government) is crucial. Empowering individuals to participate, modifying environments to support engagement, and facilitating ongoing partnerships with knowledge users are critical aspects of change efforts. Addressing structural barriers (e.g., accessibility, capacity, jurisdictional policies, and mandates) to research in LTC is also essential. The TTMC offers a framework for planning and enacting individual, organizational, and system-level changes for the future of LTC.
... ageism) kako bi obuhvatio raširene negativne stavove i diskriminaciju društva prema starijim osobama. Definicija je doživjela neke prilagodbe u kasnijim radovima kako bi uključila pozitivnu diskriminaciju (Palmore, 1999.), implicitni ili nesvjesni ageizam (Nelson, 2002.) No, pri razmatranju ovih nalaza treba imati na umu istraživanja koja pokazuju da je odnos prema starijima s obzirom na dob nešto složeniji. ...
Article
Although aging and old age are the subject of increasing research, the attitude towards one’s own aging seems to be insufficiently researched. This prompted us to examine whether the way we experience our own aging, as well as our attitudes towards older people, from adolescence and over a long period of adulthood, but also what is the role of gender and socioeconomic status (earnings and education). The survey was conducted in the Republic of Serbia and included 1,236 respondents (793 women and 443 men). A PORPOS3 battery was used, a purpose-built instrument with 343 questions, which also contains a short scale, Attitude towards one’s own aging with three dimensions: Concern about one’s own aging, Acceptance of aging and Attitude towards the elderly. The results shows that the respondents older than 61 years, in relation to the respondents from 31 to 40 years, but also that the respondents who earn up to 20,000.00 dinars, in relation to those who earn between 71,000.00 and 90,000.00 dinars, have a more negative attitude towards the elderly. In a sample of respondents between the ages of 41 and 50, a positive low-intensity correlation was obtained between concerns about one’s own aging and level of education.
... att etablerade föreställningar och arrangemang om och för äldre inte längre avspeglar karaktäristika och behov hos medlemmarna av kategorin (Riley 1985;jfr . Laslett 1989;Palmore 1990) . ...
... Öncelikle yaşlı ayrıcalığından başlanırsa, yaşlı ayrıcalığı, dini ve kültürel değerlerden yola çıkılarak bilge ve tecrübeli görülen yaşlı kişiye saygı gösterilmesi ve dolayısıyla onun toplumda öncelikli/ayrıcalıklı bir yerde konumlandırılmasıdır. Yaşlı ayrımcılığı ise, bir insana karşı genelde yaşı nedeniyle gösterilen farklı tavırlar ve geliştirilen önyargılar şeklinde tanımlanmaktadır (Akdemir, Çınar ve Görgülü, 2007). Gerontoglar, genel itibariyle, yaşlılara yönelik ayrımcılığın toplumda büyük bir sorun teşkil ettiği noktasında aynı fikirdedirler (Palmore, 1999). Ancak bazı gerontologlar ve geriatrisyenler bile kullandıkları dil ve üslup nedeniyle dolaylı olarak bu ayrımcılığın bir aracı olabilmektedirler. ...
Article
Öz Yaşlı ayrıcalığı ve ayrımcılığı, toplumsal düzeyde her alanda kültüre içkin olarak kullanılan dilde, karikatürlerde, medyada ve reklamlarda kendisini bariz bir şekilde gösteren iki olgudur. Öyle ki, yaşlı ayrımcılığında, yaşlının, gelenekle özdeşleştirilip modern olmadığı yönünde söz konusu mecralarda sunulması, modern Batı toplumlarında bile göze çarpmaktadır, çünkü kendilerini modern olarak tanımlayan Batı toplumlarının gençliği ön plana çıkarmaları yaşlılığın olumsuz olarak etiketlenmesi sonucunu doğurmuştur. Muhafazakâr olarak tanımlanan doğu toplumlarında ise kolektif cemiyet ruhu ve geniş aile yapısı bulunduğundan, dayanışma örüntüleri hâlâ devam etmektedir. Dolayısıyla, bu durum yaşlı ayrımcılığının doğu toplumlarında sistematik hale gelmesini önlediği söylenebilir. Ancak yine de yaşlı ayrıcalığının da eş zamanlı olarak yaşanmasını engelleyemediği görülmektedir. Türkiye, doğu ve batı arasında bir köprü işlevi gördüğü için yaşlı ayrıcalığı ve ayrımcılığı konusunda da hibrit bir vaziyet arz etmektedir. İşte bu çalışma, Türkiye’de yaşlılık algısı bağlamında yaş ayrıcalığı ve ayrımcılığının medyadaki yansıması nasıldır? sorusundan yola çıkılarak Türkiye’nin bu özgün/özgül durumunun ortaya çıkarılması amacıyla yapılmıştır. Bu amaçtan yola çıkılarak yapılan incelemenin sonuçları, medya özelinde Türkiye’de yaşlı ayrıcalığı ile ayrımcılığının eş zamanlı olarak gözlendiğini ortaya koymuştur. Anahtar Kelimeler: Yaşlı Ayrıcalığı, Yaşlı Ayrımcılığı, Gelenek, Modernleşme, Medya. Abstract The privilege and discrimination of the elderly are two phenomenon manifest themselves in the language, cartoons, media and advertisements that are used in every field at the social level. So much so that, in age discrimination, for example, the fact that the elderly are identified with tradition and presented in such media that they are not modern stands out even in modern western societies, because of the fact that Western societies, which define themselves as modern, emphasize youth, has resulted in the negative labelling of old age. In the eastern societies, which are determined to be conservative, the patterns of solidarity continue, as there is a spirit of collective community and extended family structure. Therefore, this situation not only prevents ageism from becoming systematic in eastern societies but also leads to the simultaneous experience of elder privilege. Since Turkey has a bridging role between east and west, it also presents a hybrid situation regarding of elder privilege and discrimination. Here in this study, "How is the reflection of age privilege and discrimination in the media in the context of old age perception in Turkey?" is main question. This study was conducted to reveal this unique situation of Turkey based on this question. The findings of the study, which was carried out based on this purpose, revealed that the privilege and discrimination of the elderly work simultaneously in Turkey, especially in the media. Keywords: Age Privilege, Ageism, Tradition, Modernization, Media.
... Bu kuşak farkı kanısı, aslında yaşlılıkla bağdaştırılmış varsayımsal hastalık, engeller, güçsüzlük ve işe yaramazlık duygusunun bir sonucudur (Butler, 2008). Butler (2008) kendi tanımını unutkan, çocuksu, cinsiyetsiz ve bağımlı gibi yaşlılıkla bağdaştırılmış özellikleri reklamlar üzerinden tasdik ederken, Palmore (1999), kötü davranışları ve önyargılı tutumları, yani yaşlılara belli bir şeyi yapmak için çok yaşlı olmalarının söylenmesini negatif yaş ayrımcılığı olarak tanımlamıştır. Ankete katılanların yüzde 77'den fazlası negatif yaş ayrımcılığı ile karşı karşıya kaldığını teyit etmiştir (Palmore, 2001). ...
Full-text available
Chapter
Etnik kimlik ve yeni teknolojiler arasındaki ilişkinin yaşlılar bağlamında nasıl karşılık bulduğunun incelenmesi.
... Öncelikle yaşlı ayrıcalığından başlanırsa, yaşlı ayrıcalığı, dini ve kültürel değerlerden yola çıkılarak bilge ve tecrübeli görülen yaşlı kişiye saygı gösterilmesi ve dolayısıyla onun toplumda öncelikli/ayrıcalıklı bir yerde konumlandırılmasıdır. Yaşlı ayrımcılığı ise, bir insana karşı genelde yaşı nedeniyle gösterilen farklı tavırlar ve geliştirilen önyargılar şeklinde tanımlanmaktadır (Akdemir, Çınar ve Görgülü, 2007). Gerontoglar, genel itibariyle, yaşlılara yönelik ayrımcılığın toplumda büyük bir sorun teşkil ettiği noktasında aynı fikirdedirler (Palmore, 1999). Ancak bazı gerontologlar ve geriatrisyenler bile kullandıkları dil ve üslup nedeniyle dolaylı olarak bu ayrımcılığın bir aracı olabilmektedirler. ...
Full-text available
Article
Öz Yaşlı ayrıcalığı ve ayrımcılığı, toplumsal düzeyde her alanda kültüre içkin olarak kullanılan dilde, karikatürlerde, medyada ve reklamlarda kendisini bariz bir şekilde gösteren iki olgudur. Öyle ki, yaşlı ayrımcılığında, yaşlının, gelenekle özdeşleştirilip modern olmadığı yönünde söz konusu mecralarda sunulması, modern Batı toplumlarında bile göze çarpmaktadır, çünkü kendilerini modern olarak tanımlayan Batı toplumlarının gençliği ön plana çıkarmaları yaşlılığın olumsuz olarak etiketlenmesi sonucunu doğurmuştur. Muhafazakâr olarak tanımlanan doğu toplumlarında ise kolektif cemiyet ruhu ve geniş aile yapısı bulunduğundan, dayanışma örüntüleri hâlâ devam etmektedir. Dolayısıyla, bu durum yaşlı ayrımcılığının doğu toplumlarında sistematik hale gelmesini önlediği söylenebilir. Ancak yine de yaşlı ayrıcalığının da eş zamanlı olarak yaşanmasını engelleyemediği görülmektedir. Türkiye, doğu ve batı arasında bir köprü işlevi gördüğü için yaşlı ayrıcalığı ve ayrımcılığı konusunda da hibrit bir vaziyet arz etmektedir. İşte bu çalışma, Türkiye’de yaşlılık algısı bağlamında yaş ayrıcalığı ve ayrımcılığının medyadaki yansıması nasıldır? sorusundan yola çıkılarak Türkiye’nin bu özgün/özgül durumunun ortaya çıkarılması amacıyla yapılmıştır. Bu amaçtan yola çıkılarak yapılan incelemenin sonuçları, medya özelinde Türkiye’de yaşlı ayrıcalığı ile ayrımcılığının eş zamanlı olarak gözlendiğini ortaya koymuştur. Anahtar Kelimeler: Yaşlı Ayrıcalığı, Yaşlı Ayrımcılığı, Gelenek, Modernleşme, Medya Abstract The privilege and discrimination of the elderly are two phenomena that manifest themselves in the language, cartoons, media, and advertisements that are used in every field at the social level. So much so that, in age discrimination, for example, the fact that the elderly are identified with tradition and presented in such media that they are not modern stands out even in modern western societies, because of the fact that Western societies, which define themselves as modern, emphasize youth, has resulted in the negative labeling of old age. In the eastern societies, which are determined to be conservative, the patterns of solidarity continue, as there is a spirit of collective community and extended family structure. Therefore, this situation not only prevents ageism from becoming systematic in eastern societies but also leads to the simultaneous experience of elder privilege. Since Turkey has a bridging role between east and west, it also presents a hybrid situation regarding elder privilege and discrimination. Here in this study, "How is the reflection of age privilege and discrimination in the media in the context of old age perception in Turkey?" is the main question. This study was conducted to reveal this unique situation of Turkey based on this question. The findings of the study, which was carried out based on this purpose, revealed that the privilege and discrimination of the elderly work simultaneously in Turkey, especially in the media. Keywords: Age Privilege, Ageism, Tradition, Modernization, Media.
... Seperti gaya berbicara kepada lansia, komunikator secara terselubung memperlakukan lansia layaknya anak-anak Terdapat satu lagi tipe dari diskriminasi terhadap lansia. (Palmore, 1999) menambahkan personal ageism sebagai prasangka, sikap, kepercayaan dan praktik oleh individu yang bias terhadap seseorang atau kelompok berdasarkan usia yang lebih tua. ...
Article
Penelitian ini berisi tentang representasi ageisme. Hal ini karena lansia berada dalam posisi yang sangat sensitif dalam industri perfilman Indonesia, seperti adanya diskriminasi usia terbukti dengan menjamurnya film layar lebar Indonesia yang pemeran utama maupun pendukung adalah kaum muda. Mengingat diskriminasi usia berdampak sangat serius terhadap kesehatan fisik dan mental lanjut usia dan seluruh lapisan masyarakat, maka fenomena diskriminasi usia merupakan masalah yang perlu segera diselesaikan. Kehadiran film "Ziarah" (2017) muncul di industri perfilman Indonesia dengan peran utama lansia. Oleh karena itu, artikel ini bertujuan untuk menganalisis penggambaran ageisme dalam film tersebut menggunakan analisis semiotik Roland Barthes pengumpulan data melalui studi pustaka dan literatur. Hasil penelitian ini menunjukkan perlawanan terhadap ageisme melalui tingkatan analisis denotasi, konotasi dan mitos dari berbagai adegan yang terdapat dalam film.Kata Kunci: Ageisme;Semiotika Roland Barthes;Film Ziarah 2017
... Ageism is recognized as the third major type of discrimination in industrialized societies along with sexism and racism (Butler, 1978;Palmore, 1999;Rupp, Vodanovich and Crede, 2006). In some Western countries, including Canada (Lagacé, Van de Beeck, and Firzly, 2019), the United Kingdom (Warr, 2001), and France (Cochard, 2020), workers are considered "old" and subject to ageist prejudice as early as age 45. ...
... The gerontologist Robert Butler described ageism as a form of discrimination against elderly people, which, like racism and gender discrimination, can become concretized and turn into action. Today, the definition made by Palmore is used more frequently (Palmore, 1999). Palmore defined ageism as "a term that expresses prejudice towards older people through attitudes and behaviors". ...
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This article examines UK newspaper coverage during the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic March-August 2020. A qualitative framing analysis of public messaging on age in five high circulation newspapers provides a detailed account of who is deemed to be at risk of dying from COVID-19. Newspapers represent older people as most at risk, with disability as a secondary factor. Reports on who is responsible, who is at risk, and who is to blame for deaths from COVID-19 are framed as issues of public health and generational fairness, with individual responsibility occupying a prominent role. We also find two counter-frames. First, in letters to the editor, older people’s pleas for freedom are framed as a fight for their civil liberties. Second, newspapers praise 99-year-old Captain Tom Moore and frame his behaviour as a source of national pride. We identify this as positive ageism. We conclude that reporting across progressive and conservative newspapers reflects age-based stereotypes and paternalism towards older people. Public figures are represented as scapegoats or heroes, offering distraction from the less newsworthy fact that long-term under-investment in social care increased the risk of dying amongst the old and disabled during the pandemic.
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Resumo: Este texto é resultado de uma pesquisa sobre o envolvimento do Serviço Social do Comércio (SESC) com a questão social da velhice no Brasil, especialmente no seu ativismo político e social em prol dos idosos. Como método de investigação, utilizou-se a pesquisa qualitativa, com a realização de entrevistas, análise documental e bibliográfica. A que pese a contribuição do SESC para dar maior visibilidade social à velhice, a entidade é reconhecida como uma das principais organizações representativas dos idosos no Brasil, atuando ativamente no lobby político que resultou na criação da Política Nacional do Idoso (em 1994) e do Estatuto do Idoso (em 2003). Porém, quando analisadas sociologicamente, as ações do SESC perdem a aura das boas intenções assistenciais e são realocadas no processo neoliberal de reinvenção e mercantilização da velhice, conhecido como terceira idade. Na qualidade de organização social, o SESC tutela a população idosa com fins políticos e corporativos, de olho num contingente populacional que cresce rapidamente. Palavras-chave: SESC. Velhice. Terceira idade. Setor social. Neoliberalismo.
Thesis
La première décennie du XXIe siècle est une période charnière dans l’histoire des représentations du vieillir et de l’être vieux. Durant les années 2000, le cinéma hollywoodien offre de nouvelles images du vieillir, moins alarmistes, moins stéréotypées, en somme plus positives. Non plus systématiquement relégué au second plan, le personnage âgé se fait une place parmi les héros hollywoodiens. Le vieillir n’est alors plus dissimulé, mais mis à l’honneur, dans ces films portés par un héros âgé. Par leur présence et leur visibilité dans ce cinéma hautement commercial, ces nouveaux personnages vieillissants signalent un phénomène majeur : durant les années 2000, le vieillir devient commercialement profitable, notamment car se reconnaît dans ces films une génération exceptionnelle par de nombreux aspects, celle des baby-boomers. Par ailleurs, au travers de ces nouvelles représentations du vieillir se fait jour une transformation sociétale plus large avec l’avènement d’un nouveau rapport à la vieillesse, le « vieillir nouveau », qui substitue aux clichés âgistes et à l’idée du vieillir comme déclin un discours positif sur la vieillesse. Cette étude, circonscrite aux films hollywoodiens à succès de la période 2000-2010, propose de mettre en lumière ces nouvelles représentations hollywoodiennes du vieillir et la façon dont le cinéma s’est fait ainsi l’écho de discours innovants sur la question tout en tentant d’offrir sa propre version d’un vieillir nouveau.
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The physical decay of the elderly can cause disgust and social rejection. This social rejection may be a problem for older people leading them to exclusion. However, although the association between old age and disgust has always been dealt with in art, literature, religion and the popular consciousness, recent experimental studies on disgust have not paid it the attention it deserves. To address this need, this paper analyses the strength of this association using two experimental studies. After presenting some central and widely-accepted elements about disgust and its moralising and stigmatising nature, the first study starts with a well-established assumption in experimental literature: disgust, which is a rejection emotion, easily leads to moral disgust, i.e., it provokes harsher moral judgments on those who disgust us. If this is the case, elderly people should be more severely judged than the youth if they do something immoral, disgusting, or both. Our results, however, challenge this assumption, finding that elderly people are judged less harshly. This result is replicated in Study 2 which also shows that the higher the sensitivity to disgust, the harsher the moral judgment, regardless of the age of the vignette actor. However, interaction analysis establishes that less disgust-sensitive participants are more condescending to older people than to younger people. This leads us to think that a greater sensitivity to disgust is a likely source of hostility toward the elderly, and a lesser sensitivity may lead to paternalistic attitudes based on compassion.
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This study investigates how ageism is displayed among Japanese women in their mid-twenties when they talk about their experiences with COVID-19. Ageism, which is discrimination, stereotypes and prejudice based on people’s age, was reinforced by the outbreak of the disease. This study gathered data through virtual conversations recorded during the second wave of COVID-19 cases that hit Japan in August 2020. The conversation is examined using discourse analysis, focusing on how the participants position themselves and others through the narration of their personal experience. The analysis shows how participants co-construct the image of elderly people as others who are vulnerable to the virus but ignorant of their own risks. This image is created as the participants establish rapport-oriented interactions with friends that they align with as young and healthy citizens who are responsible for preventing the spread of the virus.
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This multidisciplinary work mainly uses a discourse analytical approach (Fairclough 1995; Sarangi 2010a, 2010b) and fine tools (i.e., corpora and text analysis software, Baker 2010) in order to identify the possible presence of ageism (Butler 1969) from responses provided by psychologists who completed the Fraboni Scale of Ageism (Fraboni et al. 1990) used in the Italian validation (Donizzetti 2010) and further adapted to achieve the objective of this study. In fact, for each item (Tot=19) distributed along this 3-dimensional model (separation and avoidance; stereotypes and antilocution; affective attitudes and discrimination), 177 respondents were asked to express their (dis)agreement, not with numbers, as in the traditional scale, but with a text (D’Amico et al. 2020). With reference to the above-mentioned dimensions, some results unveiled the psychologists’ recurring belief system as follows: 38% of respondents believed that old people complain much more than other people, thus confirming their idea of a separate group from theirs; 35.7% thought that the elderly should be entrusted with the care of infants only when supervised, thus fitting the stereotype of the fixed age-identity category; and 80.6 % declared that they were unwilling to reciprocate if an old person initiated a conversation for external and/or context/personality-dependent reasons, thus justifying their discriminatory attitudes. Limited but not negligible results demonstrate a need for mental health education and training to be monitored in order to better understand the professionals’ belief system that emerges from their discourse on old age, because the reiteration of the same belief system, if cemented in social memory, has the strong effect of conferring an aura of objectivity to prevailing attitudes towards old(er) adults, and of inevitably affecting standard professional inter/actions with them.
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Background and aim: The oral problems of the older population are largely undertreated because of various barriers, including negative perceptions and ageist stereotypes, among care providers. The aim of this study was to record the perceptions of Greek dental students of treating older patients. Materials and methods: An anonymous written questionnaire including two open-ended questions about the positive and negative issues when treating older patients was administered to clinical dental students. A content analysis was conducted to identify the main themes. Results: A total of 135 students responded to the questionnaire (response rate 88.23%). Five key themes were identified for the facilitating factors and six for the barriers/challenging factors. The facilitating factors of treating older people were the promotion of the patients' health and quality of life, the good interaction and communication with older patients, the dentist's intrinsic reward treating older people, the positive feedback from the patients and the improvement of professional dental competences when treating complex cases. The barriers included communication and cooperation problems, treatment challenges related to disease and disability, patients' negative beliefs about oral health, barriers to accessing dental care, complex and time-consuming treatment plans, and communication and cooperation problems with the patients' carers. Conclusion: A range of facilitating and challenging factors influence dental students' perceptions of treating older patients. More research is necessary on the methods that will enhance their geriatric knowledge and skills, help them overcome the challenges they detected and improve their attitudes and behaviours towards treating older patients.
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Yaşlılık sosyolojisi, 1940’lı yıllarda başlayan çok yeni bir alan olmasına rağmen, günümüze kadar bu alanda pek çok çalışma yapılmıştır. Ancak şimdiye kadarki ça- lışmalar, güçlü bir kuram geliştirmek için yeterli olmamıştır. Bununla birlikte yine de mevcut kuramlar yaşlanmanın sosyal anlamlarını yorumlamaya yardımcı olmaktadır. Bu çalışmada, yaşlılık sosyolojisindeki kuramlar, sosyolojinin ana akım kuramla- rı ekseninde yapısal işlevselci, çatışmacı ve sembolik etkileşimci yaşlılık kuramları başlıkları altında değerlendirilmektedir. Yaşlılıkla ilgili sosyal bilim birikimini siste- matik bir şekilde takip edebilmek ve bu birikimlerin dayandıkları tarihsel ve sosyal arka planı görebilmek için bu türden bir sını andırma uygun görülmüştür. Yaşlılık sosyolojisinin yapısal işlevsel yaklaşım temelli birinci kuşak kuramlar alanın kurul- masına ve gelişimine büyük katkı sağlamıştır. Yapısal işlevselci perspektife sahip kuramlardan ilki olan aktivite kuramının et- kisi 1950’li ve 60’lı yıllardaki yaşlılık çalışmalarında görülmektedir. Bu dönemdeki çalışmalarda, yaşlıların sosyal hayata katılımlarıyla yaşam memnuniyeti arasındaki ilişki araştırılmaktaydı. Yaşam memnuniyetini ölçen araştırmalar 1960’ların sonları- na kadar devam etti.
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Intergenerational service-learning for undergraduate students seeks to generate interest about the older adult population, while increasing knowledge and improving attitudes about aging and reducing ageism. It is difficult to make an impact on students’ views in a short time period, such as an academic quarter. This comparative effectiveness study evaluated the efficacy of a 10-week intergenerational service-learning program administered to Psychology of Aging undergraduates to determine if it increased knowledge about aging, improved attitudes about older adults, and reduced ageism more than a predominately didactic course with less service activity. A quasi-experimental design using a convenience sample compared pre- and posttest scores between the experimental intervention (n = 68) and comparison (n = 71) condition on The Facts on Aging Quiz Multiple Choice version, Aging Semantic Differential, and Fabroni Scale on Ageism. The experimental intervention, the Lives Well Lived program, matched students and older adults who met criteria for “successful aging,” in a mutual interviewing, life review project utilizing documentary film, photography, and creation of memoirs. Results determined that students in the experimental intervention showed less stereotypical beliefs and net bias about aging. Programs that are more relational, in-depth, more experiential and less didactic may be useful for consideration in undergraduate psychology or human service programs in reducing ageism and potential for increasing interest in careers in the field of aging.
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Yerinde yaşlanma, alışılan çevrede olabildiğince uzun süre yaşamını sürdürerek yaşlanmayı ifade etmektedir. Kentleşme süreci dolaylı biçimde yaşlıların yerinde yaşlanmalarını zorlaştırmaktadır. Kentsel alanlarda yerinde yaşlanmanın sürekliliği için bu sürecin yaşlılar için ortaya çıkardığı olumsuzlukları tespit edilmesi gerekmektedir. Yerinde yaşlanmanın gerçekleşebilmesi için yerel yönetimlerin ailenin yaşlılara yönelik bazı sorumluluklarını paylaşması gerekmektedir. Bu çalışmada, İstanbul'da ilçe yerel yönetim hizmetlerinin yerinde yaşlanma sürecine ne tür bir katkı sağladığını ortaya çıkarmak amaçlanmaktadır. Nitel araştırma desenlerinden fenomenoloji nitel araştırma deseni kullanılarak, yerel yönetim aktörleriyle 30 adet yarı yapılandırılmış görüşme yapılmıştır. Veriler betimsel analiz tekniği kullanılarak analiz edilmiştir. Yerel yönetimlerin yaşlılara yönelik hizmetler aracılığıyla ailenin yaşlılara yönelik bazı sorumluklarının paylaşılması yerinde yaşlanma sürecine olumlu katkı yaptığı söylenebilir. Araştırmada yerel yönetimlerin yalnız yaşayan yaşlıların ya da aile ve akrabalarıyla kalan yaşlıların bazı temel ihtiyaçlarını destekleme noktasında kritik bir role sahip olabilecekleri sonucuna ulaşılmıştır. Kentlerde yerel yönetimlerin yaşlı kişisel bakım ve sağlık hizmetleri, evlere sıcak yemek servisi gibi faaliyetlerinin yerinde yaşlanmayı kolaylaştıracağı söylenebilir. Bu hizmetler yaşlıların sosyal ve fiziksel çevrelerinde kopmadan yaşlanmalarına yardımcı olacaktır. Yaşlılara yönelik hizmetlerin güvenilir kaynaklar tarafından sunulması yaşlıların huzurlu, sağlıklı şekilde yaşlanabilmelerine hizmet edebilir. Bu çerçevede kamusal boyuta sahip yerel yönetimlerin yaşlı ve yaşlı aileleri ile iş birliği içerisinde yaşlılara sunacağı hizmetler yaşlıların kendilerini daha güvende ve mutlu hissetmelerini sağlayacaktır. Yaşlanma sürecinin ortaya çıkardığı dezavantajlara bağlı biçimde olarak geleneksel anlamda aile bireylerinin üstlendikleri yaşlı bakımı sorumluluklarının önemli bir kısmının yerel yönetimlerce paylaşılması gerekmektedir. ARTICLE INFO A B S T R A C T Aging in place refers to aging by living in the habitual environment for as long as possible. The urbanization process indirectly makes it difficult for the elderly to age in place. For the continuity of aging in place in urban areas, it is necessary to determine the negative effects of this process for the elderly. In order for aging in place to take place, local governments need to share some of the responsibilities of the family towards the elderly. In this study, it is aimed to reveal what kind of contribution the district local government services make to the aging process in Istanbul. Using the phenomenology qualitative research design, one of the qualitative research designs, 30 semi-structured interviews were conducted with local government actors. The data were analyzed using the descriptive analysis technique. It can be said that the sharing of some responsibilities of the family towards the elderly through local governments' services for the elderly contributes positively to the aging process in place.
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Article
Yerinde yaşlanma, alışılan çevrede olabildiğince uzun süre yaşamını sürdürerek yaşlanmayı ifade etmektedir. Kentleşme süreci dolaylı biçimde yaşlıların yerinde yaşlanmalarını zorlaştırmaktadır. Kentsel alanlarda yerinde yaşlanmanın sürekliliği için bu sürecin yaşlılar için ortaya çıkardığı olumsuzlukları tespit edilmesi gerekmektedir. Yerinde yaşlanmanın gerçekleşebilmesi için yerel yönetimlerin ailenin yaşlılara yönelik bazı sorumluluklarını paylaşması gerekmektedir. Bu çalışmada, İstanbul’da ilçe yerel yönetim hizmetlerinin yerinde yaşlanma sürecine ne tür bir katkı sağladığını ortaya çıkarmak amaçlanmaktadır. Nitel araştırma desenlerinden fenomenoloji nitel araştırma deseni kullanılarak, yerel yönetim aktörleriyle 30 adet yarı yapılandırılmış görüşme yapılmıştır. Veriler betimsel analiz tekniği kullanılarak analiz edilmiştir. Yerel yönetimlerin yaşlılara yönelik hizmetler aracılığıyla ailenin yaşlılara yönelik bazı sorumluklarının paylaşılması yerinde yaşlanma sürecine olumlu katkı yaptığı söylenebilir. Araştırmada yerel yönetimlerin yalnız yaşayan yaşlıların ya da aile ve akrabalarıyla kalan yaşlıların bazı temel ihtiyaçlarını destekleme noktasında kritik bir role sahip olabilecekleri sonucuna ulaşılmıştır. Kentlerde yerel yönetimlerin yaşlı kişisel bakım ve sağlık hizmetleri, evlere sıcak yemek servisi gibi faaliyetlerinin yerinde yaşlanmayı kolaylaştıracağı söylenebilir. Bu hizmetler yaşlıların sosyal ve fiziksel çevrelerinde kopmadan yaşlanmalarına yardımcı olacaktır. Yaşlılara yönelik hizmetlerin güvenilir kaynaklar tarafından sunulması yaşlıların huzurlu, sağlıklı şekilde yaşlanabilmelerine hizmet edebilir. Bu çerçevede kamusal boyuta sahip yerel yönetimlerin yaşlı ve yaşlı aileleri ile iş birliği içerisinde yaşlılara sunacağı hizmetler yaşlıların kendilerini daha güvende ve mutlu hissetmelerini sağlayacaktır. Yaşlanma sürecinin ortaya çıkardığı dezavantajlara bağlı biçimde olarak geleneksel anlamda aile bireylerinin üstlendikleri yaşlı bakımı sorumluluklarının önemli bir kısmının yerel yönetimlerce paylaşılması gerekmektedir.
Book
The purpose of this study is to explain the critical role of the European Social Charter in advancing and protecting the rights of older persons in Europe. It is designed to be of use to civil society groups of older persons to enable them to engage effectively with the machinery of the Charter and to use its jurisprudence in the development of domestic advocacy strategies for reform. It should also provide guidance to policy makers as they open up a new policy imagination on the rights of older persons. And it should prove of use in the global debate about the rights of older persons more generally and the case for a new UN treaty in particular.
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Starzenie się populacji jest wyzwaniem przed jakim staje coraz więcej krajów świata. Z jednej strony jest to proces wyraźnie pozytywny, ponieważ udało się wyeliminować lub ograniczyć część ryzyk, które miały bezpośredni wpływ na poziom i jakość życia, ale też jego długość. Z drugiej strony przed społeczeństwami pojawiają się nowe problemy związane z koniecznością zabezpieczenia rosnących i zróżnicowanych potrzeb coraz liczniejszej subpopulacji osób starszych. Stąd też w monografii podjęto rozważania w ujęciu interdyscyplinarnym nad perspektywami rozwoju srebrnej gospodarki w Polsce. Książka obejmuje 19 rozdziałów o zróżnicowanej tematyce i charakterze naukowym. Zawiera opracowania badawcze, koncepcyjne, analityczne i syntetyczne, w tym diagnostyczne i prognostyczne, opierające się na źródłach wtórnych i własnych badaniach empirycznych 28 autorów na następujące tematy: 1. zmiany demograficzne a gospodarka i społeczeństwo, w tym: - srebrne finanse z perspektywy ekonomicznej i menedżerskiej - komplementarność usług prywatnych i publicznych na lokalnym rynku - zatrudnianie osób starszych i ich oczekiwania wobec pracodawców - prawa seniorów vs. modele rodziny i opieki instytucjonalnej 2. funkcjonowanie srebrnego rynku, w tym: - reklama jako środek komunikacji marketingowej adresowanej do seniorów - prognoza zmian struktury konsumpcji gospodarstw domowych seniorów dla lat 2025-2050 - krytyczna ocena skutków gospodarczych rosnącej populacji osób starszych 3. zdrowie, ochrona zdrowia i profilaktyka, w tym: - potrzeby, wyzwania i perspektywy dostępu do usług e-zdrowia - wyzwania stojące przed sektorem ochrony zdrowia - wiedza osób w wieku podeszłym na temat szczepień ochronnych - organizacyjne, legislacyjne i prawne uwarunkowania wykorzystania telerozwiązań 4. kultura, turystyka i przestrzeń miejska, w tym: - stymulanty i destymulanty uczestnictwa seniorów w kulturze - turystyka z perspektywy polityki społeczno-gospodarczej UE i Polski - miejska polityka senioralna na przykładzie Gminy Szczecin - nowości dedykowane osobom starszym w obszarze edukacji i środowiska 5. innowacje, w tym: - zachowania seniorów w świetle postępującej cyfryzacji usług finansowych - postawy osób starszych wobec innowacji na rynku FMCG - innowacje społeczne - subiektywny wymiar cyfrowego wykluczenia.
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