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The Motivational Fabric of Gamified Idea Competitions: The Evaluation of Game Mechanics from a Longitudinal Perspective

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Abstract

Idea competitions are a highly important tool for integrating insiders and outsiders in the idea generation and evaluation activities of organizations. Previous research on motives for participation has demonstrated that organizers need to design idea competitions that create a positive experience for participants. To address this challenge, organizations have started to include games mechanics (e.g., points, levels, badges) into idea competitions, a measure that has been termed gamification. However, there is a lack of scientific studies focusing on the longitudinal evaluation and perception of game mechanics. This study thus evaluates game mechanics in a gamified idea competition through two independent panel studies. The quantitative results are complemented with data from qualitative surveys. The findings of this study indicate that there are differences in game mechanics with respect to their motivational evaluation, and that game mechanics with reference to social aspects in particular are more highly appreciated.

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... The reviewed articles also recommend future research that explores influencing factors, which could serve as relevant antecedents, mediators, or moderators of gamification's effect on desired outcomes. One influencing factor commonly mentioned in the review was the impact of different levels of motivation on gamified activities (Alshammari, 2019;Scheiner, 2015). For example, the influence of extrinsic motivation on gamification was recommended as an area for future research given its ability to influence gamification's impact. ...
... According to the studied literature, the level of interest of employees in games is another important influencing factor that can make a substantial difference in the impact of the gamified experience (Liu et al., 2018;Scheiner, 2015). Those who have an inherent appreciation for games in general are likely to have a favorable attitude towards gamified experiences at work whereas people who inherently dislike games may unfavorably view gamification (Maltseva et al., 2019). ...
... Those who have an inherent appreciation for games in general are likely to have a favorable attitude towards gamified experiences at work whereas people who inherently dislike games may unfavorably view gamification (Maltseva et al., 2019). Moreover, the general gaming behavior of employees may influence their perception and evaluation of game mechanics (Scheiner, 2015). This also relates to the effect of players' experience on group dynamics which warrants further study (Baxter et al., 2016;Morschheuser et al., 2017). ...
Article
Gamification integrates game components into contexts such as workplace learning and performance. A decade of research has shown that gamification is prevalent in various settings such as education, healthcare, and business. Recently, gamification has been applied and studied in interventions and contexts related to the field of human resource development (HRD). Given the emerging use of gamification in HRD, this paper undertakes a systematic literature review (SLR) to synthesize existing research on gamification in HRD. This paper identifies four areas where gamification has been studied in HRD: employee learning, task performance, employee wellness, and rising contexts. In addition, this SLR collects and organizes a series of future research directions and offers a set of potential research questions. These future research directions center around four areas of gamification for HRD: designing gamification, influencing factors, experiential outcomes, and sustaining gamification. Implications for HRD practice and research, as well as limitations, are discussed.
... In Bezug auf die erste Teilfrage weisen Erkenntnisse darauf hin, dass nicht alle Mechaniken immer positiv und über die Zeit gleich wahrgenommen werden. Mechaniken wie "Spielpunkte" oder "Geschichten" waren beispielsweise über die Zeit nicht stabil und verzeichneten teilweise sogar eine Abnahme in der Wertschätzung (Scheiner 2015). Soziale Mechaniken wie "Austausch" und "soziale Punkte" wurden hingegen über den kompletten Zeitverlauf hingegen gleichmäßig positiv aufgefasst. ...
... Soziale Mechaniken wie "Austausch" und "soziale Punkte" wurden hingegen über den kompletten Zeitverlauf hingegen gleichmäßig positiv aufgefasst. Die Personen schätzten die soziale Komponente, die beiden Mechaniken zu eigen ist und diese maßgeblich charakterisiert (Scheiner 2015). Hier stellt sich die Frage, ob diese Indikationen ebenfalls in Veränderungsprozessen Bestand haben und was dies für die konkrete Ausgestaltung bedeutet. ...
... Als Erstes sind hier unethische Verhaltensweisen zu nennen, die Personen zeigen, um sich selbst unerlaubte Vorteile zu verschaffen. Beispielsweise wurden in der Vergangenheit Bedenken geäußert, dass Schwachstellen in der Ausgestaltung von Gamification von Personen ausgenutzt werden können (Scheiner 2015 Darauf aufbauend gilt es, Gamification adäquat und sinnvoll in den Change-Prozess einzubinden. Andernfalls wird der Nutzen höchstens kosmetisch und als Marketingmittel einzustufen sein. ...
... Surprisingly though, those that did often proposed a full OI system, which covered all the features described by Hratinski et al. [24] as the front-end of OI systems. Among them, many were studies in the domain of gamification, which focused on topics of user involvement through gamified reward systems and rankings to provide a gripping user experience [49,66,16,54]. ...
... In terms of the methodologies, we find a rather clear picture. Despite the variety of research areas covered in our literature review, the vast majority of articles employed case studies [4,5,6,7,8,9,10,11,16,19,22,25,26,27,28,29,30,32,33,34,35,36,37,44,45,46,47,48,49,50,51,52,54,55,58,59,62,63,64]. Scholars either set up their own OI systems and applied them in practicecollaborating with firms, students or the general public -or extracted data from existing OI platforms (e.g., Dell's IdeaStorm [6] or Starbuck's MyStarbucksIdeas.com ...
... [4]). These case studies were sometimes supported by surveys [9,11,22,25,34,35,47,49,50,62,66] and/or interviews [4,7,11,13,44,49,66] in order to explore users' motives to engage in and perception of OI engagements. Seven studies developed frameworks and models of OI [13,14,24,34,41,58,59]. ...
Conference Paper
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Open innovation has been and remains to be a rapidly changing field of research in Information Systems and various other disciplines. With the rise of professional open innovation platforms and the emergence of crowdsourcing as well as employee-driven innovation, studies on the front-end of open innovation – namely idea generation, collaboration and evaluation – are facing new challenges. In this structured literature review, we analyze a large body of prior research in order to derive a framework, which is able to classify and reflect the lively debate on open innovation. In addition, we identify important implications for practitioners with advise on the design of open innovation systems. Moreover, our study identifies several promising areas for future research.
... Early host appreciation might also have a gaming element. Game elements are considered to trigger motivation (Scheiner 2015) and induce action and behavior towards the game (Fullerton et al. 2004). These elements are often applied in idea competitions (Scheiner 2015) through visual aids such as badges. ...
... Game elements are considered to trigger motivation (Scheiner 2015) and induce action and behavior towards the game (Fullerton et al. 2004). These elements are often applied in idea competitions (Scheiner 2015) through visual aids such as badges. Users obtain badges for the recognition of their efforts to achieve certain (sub-)goals. ...
... On the idea contest platform, all early award-winning ideas were marked with a badge. This increased the visibility and might have provided enough incentives and reputation for ideators to put effort into improving their ideas (Scheiner 2015). More specific investigation may be needed to disentangle the effect of early host appreciation. ...
... Previous research has largely neglected these unwanted behavioural patterns (Gatzweiler et al., 2017), even where scholars have examined motives for participation (e.g., Boudreau and Lakhani, 2009;Füller, 2006;Walcher, 2007). Moreover, in these isolated studies, which do point to this problem (e.g., Hutter et al., 2011;Gebauer et al., 2012;Scheiner, 2015), no explanations are offered as to why participants would behave in such a way. Due to its valuable explanatory power, moral disengagement (MD) has become, in other scientific areas, the construct of choice among scholars examining this phenomenon. ...
... "Individuals are intrinsically motivated when they seek enjoyment, interest, satisfaction of curiosity, self-expression, or personal challenge in the work" (Amabile, 1993, p. 188). Previous research has highlighted the importance of intrinsic motivation in creative tasks and science-oriented environments in general (e.g., Dhawan et al., 2002;Dewett, 2007;Hebda et al., 2012;Ryan, 2014) and idea competitions specifically (e.g., Füller, 2006;Füller et al., 2011;Scheiner, 2015;Wendelken et al., 2014). Dewett (2007) argues, for instance, that intrinsic motivation is essential for creativity, while Ryan (2014) proves that this is independent from age or gender. ...
... Füller et al. (2011) recommend creating playful and fun environments and offering related hedonic benefits to idea competition participants. Creating an entertaining design and role for idea competitions is not only important to initially attract participants, but also to encourage their participation and activity in the long-term (Mahr and Lievens, 2012;Füller et al., 2011;Scheiner, 2015). Additionally, Baron et al. (2014) found a negative relationship between intrinsic motivation for selfrealisation and MD. ...
Article
Idea competitions are becoming increasingly used as a resource for supporting the front end and downstream acceleration of innovation. But unethical behaviour of participants in such competitions can be detrimental, both for the organiser and for the motivation of the participating community. We assume that unethical behaviour can be explained by examining personal motives for participation and their influence on moral disengagement (MD) in which people are able to disengage from the self-regulatory process that normally impedes individuals from acting in a way inconsistent with their own moral standards. We hypothesise that monetary motives as representative for extrinsic motives for participation are positively related to MD while hedonic motives as representative of intrinsic motives are negatively related to MD. Our findings offer support for the positive relationship between MD and the tendency to make unethical decisions. Moreover, our results confirm a negative relationship between hedonic benefits and unethical behaviour. In addition, MD mediates the relationship between participants’ motivation for hedonic benefits and the tendency to make unethical decisions.
... Typically, competitions and incentives such as prizes or career opportunities are used in innovation communities to engage participants to share and discuss ideas [38]. With the rise of gamification, the use of competitive gamification approaches is gaining popularity in innovation communities [29,33,46,59,73]. However, empirical studies indicate that strong competitive configurations can have negative effects, such as a decrease of peer feedback, perceived enjoyment or quality of ideas [3,17]. ...
... However, empirical studies indicate that strong competitive configurations can have negative effects, such as a decrease of peer feedback, perceived enjoyment or quality of ideas [3,17]. On the other hand, gamification features with a social and more cooperative character seem to be particularly suitable for increasing participation [59] and idea quality [29] in innovation communities. For example, Scheiner [59] found that social points, which allow users to reward the contributions of others, are more important for long-term motivation and participation in an innovation community than other individualistic and competitive gamification features. ...
... On the other hand, gamification features with a social and more cooperative character seem to be particularly suitable for increasing participation [59] and idea quality [29] in innovation communities. For example, Scheiner [59] found that social points, which allow users to reward the contributions of others, are more important for long-term motivation and participation in an innovation community than other individualistic and competitive gamification features. The study emphasizes that a reason for their positive effects may be the motivational affordances cooperative gamification features provide, especially those that are based on the fulfilling of social needs, such as the need for social belonging. ...
Conference Paper
Organizations deploy gamification in CSCW systems to enhance motivation and behavioral outcomes of users. However, gamification approaches often cause competition between users, which might be inappropriate for working environments that seek cooperation. Drawing on the social interdependence theory, this paper provides a classification for gamification features and insights about the design of cooperative gamification. Using the example of an innovation community of a German engineering company, we present the design of a cooperative gamification approach and results from a first experimental evaluation. The findings indicate that the developed gamification approach has positive effects on perceived enjoyment and the intention towards knowledge sharing in the considered innovation community. Besides our conceptual contribution , our findings suggest that cooperative gamification may be beneficial for cooperative working environments and represents a promising field for future research.
... O uso da gamificação em competições de ideias oferece outro benefício para os organizadores: rastreamento de pontos sociais e troca que pode permitir que os organizadores identificassem subgrupos sociais, para fortalecer os laços sociais entre os participantes. Neste caso, seja eles clientes ou funcionários (SCHEINER, 2015). ...
... As organizações começaram a incluir mecanismos de jogos (por exemplo, pontos, níveis, emblemas) em competições de ideias, para medir o que foi denominado gamificação. Existem diferenças na mecânica de jogo no que diz respeito à sua avaliação motivacional, e que as mecânicas de jogo com referência aos aspectos sociais em particular são mais apreciadas (SCHEINER, 2015). ...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
A gamificação é um jogo eletrônico usado no ambiente empresarial para estimular o engajamento entre os funcionários e para manter e atrair novos clientes. A gamificação é um tema recente na pesquisa acadêmica, sendo esta uma possibilidade para ampliar os estudos nesta área. O artigo buscou analisar como o tema gamificação impacta e contribui para a pesquisa acadêmica no período de 2008 à 2018. A pesquisa foi desenvolvida por meio de um estudo bibliométrico nas bases de dados Scopus e Web of Science tendo como critério de análise os artigos mais citados, os autores da área com sua relevância, e as principais revistas científicas. Houve a apuração de 14 artigos publicados na base Web of Science desde 2015 e 34 artigos publicados na Scopus desde 2012. O artigo “Is it all a game? Understanding the principles of gamification” dos autores Robson, Plangger, Kietzmann, McCarthy, e Pitt (2015), possui a maior quantidade de citações em ambas as bases de dados. A gamificação proporcionou um impacto limitado na realidade das pesquisas acadêmicas mas contribuiu de maneira satisfatória para o referencial teórico e os resultados do artigo com os conteúdos pesquisados.
... The focal problem or task is the input, the solution or completed task is the output, and everything in between makes up the process. A rapidly growing body of literature investigates the process of crowdsourcing, trying to elucidate the design of a crowdsourcing task (Boudreau & Lakhani, 2013;Feller, Finnegan, Hayes, & O'Reilly, 2012;Sieg, Wallin, & Von Krogh, 2010), the strategies to attract and motivate participants (Agogue, Levillain, & Hooge, 2015;Hutter, Hautz, Füller, Mueller, & Matzler, 2011;Scheiner, 2015), and the organization and aggregation of crowd output (Kulkarni et al., 2012;Yu & Nickerson, 2011). Many studies focus on crowd interactions in online platforms. ...
... In crowdsourcing environments, participants understand that they are competing with respect to creativity (Agogue et al., 2015;Frey, Lüthje, & Haag, 2011;Hutter et al., 2011;Leimeister, Huber, Bretschneider, & Krcmar, 2009;Scheiner, 2015). When people are exposed to an original idea, the competitive or ludic drive to win will push them to further explore novel possibilities. ...
Article
Crowdsourcing is an increasingly important approach to pursuing innovation. In crowdsourcing ideation websites, crowd members are often exposed to some stimulus ideas, such as examples provided by companies or peers' ideas. Understanding the effect of being exposed to original stimulus ideas in this context may inform the design of the crowdsourcing process. To test this effect, an experiment was conducted where crowd workers were asked to design a public service advertisement. Depending on the experimental condition, the participants were exposed to an original idea, or a common idea, or no idea. As compared to the absence of exposure, exposure to an original idea decreased fluency, defined as the number of ideas generated by each person, and increased the average originality of ideas generated by each person. By contrast, exposure to a common idea had no effect on either idea originality or fluency. The semantic similarity between the stimulus idea and the first idea generated was higher when the stimulus was common versus original as measured by latent semantic analysis. The implications of these results for research and practice are discussed.
... It represents a collaborative, crowdsourced approach to innovation, inviting people to pull in the same direction and take part in something larger than themselves [9]. Different game elements such as points given in a collaborative manner by other participants, badges, proved to be very important for improving the output of very distinct actions on online platforms for open innovation [16]. ...
... Given the findings of studies presented in [16], it can be concluded that motives for participation are heterogeneous in nature. For example, monetary rewards seem to play a minor role in attracting and motivating participants especially when participation is repeated, since recent research indicated that financial rewards often boost idea quantity rather than idea quality [29]. ...
Article
The ideation process has a great impact on the success of innovation projects, given that innovation is development and implementation of new ideas. Ideation is often identified as a key component of the ''fuzzy front end'', and recognized as one of the highest leverage points for a firm. Today's democratizing innovation has led to a situation that the best ideas for new products and services no longer originate only from companies' staff. Instead, they come from almost anywhere and anyone. By opening up the ideation phase in the digital era, companies actually open their doors to external experts and solution-providers, searching for new partners and new technologies to incorporate into their existing products and services. Having this in mind, the goal of this study is to propose an integrated approach to collaboration in the phase of ideation, which would be in line with the concept of open innovation and supported by an appropriate business model. Accordingly, this paper enables understanding of how game-based ideation fits into innovation models; how games are incorporated into ideation processes; how games affect creativity and the nurture of ideas; how to develop a sustainable business model for this concept; and how to implement it in a real-life business environment.
... O uso da gamificação em competições de ideias, por exemplo, oferece outros benefícios para os organizadores: rastreamento de pontos sociais e troca, permitindo que os organizadores identifiquem subgrupos sociais para fortalecer os laços sociais entre os participantes, sejam estes clientes ou funcionários (Scheiner, 2015). ...
... Nesse contexto, as organizações começaram a incluir mecanismos de jogos (como, por exemplo, pontos, níveis e emblemas) em competições de ideias, para medir o que foi denominado gamificação. Cabe ressaltar, ainda, que existem diferenças na mecânica de jogo quanto à sua avaliação motivacional e que as mecânicas de jogo que fazem referência aos aspectos sociais em particular são mais apreciadas (Scheiner, 2015). ...
Article
Full-text available
A gamificação consiste no uso de técnicas de design de jogos orientadas a contextos normalmente não relacionados a jogos, como o organizacional, para estimular o engajamento e a motivação entre os funcionários e para manter e atrair novos clientes. Trata-se de um tema ainda recente na pesquisa acadêmica, o que justifica estudos nessa área. Diante disso, este artigo buscou analisar de que forma a temática em questão impactou a pesquisa acadêmica no período de 2008 a 2018. Para isso, desenvolveu-se um estudo bibliométrico nas bases de dados Scopus e Web of Science, tendo como critérios de análise os artigos mais citados, os autores da área (e sua relevância) e as principais revistas científicas que publicaram estudos sobre o assunto. Foram identificados 14 artigos publicados na base Web of Science desde 2015 e 34 artigos publicados na Scopus desde 2012. O artigo “Is it all a game? Understanding the principles of gamification”, dos autores Robson, Plangger, Kietzmann, McCarthy e Pitt (2015), possui a maior quantidade de citações em ambas as bases de dados. Além disso, os resultados permitem afirmar que a gamificação proporcionou um impacto limitado na realidade das pesquisas acadêmicas, mas possibilitou analisar o tema em questão e seus construtos, gerando mais informações e contribuindo para a área.
... O uso da gamificação em competições de ideias, por exemplo, oferece outros benefícios para os organizadores: rastreamento de pontos sociais e troca, permitindo que os organizadores identifiquem subgrupos sociais para fortalecer os laços sociais entre os participantes, sejam estes clientes ou funcionários (Scheiner, 2015). ...
... Nesse contexto, as organizações começaram a incluir mecanismos de jogos (como, por exemplo, pontos, níveis e emblemas) em competições de ideias, para medir o que foi denominado gamificação. Cabe ressaltar, ainda, que existem diferenças na mecânica de jogo quanto à sua avaliação motivacional e que as mecânicas de jogo que fazem referência aos aspectos sociais em particular são mais apreciadas (Scheiner, 2015). ...
Article
Full-text available
Resumo A gamificação consiste no uso de técnicas de design de jogos orientadas a contextos normalmente não relacionados a jogos, como o organizacional, para estimular o engajamento e a motivação entre os funcionários e para manter e atrair novos clientes. Trata-se de um tema ainda recente na pesquisa acadêmica, o que justifica estudos nessa área. Diante disso, este artigo buscou analisar de que forma a temática em questão impactou a pesquisa acadêmica no período de 2008 a 2018. Para isso, desenvolveu-se um estudo bibliométrico nas bases de dados Scopus e Web of Science, tendo como critérios de análise os artigos mais citados, os autores da área (e sua relevância) e as principais revistas científicas que publicaram estudos sobre o assunto. Foram identificados 14 artigos publicados na base Web of Science desde 2015 e 34 artigos publicados na Scopus desde 2012. O artigo “Is it all a game? Understanding the principles of gamification”, dos autores Robson, Plangger, Kietzmann, McCarthy e Pitt (2015), possui a maior quantidade de citações em ambas as bases de dados. Além disso, os resultados permitem afirmar que a gamificação proporcionou um impacto limitado na realidade das pesquisas acadêmicas, mas possibilitou analisar o tema em questão e seus construtos, gerando mais informações e contribuindo para a área. Palavras-chave: Gamificação. Jogo. Bibliometria. Abstract The gamification consists of using game design techniques geared to contexts not normally related to games, such as organizational ones, to stimulate engagement and motivation among employees and to maintain and attract new customers. This is still a recent topic in academic research, which justifies studies in this area. Therefore, this article sought to analyze how the issue in question impacted academic research in the period 2008 to 2018. For this, a bibliometric study was developed in the Scopus and Web of Science databases, having as criteria of analysis the most cited articles, the authors of the area (and their relevance) and the leading scientific journals that published studies on the subject. We have identified 14 articles published in the Web of Science database since 2015 and 34 articles published in Scopus since 2012. The article "Is it all a game? Understanding the principles of gamification ", by authors Robson, Plangger, Kietzmann, McCarthy e Pitt (2015), has the largest number of citations in both databases. In addition, the results allow us to affirm that gamification provided a limited impact on the reality of academic research, but it made it possible to analyze the theme in question and its constructs, generating more information and contributing to the area. Keywords: Gamification. Game. Bibliometric.
... The study concludes that Where's Wally game has occurred to be significantly important for engaging students of the massive open online courses. Significantly important according to results have been identified as game points, levels, avatars or virtual identity and badges (Scheiner, 2015). However, generally speaking, the participants of the study conducted by Scheiner (2015) ranked game mechanics as motivational factors for engaging consumers into idea competing provided by organizations. ...
... Significantly important according to results have been identified as game points, levels, avatars or virtual identity and badges (Scheiner, 2015). However, generally speaking, the participants of the study conducted by Scheiner (2015) ranked game mechanics as motivational factors for engaging consumers into idea competing provided by organizations. ...
Conference Paper
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The increase in popularity of games and their attendant impact on player behaviour has led to the transformation of game elements in line with non-game contexts. The process of adding game elements in non-game context has been defined as gamification. Due to digitization, consumers are exposed to a wider range of information through their use of technological devices and social media. Therefore, gamification is seen as innovative engaging and motivating set of activities that influence purchasing dispositions of consumers. Due to the successful usage of gamification in numerous areas, this study was aimed at exploring the game mechanics differences for employed consumers who purchase via social media (s-commerce). Using a survey as part of the research design, a questionnaire was employed for data collection, 183 respondents participated completed the questionnaire, and the data collected was used to perform the non-parametric test, Chi-Square test for independence has been employed to describe and explore the differences. The results revealed that points, rewards and badges offered by the s-commerce retailer as factors that influence the purchase frequency of consumers are significantly differ based on the working sector for employed consumers. The study provides substantial evidences for retail businesses regarding game mechanics elements as purchasing motivator.
... Fulfilling these needs leads to motivation, whereas neglecting them results in discouragement . In the literature sample, publications mention self-determination theory to describe motivational effects of gamified applications (Kankanhalli et al., 2012;Li, Huang, & Cavusoglu, 2012;Liu et al., 2013;Mutter & Kundisch, 2014;Scheiner, 2015;Teh, Schuff, Johnson, & Geddes, 2013;Wiegand & Stieglitz, 2014;Witt & Robra-Bissantz, 2012;Witt et al., 2011). However, self-determination theory is not a crucial element in most of these publications; it is rather mentioned among others in their literature overviews. ...
... While this may lead to an increase in the quantity of player contribution, the contribution quality might suffer (Mutter & Kundisch, 2014). To sum it up, self-determination theory can be linked to video games in general, and also describes how intrinsic motivation in gamified applications can be achieved (Scheiner, 2015;Wiegand & Stieglitz, 2014;Witt & Robra-Bissantz, 2012;Witt et al., 2011). ...
Thesis
There is little doubt about the importance of learning in information societies. Although it has already been crucial for centuries, current developments such as digitalization and digital transformation emphasize the need to establish successful training procedures for rapidly changing skill sets in organizations. This dissertation extends prior knowledge about the motivational effects and learning outcomes of game-based learning and motivation in Information Systems. Following the Design Science Research paradigm, it draws on psychological research to design and analyze game-based approaches to foster learning and motivation in Information Systems. Besides providing the theoretical foundation for these approaches alongside novel and useful artifacts for both industry and higher education, it proposes several specific design recommendations that may change the way they are implemented.
... Recent research has shown that gamified activities serve not only hedonic or monetary purposes (Lowry et al., 2013) but also other goals as well. Such goals include creating innovations (Roth, Schneckenberg, & Tsai, 2015), teaching or learning more effectively (Buckley & Doyle, 2016;Cheong, Filippou, & Cheong, 2014;Dicheva, Dichev, Agre, & Angelova, 2015;Kim, Song, Lockee, & Burton, 2018;Landers & Armstrong, 2017;Marti-Parreno, Méndez-Ibánez, & Alonso-Arroyo, 2016;Wouters, van Nimwegen, van Oostendorp, & van der Spek, 2013), propagating a healthy lifestyle (González et al., 2016;Hamari & Sjöblom, 2017;Johnson et al., 2016;Pérez, Rivera, & Delgado-Fernández, 2017;Wu, Kankanhalli, & Huang, 2015), generating and evaluating ideas (Scheiner, 2015), increasing employees' intrinsic motivation (Blohm & Leimeister, 2013;Robson, Plangger, Kietzmann, McCarthy, & Pitt, 2016), enhancing an individual's performance (Mekler, Brühlmann, Opwis, & Tuch, 2013;Warmelink, Koivisto, Mayer, Vesa, & Hamari, 2018), enhancing a team's performance through supraliminal priming (Dennis, Minas, & Bhagwatwar, 2013), better recognizing cybersecurity (e.g., for employees) (Adams & Makramalla, 2015;Baxter, Holderness, & Wood, 2016), creating sophisticated talent selection processes (Tansley, Hafermalz, & Dery, 2016), relaxing during working hours (Trinkle, Crossler, & Warkentin, 2014), or simply relaxing for leisure (Lowry et al., 2013). In fact, previous research claims that most systems use multiple motives and suggests that including game-like or hedonic elements, even in traditionally extrinsic-oriented systems, can improve a user's experience and continuance (Lowry, Gaskin, & Moody, 2015;Treiblmaier, 2009). ...
... Elements that one can employ to "gamify" applications include avatars, feedback, points, ranks, levels, competitions, challenges, rewards, badges, group activities, time pressure, quests, virtual worlds, and reputation rankings. Social game mechanics, such as avatars or challenges, support social interaction among players and, thus, increases intrinsic motivation (Liu et al., 2013;Liu et al., 2017;Scheiner, 2015). Recently in IS, Blohm and Leimeister (2013, p. 275) have defined gamification as "enriching products, services, and information systems with gamedesign elements to positively influence motivation, productivity, and behaviour of users". ...
Article
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As a nascent area of study, gamification has attracted the interest of researchers in several fields, but little attention has been focused on creating a theoretical foundation for gamification research. The basic idea of gamification is to use game-like features in non-game contexts to motivate users and improve performance outcomes. As a boundary-spanning subject by nature, gamification has drawn the interest of scholars from diverse communities, including information systems, education, marketing, computer science, and business administration. To establish a theoretical foundation, it is important to clearly define and explain gamification in comparison with similar concepts and areas of research. Likewise, it is important to define the scope of the domain and develop a research agenda that explicitly takes into account the important role of theory. In this review article, we have set forth the pre-theoretical structures necessary for theory-building in this area. Accordingly, we engaged an interdisciplinary group of discussants to evaluate and select the most relevant theories for gamification. Moreover, we developed exemplary research questions to help create a research agenda for gamification. We conclude that using a multi-theoretical perspective in the creation of a research agenda should help and encourage IS researchers to take a lead role in this promising and emerging area.
... As for traditional games, and even more so, players' retention is essential to 10 achieve the final goal that the gamified system aims at pursuing. Differently to 11 entertainment games, gameful systems are characterized by a precise underlying 12 motive (Scheiner, 2015), which, at a high level, is transforming a typically un-13 pleasant activity into a more engaging experience. Thus, gamification is found 14 particularly useful in the field of persuasive technology (Fogg, 2002), in which 15 the goal is to foster a positive behavioral change. ...
Article
The number of users attracted and engaged in a system dictates the value of the system itself. In gamification, timely detection of churners can produce more successful applications by informing both designers and algorithms. While churn prediction has been extensively studied in entertainment games, gamified systems often implement simpler mechanics, leading to a limited set of features compared to full-featured games. In this work, we studied whether limited players’ telemetry data describing in-game activity can be used to train a Random Forest model for churn prediction in a gamified application. Specifically, we analyzed different approaches for data preprocessing and sampling. Then, data from an online free-to-play (F2P) game was used as a validation set. Results show how in-game activity can be successfully used to predict churn. Moreover, from the tree’s visualization and interpretation, we found how players’ likelihood of abandoning the game is proportional to their time investment, both in the game and gamified system.
... Further, research that investigated cooperative games and their game features' effects, indicates that applying design features of cooperative games (e.g. shared goals) can induce cooperative behaviors (Chen & Pu, 2014;Goh & Lee, 2011;Morschheuser, Maedche, et al. 2017;Peng & Hsieh, 2012;Plass et al., 2013) and can positively influence social interaction (Hamari & Koivisto, 2015b;Scheiner, 2015). Inspired by these findings, we seek to better understand this possible correlation between cooperative game features and cooperation by investigating how engagement (cf. ...
Article
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Seamless cooperation between individuals is essentially a crucial aspect of any successful endeavor. A host of literature has been published in the academic realm about how cooperation could be cultivated. However, true cooperation often forms organically without external enforcement. Recently, there has been one special example of a context where cooperation seemed to have effortlessly sprung up between people who might not even have had previous connections. The context is video/online games; games such as Ingress, Pokémon Go, and World of Warcraft bind people together to work against insurmountable odds and to overcome jointly held challenges. Organizations of many types have recently begun to gamify their structures and services in order to cultivate such seamless cooperation. However, before this potential of games can be successfully wielded outside video games, we need to understand better how games are able to cultivate such cooperation. Therefore, in this study we investigate how games can induce and cultivate we-intention of working as a group. Specifically, we investigate how cooperative game features affect different forms of group dynamics and how they further translate into we-intentions. We employ data from users of the augmented reality game Ingress (N = 206). The results show that cooperative game features induce we-intentions via positively increasing group norms, social identity, joint commitment, attitudes toward cooperation, and anticipated positive emotions. The findings imply that practitioners who are looking to increase cooperation should find that gamification inspired by cooperative game design is beneficial and preferable over individual-based gamification efforts.
... In addition, avatars can help to overcome organizational hierarchical boundaries (Scheiner, 2015) or perhaps create new ones, e.g. through the means of ratings and rankings. Hierarchical boundaries and power are relational; they are an integral part of member's identity, shape the learning in communities (alignment) (Heizmann, 2011;Stierand, 2015) and are shaped by both human and non-human actors (Kakavelakis & Edwards, 2012). ...
Chapter
Gamification is a growing field of study in the management literature, and its impact on the situated, practice-based learning remains a promising direction of research. To build the further ground for application and study in this area, in this chapter we discuss the impact which the gamification approaches can have on organizational Communities of Practice (CoPs). We observe this question by focusing on the role of gamified materiality in building CoP members’ sense of mutual identification. Importantly, in addition to affecting materiality, gamification elements amend the spatial and temporal dimensions of situated learning which affects the relationships among community members as well as the ways in which they enact local practices. Within the gamified context, members develop relationships with fictional characters who thereby become enacted as non-material actors, and hence achieve a form of personification. Furthermore, within the gamified space and time, CoP members use game elements to re-negotiate their identities or even adopt altogether new identities. Thereby, gamification becomes something more than merely a motivational device, but rather an organizational process which touches on the very texture of organizing as it meshes with practitioners’ identities in the making.
... Nowadays the SMEs mostly motivate the employees with money and financial benefits, despite the fact that many research indicates that this type of motivation might not be effective enough for employees. Beside the monetary motivation the managers can chose from a number of motivational tools, such as recognition for a job well done, involvement in decision-making, sharing responsibilities and tasks with employees, career advancement opportunities, etc. (Falcone & Tan, 2013;Scheiner, 2015). ...
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Research background: This paper begins by defining the small and medium-sized enterprises and their background in Slovakia. It explores the roles of SMEs in the economic development. Furthermore, the background of the paper analyzes motivational tools in practice. Purpose of the article: The purpose of the paper is to provide a better understanding of the employee motivation issues in small and medium-sized Slovak enterprises; an examination of the motivational tools that influences the levels of satisfaction of employees of SMEs. Methods: This research was conducted with members of small and medium enterprises in Slovakia. A personal information form and the motivation factors questionnaire form were used as data collection tools. The ending contains the results of the research and conclusions. The Pearson-correlation and the Asymptotic Significance (2-sided) were used as statistical methods. Findings and Value added: The findings show that motivation is very individual and managers have a hard task by motivating their employees. Employees are more motivated by intrinsic factors rather than extrinsic, but none of the two can be overlooked by the managers.
... Nowadays companies mostly motivate by money and by monetary acknowledgment, despite the fact that many research indicates that this type of motivation may not be enough incentive for employees (Scheiner, 2015). Beside the monetary motivation the leader can chose from a number of motivational tools, such as the recognition of creative tasks or sharing of responsibility to subordinates, career, etc. (Blašková, 2003). ...
Conference Paper
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The motivation research has undergone by spectacular development in recent years. An increasing number of books, booklets, magazines are dealing with the motivation, as a notion. Every organization wants to be successful and achieve its objectives as efficiently as it is possible. It is essential without the willing and dedicated staff. The motivation plays a big role in each activity in the work. It is also important to maintain motivation and further motivate the staff as well. The ranges of motivational tools are very diverse, and therefore the organizations can widely apply these in everyday life. The main aim of the scientific paper is an examination of the motivational tools that influence the representatives of different generations in practice. The scientific paper presents the specific characteristics of chosen generations and characterizes the purpose of the research. The paper contains the results of research and conclusions.
... The concept is also an increasingly key research topic (Robson et al., 2016). Beyond enhancing customers' retailing experiences (Insley and Nunan, 2014), it found applications in domains such as services (Huotari and Hamari, 2012;Hamari, 2013), innovation (Roth et al., 2015;Scheiner, 2015), community (Harwood and Garry, 2015), and intra-organizational management (Farzan and Brusilovsky, 2011;Robson et al., 2016). By positioning shopping as an entertaining activity (Insley and Nunan, 2014), gamification might provide a compelling playful experience and thus generate stronger patronage intentions (Mathwick et al., 2001). ...
Article
The emergence of smart technologies is increasingly catching the attention of researchers and practitioners, especially in retailing contexts. However, empirical studies investigating the impact of technologies' design on customers' shopping experience remain limited. In response to this gap, this research analyzes the impact of gamification mechanics, a widely used tool to design smart technologies, on customers' experience, emotions and the resulting behavioral intentions. Therefore, we first examine the impact of two gamification mechanics, challenge and fantasy, on customer experience and patronage intentions. Then, we specifically study the case of the Smartstore, a smart innovative technology used to personalize items in retailing contexts and combining these two gamification mechanics in comparison with a classical interface without any gamification mechanics. Based on those two experimental studies, our findings confirm that personalizing a product through a gamified interface might have a positive impact in terms of experience during the process but also on patronage intentions. Hence this research also shows that solely adding gamification mechanics such as challenge and fantasy in a smart interface is not enough to significantly enhance the quality of the perceived experience.
... Gamification through the aspect of play facilitates unlearning via experiments, encouraging one to leave old routines behind and dive into a safe space exploring the new (Mainemelis & Ronson, 2006). Scheiner, 2015). Moreover, gamification helps address change in a structured way as it facilitates the coordination of knowledge among different actors (Patricio et al., 2020), helping players reach a common conclusion and move in the same direction (Patricio, 2017). ...
Article
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In today's business environment, knowledge sources for innovation are widely distributed n the economy, pushing firms to shift from a closed to an open model of innovation. However, the successful implementation of an open innovation model requires overcoming the inertia that hinders organizations facing environmental changes. The aim of this research is to build a conceptual framework of how gamification approaches might help firms overcome inertia in open innovation implementation following an organizational change perspective. After a systematic literature review, we posit that a gamification approach can help firms overcome inertia shortcomings with respect to the three stages of organizational change that are needed to implement open innovation: unfreezing, moving and institutionalizing. This research sheds light on the barriers to open innovation and contributes to the theoretical literature on gamification. Organizations can take advantage of the new opportunities in gamification to manage the challenges of implementing an open innovation process.
... In short, gamification entails the adoption of the structure, look and feel of a designed game with the intent of advancing managerial objectives, while creating the same experience for participants that they would have if they were playing (Werbach and Hunter 2012). The effectiveness of gamification has been confirmed with regard to several purposes concerning customers such as increasing their engagement, enhancing their creativity (Agogué et al. 2015;Scheiner 2015), initiating learning (Domínguez et al. 2013), changing behaviors (Hamari and Koivisto 2015), fostering technology adoption (Müller-Stewens et al. 2017) and providing customers with enjoyable experiences (Hammedi, Leclercq and van Riel, 2017). For instance the badge system on Foursquare to encourage contribution to the social network, the challenges organized on Nike Fuel to foster physical exercises, idea contests on MyStarbuckIdea.com to collect customers' ideas for new products/ services or the ludic interface of Duolingo to practice language learning are just few examples of gamification. ...
Chapter
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Practitioners and researchers are seeking efficient mechanisms to stimulate and manage customer engagement. From this perspective, gamification-defined as the use of game mechanics in traditionally nongame contexts-appears to be particularly promising. This chapter offers an overview defining what gamification is and how it operates. A subsequent and quite important section is dedicated to the consequences of gamification and, more particularly, its effects on customer engagement. Building on the definition from Huotari and Hamari (2017), three key aspects of gamification are discussed in regard to customer engagement: motivational affordance, gameful experience and value realization. Benefits and drawbacks of gamification in terms of engagement are then provided. This chapter contributes to the ongoing debate about gamification by identifying additional and underresearched issues related to the implementation and management of gamification. Finally, given the increasing popularity and adoption of gamification in the business world, guidelines for practitioners on how to appropriately implement and manage gamification to engage customers over time will be provided throughout the various sections.
... Collaboration was a keyword more often than competition (collaboration was used 1712 times and competition 548 times). This is supported by other researchers who suggest that competition in learning needs to be further explored to make it more efficient and effective in designing game concepts and game components (Burguillo, 2010;Dissanayake, Mehta, Palvia, Taras, & Amoako-Gyampah, 2019;Santhanam et al., 2016;Scheiner, 2015). The surrounding reality most often used was VR. ...
Article
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In recent years, using game concepts for educational purposes in digital environments has become continually more popular and relevant. Games can be used to motivate and engage users in regular system use and, in the end, support learners in achieving better learning outcomes. In this context, different kinds of game concepts exist, such as gamification or serious games, each with a different perspective and usefulness in digital learning environments. Because developing and using with game concepts in digital learning environments has recently become more important, and developing them is still not fully established, questions arise about future research directions involving games in digital learning. Therefore, this study aims to identify the state of the field and determine what is relevant when using game concepts in digital learning. To achieve this goal, we present the results of a bibliometric analysis considering more than 10,000 articles between 2000 and 2019 and summarize them to develop a research agenda. This agenda supports researchers and practitioners in identifying avenues for future research. We contribute to theory by providing a detailed understanding of the relevance of game concepts in digital learning. We propose a research agenda to assist researchers in planning future approaches with and about gamification concepts in digital learning. Practical implications are proposed by demonstrating what should be considered when using game concepts in learning environments.
... The study conclude that the Where's Wally game has occured to be significantly important for engaging students of the massive open online courses. Siginificantly important according to results have been identified game points, levels, avatars or virtual identity and badges (Scheiner, 2015). However, generally speaking the participants of the study conducted by Scheiner (2015) ranked game mechanics as motivational factors for engaging consumers into idea competing provided by organizations. ...
Conference Paper
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Consumer behaviour in theoretical aspect has evolved through the years. Moreover, numerous seller have moved from physical retailer to online e-commerce websites or pages on social media. Social media within years have expanded the usage in the commercial world. In the digitization era, where consumers are daily users of technology and social media, gamification has been seen as an innovative engaging and motivating technique. So far, gamification has been employed in different fields such as healthcare, sustainability, government, transportation, education, and so on. Although, gamification appliance in consumer behaviour domain is not that much explored. Furthermore, one of gamification elements is game mechanics, which has been applied for the research purpose. This paper aims to explain the differences between consumers of different age groups and cities in Republic of Kosovo regarding the game mechanics influence when purchasing via social media. A qualitative approach followed by a non-parametric test, Chi-Square test, has been employed to describe and explain the differences between the groups. This paper contributes to the existing theory of gamification, game mechanics and its impact for social media purchasers.
... Gamification was already proven to enhance students' self-reported learning effectivity and engagement [36], [37], to speed up the solving of a scientific problem through a big non-professional community [38] and to facilitate the recruitment of new employees [39]. As gamification can be implemented without an elaborate and expensive digital platform [40] and used for idea generation and idea competitions in groups [41] - [44], it may also help enterprises to efficiently generate innovative ideas in a team without causing high additional costs or personnel efforts. This is particularly relevant for the innovation development process. ...
Article
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Innovation providing a competitive advantage to enterprises is based on original ideas usually developed by teams. Therefore, the optimization of idea generation in teams is crucial for the enterprises' competitiveness and survival. The goal of this experimental study is to test whether idea generation in team can be made more effective in terms of quantity and quality through gamification (the use of game design elements in non-game contexts). Based on conservation of resources theory, in the present study gamification was assumed to generate and regulate task-related resources and therefore to increase the number and originality of generated ideas. 170 students divided in 70 teams were asked to imagine themselves to be a management team of a young innovative enterprise during a crisis meeting and to generate solutions for the described problems. 35 teams were randomly assigned to the gamification condition and another 35 teams to the control condition. The number and originality of ideas were evaluated by two independent condition-blind raters and compared between the conditions. Gamification has a large positive effect on the idea number and a medium-sized positive effect on the idea originality. The findings, implications and limitations are discussed.
... Between 2015 to 2017, many researchers adopted mixed-method most likely because they possibly realized the importance of both design elements in understanding the utilization of gamification (e.g. Çakıroğlu, Başıbüyük, Güler, Atabay, & Memiş, 2017;da Rocha Seixas, Gomes, & de Melo Filho, 2016;Scheiner, 2015;Kuo & Chuang, 2016). ...
Article
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Purpose The purpose of this paper is to examine the research design of several publications on the study of gamification and proposes a mixed-method research design for creating a holistic understanding of the gamification phenomenon. It presents an argument in support of combining both qualitative and quantitative data sources through mixed-method design as being equally important in illuminating all aspects of the research problem. Design/methodology/approach The paper covers a number of methodological themes relevant to the study of gamification: research design trends in the study of gamification; the importance of mixed-method design in the study of gamification; methodological challenges; conclusion and recommendations. Findings Majority of the studies on gamification before 2015 are either quantitative or described as mixed method but overly focused on quantitative data sources. However, there is a tendency between 2015 and 2017 to adopt mixed-method design. Research limitations/implications The study does not examine all research done on the topic of gamification but relies on 56 empirical studies reviewed by Hamari, Koivisto, Sarsa (2014) and Seaborn and Fels (2015) between 2009 and 2015. Originality/value The author believes it to be one of the few studies of its kind on proposing a methodological design for the study of gamification as a pedagogical tool.
... For instance, Hsieh and Chang (2016) showed a positive association between perceived relatedness, which pertains to 'connectedness or belonging,' and solver participation in CCs. Scheiner (2015) reported that 'social aspects' in gamified idea competitions are the strongest motivators as such features afford a sense of belonging and bonding with other solves (Scheiner 2015, 348). Lastly, Dissanayake et al. (2015a) showed that community involvement (number of forum posts on a CC platform) positively affects solver performance (Dissanayake et al. 2015a, 6). ...
Article
Crowdsourcing contests allow organisations to engage with an external workforce. Over the years, the phenomenon has attracted considerable research interest. In the present review, we synthesise the crowdsourcing contest literature by adopting the social mechanism lens. We begin by observing that stakeholders in crowdsourcing contests range from individuals (solvers) to large-scale organisations (seekers). Given that such vastly different entities interact during a crowdsourcing contest, it is expected that their behaviour, too, can have a varying range of predictors, such as individual and organisational factors. However, prior reviews on Crowdsourcing contests and crowdsourcing, in general, haven't explored the phenomenon's multi-layered nature. In addressing this gap, we synthesise 127 scholarly articles and identify underlying social mechanisms that explain key behavioural outcomes of seekers and solvers. Our review makes two specific contributions. First, we determine three distinct tensions that emerge from the key design decisions that might be at odds with the central principle of crowdsourcing contests: broadcast search for solutions from a long-tail of solvers. Second, we provide three recommendations for future research that, we believe, could provide a richer understanding of the seeker and solver behaviour.
... A longitudinal study (Scheiner 2015) assessed the motivational value of game mechanics in an idea competition using game points, social points, level, story virtual identity, exchange, and badges. Social points and exchange were found as most favorable. ...
... Defined as "a process of enhancing a service with affordances for gameful experience to support users' overall value creation" (Huotari & Hamari, 2017, p. 25), various fields, from banking and education to healthcare and retailing, practice gamification. The existing literature confirms its effectiveness in regard to customers' engagement (Eisingerich, Marchand, Fritze, & Dong, 2019;Shankar, 2016), creativity (Agogué, Levillain, & Hooge, 2015;Scheiner, 2015), learning (Landers, 2014), behavior change (Hamari & Koivisto, 2015;Mülcahy, Russel-Bennett, & Iacobucci, 2020), technology adoption (Müller-Stewens, Schlager, Häubl, & Herrmann, 2017), and enjoyable experiences (Hammedi, Leclercq, & Van Riel, 2017;Höllig, Tumasjan, & Welpe, 2020). However, little evidence details the role of gamification in a workplace context or from an employee perspective (Oppong-Tawiah et al., 2020;Vesa, Hamari, Harviainen, & Warmelink, 2017). ...
Article
Rethinking the workplace experience as a means for enhancing the well-being of frontline employees (FLEs) represents a key priority for services. The well-being of frontline employees leads to improved performance and better customer service, such that it enhances the firm's overall competitive advantage and revenue. Therefore, engagement-facilitating technologies that can increase FLEs' well-being, such as gamified work, hold promise in terms of their effects on job satisfaction and engagement. Using a mixed-method design, including in-depth interviews with FLEs and their managers, and two large field experiments, this research considers two key sectors in which FLEs are critical: retailing and telemarketing. The results highlight the negative impacts of gamified work on employee engagement and well-being, although the willingness of employees to participate in such gamified work moderates these negative impacts. By revealing how gamification affects FLEs' well-being, job engagement, and job satisfaction, this research provides actionable insights for managers.
... Often, the introduction of gamification fails just because it is used incorrectly by decision-makers. As already mentioned, gamification describes the inclusion of game design elements, being combined in a way that they create an enjoyable experience for participants (Füller, 2006;Scheiner, 2015). So, if not enough thought is given to integrating them, they can be seen and potentially being perceived as distracting rather than integral elements. ...
Conference Paper
Games accompany humanity all over the world. They can be powerful means to generate and impart knowledge and motivation in a playful way. Stereotypically, games are often associated with children. Still, throughout the last few years, the merits of games were also transferred into a corporate context, recognized there under the term gamification. By using game elements in a non-playful environment, this approach could help to stimulate innovation and to foster entrepreneurial as well as collaborative cultures among employees, managers, and customers. However, while gamification offers many positive aspects, the actual implementation and application within an organization remain subject to several obstacles. Hence for this study, twentyeight expert interviews from seven different industries were conducted to identify and describe those hurdles. Subsequently, an approach was developed, enabling organizations to reduce or even to avoid them.
... For example, a 50-year-old manager with chronic conditions may be content with taking a few more breaks at work, while a young intern in the twenties may have a goal of using the company's fitness facilities more often. If not designed carefully, the goal heterogeneity may lead to unequal opportunities and/or rewards, which in turn decrease user motivation and engagement [31,32]. While it is possible to create sub-group competitions, it is more interesting to explore whether a creative design can enable users with different goals to compete in the same game (e.g., through asymmetrical game design, see [33]). ...
Article
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Social gamification systems have shown potential for promoting healthy lifestyles, but applying them to occupational settings faces unique design challenges. While occupational settings offer natural communities for social interaction, fairness issues due to heterogeneous personal goals and privacy concerns increase the difficulty of designing engaging games. We explored a two-level game-design, where the first level related to achieving personal goals and the second level was a privacy-protected social competition to maximize goal compliance among colleagues. The solution was strengthened by employing occupational physicians who personalized users’ goals and coached them remotely. The design was evaluated in a 5-month study with 53 employees from a Dutch university. Results suggested that the application helped half of the participants to improve their lifestyles, and most appreciated the role of the physician in goal-setting. However, long-term user engagement was undermined by the scalability-motivated design choice of one-way communication between employees and their physician. Implications for social gamification design in occupational health are discussed.
... The ultimate goal of gamification is to increase the instrumentality of systems and services through motivating and engaging user experience (Hamari & Koivisto, 2015;Suh, Cheung, Ahuja, & Wagner, 2017). Examples of gamified systems include enterprise software (Morschheuser, Henzi, & Alt, 2015;Schacht & Maedche, 2015;Thom et al., 2012), ecommerce websites (Hamari, 2017;Harwood & Garry, 2015), crowdsourcing systems (Melenhorst, Novak, Micheel, Larson, & Boeckle, 2015;Morschheuser, Koivisto et al., 2017;Morschheuser et al., 2019), innovation management (Morschheuser, Maedche, & Walter, 2017;Scheiner, 2015), and ISs used in education (Bonde et al., 2014;Domínguez et al., 2013). ...
... The findings show that in the class students had better performance, collaboration, the emotional status and more enthusiastic. Furthermore, Chang and Wei (2016) implemented later on has been studied by Scheiner (2015). The scholar further suggests that to have successful engagement with consumers game points, levels, avatars or virtual identity and badges should be designed and applied properly. ...
Article
Full-text available
Companies aspire to fulfil consumers’ needs, wants and desires by offering products and services. Due to globalization and digitization, the world became a small village by facilitating the obtainability of products/services across the globe. Furthermore, the online purchasing via social platforms mirrors the traditional purchasing process. Gamification, game techniques and elements have been employed in the different domain for engaging and motivating consumers, students, end-users in numerous countries and cultures. Gamification is considered the appliance of game techniques and game elements in the non-game environment. It’s been adjusted in different models founded as a need to explore and explain variables, phenomena and theories. Game mechanics as one of the game elements are applied in different disciplines to achieve better performance, fruitful collaboration, active and enthusiastic participation, creating enjoyable, pleasurable and entertaining environment. Aesthetics are described as the sensory part that game evoke within the player. To identify the differences within consumers who purchase via social media when game mechanics and aesthetics are applied, the chi-square test for independence has been employed. The results estimate that the association between products and services as variables is not statistically significant and the relationship between them is weak or moderated. The findings of this research are useful for private companies and other interested stakeholders.
... Relatedly, research is needed to better understand how the diminishing effects of gamification rewards on behavior can be countered (Scheiner 2015). ...
Chapter
This chapter addresses two research questions. Overall, these two research objectives are rooted in a CEM-model that follows chain of effects between CEM initiatives, CE, and business performance. Within this context, the first research objective is related to the heart of CEM, which concerns the conceptualization of CE. In particular, the aim is to develop a CE conceptualization that integrates the different perspectives put forward in the literature thus far thereby providing more conceptual clarity as well as capturing conceptual richness of CE. The second research objective explores gamification and its design as a strategic CEM initiative. This involves addressing the link between gamification and CE in detail and understanding design principles that underlie the development of effective gamification.
... Gamification is intended to change user behaviour Hamari et al., 2014). However, each element has different characteristics that decide the success of a gamification concept in terms of the addressed outcomes that must be better understood; this is because the addressed outcomes are still a black box for researchers and practitioners (Scheiner, 2015). Replacing a level with a leaderboard in a bundle of elements may result in negative effects or no effect on user motivation (Hamari & Koivisto, 2015;Hew et al., 2016;Shute et al., 2015). ...
Article
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Gamification is a well-known approach that refers to the use of elements to increase the motivation of information systems users. A remaining challenge in gamification is that no shared understanding of the meaning and classification of gamification elements currently exists. This impedes guidance concerning analysis and development of gamification concepts, and often results in non-effective gamification designs. The goal of our research is to consolidate current gamification research and rigorously develop a taxonomy, as well as to demonstrate how a systematic classification of gamification elements can provide guidance for the gamification of information systems and improve understanding of existing gamification concepts. To achieve our goal, we develop a taxonomic classification of gamification elements before evaluating this taxonomy using expert interviews. Furthermore, we provide evidence as to the taxonomy’s feasibility using two practical cases: First, we show how our taxonomy helps to analyse existing gamification concepts; second, we show how our taxonomy can be used for guiding the gamification of information systems. We enrich theory by introducing a novel taxonomy to better explain the characteristics of gamification elements, which will be valuable for both gamification analysis and design. This paper will help guide practitioners to select and combine gamification elements for their gamification concepts.
... The winners receive a huge sum of money to split amongst the team. (Kumar & Raghavendran, 2015;Lauto & Valentin, 2016;Scheiner, 2015) Quest charity projects X Sometimes volunteers call for help in charity work, e.g. food for homeless for Thanksgiving dinner. ...
Article
The increasingly popular trend of gamification has proved powerful in many areas, such as education and marketing, and has started making its way to the corporate environment. This exploratory study is focused on a particular part of corporate applications – using gamification to empower knowledge workers and to help them to interact with each other. Based on a review of the extant literature and an exploratory case study, we conceptualise different ways in which gamification supports knowledge workers and influences the dynamics of their interactions. The case study we present is that of online retailer Zappos who have been pioneers in this field. This paper is intended as the beginning of a journey towards utilising gamification in various aspects of knowledge work. Through studying the Zappos case, we draw out key learning points that can be used by other organisations in their journey to use gamification to empower knowledge workers. The paper also identifies areas for further research relevant to expert and intelligent systems, including the potential for synergies between gamification and intelligent systems, and the use of gamification in intelligent systems implementation.
... Furthermore, Chang and Wei (2016) have identified virtual goods as gifts, redeemable points, team leaderboards, the Where's Wally game, trophies and badges as game mechanics tool for engaging and motivating Taiwanese students of massive open online courses. Engaging consumers in providing new ideas for organizations to be implemented later on has been studied by Scheiner (2015). The scholar further suggests that to have successful engagement with consumers game points, levels, avatars or virtual identity and badges should be designed and applied properly. ...
Article
Full-text available
Companies aspire to fulfil consumers’ needs, wants and desires by offering products and services. Due to globalization and digitization, the world became a small village by facilitating the obtainability of products/services across the globe. Furthermore, the online purchasing via social platforms mirrors the traditional purchasing process. Gamification, game techniques and elements have been employed in the different domain for engaging and motivating consumers, students, end-users in numerous countries and cultures. Gamification is considered the appliance of game techniques and game elements in the non-game environment. It’s been adjusted in different models founded as a need to explore and explain variables, phenomena and theories. Game mechanics as one of the game elements are applied in different disciplines to achieve better performance, fruitful collaboration, active and enthusiastic participation, creating enjoyable, pleasurable and entertaining environment. Aesthetics are described as the sensory part that game evoke within the player. To identify the differences within consumers who purchase via social media when game mechanics and aesthetics are applied, the chi-square test for independence has been employed. The results estimate that the association between products and services as variables is not statistically significant and the relationship between them is weak or moderated. The findings of this research are useful for private companies and other interested stakeholders.
... Apart from that, avatars can help to overcome organizational hierarchical boundaries (Scheiner, 2015) or perhaps create new ones, e.g. through the means of ratings and rankings. ...
Conference Paper
Gamification is a growing field of study in the management literature, and its impact on the situated, practice-based learning remains a promising direction of research. To build the further ground for application and study in this area, in this paper we discuss the impact which the gamification approaches can have on organizational Communities of Practice (CoPs). We observe this question by focusing on the role of gamified materiality in building CoP members' sense of mutual identification. Within the gamified context, members develop relationships with fictional characters who thereby become enacted as non-material actors, and hence achieve a form of personification. Furthermore, within the gamified space and time, CoP members use game elements to renegotiate their identities or even adopt new identities. Thereby, gamification becomes something more than merely a motivational device, but rather a profound organizational process which touches on the very texture of organizing as it meshes with practitioners' identities.
... Some of these studies investigate the way game approaches can support ideation (Agogu e et al., 2015), explore different purposes of using gamification during continuous innovation (Hyypi€ a and Parjanen, 2015), examine how workshop sessions based on game approaches can be integrated and connected to a whole innovation process (Schulz et al., 2015) and explain how gamification can support the generation of ideas for developing new product concepts or entering new markets (Patricio, 2017). Others reinforce the need to create a more robust argument on the experimental value of game mechanics and participants' motivation in gamification (Brandt et al., 2008;Kavaliova et al., 2016;Scheiner, 2015). ...
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Purpose The paper aims to explore the relationship between gamification and design thinking approach to innovation in the context of the early stage of innovation process (ESoIP). Design thinking is conceptually appropriate to support innovative, complex and uncertain business environments. Still, its practices have demonstrated some difficulties in managing the ESoIP, such as lack of structure and clarity around goals. This paper argues that gamification can enhance and complement design thinking in the management of firms' ESoIP. Design/methodology/approach Given the need to achieve a deeper understanding of the linkages between gamification and design thinking, the paper follows an exploratory theory building approach for this complex reality of innovation. The case study research method was conducted in three firms (Trivalor, Novartis and Microsoft) that applied a gamification approach to the ESoIP. Findings The results demonstrate that gamification has the power to enhance and complement design thinking practices by getting tasks more organized and improving coordination and employees' engagement in the innovation process. Practical implications The paper provides critical managerial contributions on how firms can use gamification to improve design thinking approaches to ESoIP. Its consequences are also crucial to innovation, R&D, and product/service development managers interested in using gamification to support the ideation and concept development of new solutions complementing traditional design thinking approaches. Originality/value Merging the gamification and design thinking approaches is novel, particularly on firms' ESoIP. The paper provides a comprehensive discussion of design thinking shortcomings and the role that gamification can play in overcoming them.
... The ultimate goal of gamification is to increase the instrumentality of systems and services through motivating and engaging user experience Suh, Cheung, Ahuja, & Wagner, 2017). Examples of gamified systems include enterprise software (Morschheuser, Henzi, & Alt, 2015;Schacht & Maedche, 2015;Thom et al., 2012), ecommerce websites (Hamari, 2017;Harwood & Garry, 2015), crowdsourcing systems Morschheuser et al., 2019), innovation management (Morschheuser, Maedche, & Walter, 2017;Scheiner, 2015), and ISs used in education (Bonde et al., 2014;. ...
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Introduction You are about to read a story of crime, deceit and punishment. The story takes place in a virtual world, but it is by no means a fiction story. All the characters portrayed have existed and the events recollected have actually happened. They are taken from the real everyday life of a virtual world. A virtual world is a virtual place that is persistent over time -- unlike the environments of networked games like Quake -- and it is accessible by many people at the same time. These people have to have some kind of self-representation, so participants can see each other, unlike the simultaneous visitors of a website. By calling it a place, I have implied that the system has to be based on some kind of spatial metaphor, unlike an electronic message board for instance. It can be a text-based system -- but in this case it is graphical. My reason for telling this story is to point out some important aspects of the nature of the social interaction in this kind of setting that are
The Evokation -How to Earn EVOKE Awards, Scholarships, Mentorships
EVOKE (2010) The Evokation -How to Earn EVOKE Awards, Scholarships, Mentorships [WWW document]. URL http://blog.urgentevoke.net/2010/ 01/24/the-evokation-how-to-earn-evoke-awards -scholarships-mentorships/ [accessed 27 December 2013].
Anleitung zum Kreativsein