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Effects of black seeds (Nigella sativa) on male infertility: A systematic review

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Abstract

Following an increase in free radicals, DNA damage and lipid peroxidation in human sperm may occur. Antioxidant components in medicinal herbs such as Nigella sativa (NS) have been indicated to improve spermatogenesis and steroidogenesis. The aim of the present study was to conduct a systemic review summarizing the effects of NS on male infertility. A number of electronic databases were searched namely Pubmed, Science Direct, Google scholar and Springer from the period January 2000 until June 2014. Searching was limited to articles in the English language. Patents and abstracts from symposiums and congress were excluded because they contained insufficient information for evaluation and comparison with other studies. The outcome of this study indicated that NS can positively influence sperm parameters, semen, Leydig cells, reproductive organs and sexual hormones. The main potential mechanism is through the antioxidant properties of NS. Thymoquinone (TQ) and unsaturated fatty acids are the main antioxidant components of NS. NS and TQ derived from NS can improve male fertility parameters through promoting antioxidant defence. Although the findings of this review suggest that NS is a good candidate for male infertility treatment, there is insufficient evidence to make recommendations for its use as an adjunct therapy in infertile men. More clinical trials are recommended to demonstrate the efficacy of NS on male infertility.

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... The main phytotherapics promoted to increase T and improve sperm characteristics in humans are: tribulus (Tribulus terrestris L., Zygophyllaceae), maca (Lepidium meyenii Walp., Brassicaceae), long Jack (Eurycoma longifolia Jack, Simaroubaceae), mucuna (Mucuna pruriens (L.) DC, Fabaceae), ashwagandha (Withania somnifera L. Dunal, Solanaceae) fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum L., Fabaceae) and black seeds (Nigella sativa L., Ranunculaceae) (Bhat and Karim, 2010;Chen et al., 2014;Mahdavi et al., 2015;Khanijo and Jiraungkoorskul, 2016;Neychev and Mitev, 2016;Rehman et al., 2016;Talbott et al., 2013). Previous reviews have overestimated the effectiveness of these phytotherapics to favorably influence hormonal parameters, and, to date, the real physiological impact remains unclear (Chhatre et al., 2014;Malviya et al., 2011;Nagulapalli Venkata et al., 2017;Yadav and Baquer, 2014;Zhu et al., 2017). ...
... months (Ahmad et al., 2008;Mahdi et al., 2011;Shukla et al., 2010Shukla et al., , 2010Shukla et al., , 2009). Black seeds, in turn, also display an important role on seminal redox balance, where its antioxidants compounds, especially thymoquinone and unsaturated fatty acids, have been suggested to improve spermatogenesis through free radical scavenging potential (Mahdavi et al., 2015). ...
... Black seeds positively influence sperm parameters, Leydig cells, reproductive organs, and sexual hormones. However, the current body of evidence for black seeds is based on animal studies as detailed in a 2015 systematic review (Mahdavi et al., 2015). Hence, there is insufficient evidence to make recommendations on the use of black seeds as an adjunct therapy for infertility. ...
Article
Ethno-pharmacological relevance: Phytotherapeutic approaches have been widely proposed to improve male health. Despite the well-touted effects of tribulus (Tribulus terrestris L) on men's health, an optimal phytotherapy remains an elusive challenge. Aim of the review: We sought to critically analyze the evidence in the phytotherapic literature beyond the effects of tribulus on testosterone (T) concentration and sperm analysis to also include indications for prostate health. Materials and methods: A focused literature search was conducted to include studies published in Cochrane, Pubmed, and Web of Science databases between the years 2002 and 2018. Results: The use of tribulus and maca (Lepidium meyenii Walp, Brassicaceae) were not scientifically supported to improve serum T levels in men. Moderate evidence supports the use of long Jack (Eurycoma longifolia Jack, Simaroubaceae), mucuna (Mucuna pruriens (L.) DC., Fabaceae), ashwagandha (Withania somnifera (L.) Dunal, Solanaceae), fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graceum L., Fabaceae), and black seeds (Nigella sativa L., Ranunculaceae) to increase total T and improve seminal parameters. Data suggests an increase in total T with the use of 5000 mg/d of powdered mucuna seed and ashwagandha root (151 and 143 ng/dL, respectively) over a 12-week period in patients with oligozoospermia. The use of mucuna was supported for patients with oligozoospermia to improve sperm parameters, with an increase of 83.3 million/mL observed after use of 5000 mg/d of powdered mucuna seed over a 12-week period. Evidence supporting the use of saw palmetto (Serenoa repens, (W.Bartram) Small, Arecaceae) to improve prostate health remains equivocal; whereas, evidence supporting the use of Pygeum africanum Hook.f., Rosaceae, Urtica dioica L., Urticaceae, beta-sitosterols, pollen extract, onion, garlic, and tomato, appears favorable and promising. Conclusion: Scientific evidence supports the use of mucuna and ashwagandha as phytotherapics for improving serum T concentrations and semen parameters. Despite inconclusive evidence for use of tribulus as a T booster, it may provide advantageous effects on sperm parameters in men with idiopathic infertility. Nutraceutical strategies and some phytotherapics may also be effective to promote prostate health. Popular foodstuffs (onion, garlic, and tomato), nutraceutical agents (pollen extract and beta-sitosterols), and herbal medicines (Pygeum africanum and Urtica dioica) are rational approaches.
... NS oil was shown to counteract the impairment in epididymal sperm characteristics caused by H 2 O 2 exposure [16]. Similarly, both the oil and seed of NS have been shown to increase sperm production, semen quality, sperm count, and volume of semen, seminiferous tubular diameter, increased sperm motility and percentage fertility, decreased sperm abnormality index as well as increased hormonal levels [17]. The administration of LA to male rats have also been reported to affect the levels of reproductive hormones; testosterone (TS), estrogen and luteinizing hormone (LH) as well as reduce sperm viability, motility, concentration, gonadal weight and increase sperm abnormalities, and degenerative and necrotic conditions in the testis [5,[18][19][20]. ...
... NS have been reported to exhibit potent anti-inflammatory, analgesic, anticarcinogenic, antidiabetic, antiulcer, antimicrobial, and antiparasitic activities [9,21]. In related studies, both administrations of NS seed and oil have been found to improve sperm counts, sperm viability and motility, testicular weights, decrease sperm abnormalities, and testosterone concentration [10,17,22]. Similarly, increased levels of reproductive hormones were observed after administration of NS oil in male rats [23]. ...
... The administration of NS to normal rats has been shown to boost the sperm production profiles and TS levels, indicating that the compound enhances male fertility [17,23]. In this study, LA reduced the concentration of sperm at the maturation stage in the testis and reduced tail ESRs indicating suppression of spermatogenesis, however, rats treated with graded doses of NS showed remarkable improvements in both spermatogenesis and ESRs. ...
Article
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Aim: This study was designed to evaluate the prophylactic effect of Nigella sativa (NS) treatment on toxic effects induced by lead acetate (LA) on the reproductive hormones, spermiogram and gonadal histology of rats. Materials and Methods: A total of 20 Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into four groups of five rats each. Group 1 (negative control [NC]) was the NC and was given distilled water, Group 2 served as the positive control (PC) and was administered 10 mg/kg/day of LA per overall survival (OS), Group 3 (T1) was administered 200 mg/kg/daily of NS per OS for a month, and Group 4 (T2) was pretreated with 200 mg/kg/daily of NS per OS for 1 month, followed by 10 mg/kg/daily of LA alone per OS for another. The rats were euthanized at the end of the experimental period for collection of blood and the right caudal epididymis and testis. Serum was used for determination of reproductive hormones by using radioimmunoassay kits. The epididymal segment was cut and homogenized in phosphate-buffered saline, and the homogenate was used for determination of the spermiogram parameters such as sperm concentration, sperm viability, percentage of live sperm, motility and abnormality. Both the epididymis and testis were fixed in 10% buffered formalin for histological processing. Results: The sperm concentration, general, and individual motilities were higher (p<0.05) in the NC and T1 animals, while the T2 had intermediate and the PC had lower (p<0.05) values of each parameter. The percentage sperm viability was higher (p<0.05) in the T1 and lower (p<0.05) in the PC group. However, percentage abnormality was lower in T1, comparable in NC and T2, and higher (p<0.05) in PC. Spermatogenic cell population and epididymal sperm reserve (ESR) were optimal in control and pretreated animals, while the PC had lower spermatids and ESR. The concentration of estradiol (EST) was lower (p<0.05) in the PC and T2, while leuteinizing hormone (LH) concentration was lower (p<0.05) in the PC, and comparable (p>0.05) between control and T2. The concentration of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) was comparable (p>0.05) in all groups, while testosterone (TS) hormone concentration was lower (p<0.05) in the PC and higher in the control and T1 groups. Conclusion: This study showed the preventive effects of NS administration against alterations in reproductive hormnes, sperm parameters and gonadal histology caused by LA in rats.
... Moreover, infertile men (n = 34) when treated with 2.5 mL NS oil for 2 months, significantly improved abnormal semen quality without producing any adverse effect [35]. According to Mahdavi et al [36] the NS oil is a good candidate for treating male infertility. Hexane and methanol extracts of NS produced significant anti-fertility in Sprague-Dawley male and female rats, respectively. ...
... Hexane and methanol extracts of NS produced significant anti-fertility in Sprague-Dawley male and female rats, respectively. Otherwise, NS is evident to inhibit the uterine smooth muscle contraction in rats and guinea pigs [2,36]. TQ when treated with olive oil caused a reduction in polycystic overy in rats possibly, via NF-κB signaling pathway [37]. ...
... NS seed oil -Male infertility treatment. [36] NS seed oil -Anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and immunomodulatory activities. [14] EO from NS and TQ -Regulation of immune reactions implicated in various infectious and non-infectious conditions including different types of allergy, autoimmunity, and cancer. ...
Article
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Nigella sativa L. (NS) has a number of important biological activities, such as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, antifungal, anti-viral, anti-parasitic and anti-protozoal, cytotoxic, anticancer, neuro-, gastro-, cardio-, hetapto- and nephroprotective activities. In addition, the NS exerts beneficiary effects on reproductive, pulmonary and immune systems as well as in diabetes mellitus (DM), fertility (male and female), breast cancer, dermatological complications, dehydration, dyspepsia, and osmotic balance and so on. Among the isolated constituents, thymoquinone (TQ) is a vastly studied phytochemical in NS. A number of reports suggest that, the NS may be one of the potential herbs in health promotion. This review paper will discuss the detailed and mechanistic aspects of the biological activity of N. sativa along with the reported phytoconstituents.
... A few of them covered co-treatments with other agents including biochemicals. We found a major revision on this plant done by Ahmad et al. [2] along with a dermatological revision of Aljabre et al. [3], an immunomodulatory and antiinflammatory revision of Amin et al. [4], an anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, an immunomodulatory revision of Gholamnezhad et al. [5], male fertility revision of Mahdavi et al. [6], and metabolic parameters in diabetes mellitus revision of Heshmati & Namazi [7]. These six articles inspired me to take them as a guide for previous evidences on N. sativa. ...
... The black seeds are also evident an advantageous therapy in insulin resistance syndrome and dislipidemic patients. An insulin-sensitization action via enhancing ACC phosphorylation (mainly MAPK signaling pathway) and muscle GLUT 4 content as well as progressive normalization of glycaemia are also seen in N. sativa treated diabetic Meriones shawi [2,6]. Lipid (4%) and volatile (3%) fractions in streptozotocin-induced diabetes mellitus (DM) rats reduced toxicological and adverse consequences to the animals [16]. ...
... Infertile men (n=34) when treated with 2.5mL black seed oil for 2 months improved abnormal semen quality without producing any adverse effect was observed [33]. According to Mahdavi et al. [6] the black seed oil is a good candidate for treating male infertility. Hexane and methanol extracts of N. sativa produced significant anti-fertility in Sprague-Dawley male and female rats, respectively. ...
Article
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Nigella sativa and its constitutions including some isolated compounds are the potential sources of remedies of varieties of ailments such as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, antifungal, antiparasitic and antiprotozoal, antiviral, cytotoxic, anticancer, neuro-, gastro-, cardio-, hetapto- and nephroprotective activities. In addition, the N. sativa implies beneficiary effects on reproductive, pulmonary and immune systems along with diabetes mellitus (DM), fertility, breast cancer, dermatological complications, dehydration, dyspepsia, osmotic balance and so on. Among the other isolated chemical moieties, thymoquinone (TQ) is a good target for its potential antimicrobial, antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, chemopreventive, antitumoral and other activities. The N. sativa is evident to promote health in some non-clinical and clinical studies. Otherwise, TQ in a number of animal test systems is evident to produce no negative alterations of the body biomarkers in contrary it improved health quality. This paper depicts a more mechanistic revision on N. sativa and its constitutions. In conclusion, findings on Nigella may be featured as a health jackpot.
... Similarly, NS was shown to exhibit protective roles against isoproterenol, tramadol, carbon tetrachloride, cisplastin, and sodium valproate toxicities, through production of antioxidant enzymes (Awadalla 2012;Elkhateeb et al. 2015;Hala 2011;Krishnan and Muthukrishnan 2012;Murugesan et al. 2012a, b). In related studies, both administration of NS seed and oil have been found to improve sperm counts, sperm viability and motility, and testicular weights and decrease sperm abnormalities and testosterone concentration (Bashandy 2007;Hala 2011;Mahdavi et al. 2015). Similarly, increased levels of reproductive hormones were observed after administration of NS oil in male rats (Juma and Hayfaa 2011). ...
... Although there are numerous reported literatures on the ameliorative effect of NS oil against toxic injuries to the male reproductive organs and hormonal level decreases induced by other compounds (Al-Zahrani et al. 2012;Awadalla 2012;Hala 2011), there are no reports on the effect of both its oil and seeds on LAinduced testicular injuries and hormonal deficits in male animals. The administration of NS to normal rats has been shown to boost the sperm production profiles and TS levels, indicating that the compound enhances male fertility (Juma and Hayfaa 2011;Mahdavi et al. 2015). In this study, LA induced decreased TBWR, reduced population of sperm maturation stages in the testis, and reduced tail epididymal sperm reserves indicating suppression of spermatogenesis; however, rats treated with graded doses of NS showed remarkable improvements in both spermatogenesis and epididymal sperm reserves. ...
... Bars with different superscript letters indicate statistical significance at p < 0.05 another study, which concurs with our findings, investigated the effect of maternal LA administration during lactation on offspring testicular parameters and function, which resulted in a reduction of TS concentration after 90-120 days (Dorostghoal et al. 2011). The administration of NS oil to normal male rats was reported to increase the levels of TS, LH, and FSH after 30-60 days, indicating a positive effect on the hormonal production (Bashandy 2007;Juma and Hayfaa 2011;Mahdavi et al. 2015). Based on these reports, we can say that the NS seed powder played a therapeutic role on the testicular tissue and Leydig cells hence maintaining TS production at normal levels throughout the experimental course. ...
Article
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Lead acetate (LA) is a toxic compound that has detrimental effects on the male reproductive system, such as decreased testicular size and function, low androgen hormone concentration, and altered testicular histology. While Nigella sativa (NS) has been shown to possess a handful of therapeutic benefits, few studies have shown its effect on damage caused by lead acetate toxicity in the male reproductive system. In this study, 75 Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into 3 groups of 25 rats, which were further subdivided into 5 subgroups each. Group 1 (negative control) was given distilled water, group 2 (positive control (PC)) administered 10 mg/kg of lead acetate (LA) orally/daily, while groups 3 (T1), 4 (T2), and 5 (T3) were given LA 10 mg/kg and graded concentrations (100, 150, and 200 mg/kg) each of NS. One group each, comprising of 25 rats, was euthanized at days 30, 60, and 90 for collection of blood plasma, epididymis, and organ tissues fixed in 10 % buffered formalin at each time interval. The right caudal epididymis was homogenized and used for the determination of spermiogram. Plasma was used for the determination of testosterone (TS), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), and luteinizing hormone (LH) and estradiol (EST) using radioimmunoassay kits. There was reduced number of spermatogenic cells and epididymal sperm reserves in the PC group in comparison to the treatment groups. The level of TS was lower (p < 0.05) in the PC group at 90 days, while FSH was lower (p < 0.05) in T3 at 30 days and LH was higher (p < 0.05) in T1 at 90 days. The concentration of EST was lower (p < 0.05) in the PC, T1, and T2 at all time points, while the T3 group had the higher EST concentration that was similar to the control group. There was a decreased level of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and total glutathione (GSH) in the PC group and an increased GSH level in the T3 group. Sperm concentration, viability, and motility were adversely affected by LA, while concurrent treatment with NS significantly (p < 0.05) improved these parameters. This study showed the detrimental effects of LA on spermatogenesis, TS levels, and antioxidant defenses; however, these adverse effects were alleviated by oral NS administration.
... Poultry spermatozoon is composed of polyunsaturated fatty acids. The high content of polyunsaturated fatty acids triggers the oxidative stress which can damage the function, viability, and structure of sperm (Mahdavi et al., 2015). Substances with high antioxidant content can inhibit the production of free radicals and, by doing so, prevent the damage to sperm. ...
... Substances with high antioxidant content can inhibit the production of free radicals and, by doing so, prevent the damage to sperm. Mahdavi et al. (2015) reported that antioxidant components could improve spermatogenesis and steroidogenesis. Some previous studies found that the antioxidant components in the structure of medicinal and aromatic plants could eliminate free radicals and prevent the harmful consequences of oxidative stress. ...
Article
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The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of adding different levels of black cumin seed (BCS) to the compound feed on performance, serum criteria, and reproductive hormones in male Japanese quails (Coturnix coturnix Japonica). 80 male Japanese quails (Coturnix coturnix Japonica) at the age of 21 days were used in the study. The trial was carried out with 5 repetitions in 4 treatment groups (20 subgroups with 4 animals in each cage) and completed in 3 weeks. The treatment groups were as follows: Group A (the control group fed with basal feed, 0%); Group B (the group fed with basal feed + 0.5% black cumin seed); Group C (the group fed with basal feed + 1.0 % black cumin seed); and Group D (the group fed with basal feed + 2.0% black cumin seed). In the study, it was found that the addition of black cumin seed to the rations of male quails had no significant effect on their performance, testicular characteristics, serum parameters, and reproductive hormones. However, it was also found that the addition of 0.5% BCS caused an increase in the ratio of testicular weight to live weight, and the serum FSH levels tended to decrease with the addition of BCS; so there is a need for more studies on this subject.
... It is worth noting that PUFA can influence reproductive processes through several mechanisms. On the one hand, these fatty acids may promote loss of body fat and weight reduction, hence preventing the development of infertility related to obesity; on the other, they control specific aspects linked to male fertility [26,27,68,69]. In fact, these fatty acids are also structural components of cell membranes, whose fluidity is necessary to promote membrane fusion events associated with fertilization. ...
... As observed for avocado extracts as a MUFA source, also walnut extracts, which are good sources of PUFA, reduced sperm shape abnormalities producing improvements in gamete biochemical characteristics [67]. Recently, it has been demonstrated that also oil from Nigella sativa was able to improve sperm quality in infertile men [69]. This oil contains different chemical ingredients including thymoquinone, flavonoids, anthocyanins, alkaloids. ...
Article
Obesity in men of reproductive age is increasing worldwide, impacting negatively on reproductive potential, sperm function and assisted reproduction outcomes. Changes in modern eating behaviors are needed to invert the negative correlation between lifestyle and sperm quality. It is known from the literature that fatty acids are able to modulate lipid metabolism by complex mechanisms involving a sequence of interdependent and cross-regulated molecular events. Although a great deal of data is currently available on the dietary modulation of lipid metabolism, little is known about the nutritional regulation of sperm energetic metabolism. In this review, major data from the literature about the role of some dietary fats as modulators of sperm function and quality are described. Moreover, biochemical mechanisms responsible for an impairment or improvement in sperm bioenergetics are critically analyzed. It is noteworthy that both quantitative and qualitative aspects of dietary fats influence sperm function. The administration of a high-fat diet, low in polyunsaturated fatty acids, caused a significant increase in body weight hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia and dyslipidemia, along with a significant reduction in sperm quality. In contrast, unsaturated fatty acids are able to positively influence sperm quality and function. The understanding of the biochemical mechanisms underlying the development of male infertility related to obesity led us to depict a possible framework for the molecular action of fatty acids on sperm quality during dysmetabolic conditions.
... In another study examining the effect of obesity on testicular tissue and sperm parameters, it was reported that TQ protects the testis from the harmful effects of obesity by increasing the healthy sperm count and decreasing sperm anomalies (Tufek et al., 2015). In addition, Mahdavi et al. (2015) reported that TQ can positively affect sperm parameters, semen quality, Leydig cells, reproductive organs and sexual hormones, and these effects of TQ may be due to its antioxidant properties (Mahdavi et al., 2015). ...
... In another study examining the effect of obesity on testicular tissue and sperm parameters, it was reported that TQ protects the testis from the harmful effects of obesity by increasing the healthy sperm count and decreasing sperm anomalies (Tufek et al., 2015). In addition, Mahdavi et al. (2015) reported that TQ can positively affect sperm parameters, semen quality, Leydig cells, reproductive organs and sexual hormones, and these effects of TQ may be due to its antioxidant properties (Mahdavi et al., 2015). ...
Article
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The aim of this study was to investigate the protective and therapeutic effects of thymoquinone against the negative effects of varicocele on testicular tissue and sperm morphology. Five groups were formed by random selection from a total of 40 adult male Wistar rats (n = 8). Thymoquinone (5 mg/kg/day) was administered intraperitoneally to the varicocele‐dimethyl sulfoxide‐olive oil‐thymoquinone (VT) group and the sham‐thymoquinone group. At the end of the 60th day, all groups were anaesthetised and the left testis was removed from the body quickly. One half of the testis tissue, which was divided into two, was separated for biochemical and Western blot analysis, while the other half were fixed in Bouin's fixative. As a result of biochemical, molecular and histopathological analyses, a statistically significant increase was found in the varicocele group testicular tissues in the malondialdehyde level, apoptotic index, Bax expression, cytochrome c expression and Bax/Bcl‐2 ratio compared with the sham group. In addition, histopathological changes characterised by partial or complete degeneration of the germinal epithelium were observed in the seminiferous tubules in the same group. Total oxidant status level and sperm count with abnormal morphology increased in varicocele group, whereas total antioxidant status level decreased. In the VT group, all of the biochemical, molecular and histopathological changes detected in the varicocele group were statistically significantly reduced. When the findings obtained in this study are evaluated, it can be said that thymoquinone has the potential to be used as a preventive and therapeutic pharmacological agent in the medical treatment of varicocele. Although the exact mechanism of action of thymoquinone has not been fully elucidated, the findings obtained in this study support the view that thymoquinone showed a cytoprotective effect by reducing apoptosis, oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation.
... In the present study, improvement of both the prostate gland and seminal vesicle histological features is possibly due to the antioxidant properties of N. sativa that could neutralize ROS by enhancing the scavenging system. Result of the present study was in agreement to that reported by Reza et al. (2015). The authors observed positive influence of N. sativa on sperm parameters, semen, Leydig cells, reproductive organs and sexual hormones. ...
... According to the authors, the main potential mechanism is through the antioxidant properties of N. sativa. The main antioxidant component of N. sativa is thymoquinone (TQ) that can improve male fertility parameters through promoting antioxidant defence (Reza et al. 2015). ...
Article
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Nicotine is claimed to increase free radicals, DNA damage and lipid peroxidation in male reproductive organs. Nigella sativa has been identified to ameliorate these adverse effects due to nicotine intake. This study was conducted to evaluate potential protective effects of N. sativa oil on the adverse effects of nicotine on androgen receptors (AR) and ultrastructural features of rat seminal vesicles and prostate glands. Twenty four Sprague Dawley male rats, 7-9 weeks of age and 200-250 g body weight (BW) were randomly divided into; Group 1 Saline (S), forced fed with 0.1 mL/100 g BW of 0.9% normal saline; Group 2 Nicotine (N), intramuscularly injected with 0.5 mg/100 g BW of nicotine; Group 3 N. sativa (NS), forced fed with 6.0 μL/100 g BW of N. sativa and Group 4 Nicotine-N. sativa (NNS), co-administered with 0.5 mg/100 g BW of nicotine and 6.0 μL/100 g BW of N. sativa. The seminal vesicles and prostate glands were extracted after 100 days of treatment. The seminal vesicle and prostate gland were processed for ultrastructural study and androgen receptor detection. The epithelial cells in prostate gland and seminal vesicle of the N group showed weaker brown staining intensity as compared to that of in the NS and NNS groups. This was consistent with the presence of some ultracellular changes observed in the prostate gland and seminal vesicle tissues of the N group. Findings from this study suggested that administration of N. sativa results in ameliorating effects on both the prostate gland and seminal vesicle structures and functions of the nicotine-treated rats. © 2018 Penerbit Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia. All Rights Reserved..
... Consequentially this leads to protect sperm and semen against testicular toxins. (Hala, 2011;Mahdavi et al., 2015). ...
... The anti-inflammatory properties were widely searched in two major inflammatory disorders that include allergic encephalomyelitis and ulcerative colitis (Majdalawieh and Fayyad, 2015;Nieto et al., 2000). It has been found that TQ through anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties significantly improve allergic encephalomyelitis and ulcerative colitis (Choudhary et al., 2001;Koch et al., 2000;Mahdavi et al., 2015). ...
Article
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N. sativa (N. sativa) has been used since ancient times, when a scientific concept about the use of medicinal plants for the treatment of human illnesses and alleviation of their sufferings was yet to be developed. It has a strong religious significance as it is mentioned in the religious books of Islam and Christianity. In addition to its historical and religious significance, it is also mentioned in ancient medicine. It is widely used in traditional systems of medicine for a number of diseases including asthma, fever, bronchitis, cough, chest congestion, dizziness, paralysis, chronic headache, back pain and inflammation. The importance of this plant led the scientific community to carry out extensive phytochemical and biological investigations on N. sativa. Pharmacological studies on N. sativa have confirmed its antidiabetic, antitussive, anticancer, antioxidant, hepatoprotective, neuro-protective, gastroprotective, immunomodulator, analgesic, antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, spasmolytic, and bronchodilator activity. The present review is an effort to explore the reported chemical composition and pharmacological activity of this plant. It will help as a reference for scientists, researchers, and other health professionals who are working with this plant and who need up to date knowledge about it.
... Consequentially this leads to protect sperm and semen against testicular toxins. (Hala, 2011;Mahdavi et al., 2015). ...
... The anti-inflammatory properties were widely searched in two major inflammatory disorders that include allergic encephalomyelitis and ulcerative colitis (Majdalawieh and Fayyad, 2015;Nieto et al., 2000). It has been found that TQ through anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties significantly improve allergic encephalomyelitis and ulcerative colitis (Choudhary et al., 2001;Koch et al., 2000;Mahdavi et al., 2015). ...
Article
Nigella sativa (N. sativa) has been used since ancient times, when a scientific concept about the use of medicinal plants for the treatment of human illnesses and alleviation of their sufferings was yet to be developed. It has a strong religious significance as it is mentioned in the religious books of Islam and Christianity. In addition to its historical and religious significance, it is also mentioned in ancient medicine. It is widely used in traditional systems of medicine for a number of diseases including asthma, fever, bronchitis, cough, chest congestion, dizziness, paralysis, chronic headache, back pain and inflammation. The importance of this plant led the scientific community to carry out extensive phytochemical and biological investigations on N. sativa. Pharmacological studies on N. sativa have confirmed its antidiabetic, antitussive, anticancer, antioxidant, hepatoprotective, neuro-protective, gastroprotective, immunomodulator, analgesic, antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, spasmolytic, and bronchodilator activity. The present review is an effort to explore the reported chemical composition and pharmacological activity of this plant. It will help as a reference for scientists, researchers, and other health professionals who are working with this plant and who need up to date knowledge about it
... Moreover, the ethanol extract of NS at 250-100 mg/kg (p.o.) in female Wistar Albino rats showed a significant nephroprotective activity against paracetamol-induced nephrotoxicity 33 . In another study, the NS exhibited a significant nephroprotective effect in Cdinduced nephrotoxicity in rats 34 . ...
Article
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Nigella sativa L. (NS) is evident to have a number of important biological activities, such as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, antifungal, anti-viral, anti-parasitic and anti-protozoal, cytotoxic, anticancer, neuro-, gastro-, cardio-, hetapto- and nephro-protective activities. In addition, the NS implies beneficiary effects on reproductive, pulmonary and immune systems as well as in diabetes mellitus (DM), fertility (male and female), breast cancer, dermatological complications, dehydration, dyspepsia, and osmotic balance and so on. Among the other isolated constituents, thymoquinone (TQ) is a vastly studied phytochemical in NS. A number of reports suggest that the NS may be one of the potential herbs in health promotion. This paper will discuss the current scenario of NS activity in a mechanistic way.
... It is worth noting that PUFA can influence reproductive processes through a variety of mechanisms. On the one hand, these fatty acids may promote loss of body fat and weight reduction, hence preventing the development of infertility related to obesity; on the other, they control specific aspects linked to male fertility (Lenzi et al., 2000;Wathes et al., 2007;Esmaeili et al., 2015;Mahdavi et al., 2015). Moreover, PUFA provide the precursors for eicosanoids synthesis that can modulate the expression patterns of many key enzymes (such as cyclooxygenase and lipoxygenase) involved in both prostaglandin and steroid metabolism; these fatty acids are also structural components of cell membranes, whose fluidity is necessary to promote membrane fusion events associated with fertilization. ...
Article
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Recently, obesity has been linked to male infertility. In animal models the administration of a high-fat diet caused a reduction in sperm quality, by impairing gamete energy metabolism. The aim of this study was to investigate a possible effect of dietary fatty acids supplementation in the modulation of sperm energy metabolism and, in turn, in the improvement of sperm quality in rats fed a high-fat diet. Sexually mature male Sprague–Dawley rats were divided into four groups and fed for 4 weeks a standard diet (con- trol group), a high-fat diet (enriched in 35% of fat and 15% sucrose), a high-fat diet supplemented with 2.5% olive oil (a source of monounsaturated fatty acids) or a high-fat diet supplemented with 2.5% krill oil (a source of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids). Liver and adipose tissue weight, plasma glucose, insulin and lipid concentrations were determined. Activities of enzymes involved in sperm energetic metabolism were evaluated by spectrophotometric assays. Sperm mitochondrial respiratory efficiency was also assayed. The obtained results suggest that olive oil partially counteracts the negative effects of a high-fat diet on sperm quality, by increasing gamete motility, by reducing oxidative stress and slightly improving mitochondrial respiration efficiency. On the other hand, krill oil determines an increase in sperm concentration and motility, an increase in the activities of lactate dehydrogenase, Krebs cycle enzymes and respiratory chain complexes; a parallel increase in the cellular levels of ATP and a reduction in oxidative damage were also observed. These results suggest that dietary fatty acids are able to positively influence sperm quality and function.
... Tribulus (Tribulus terrestris L., Zygophyllaceae) is the main phytotherapics which is promoted to increase testosterone and improve sperm characteristics in humans [57][58][59][60], long Jack (Eurycoma longifolia Jack, Simaroubaceae) [61,62], fineleaf fumitory (Fumaria parviflora Lam. Ranunculales) [11]., Onion (Allium cepa L. Amaryllidaceae) [63] and black seeds (Nigella sativa L., Ranunculaceae) [64,65]. Although, all these evidences based on the therapeutic effects of herbal medicine on male infertility are on animal models and spermatogenic effect on human and its little clinical attestation is yet to be investigated. ...
Article
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Background: Infertility and gonadal dysfunction are well known side-effects by cancer treatment in males. In particularly, chemotherapy and radiotherapy induced testicular damage, resulting in prolonged azoospermia. However, information regarding therapeutics to treat spermatogenesis disturbance after cancer treatment is scarce. Recently, we demonstrated that Goshajinkigan, a traditional Japanese medicine, can completely rescue severe busulfan-induced aspermatogenesis in mice. In this study, we aimed to detect the effects of Goshajinkigan on aspermatogenesis after irradiation. Methods: This is animal research about the effects of traditional Japanese medicine on infertility after cancer treatment. C57BL/6 J male mice received total body irradiation (TBI: a single dose of 6Gy) at 4 weeks of age and after 60 days were reared a Goshajinkigan (TJ107)-containing or TJ107-free control diet from day 60 to day 120. Then, two untreated females were mated with a single male from each experimental group. On day 60, 120 and 150, respectively, the sets of testes and epididymis of the mice in each group after deep anesthetization were removed for histological and cytological examinations. Results: Histological and histopathological data showed that 6Gy TBI treatment decreased the fertility rate (4/10) in the control diet group; in contrast, in the TJ107-diet group, the fertility rate was 10/10 (p < 0.05 vs. 6Gy group). Supplementation with TJ107 was found to rescue the disrupted inter-Sertoli tight junctions via the normalization of claudin11, occludin, and ZO-1 expression and reduce serum anti-germ cell autoantibodies. Conclusions: These findings show the therapeutic effect on TBI-induced aspermatogenesis and the recovering disrupted gonadal functions by supplementation with TJ107.
... Nigella sativa (NS), also known as black seed, is from Ranunculaceae family that is cultivated in Asia (17)(18)(19)(20). The main components of NS are thymoquinone (TQ), unsaturated fatty acids, flavonoids, nigellone, p-cymene and carvone (19,(21)(22)(23)(24)(25)(26)(27). ...
Article
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Context: Nigella sativa (NS) has been used as an herbal remedy for the treatment and prevention of a variety of diseases. In this review, we aimed to summarize the current evidence on the effects of NS consumption on non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) characteristics. Evidence Acquisition: We reviewed the existing literature published by the end of 2017 using the following key words: “Nigella sativa”, “black seeds”, “black cumin”, “thymoquinone”, “NAFLD”, “NASH”, and “diabetes”. Papers used in this study were collected by searching the PubMed, Google Scholar, Science Direct and Scopus databases. Our search was limited to English-language articles. All the articles published between 2000 and 2017 meeting the inclusion criteria were included in the study. Results: The results of current studies indicate that NS has many biological effects such as anti-inflammatory, anti-hyperlipidemic, anti-microbial, anti-cancer, anti-oxidative, anti-diabetic, anti-hypertensive and wound healing activities. In summary, it can be used as a valuable plant for designing therapeutic strategies in NAFLD. Conclusions: Results from available studies indicate that NS can ameliorate the main metabolic disturbances related to NAFLD including hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia, and overweight. These effects are mainly attributed to the anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory properties of thymoquinone. Clinical trials on human subjects are highly essential to confirm the results found in in vivo and in vitro studies.
... They concluded that black seed could have positive effects on sperm and semen parameters, leydig cells, reproductive organs, and sex hormones. 22 In the mentioned studies, the positive effects of black seeds on male fertility were reported. In the present study, these positive effects were observed in an aging mouse model. ...
Article
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Background: The aging process is accompanied by low secretion of sex hormones and testicular apoptosis. The antioxidant properties of thymoquinone (TQ) may prevent the effects of aging. Therefore, in the present study, the effects of different doses of TQ were investigated on sperm parameters, testosterone level, apoptosis, and oxidative stress in a mouse model of D-galactose-induced aging. Methods: In this experimental study, 30 adult male mice were randomly divided into 5 groups. The control group did not receive any injections, while the D-galactose group received an intraperitoneal injection of 300 mg/kg of D-galactose for 42 days. The TQ1-TQ3 groups received intraperitoneal injections of 5, 2.5, and 1.25 mg/kg of TQ plus Dgalactose, respectively for 14 days (from the 1st to the 14th day of the experiment). The morphometric analysis, testicular apoptosis examination, and sperm analysis were performed, and testosterone level, total antioxidant capacity, and malondialdehyde level were evaluated on day 42 of the experiment. Data were analyzed using SPSS. Results: Administration of TQ in the TQ1 group caused a significant difference in sperm parameters, compared to the D-galactose group (P<0.05). The lowest amount of positive tunnel cells was related to 5 mg/kg of TQ and the highest to 2.5 mg/kg of TQ. There was no significant difference in the parameters of seminal vesicles, epididymis, prostate, and testis between the groups (P>0.05). The malondialdehyde level were decreased in the TQ1-TQ3 groups, compared to the D-galactose group (P<0.001). On the other hand, the total antioxidant capacity was increased significantly in the TQ1 group, compared to the Dgalactose group (P<0.001). Conclusion: Administration of 5 mg of TQ for 14 days improved sperm quality and biochemical parameters, while reducing apoptotic cells of the testes in a mouse model of aging.
... Sharma et al. [32] reviewed the medicinal, pharmacological, traditional value and folk remedies of this herb. Also, different pharmaceutic properties and medical uses had been reported [33][34][35][36][37][38]. In pest control, Deshpande et al. [39] reported that oleic and linoleic acid as insecticidal components from N. sativa which were found to be toxic to Callosobruchus chinensis. ...
Article
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The present study was carried out to investigate the disruptive effects of methanolic, petroleum ether and n-butanol extracts of N. sativa seeds, at 30.0, 15.0, 7.5, 3.7 & 1.8%, on the oviposition efficiency and other parameters of reproductive capacity of S. gregaria. The average number of egg pods/female slightly or remarkably decreased, depending on the extract, concentration and time of treatment. The n-butanol extract was the most potent inhibitory one on the average number of eggs/pod. Treatment of penultimate or last instar nymphs with N. sativa resulted in remarkably or slightly regressed oviposition rate, depending on the extract and concentration. Various reducing effects of N. sativa extracts on fecundity were determined. However, the strongest reducing effect was exhibited at the higher two concentrations, irrespective of the extract. After treatment of penultimate instar nymphs, the most tremendously reduced fertility was recorded by n-butanol extract. After treatment of last instar nymphs, fertility was affected, significantly or insignificantly, depending on the extract and its concentration. Treatment of penultimate instar nymphs resulted in slightly prolonged incubation period by methanolic extract indicating a slow down embryonic rate. A similar inhibitory effect on this rate could be almost obtained by petroleum ether extract while the strongest inhibitory effect was exhibited by n-butanol extract, at the majority of its concentrations. After treatment of last instar nymphs, the petroleum ether extract pronouncedly affected embryonic developmental rate during a prolonged incubation period.
... Among previous published systematic review and meta-analysis investigating the effectiveness of N.S [63][64][65][66][67][68], no reports were targeted on liver or kidney function tests. Most notably, since none of the human trials assessed the exact mechanisms of the effects of N.S or black seed family, most of the published mechanisms were investigated either in animal or in in-vivo and in-vitro studies [69][70][71][72]. ...
Article
The aim of this systematic review and dose–response meta-analysis was to determine the effect of Nigella Sativa (N.S) supplementation on liver and kidney parameters. We searched PubMed, Scopus, ISI Web of Science, Cochrane central register for controlled trials and Google Scholar from database inception to April 2019 for relevant controlled trials. Mean differences and standard deviations for each outcome were pooled using a random-effects model and a dose–response analysis was performed using a fractional polynomial model. Quality of evidence was evaluated using Cochrane Collaboration Risk of Bias tool and the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) methodology. Nineteen trials (n = 1295 participants) were included in the meta-analysis. We observed that N.S supplements had significant reducing effects on alkaline-phosphatase (ALP) [9 trials, n = 710 participants, weighted mean difference (WMD)= -10.825; 95%CI: -19.658, -1.992 U/L; P = 0.016; I² = 75.7 %; P-heterogeneity = 0.000) and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) (12 trials, n = 821 participants, WMD= -1.016; 95% CI: -1.760, -0.273 U/L; P = 0.007; I² = 87.7%; P-heterogeneity = 0.000) concentrations. Subgroup analysis showed that, an intervention of more than 12 weeks was found to have a reducing effect on aspartate- aminotransferase (AST) measures (2 trials, n = 201 participants, WMD= -11.317; 95%CI: -15.007, -7.626; P = 0.000; I² = 0.0%; P-heterogeneity = 0.977). Creatinine levels increased significantly in studies that considered adjusted analysis based on covariates (3 trials, n = 152 participants, WMD = 0.070; 95% CI: 0.027, 0.112 U/L; P = 0.001; I² = 0.0%; P-heterogeneity = 0.788). A daily dose of 1100-1500 mg of N.S supplements was observed to have a substantial reducing effect on ALP levels (5 trials, n = 340 participants, WMD= -11.323; 95% CI: -21.418, -1.229 U/L; P = 0.028; I² = 0.00%; P-heterogeneity = 0.686), while a dosage of more than 2000 mg per day led to a significant increase in BUN concentrations (2 trials, n = 101 participants, WMD= -1.016; 95% CI: -1.760, -0.273 U/L; P = 0.007; I² = 87.7%; P-heterogeneity = 0.000). Our data suggested that N.S supplementation had significant impacts on liver and kidney parameters leading to a decrease in ALP and BUN levels. Longer duration of intervention and normal daily dosages of N.S supplements led to significant reductions in ALP and AST concentrations, respectively, while higher daily dosages increased BUN levels. Hence, in spite of favorable impacts of N.S supplements on liver and kidney parameters, due to the herbal nature of N.S, more studies with high-quality, large-scale, long-term intervention and precise baseline characteristics are needed to assess the exact effective dose, duration and efficacy of N.S supplementation on kidney and liver parameters.
... Apparently, there are yet no clinical trials conducted in infertile men treated with thymoquinone except the only one study that evaluated the effects of N. sativa oil in childless men (Kolahdooz et al., 2014). Consequently, to date there is insufficient evidence to make recommendations for the use of thymoquinone as an adjunct therapy in infertile men (Mandavi, Heshmati, & Namazi, 2015). However, based on the promising effects of black seed on the fertility health of different animal models, more clinical trials are required to further demonstrate the efficacy of N. sativa on male infertility. ...
Article
This review attempts to collate existing data and provide the perspectives for future studies on the effects of plants on the male gonads. For many of these medicinal plants such as Lepidium meyenii, Rupus coreanus, Tribulus terrestres, Panax ginseng, Petasites japonicas, Apium graveolens, Eurycoma longifólia, Pedalium murex, Corchorus depressus, Mucuna pruriens, Astragalus membranaceus, Nigella sativa, Crataegus monogyna, Fagara tessmannii, Phaleria macrocarpa, Anacyclus pyrethrum, Cynomorium songaricum and Morinda officinalis, the mechanism of actions of their active principles and crude extracts has been shown in both laboratory animals, in vitro, and human studies, and includes their antioxidant, anti‐inflammatory, spermatogenesis‐inducing, aphrodisiac, smooth muscle relaxing and androgenic properties. Several active chemical leads including glucosinolates, anthocyanins, protodioscin, ginsenosides, sesquiterpenes, phyto‐oestrogens, quassinoids, diosgenin, thymoquinone, proanthocyanidins and bajijiasu isolated from these plants are known to have target effects on the testis, but efforts have been limited in their application at the clinical level. There still appear to be many more extracts of medicinal plants that have not been characterised to determine the phytochemicals unique to them that have target effects on the gonads. Further, collaborative efforts at isolating pro‐drug candidates from medicinal plants for studies at the molecular, cellular and clinical level towards elucidating their mechanisms of action on the testes are therefore warranted in the light of the current male fertility crisis.
... In the past 2 decades, various pharmacological or medicinal aspects of black seed (BS) including its antibacterial, antioxidant, anticancer, antiinflammatory, immuno-modulatory, analgesic, diuretic, antihypertensive, neuroprotective, antidiabetic and hepatoprotective properties, have been reported [13][14][15] . Also, it has been used in clinical research for neurological disorders, hyperlipidemia, obesity, lung disease, hypertension, thyroid dysfunction, hepatitis, rheumatoid arthritis and male infertility [16][17][18][19][20] . Furthermore, it has shown to decrease the replication of SARS-CoV in vitro in cell cultures 21. ...
Article
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In early 2020, the world health organization (WHO) declared Covid-19 as a global pandemic. Little is known about the potential protective factors against this viral disease. This study aimed to evaluate the preventive role of black seed (BS) in reducing infection rates with Covid-19 in people involved in the study. It is a descriptive, non-randomized and open-label study in which (376) participants were divided into two equal groups. The control group (CON) included participants who didn't take the black seeds, while the (BS) group included participants who took black seeds once daily at a 40 mg/kg orally. Knowing that the prophylactic efficacy of the black seed was seen through a smaller percentage of infected people at risk. A significantly lower infection rate was observed among black seed group 68 (36.2%) in comparison with the control group 180 (95.7%). Also, the (BS) group showed reduced incidence of infection at intermediate 12 (17.6 %) and low 0 (0.0 %) levels of exposure to risk factors. Therefore, we can conclude that black seed has the ability to reduce infection rates of covid-19 in people at risk.
... It have been positive effect on steroidogenesis and spermatogenesis; improve positively reproductive organs and sexual hormones. These ameliorate effect was explained by promoting antioxidant defence (Mahdavi et al., 2015). The current study about ram semen cryopreservation with different plant extract, Morignia Oleifera (Carrera-Chavez et al., 2020); Entada abyssinica (Sobeh et al., 2020); Ginger and echinacea (Meroti and Farshad, 2020) were enhances antioxidant activity and improved spermatological parameters after thawed. ...
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This study aimed to determine the protective effects of Thymoquinone (TQ), which is the most essential active compound of Nigella sativa , on the spermatological parameters of frozen‐thawed ram semen. Ejaculates were collected from five Sonmez rams. Ejaculates were extended with control (0 µg/mL TQ), 10, 25, 50 and 100 µg/mL TQ supplemented Tris-based extender. Then extended semen samples were equilibrated in a +4 °C cold cabinet for 2 h. After 2 h the samples loaded into 0.25 mL French straws. The straws were then frozen by liquid nitrogen vapour and stored in a liquid nitrogen container (-196 °C). For analyses, frozen samples were thawed in a water bath (37 o C for 30 s) and evaluated in terms of motility characteristics, plasma membrane acrosome integrity (PMAI), mitochondrial reactive oxygen spices level (MITOSOX+), lipid peroxidation level (BODIPY+), DNA damage and biochemical alterations (oxidative stress index, malondialdehide and glutathione). TQ 100 had higher total and progressive motility compared to control (P˂0.05). According to motility characteristics there were significant differences between the groups on curvilinear velocity (VCL), amplitude of lateral head displacement (ALH) and linearity (LIN; P˂0.05). The highest DNA damage was detected in control groups (P˂0.05). TQ50 had higher PMAI compared to control and TQ25 (P˂0.05). The lowest MITOSOX+ level was detected in TQ50 and TQ100 groups (P˂0.05). There were no significant differences on BODIPY+, oxidative stress index, malondialdehide and glutathione (P>0.05). According to results, it could be concluded that, supplementing 50 and 100µg/mL TQ to Tris extender that was used for ram semen cryopreservation, showed a positive effect on motility, PMAI and also decreased DNA damage and MITOSOX+.
... Therefore, the plant of herbal medicine that possesses antioxidant properties is off interest to scavenging free radicals. NS has been shown several beneficial properties including antioxidant that modulate both spermatogenesis and steroidogenesis 29 . In the present study, EB showed clear negative effects on antioxidant activity, sperm markers, fertility hormones, and normal testicular structures. ...
Article
Background: Food and water that contained metals and chemicals, contaminated air, extensively used of medicinal substances and cosmetic materials can induce infertility in several ways, and therefore increased numbers of couples not conceive globally. Aim: Investigation the toxic impact of ethidium bromide (EB) on testicular function and the therapeutic role of Nigella sativa (NS) and silver nanoparticles (AgNPs). Materials and methods: A total of 50 male Wistar rats were assigned randomly into five equal groups; control (C) negative and four experimental which respectively received EB only, EB and NS, EB and AgNPs, and EB, NS, and AgNPs for 30 days. Post-experimental period, blood and testicular tissues were collected to determine the antioxidant activity, fertility hormones level, sperm quality and quantity, and histological structure of the testis. Results: In comparison to control, EB group exhibited significant reduction (P<0.05) in antioxidants (catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and glutathione perioxidase (GPX)), sperm parameters (quantity, morphology, viability and motility), fertility hormones (FSL, LH, and testosterone), and clear histological defects (atrophy in seminiferous tubules, spermatozoa and spermatogonia apoptosis, vacuolization, congestion and thrombus in seminiferous tubules septum, and leydig cells degeneration). However, all these negative effects were significantly reversed in response to supplement of NS, AgNPs, and mixed of them. These including modulate antioxidants activity, sperm’s quantity and quality, fertility hormones, and testicular tissue structure. Conclusion: NS and AgNPs possess interesting properties that have ability to reverse negative impacts of EB, and therefore could be alternative and safe therapeutic agents for infertility.
... All BS and THY treatments reduced the abnormal and nonviable sperm percentages due to the antioxidant properties of BS and THY, which offer more protection against oxidative stress (Mahdavi et al., 2015). The THY100 treatments had high sperm concentrations, total sperm outputs and total sperm fractions. ...
Article
The quality of incubated or chilled rabbit semen is quickly lowered with time due to high‐rate production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Black seed (BS) and thyme (THY) are rich sources of natural antioxidants, which may be able to control ROS production and improve semen quality for use in artificial insemination. In this study, V‐line rabbit bucks, seven months old, were fed diets supplemented with 50 or 100 g of BS or THY for 60 days. Semen was collected twice weekly. The quality of fresh sperm was measured, and diluted sperm was incubated for up to 12 h. Chilled, diluted sperm, stored at 4℃ for up to 3 days, was evaluated. The results indicated that BS and THY increased rabbit libido, decreased abnormal sperm and non‐viable sperm percentages and significantly lowered total bacteria counts of diluted sperm. In conclusion, bucks fed a diet supplemented with BS or THY had enhanced semen quality and storage life, because of the antioxidant properties of BS and THY. The best incubation results were obtained with the THY100 treatment, whereas the best‐chilled results were obtained with the BS100 group.
... In the past 2 decades, various pharmacological or medicinal aspects of N. sativa including its antibacterial [5], anticancer [6,7], anti-inflammatory [8], antioxidant [9,10], immunomodulatory [11], analgesic [12][13][14], diuretic [15,16], antihypertensive [17], antidiabetic [18][19][20], neuroprotective [16], gastroprotective [21,22], and hepatoprotective properties [23], have been reported. N. sativa has been used in clinical research for neurological disorders [24][25][26], hypertension [27,28], hyperlipidemia [29,30], obesity [31,32], rheumatoid arthritis [33][34][35], lung disease [36], thyroid dysfunction [37], hepatitis [38], and male infertility [39]. ...
Article
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Nigella sativa (commonly known as black seed or black cumin), from the family Ranunculaceae, is a plant that grows in countries bordering the Mediterranean Sea. This narrative review discusses the toxicological profile reported by short-to long-term studies that examined different extracts and oils of N. sativa seeds. Scientific databases including Web of Science, PubMed, Scopus, and Google Scholar were searched using appropriate keywords. LD 50 for administered N. sativa seed fixed oil varied from 28.8 mL/kg to 3,371 mg/kg in mice, while 21 g/kg of aqueous, methanol, and chloroform extracts of N. sativa did not lead to any mortality. Subacute toxicity evaluations indicated that aqueous, methanol, and chloroform extracts of N. sativa at doses as high as 6 g/kg do not produce toxicity. Investigation of chronic toxicity found that 2 mL/kg of N. sativa fixed oil is slightly toxic. Cytotoxicity studies indicated that N. sativa chloroform and petroleum ether extracts are more cytotoxic than its other extracts. Although studies that assessed N. sativa toxicity generally introduced it as a safe medicinal herb, to draw a more definitive conclusion on its safety, more detailed studies must be conducted.
... Thousands of research articles that have been published in international medical journals are available on the internet regarding studies on the medicinal properties the seeds of black cumin (BC, Nigella sativa L.), their oil and their bioactive compounds (Randhawa, 2008). Over the last two decades, several reviews have provided comprehensive information on the nutritional, health, pharmaceutical, therapeutic and biomedical applications and prospects of BC (Randhawa and Al-Ghamdi, 2002;Ali and Blunden, 2003;Gilani et al., 2004;Salem, 2005;El-Tahir et al., 2006;Akhondian et al., 2007;Ramadan, 2007;Ismail and Yaheya, 2009;Sharma et al., 2009;Paarakh, 2010;Randhawa and Alghamdi, 2011;Naz, 2011;Shrivastava et al., 2011;Mirzaei, 2012;Datta et al., 2012;Ahmad et al., 2013;Alenzi et al., 2013;Azeem et al., 2014;Forouzanfar et al., 2014;Mollazadeh and Hosseinzadeh, 2014;Razavi and Hosseinzadeh, 2014;Tembhurne et al., 2014;Aljabre et al., 2015;Bamosa, 2015;Gali-Muhtasib et al., 2006;Gholamnezhad et al., 2015;Heshmati and Namazi, 2015;Longato et al., 2015;Mahdavi et al., 2015;Majdalawieh and Fayyad, 2015;Amin and Hosseinzadeh, 2016;Beheshti et al., 2016;Gholamnezhad et al., 2016;Hayatdavoudi et al., 2016;Hussain and Hussain, 2016;Khan et al., 2016;Kooti et al., 2016;Mohtashami and Entezari, 2016;Sahebkar et al., 2016aSahebkar et al., , 2016bShokri, 2016;Ijaz et al., 2017;Tavakkoli et al., 2017;Mazaheri et al., 2019). ...
Chapter
This review outlines the current state of knowledge on the nutritive value of black cumin (Nigella sativa L.). The popularity of this plant, which is an annual herbaceous plant belonging to the Ranunculaceae family and is native to Iran, Pakistan and Turkey, is due to its beneficial actions. Black cumin has many therapeutic effects and is considered one of the most important medicinal plants in the world because of its antioxidant, anticoccidial, anthelminthic and antimicrobial activities. The nutritive value of black cumin is result of its carbohydrate, fatty acid, protein contents as well as its several bioactive compounds. The seeds or their byproducts can be used in feeds for farm animals, with positive effects on the compositional characteristics of eggs, milk and meat.
Article
The present study was aimed to identify the localization of thymoquinone in vegetative parts, viz. leaf, stem, root, flower forming bud, flower, and seed forming bud of Nigella sativa plant. Isocratic RP-HPLC method was used with mobile phase methanol/water 70:30, C-18 column, detection wavelength 254 nm (confirmed by spectrum scanning), flow rate of 1.0 ml/min, retention time 8.8 min. A linear standard calibration curve of thymoquinone was prepared with R2 as 0.9569 and % RSD as 20.7518. The results showed maximum yield in seed forming bud (6.433 ± 0.450%) using benzene as solvent, whereas the methanol extract has minimum yield in stem (2.200 ± 0.300). Maximum thymoquinone content was found in seed forming bud with (0.0648 ± 0.0038%) and (0.7830 ± 0.0360%) in methanolic and benzene extracts (washed with ethanol; EtOH), respectively. It was further observed that benzene extract (EtOH) was about 12-fold more than methanolic extract (EtOH). When total antioxidant activity was explored using DPPH free radical assay, it was found maximum in flowering bud (77.076 ± 5.889%), while minimum was observed in roots (47.933 ± 4.003%). When correlation was established between methanolic (EtOH) and benzene extracts (EtOH) with antioxidant activity, a strong positive correlation of 0.9535 and 0.7406, respectively, was observed. Thus, it is evident that the level of thymoquinone content in different plant parts is analogous to its antioxidant activity. Therefore, it can be concluded that benzene (EtOH) is the better solvent for extraction of thymoquinone from Nigella sativa; further, seed forming bud is a better source of thymoquinone which can be useful in nutraceutical and pharmaceutical industry for better herbal drug formulations.
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This study was carried out in order to determine the effect of different levels of rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) essential oil on performance parameters, some serum characteristics and reproductive hormones of male Japanese quails (Coturnix coturnix Japonica). In the study, 60 male Japanese quails at the age of 49 days were used as animal material. The study was conducted with 5 replications in 4 treatment groups, in 20subgroups with 3 animals in each cage, for 3 weeks. In the study, 4 different mixed feeds were prepared, one of which was control (0 mg/kg) and 3 of them at different levels (100, 200 and 400 mg/kg) of rosemary essential oil. At the end of the study, it was determined that the effect of rosemary essential oil addition to male quail rations on body weight gain and glucose, among serum parameters, were statistically significant (P<0,05). On the other hand, it was seen that its effect on the other parameters was insignificant (P> 0,05).
Chapter
Oleoresin is a mixture of volatile and nonvolatile components available in whole extract of natural herb or spice. It principally comprises essential oils and resin. Lemongrass oleoresins come from the Cymbopogon species, which grow in the tropical and subtropical regions of the world. Oleoresin of lemongrass is a dark green-colored viscous liquid having a characteristic lemon aroma and flavor and is mostly used as a flavoring ingredient. The lemon prefix in the lemongrass specifies the characteristic lemon-like odor, which is due to the availability of citral content (mixture of two isomeric aldehydes, geranial and neral). It has been utilized in synthesizing flavors, perfumes, cosmetics, detergents, and in the food and pharmaceutical industries. Different methods are used to extract the lemongrass essential oil, but steam distillation is the most suitable method as it doesn’t alter the quality of the obtained oil. The chemical composition of lemongrass oil varies depending on its extraction methods, genetic differences, harvest period, photoperiod, plant age, farming practices, and geographical origin. Lemongrass essential oil has shown several biological activities, including antimicrobial, antifungal, antiprotozoan, antioxidant, antidiarrheal, antimutagenic, antiinflammatory, antimalarial, antinociceptive, antihepatotoxic activities, etc. Lemongrass oil is a potent food preservative because of its extraordinary antifungal and antibacterial activities.
Article
Background & objective(s) Global prevalence of type 2 diabetes (T2D) is very high and is currently growing alarmingly. With respect to recent researchers' attention to the potential role of herbal medicine in disease prevention and management, the present meta-analysis review investigates the effectiveness of nigella sativa (N.sativa), a popular herb, in T2D. Methods Literature search was conducted covering PubMed/Medline, Scopus, and Cochrane Registry of Clinical Trials up to February 2017 to obtain the relevant published intervention studies. Study selection, quality rating and data extraction of studies were investigated by two independent reviewers. Heterogeneity was assessed using I-squared (I2) statistics test. Subgroup analysis was done to assess type of N.sativa supplement as source of heterogeneity. Effect sizes of eligible studies were pooled using STATA software version 12 (STATA corp, College Station, TX, USA). Results Seven trials were included in the meta-analysis of glycemic and serum lipid profile end points. Supplementation with N.sativa significantly improved fasting blood sugar (FBS) [−17.84 mg/dl, 95% CI: −21.19 to −14.49, p < 0.001], HbA1c [−0.71%, 95% CI: −1.04 to −0.39, p < 0.001], total-cholesterol (TC) [WMD: −22.99 mg/dl, 95% CI: −32.16 to −13.83, p < 0.001] and LDL-cholesterol (LDL-c) [−22.38 mg/dl, 95% CI: −33.60 to −11.15, p < 0.001]. The overall effects for triglyceride (TG) [−6.80 mg/dl, 95% CI: −33.59 to 19.99, p = 0.61] and HDL-cholesterol (HDL-c) [0.37 mg/dl, 95% CI: −1.59 to 2.33, p = 0.71] were insignificant. Subgroup analysis revealed significant reduction on TG with N.sativa seed oil [−14.8 mg/dl, 95% CI: −23.1 to −6.5, p < 0.001], while TG was increased with seed powder [29.4 mg/dl, 95% CI: 16.9 to 42.0, p < 0.001]. All measures, but HbA1c, showed no evidence of publication bias. Conclusion Although, the meta-analysis conducted included a few number of studies, but has shown promising results on the effectiveness of N.sativa on glucose homeostasis and serum lipids. Current findings suggest N.sativa supplementation a suitable choice in managing the complications of T2D, although future researches are necessary.
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Abstract: Defective sperm function has been identified as the most common cause of infertility. The objective of this study was to review recent findings on the effects of various antioxidants on male fertility. High amounts of poly unsaturated fatty acid are found in the mammalian spermatozoa membranes, thereby making them susceptible to lipid peroxidation. Although, free radicals and reactive oxygen species (ROS) play major roles in reproduction, they are strongly associated with oxidative stress. Furthermore, factors such as obesity, inflammation, pollutants and cigarette smoking are negatively correlated with spermatogenesis. Endogenous antioxidants system exists to mediate these damages. In a normal physiological state, the seminal plasma contains antioxidant enzyme mechanism that is capable of quenching these ROS as well as protecting the spermatozoa against any likely damage. However, high level of ROS triggered by inflammatory cells and oxidation of fatty acid in obese subjects may down play antioxidant mechanism resulting in oxidative stress. Evaluation of such oxidative stress is the first step in the treatment of male infertility through administration of suitable antioxidant. Notably, antioxidant such as vitamin E and C, carotenoids and carnitine have been found beneficial in restoring a balance between ROS generation and scavenging activities. There are emerging evidences that herbal products can also boost male reproductive functions. Nonetheless, a good lifestyle, regular exercise, avoidance of stress and observing safety rules at work are habits that can reverse male infertility.
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This study was aimed to evaluate therapeutic effects of thymoquinone on male reproductive damages induced by paclitaxel. Forty‐eight male rats were divided; control, paclitaxel (4 mg/kg), paclitaxel + thymoquinone (1.25, 2.5 and 5 mg/kg) and thymoquinone (1.25, 2.5 and 5 mg/kg). Paclitaxel and thymoquinone were administrated intraperitoneally for 4 and 14 days respectively. Then, the testes were removed for H&E staining, sperm parameters and apoptotic genes expression assessments. Serum levels of nitric oxide, total antioxidant capacity and testosterone were evaluated, and sperm DNA fragmentation was assessed. Paclitaxel significantly (p < .05) increased nitric oxide, decreased total antioxidant capacity and reduced testosterone levels than control group. Sperm motility, viability and count were significantly (p < .05) reduced in paclitaxel group than control. Co‐administration of thymoquinone + paclitaxel caused decreased levels of nitric oxide and increased total antioxidant capacity, testosterone levels and reproductive parameters than paclitaxel group significantly (p < .05). Paclitaxel significantly (p < .05) increased caspase‐3 and p‐53 and decreased Bcl‐2 genes expression than control. Sperm DNA fragmentation index was also increased significantly (p < .05) in paclitaxel group than control, and this value was decreased in whole doses of paclitaxel + thymoquinone groups than paclitaxel. Thymoquinone can alleviate the side effects of paclitaxel on the male reproductive system.
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Most of the preclinical studies based on animal models found that Nigella sativa extract in any form such N. sativa or the powdered form suggest its positive impact on the endocrine system. In particular, N. sativa appears helpful with regard to restoring the healthy histological architecture of endocrine tissue or its active constituents. In a general sense, it has manifested potential to directly remodel/modify their function, mitigating the hormonal disturbances seen in most common endocrine disorders such as thyroid dysfunction, metabolic, adrenal, and gonadal disorders. The therapeutic action of N. sativa is largely contributed by thymoquinone, a monoterpene compound. This monoterpene acts as a molecular scavenger of reactive oxygen species. It protects the endocrine tissue from the free radical species’ damaging effect and contributes in rebalancing hormonal disturbances. More extensive and rigorous preclinical research in combination with clinical studies can unravel the therapeutic properties and features of N. sativa in the context of specific endocrine disorders. At the same time working on technological novelties capable of improving its bioavailability and penetration potential is quite promising, while refining the regulatory framework of this research and its potential clinical implications is necessary.
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Nigella sativa plant from Ranunculaceae family has been commonly used as traditional remedies by the ancient world such as Greeks, Romans, and Egyptians. The plant is also known black seed or black cumin. The plant is highly valued by Muslims all over the world as it has been mentioned by the Islamic Prophet Muhammad that the black seed has the capability of curing all diseases except death. The purpose of this chapter is to provide updated and categorized information on the traditional uses, chemical composition, biological activities, bioavailability, safety, toxicity, and clinical trials of N. sativa in order to explore their therapeutic potential and evaluate future research opportunities. Every part of this plant contains a valuable medicinal feature. It contains different types of active phytoconstituents like carbohydrates, volatiles, alkaloids, saponins, flavonoids, phenolics, glycoside, coumarins, fixed oils, proteins, vitamins, and minerals are present. The use of its seeds, whole plant, and oil is common for treatment of many diseases like hepatoprotective, antidiabetic, antiasthmatic, cardioprotective, analgesic, neuroprotective, antiinflammatory, antioxidant, antimicrobial, and anticancer effects. N. sativa has potential for the treatment of a wide range of diseases and has been well studied for its phytochemical properties. However, further scientific studies are needed to explore mechanisms of actions, adverse effects of the extracts, the effective therapeutic dose, and the therapeutic effect of major secondary metabolites.
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An in depth review on Nigella sativa and its derived constituents has been necessitated which has been sketched in this paper from the research reports obtained from PubMed and ScienceDirect databases. Findings of this meticulous review suggest that N. sativa possesses various important phytoconstituents and derived compounds with diverse biological effects including antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-bacterial, anti-fungal, anti-parasitic, anti-protozoal, antiviral, cytotoxic, anticancer, and neuro-, gastro-, cardio-, hepato- and nephro-protective activities. In addition, N. sativa implies beneficiary effects on reproductive, pulmonary and immune systems along with diabetes mellitus (type 2 diabetes), fertility, breast cancer, dermatological complications, dehydration, dyspepsia, osmotic balance and others. Amongst several isolated chemical moieties of N. sativa, thymoquinone may be one of the best targets for treatment of microbial infections, inflammations, cancer, metabolic syndromes, and many other diseases. The N. sativa is evident to promote health in some non-clinical and clinical studies and it may serve to be one of the best sources for modern phyto medicine.
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The aim of this study was to determine the effects of thymoquinone (TQ), which is the most essential active compound of Nigella sativa, on the spermatological parameters of ram semen during cryopreservation. Ejaculates were collected from five Sonmez rams using an artificial vagina and extended with Tris‐based extender not containing TQ (control, 0 μg/ml TQ) and containing 10, 25, 50 and 100 μg/ml TQ. The extended semen samples were equilibrated in a + 4°C cold cabinet for 2 h. After 2 h, the samples were loaded into 0.25 ml French straws. The straws were frozen by liquid nitrogen vapour and stored in a liquid nitrogen container (−196°C). The frozen straws were thawed in a water bath (37°C for 30 s) and evaluated in terms of motility characteristics, plasma membrane and acrosome integrity, mitochondrial reactive oxygen species levels, lipid peroxidation levels, DNA damage and biochemical alterations (oxidative stress index, malondialdehyde and glutathione). TQ100 had higher total motility (53.59 ± 3.01) and progressive motility (19.84 ± 1.44; not significantly different from TQ25 and TQ50) compared to the control and TQ10 (p ˂ 0.05). According to the results of the analyses on motility characteristics, there were significant differences between the groups in terms of curvilinear velocity (VCL), amplitude of lateral head displacement (ALH) and linearity (LIN; p ˂ 0.05). The highest DNA damage was detected in the control group (p ˂ 0.05). TQ50 had higher plasma membrane and acrosome integrity (59.56 ± 5.92) compared to the control and TQ25 (p < 0.05) but not significantly different from TQ10 and TQ100. The lowest mitochondrial reactive oxygen species levels were detected in TQ50 and TQ100 (p ˂ 0.05). There were no significant differences among the groups in terms of their oxidative stress index, lipid peroxidation, malondialdehyde and glutathione levels (p > 0.05). According to the results, it could be concluded that supplementing 50 or 100 μg/ml TQ to Tris extenders that were used for ram semen cryopreservation showed a positive effect on motility, plasma membrane integrity and acrosome integrity, and it reduced DNA damage and mitochondrial reactive oxygen species levels.
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Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of Nigella sativa seed and its oil added to the ration on some reproductive characteristics in broiler breeder males. In experiment I, a total of 40 male broiler breeders (45 weeks age) were divided into five equal groups each of 8 cocks. The first group served as control; groups 2 and 3 were fed on 0.5 or 1.0% oil, while groups 3 and 4 were fed on 0.5 or 1.0% N. sativa seed. The supplements were added daily to 135gm basal diet for 9 weeks. The main goal of this experiment was to evaluate the effect of N. sativa seed and its oil on some semen characteristics. Results showed that the addition of either seed or oil of N. sativa to the diet of the male broiler breeders resulted in the best characteristics of semen that studied in the traits. The treated groups showed an increase in ejaculation volume, sperm mass motility, progressive motility, viability percentage, count, and total sperm output. On the other hand, they exhibited a decrease in time of ejaculation and sperm abnormalities. In experiment II, a total of 200 hens and 20 cocks (55 weeks age) were randomly assigned into five equal experimental groups, each group having 4 replicates (1 0 hens and 1 cock). The hens of all five groups and cocks of first group (control) were fed on the basal ration daily for four weeks, whereas cocks of group 2, 3, 4, and 5 were fed basal ration supplemented with 0.5 or 1.0% oil or 0.5 or 1.0% seed of N. sativa, respectively. The main goal of this experiment was to investigate the effect of N. sativa on the percentages of fertility and hatchability. Statistical analysis of the results showed significant (p˂0.05) improvement on fertility and hatchability percentages using N. sativa in the feed.
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The present study provides a probable insight on the beneficial effects of medicinal plant in improving fertility and immunity of bucks. A total number of 50 male growing New Zealand rabbit were allotted and randomly divided into 5 equal groups, to study the effects of using radish, rocket and black cumin meal (at a level of 50%, respectively, as a replacement of soybean meal) and mixture of these meals at a level of 17% approximately for each, on semen characteristics, and seminal plasma and serum biochemical parameters. Each group received experimental diets containing nearly equal ratio of C/P under the same managerial conditions. The semen parameters revealed that the black cumin and the mixture diets gave the best results in case of reaction time, latency period, volume, motile sperm percentage, sperm concentration per ml, total sperm per ejaculate, total motile sperm and total function sperm fraction (8.47 vs. 7.67; 100.22 vs. 102.00; 0.79 vs. 0.79; 7.11 vs. 6.44; 82.56 vs. 87.22; 565.56 vs. 510.22; 451.44 vs. 430.22; 377.52 vs. 378.09 and 320.28 vs. 323.41 respectively). On the other hand, radish showed good results concerning motile sperm percentage, motility percentage after one hour and the resazurin reduction activity (87.50, 70.83 and 4.18 respectively). Radish meal inclusion reduced significantly (P<0.0001) the production of free radicals in seminal plasma. Nigella sativa (NS), Raphanus sativus (RS) and Eruca sativa (ES) cakes contain different type of organic compound and antioxidant. The immunogenic results for the pervious cakes improve that, the RS giving the best results form the immunity point of view followed by the mixed cake and ES cake. While the NS cake giving just higher results than control. From the present study, we concluded that the inclusion of a mixture of equal quantities from radish, rocket and black cumin meals on the expense of approximately 50% soybean meal protein improved the semen characteristics and reduced free radicals in the seminal plasma. [Magda M El-Tohamy, El-Nattat WS and El-kady RI. The Beneficial Effects of Nigella sativa, Raphanus sativus and Eruca sativa Seed Cakes to Improve Male Rabbit Fertility, Immunity and Production. Journal of American Science 2010;6(10):1247-1255]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).
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This study aims to investigate the effects of Nigella sativa seeds (NSS) on fertility of male diabetic rats. Animals were divided into 3 groups, one group was kept as control and the two other were rendered diabetic by alloxan (120 mg/kg b.wt). One group was left as diabetic control (Diab) and the second were treated (Diab+N) with 2% of NSS in diet for 30 days. Blood samples were collected for glucose and testosterone levels. Testis, epididymis, prostates and seminal vesicles were removed for sperm parameters and oxidant/antioxidant status. NSS improve semen quantity and mobility, and testosterone levels and testis; they decrease blood glucose and lipid peroxidation product level (LPO) and improve antioxidant activities of glutathione peroxidase (GPx), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and aspartate and alanine aminotransferase (AST and ALT). NNS as a diet may be beneficial for diabetic fertility.
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An experiment was conducted to determine the effect of alcoholic extract of black seed Nigella sativa L. on fertility parameters in white male rats (Rattus norvegicus). A total of 60 mature males were divided into three equal groups. The first one (Control) intake drinking water, while the other two groups (T1 and T2) intake the extract in two doses (0.5 and 1.5 g/Kg, respectively) daily for 53 days. The results revealed that treatment with alcoholic extract of Nigella sativa led to significant decrease (P< 0.01) of excitation time in its three stages (1 st mount, 1 st ejaculation and 2 nd trail), significant increase (P<0.01) in body weight gain (g), reproductive parameters (seminiferous tubules thickness and diameters, account of spermatogonia, primary and secondary spermatocytes, spermatids, free spermatozoa, account of sertoli and Leydig cells, diameter of Leydig cells and the height of epithelial cells entirely covered epididymal caudal), hormones (testosterone and follicle stimulating hormone) as well as protein concentration, and significant decrease (P<0.01) in leutinizing hormone and cholesterol concentration. It could be concluded that daily oral administration of 0.5 and 1.5 g/Kg B.W of alcoholic extract of Nigella sativa L. for 53 days lead to clear improvement of male rats fertility.
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Background: The task force on plants for fertility regulation in men continued with its program to identify novel prototypes in plants alleged to have fertility regulating properties. Nigella Sativa seeds are frequently used in folk medicine in the Middle East and some Asian countries for the promotion of good health and treatment of many ailments. Objective: To evaluated the role of alcoholic extract of Nigella sativa on fertility potential, Pituitary-testicular axis hormones and Testosterone in male rats. Materials and Methods: 24 male rats were randomly divided into 3 groups; control, group A and group B, each group comprising of 8 rats. Animals in control group received 1 ml of normal saline and treatment groups (A and B) received (gavage) graded doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight of alcoholic extract of Nigella sativa seeds on a daily basis for 60 days. At the end of treatment period, fertility parameters such as body and reproductive organs weight, sperm motility, viability and count, epididymal sperm reserve (ESR), daily sperm production (DSP), blood testosterone concentration, Gonadotropins levels and fertility index were measured. Results: There was a significant difference in testes and epididymidis weight, sperm count, ESR, DSP, blood testosterone concentration, LH and fertility index in both the lower dose group and the higher group as compared to the control group. Conclusion: The results of this study showed that alcoholic extract of Nigella sativa seed especially in higher doses could increase fertility potential, LH and testosterone concentration in male rats.
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Abstract Molecular oxygen (O 2) is essential in all species for the production of energy within mitochondria; a process known as oxidative phosphorylation. The end products of this process include adenosine triphosphate (ATP), water (H 2 O) and carbon dioxide (CO 2). In addition, very small amounts of reactive oxygen species (ROS) or free radicals are continuously produced as a consequence of normal metabolism of oxygen but which, on occasions when they become overabundant, may toxically damage cells, and therefore need to be biochemically neutralized or extruded from cells. Antioxidants are defined as substances capable of delaying or inhibiting production of ROS intermediates. Cells can either make these antioxidants endogenously, or receive them through the diet.
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Therapeutic role of Nigella sativa (NS) seed oil fractions, methanolic extract (ME) and volatile oil (VO) and their constituents, thymoquinone (TQ) and limonene (LMN) in relation to lipidemic-oxidative stress in Wistar rats was determined. The total phenolic contents of NS seed oil and their ME and VO extracts were 320.00 ± 3.00, 300.12 ± 0.04 and 288.41 ± 0.01 mg gallic acid equivalents per 100 g of NS oil, respectively. Their Fe(+2) chelating activities were 870.00 ± 2.00, 222.31 ± 5.80 and 38.59 ± 1.43 mg EDTA equivalents per 100 g of NS oil, respectively. These fractions and compounds exhibited strong antioxidant activities against 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl hydrazyl, 2,2-azinobis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid, nitric oxide and hydroxyl radicals. Potential antiperoxidative effects of these fractions and compounds were also observed in liposome, and lipidemic-induced lipid peroxidation in atherogenic suspension fed rats, pretreated with 100 mg ME, 20 mg VO, 10 mg pure TQ or 200 mg LMN for 30 days. ME containing ω-6 linoleic acid and palmitic acid natural compounds was highly effective against lipidemic oxidative stress than VO extract possessing thymol and isothymol phenolic natural antioxidant compounds. TQ, principal compound shared to both the extracts. The test fractions and compounds effectively reduced the erythrocyte and liver lipid peroxidation markers, conjugated diene, lipid hydroperoxide and malondialdehyde to near normal levels in the order ME > TQ > VO > LMN, by directly counteracting free radicals as well as suppressing hepatic HMG-CoA reductase activity. Our findings demonstrated that these natural products, preferably ME possess significant antioxidant activities, and may be recommended as new potential sources of natural antioxidants.
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Twenty-four Sprague-Dawley male rats (7-9 weeks old, 200-250 g) were divided into Nicotine (N) (0.5 mg/100 g body weight (BW), Nicotine Control (NC) (saline, 0.1 mL/100 g BW), Habbatus sauda oil (HS) (6.0 μ L/100 g BW), and Habbatus sauda Control (HSC) (corn oil, 0.1 mL/100 g BW) groups and treated for 100 days. Sperm parameters and seminiferous tubules measurements were evaluated. The N showed a significantly lower sperm motility (1.03 ± 0.05 × 10(6) sperm/mL) and percentage of normal (82.61 ± 0.03%) and live (93.88 ± 0.01%) sperm, higher value for the seminiferous tubule (253.36 ± 1.83 μ m) and lumen (100.15 ± 2.38 μ m) diameters and spermatogonia (19.85 ± 0.39 μ m) and spermatocytes (33.37 ± 0.59 μ m) layers, and thinner spermatid-sperm layer (22.14 ± 0.71 μ m) than the NC (P < 0.05). The HS had significantly higher sperm motility (1.49 ± 0.04 × 10(6) sperm/mL) and percentage of normal (90.61 ± 0.01%) and live (96.98 ± 0.01%) sperm, smaller lumen diameter (67.53 ± 2.34 μ m) and thinner spermatogonia (17.67 ± 0.32 μ m) and wider spermatid-sperm (36.95 ± 0.79 μ m) layers than the HSC (P < 0.05). This research confirmed that nicotine reduced sperm motility and morphology of normal and live sperms and also affected the testis histology, while Habbatus sauda oil increased sperm quality and gave better testis histological features.
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Background Nigella sativa fixed (NSFO) and essential (NSEO) oils have been used to treat diabetes mellitus and its complications. Present study was undertaken to explore and validate these folkloric uses. Methods Sprague dawley rats having streptozotocin (STZ) induced diabetes mellitus were used to assess the role of NSFO and NSEO in the management of diabetes complications. Parameters investigated were antioxidant potential, oxidative stress, and the immunity by in vivo experiments. Results The results indicated that STZ decreased the glutathione contents (25.72%), while NSFO and NSEO increased the trait significantly (P < 0.05). Experimental diets increased the tocopherol contents (P < 0.01) and enhanced the expression of hepatic enzymes (P < 0.01). Correlation matrix further indicated that antioxidant potential is positively associated (P < 0.05) responsible for the modulation of hepatic enzymes and the decrease of the nitric oxide production thus controlling the diabetes complications. Conclusions Overall, results of present study supported the traditional use of N. sativa and its derived products as a treatment for hyperglycemia and allied abnormalities. Moreover, N. sativa fixed and essential oils significantly ameliorate free radicals and improve antioxidant capacity thus reducing the risk of diabetic complications.
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Infertility affects approximately 15% of couples trying to conceive, and a male factor contributes to roughly half of these cases. Oxidative stress (OS) has been identified as one of the many mediators of male infertility by causing sperm dysfunction. OS is a state related to increased cellular damage triggered by oxygen and oxygen-derived free radicals known as reactive oxygen species (ROS). During this process, augmented production of ROS overwhelms the body's antioxidant defenses. While small amounts of ROS are required for normal sperm functioning, disproportionate levels can negatively impact the quality of spermatozoa and impair their overall fertilizing capacity. OS has been identified as an area of great attention because ROS and their metabolites can attack DNA, lipids, and proteins; alter enzymatic systems; produce irreparable alterations; cause cell death; and ultimately, lead to a decline in the semen parameters associated with male infertility. This review highlights the mechanisms of ROS production, the physiological and pathophysiological roles of ROS in relation to the male reproductive system, and recent advances in diagnostic methods; it also explores the benefits of using antioxidants in a clinical setting.
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Free radicals are well documented for playing a dual role in our body as both deleterious and beneficial species. In low/moderate concentrations free radicals are involved in normal physiological functions but excess production of free radicals or decrease in antioxidant level leads to oxidative stress. It is a harmful process that can be mediates damage to cell structures, including lipids, proteins, RNA and DNA which leads to number of diseases. A variety of synthetic medicine employed in the treatment of different diseases also capable to generate free radicals in body which may causes another disease. The plant sources are rich of antioxidants, phyto-constituents are capable to terminate free radical reactions and prevent our body from oxidative damage. Vegetables and fruits are also important sources of antioxidant substances. Different phytoconstituents and herbal product which are safer then synthetic medicine and beneficial in the treatment of diseases caused by free radicals, it also protect the body by prevent the free radicals to cause tissue injury. Phytoconstituents are conferring less side effect and compatible to body physiology. Therefore it is demand of modern era to use such phytoconstituents or phytomedicines.
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One of the major causes of defective sperm function is oxidative stress, which not only disrupts the integrity of sperm DNA but also limits the fertilizing potential of these cells as a result of collateral damage to proteins and lipids in the sperm plasma membrane. The origins of such oxidative stress appear to involve the sperm mitochondria, which have a tendency to generate high levels of superoxide anion as a prelude to entering the intrinsic apoptotic cascade. Unfortunately, these cells have very little capacity to respond to such an attack because they only possess the first enzyme in the base excision repair (BER) pathway, 8-oxoguanine glycosylase 1 (OGG1). The latter successfully creates an abasic site, but the spermatozoa cannot process the oxidative lesion further because they lack the downstream proteins (APE1, XRCC1) needed to complete the repair process. It is the responsibility of the oocyte to continue the BER pathway prior to initiation of S-phase of the first mitotic division. If a mistake is made by the oocyte at this stage of development, a mutation will be created that will be represented in every cell in the body. Such mechanisms may explain the increase in childhood cancers and other diseases observed in the offspring of males who have suffered oxidative stress in their germ line as a consequence of age, environmental or lifestyle factors. The high prevalence of oxidative DNA damage in the spermatozoa of male infertility patients may have implications for the health of children conceivedin vitro and serves as a driver for current research into the origins of free radical generation in the germ line.
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Nigella sativa (N. sativa) (Family Ranunculaceae) is a widely used medicinal plant throughout the world. It is very popular in various traditional systems of medicine like Unani and Tibb, Ayurveda and Siddha. Seeds and oil have a long history of folklore usage in various systems of medicines and food. The seeds of N. sativa have been widely used in the treatment of different diseases and ailments. In Islamic literature, it is considered as one of the greatest forms of healing medicine. It has been recommended for using on regular basis in Tibb-e-Nabwi (Prophetic Medicine). It has been widely used as antihypertensive, liver tonics, diuretics, digestive, anti-diarrheal, appetite stimulant, analgesics, anti-bacterial and in skin disorders. Extensive studies on N. sativa have been carried out by various researchers and a wide spectrum of its pharmacological actions have been explored which may include antidiabetic, anticancer, immunomodulator, analgesic, antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, spasmolytic, bronchodilator, hepato-protective, renal protective, gastro-protective, antioxidant properties, etc. Due to its miraculous power of healing, N. sativa has got the place among the top ranked evidence based herbal medicines. This is also revealed that most of the therapeutic properties of this plant are due to the presence of thymoquinone which is major bioactive component of the essential oil. The present review is an effort to provide a detailed survey of the literature on scientific researches of pharmacognostical characteristics, chemical composition and pharmacological activities of the seeds of this plant.
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Summary One of the most important concerns in assisted reproduction (ART), and in particular ICSI, is the quality of sperm DNA. Oxidative stress is one of the major causes of damage to DNA and attempting to reduce generation of DNA damage related to reactive oxygen species (ROS) through consumption of antioxidants is often tempting. However, current antioxidant treatments, given irrespectively of clinically quantified deficiencies, are poorly efficient, potentially detrimental and over-exposure is risky. Here we discuss new treatments in relation to present day concepts on oxidative stress. This discussion includes stimulation of endogenous anti-ROS defense i.e. glutathione synthesis and recycling of homocysteine, the epicentre of multiple ROS-linked pathologies.
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Abstract: The seeds of Nigella sativa Linn. (Ranunculaceae herbaceous plant), commonly known as black seed or black cumin, are used as herbal medicine all over the world for the treatment and prevention of a number of diseases and conditions like asthma, diarrhoea and dyslipidaemia. The aim of this study is to see effects of Nigella sativa on the reproductive system and fertility on adult male albino rats. 20 albino rats were involved in this study and were divided into two groups: a vehicle-treated control group and a treated group with Nigella sativa at a dose of 300.mg/kg body weight for 60 days. The seeds of Nigella sativa induce a significant increase in the weight of reproductive organs as compared to control animals (P<0.01). The sperm motility and count in cauda epidydimides and testicular ducts were significantly increased (P<0.01). Spermatogenesis was increased at primary &secondary spermatocyte stages. Epididymides showed eleveted number of spermatozoa. Lumen of vas deferentia were full of sperms. The secretary activities of seminal vesicle and ventricular prostate were also increased. A significant increase (P<0.01) in spermatogenesis activity was observed in semniferous tubule. Treated rats testicular cell population showed a increase in number of spermatocytes and spermatids (P<0.001) when compared to control animals. Increased in number female rats impregnated by males receiving treatment was also observed and (P<0.01). It is concluded that the aqueous extracts of Nigella sativa have increased spermatogenesis of male albino rats.
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Previous studies have shown that dietary supplementation with antioxidants such as vitamin E affects the reproduction parameters in heat stressed males mice Nevertheless, the impact of thymoquinone (TQ) on the reproductive system during head stress is still poorly studied. Therefore, the aim of current study was to investigate changes in the reproductive parameters during heat stress and the impact of vitamin E (positive control) and TQ during this period. Forty male mice were distributed into four groups: group I was a control group that was orally supplemented with distilled water; group 2 was subjected to HS (at a humidity of 50 to 55% and a temperature of 42°C) for 75 days; Group 3 was subjected to HS and orally supplemented with vitamin E (20 IU/kg/day for 75 days) and group 4 was subjected to HS and orally supplemented with TQ (5 mg/kg body weight/day for 75 days). We found that HS significantly increased free radicals (FR) without significant effect on the testosterone level. Additionally, semen analysis of the heat stressed mice revealed a significant decrease in sperm concentration, sperm velocity straight line (SVSL), sperm velocity curved line (SVCL), and sperm velocity average path (SVAP). Moreover, histopathological examination of seminiferous tubules of heat stressed mice presented maturation arrest in the germinal layers. Notably, supplementation with either TQ or vitamin E completely restored the FR levels, semen quality and histopathological changes that were induced by HS. Our data revealed the beneficial impacts of TQ and vitamin E supplementation in improving heat stress-induced complications.
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Nigella sativa (N. sativa) seed has been an important nutritional flavoring agent and natural remedy for many ailments for centuries in ancient systems of medicine, e.g. Unani, Ayurveda, Chinese and Arabic Medicines. Many active components have been isolated from N. sativa, including thymoquinone, thymohydroquinone, dithymoquinone, thymol, carvacrol, nigellimine-N-oxide, nigellicine, nigellidine and alpha-hederin. In addition, quite a few pharmacological effects of N. sativa seed, its oil, various extracts and active components have been identified to include immune stimulation, anti-inflammation, hypoglycemic, antihypertensive, antiasthmatic, antimicrobial, antiparasitic, antioxidant and anticancer effects. Only a few authors have reviewed the medicinal properties of N. sativa and given some description of the anticancer effects. A literature search has revealed that a lot more studies have been recently carried out related to the anticancer activities of N. sativa and some of its active compounds, such as thymoquinone and alpha-hederin. Acute and chronic toxicity studies have recently confirmed the safety of N. sativa oil and its most abundant active component, thymoquinone, particularly when given orally. The present work is aimed at summarizing the extremely valuable work done by various investigators on the effects of N. sativa seed, its extracts and active principles against cancer. Those related to the underlying mechanism of action, derivatives of thymoquinone, nano thymoquinone and combinations of thymoquinone with the currently used cytotoxic drugs are of particular interest. We hope this review will encourage interested researchers to conduct further preclinical and clinical studies to evaluate the anticancer activities of N. sativa, its active constituents and their derivatives.
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Various beneficial properties has been attributed to Nigella sativa, including its antioxidant potential. Previously, it was reported that supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) could be used to obtain N. sativa extract rich in antioxidants. In the present study, N. sativa extracts prepared using the previously optimized SFE as well as the traditional Soxhlet extraction approaches were analyzed for various known antioxidants. N. sativa extracts were found to prevent protein carbonyl formation as well as depletion of intracellular glutathione (GSH) in fibroblasts exposed to toluene. Furthermore, partially purified SFE and Soxhlet fractions could prevent loss of hepatic GSH in toluene-induced oxidative stressed Wistar rats as well as in L929 fibroblasts. The results showed that SFE-produced N. sativa extract is richer in antioxidants than the Soxhlet approach. It was also shown using preparative silica gel and reverse phase chromatography that different fractions of SFE-extracted or Soxhlet-extracted N. sativa had different levels of protective effects with regards to GSH depletion in vivo as well as in cell culture. Although fractions rich in thymoquinone were found to be most potent in terms of antioxidant capacity, the data indicates that the protective effects of N. sativa may not only be due to thymoquinone, but perhaps other antioxidants.
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In recent years, wide utilization of herbal drugs has encouraged scientists to determine their impressive effects on health. Since Nigella sativa L. seed (N. sativa) has many uses including infertility in traditional medicine, the effects of Nigella sativa L. seed oil on abnormal semen quality in infertile men with abnormal semen quality are of interest. This study was conducted on Iranian infertile men with inclusion criteria of abnormal sperm morphology less than 30% or sperm counts below 20 × 106/ml or type A and B motility less than 25% and 50% respectively. The patients in N. sativa oil group (n = 34) received 2.5 ml N. sativa oil and placebo group (n = 34) received 2.5 ml liquid paraffin two times a day orally for 2 months. At baseline and after 2 months, the sperm count, motility and morphology and semen volume, pH and round cells as primary outcomes were determined in both groups. Results showed that sperm count, motility and morphology and semen volume, pH and round cells were improved significantly in N. sativa oil treated group compared with placebo group after 2 months. It is concluded that daily intake of 5 ml N. sativa oil for two months improves abnormal semen quality in infertile men without any adverse effects.
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DNA fragmentation is an important factor in the aetiology of male infertility. However, it is still underevaluated and its inclusion in routine semen analysis is debated. DNA fragmentation has been shown to be a robust indicator of fertility potential, more so than conventional semen parameters. Men with high DNA fragmentation levels have significantly lower odds of conceiving, naturally or through procedures such as intrauterine insemination and IVF. Couples may be counselled to proceed directly to intracytoplasmic sperm injection as it is more successful in this group, avoiding costly procedures, recurrent failures or pregnancy losses; however, this treatment is not without limitations or risks. Ideally DNA fragmentation should be minimized where possible. Oxidative stress is the major cause of DNA fragmentation in spermatozoa. Endogenous and exogenous factors that contribute to oxidative stress are discussed, and in many cases are shown to be easily modifiable. Antioxidants play a protective role, although a delicate balance of reduction and oxidation is required for essential functions, including fertilization. Reducing oxidative stress may improve a couple’s chances of conception either naturally or via assisted reproduction. Sources of oxidative stress therefore should be thoroughly examined in men with high levels of DNA fragmentation and modified where possible.
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Adequate information on how leachates affect hematological and reproductive functions is necessary to help in linking causality with predictable response. The present study investigated the effects of Olushosun municipal landfill leachate (OMLL) exposure and withdrawal on sperm characteristics and erythrocytes oxidant-antioxidant balance in rats. Adult male Wistar rats were exposed to 0%, 12.5% and 25% OMLL in drinking water for 28 days. One-half of the rats in each group were sacrificed on day 29 while the remaining one-half stayed an additional 28 days without treatment. OMLL exposure significantly decreased sperm functional parameters, disrupted antioxidant systems with concomitant elevation in hydrogen peroxide and malondialdehyde levels in erythrocytes and sperm. Following withdrawal of treatment, OMLL-mediated decrease in sperm count and daily sperm production were reversed to near control. However, erythrocytes and sperm oxidative damage, increased sperm abnormalities, decreased epididymis weight, sperm progressive motility and testicular sperm number persisted and were consistent with results obtained from rats sacrificed immediately after OMLL treatment. Collectively, OMLL-induced irreversible oxidative damage to erythrocytes and sperm in rats within the time course of investigation. These findings highlight potential adverse effects of OMLL on individuals unduly exposed to leachates contaminated substances.
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We investigated the antioxidant ability, phenolic contents and cytotoxic effects of seven widely edible Nigerian medicinal plants, as a means of validating their ethnomedicinal use. Standard antioxidant assays assessed the capability of the extracts in scavenging 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), hydroxyl (OH), and superoxide anion (O2-) radicals, as well as in inhibiting lipid peroxidation. The extracts possessed significant antioxidant activity compared to standards and the 7-amino actinomycin and WST-1 cytotoxicity assays proved that they were non-toxic to human peripheral blood mononuclear cells, and the A2.01 cell line. Landolphia owariensis and Irvingia gabonensis had the most antioxidant activity in the DPPH assay, compared to ascorbic acid. They also significantly inhibited lipid peroxidation. I. gabonensis and Nauclea latifolia powerfully quenched the OH radical compared to α-tocopherol. The extracts’ antioxidant activity and lipid peroxidation inhibitory potencies correlated with their phenolic and flavonoid contents. Thus, the antioxidant activities could be factors contributing substantially to their traditional medicinal use.
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According to worldwide statistics, between one in four and one in five couples have fertility problems. These problems are equally distributed between males and females. Modern lifestyle has obviously increased these problems: endocrine-disrupting chemicals, such as plastic polymer catalysts, alkylphenols, phthalates and so on, and cosmetic additives seem to be strongly involved in this fertility problem. Many of these compounds increase oxidative stress (OS) and thus impair spermatogenesis. The oocyte has only a finite capacity, decreasing with maternal age, to repair sperm-borne decays. To decrease this DNA repair burden, reducing the sperm DNA damages linked to OS is tempting. Antioxidant vitamins are often given haphazardly; they are not very efficient and potentially detrimental. A detailed analysis of the sperm nucleus is mandatory (DNA fragmentation or lack of nuclear condensation) prior to any treatment. Here we discuss new concepts in OS and the corresponding therapeutic approaches.
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The seeds of Nigella sativa Linn. (Ranunculaceae herbaceous plant), commonly known as black seed or black cumin, are used as herbal medicine all over the world for the treatment and prevention of a number of diseases and conditions like asthma, diarrhoea and dyslipidaemia. The aim of this study is to see effects of Nigella sativa on the reproductive system and fertility on adult male albino rats. 20 albino rats were involved in this study and were divided into two groups: a vehicle-treated control group and a treated group with Nigella sativa at a dose of 300.mg/kg body weight for 60 days. The seeds of Nigella sativa induce a significant increase in the weight of reproductive organs as compared to control animals (P
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Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of Nigella sativa and thymoquinone (TQ) on oxidative stress, cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), and intracellular adhesion molecule-1 mRNA expression in the pancreas of streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats as a model of type 1 diabetes. Methods: Five experimental groups including control group, STZ-induced diabetic group, aqueous extract diabetic treated group, oil diabetic treated group, and TQ diabetic treated group were used to obtain the pancreatic tissue samples and serum for investigation. Results: A significant increase in COX-2 mRNA expression was detected in STZ-induced diabetic group after 10 days of diabetes induction indicating an important role of the enzyme COX-2 in the inflammation accompanying STZ diabetes in contrast to that detected for intracellular adhesion molecule-1. Treatment of STZ diabetic rats with N. sativa aqueous extract and TQ significantly suppressed the expression of COX-2 enzyme in the pancreatic tissue. Nigella sativa and TQ treatment also suppressed pancreatic tissue lipid peroxidation malondialdehyde levels and increased the level of superoxide dismutase antioxidant enzyme correlated with the decrease in COX-2 mRNA expression. Conclusions: Results obtained in this study support a potential role for N. sativa and TQ in ameliorating inflammation during diabetes and preserving β cells.
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Infertility affects about 7% of all men. The etiology of impaired sperm production and function can be related to factors acting at pre-testicular, post-testicular or directly at the testicular level. Primary testicular failure accounts for about 75% of all male factor infertility. Genetic factors can be identified in about 15% of cases (congenital hypogonadotrophic hypogonadism, congenital absence of vas deferens, primitive testicular failure). Despite progresses, mainly in the field of genetics, the etiology is still unknown in about 50% cases and it is termed "idiopathic infertility". A part from few exceptions, the only available therapy for male factor infertility is assisted reproduction which allows conception also in severe male factor, including azoospermia following testicular sperm extraction. The complete diagnostic workup is important for: i) the identification of treatable/reversible or health-threatening conditions; ii) selection of patients for assisted reproductive techniques; iii) for appropriate genetic counselling including preventive measures (preimplanatation or prenatal diagnosis) to safeguard the health of future offspring.
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The aim of this study was designed to evaluate the possible protective effects of thymoquinone (TQ) on the spermatogenesis after testicular injury caused by chronic toluene exposure in rats. The rats were randomly allotted into one of three experimental groups: control, toluene-treated and toluene treated with TQ; each group contained 10 animals. Control group received 1 mL serum physiologic and toluene treatment was performed by inhalation of 3000 ppm toluene, in an 8-hour/day and 6-day/week order for 12 weeks. The rats in TQ-treated group was given TQ (50 mg/kg body weight) once a day orally for 12 weeks starting just after toluene exposure. Tissue samples were obtained for histopathological investigation. To date, no histopathological changes of testis in rats after chronic toluene exposure by TQ treatment have been reported. Spermatogenesis and mean seminiferous tubule diameter (MSTD) were significantly decreased in toluene treated groups when compared to the control group. Furthermore, the TQ-treated animals showed an improved histological appearance in toluene-treated group. Our data indicate a significant reduction in the activity of in situ identification of apoptosis using terminal dUTP nick end-labeling (TUNEL), endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and there was a rise in the expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) in testis tissues of the toluene-treated group with TQ therapy. Electron microscopy of the testes of the rats demonstrated that pretreatment with TQ was particularly effective in preventing the mitochondrial degeneration, dilatation of smooth endoplasmic reticulum (SER) and enlarged intercellular spaces in both Sertoli and spermatid cells in the toluene-treated animals. We believe that further preclinical research into the utility of TQ may indicate its usefulness as a potential treatment on the spermatogenesis after testicular injury caused by chronic toluene exposure in rats.
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The antioxidant activities of the thymoquinone-rich fraction (TQRF) extracted from Nigella sativa and its bioactive compound, thymoquinone (TQ), in rats with induced hypercholesterolemia were investigated. Rats were fed a semipurified diet supplemented with 1% (w/w) cholesterol and were treated with TQRF and TQ at dosages ranging from 0.5 to 1.5 g/kg and 20 to 100 mg/kg body wt, respectively, for 8 weeks. The hydroxyl radical (OH(.))-scavenging activity of plasma samples collected from experimental rats was measured by electron spin resonance. The GenomeLab Genetic Analysis System was used to study the molecular mechanism that mediates the antioxidative properties of TQRF and TQ. Plasma total cholesterol and low-density-lipoprotein cholesterol levels were significantly decreased in the TQRF- and TQ-treated rats compared to untreated rats. Feeding rats a 1% cholesterol diet for 8 weeks resulted in a significant decrease in plasma antioxidant capacity, as measured by the capacity to scavenge hydroxyl radicals. However, rats treated with TQRF and TQ at various doses showed significant inhibitory activity toward the formation of OH(.) compared to untreated rats. Upon examination of liver RNA expression levels, treatment with TQRF and TQ caused the up-regulation of the superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1), catalase, and glutathione peroxidase 2 (GPX) genes compared to untreated rats (P<0.05). In support of this, liver antioxidant enzyme levels, including SOD1 and GPX, were also apparently increased in the TQRF- and TQ-treated rats compared to untreated rats (P<0.05). In conclusion, TQRF and TQ effectively improved the plasma and liver antioxidant capacity and enhanced the expression of liver antioxidant genes of hypercholesterolemic rats.
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Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is highly prevalent, affecting more than 47 million US residents. This condition is also multifaceted, potentially leading to significant disturbance of numerous physiologic processes. This review article evaluates the literature regarding metabolic syndrome and male reproductive health. Links between obesity, dyslipidemia, hypertension, and insulin resistance are each examined with regard to their associated detrimental effects on male fertility. At the end of this manuscript, we propose a new MetS/male infertility paradigm. Additional studies specifically addressing the components of MetS and their impact on male reproduction will enhance our understanding of the underlying pathophysiology. These studies may also help clarify the role for therapeutic intervention.
  • Y Menezo
  • D Evenson
  • M Cohen
  • B Dale
Menezo, Y., Evenson, D., Cohen, M. and Dale, B. In Genetic Damage in Human SpermatozoaSpringer 2014b; 2: 173-189.
A comprehensive review
  • P M Paarakh
  • Nigella Sativa Linn
Paarakh, P. M. Nigella sativa Linn. A comprehensive review. Indian J Nat Prod Resour 2010; 1: 409-29.