ArticlePDF Available

Transport transitions in Copenhagen: Comparing the cost of cars and bicycles

Authors:
  • Choice Behavior Institute, Daejeon South Korea

Abstract

In many cities of the world, bicycle infrastructure projects are implemented to foster more sustainable transportation systems. However, such projects have often raised questions regarding their public funding, as they entail considerable costs. This paper reviews cost–benefit analysis (CBA) frameworks as these are presently used to assess bicycle infrastructure projects. Specific focus is on the CBA framework developed in Copenhagen, Denmark, a self-declared “city of cyclists”. In this framework, costs and benefits of car and bicycle, the two major urban transport modes, have been assessed and are compared across accidents, climate change, health, and travel time. The analysis reveals that each km travelled by car or bike incurs a cost to society, though the cost of car driving is more than six times higher (Euro 0.50/km) than cycling (Euro 0.08/km). Moreover, while the cost of car driving is likely to increase in the future, the cost of cycling appears to be declining. The paper concludes with a discussion of the applicability of the Copenhagen CBA framework to advance sustainable transport planning and to motivate and justify urban restructuring.
... One branch compares cycling with other transport modes, using a large set of social, demographic, health-related and economic outcomes. These studies find that a mode shift towards cycling is associated with health benefits (Celis-Morales et al., 2017;De Hartog et al., 2010), a reduction of local air pollution (Gössling & Choi, 2015), increase in total road capacity (Wang et al., 2008). But for road safety, Schepers and Heinen (2013) find that severe injuries can increase with cycling. ...
Article
Full-text available
This paper tests whether and to what extent the implementation of bike infrastructure increases the propensity to cycle overall and by gender. We develop statistical models to test for gender-differentiated responses to the implementation of different types of bike lanes. We use large-scale Citibike data which records customer behaviours for New York city for years going from 2013 to 2019. Results indicate that an increase in bike infrastructure has a significant impact on the number of cyclists as well as on the gender composition of those who cycle. More precisely, we find that dedicated cycling infrastructure increases women's participation in cycling by 4% to 6%. This corroborates the hypothesis that both men and women are more likely to bike when it is safer, and even more so for women. This is in line with previous literature findings showing the presence of a gender gap in the perception of safety in transport. Results are stable across specifications and robust to the inclusion of city-level and time controls.
... Studies across the global south (Latin America, Sub-Saharan Africa) and global north (Europe, United Kingdom and the United States) have documented how transport-related externalities such as congestion, vehicle emissions, noise pollution and road safety affect the livelihoods of various social groups [97,[99][100][101][102][103][104][105][106][107][108]. These studies together emphasize that externalities become a social problem when nontransport users are affected by such problems. ...
Chapter
Transportation has been recently recognized as a key element in the study of individual Quality of Life (QoL). However, relatively little is known about the interconnectedness between various transport dimensions and wellbeing measures. In scoping the existing literature, the chapter identifies studies reporting on a link between one of the seven transport indicators (mobility, affordability, accessibility, connectivity, externality, travel needs, and attitudes) and QoL. Based on the scoping review, a conceptual framework (TRAWEL) was deductively developed to understand wellbeing measures in five broader dimensions of transportation: transportation infrastructure, the built environment, and transport externalities at a societal level, travel and time use, and travel satisfaction at the individual level. Furthermore, the data requirements for accurate quantification and the possible study groups of interest are also discussed. The chapter concludes by summarizing the key points of the framework and by highlighting policy implications and areas for future research.
... This cost refers both to the private cost each traveler needs to cover, as well as the grander social cost that comes from using each vehicle. More specifically, cost-benefit studies in Copenhagen have shown that private cars are approximately two times as expensive as a private bicycle regarding private costs, and six (6) times as expensive regarding total costs (both private and social) [24]. While BSSs are more expensive than private bicycles, they are accompanied by quality of life benefits that might be even more important regarding commuting trips. ...
... Ekonomik açıdan bireysel motorlu araç ile karşılaştırıldığında bisiklet en verimli araçlardan biridir. Gössling ve Choi (2015), Kopenhag örneğinde bireysel motorlu araç ile bisiklet kullanımını ekonomik olarak karşılaştırdıkları çalışmalarında motorlu araçların bisikletten yaklaşık altı kat daha maliyetli olduğu sonucuna ulaşmışlardır. Çalışmada bireysel motorlu araçta kilometre başına maliyetin 0,50 Euro, bisiklette ise kilometre başına 0,08 Euro olduğu sonucuna ulaşılmıştır. ...
Article
The aim was to identify the main geospatial indicators used in bikeability index through constructive methodological studies. The study protocol was registered in PROSPERO under the registration number CRD42020166795, following the PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses) guide. Original studies indexed in the electronic databases Lilacs, Pu-bMed, Science Direct, Scopus, SPORTDiscus, Trid, and Web of Science were selected. The review also included grey literature through Google Scholar, OpenGrey, ProQuest, and a list of references and documents pointed out by experts. After removing duplicates and analyzing titles and abstracts, the review considered only 11 out of the 703 initial papers, which provided 100 environment in-dicators with varied definitions and metrics for estimating the Bikeability index. The census tract was the most used unit of the analysis found in the papers, which used GIS (Geographic Informa-tion System) data besides self-reported information on environmental characteristics. The results indicate that the most usual indicators relate to infrastructure – existence and width of bike lanes – destination, slope, speed limit, and connectivity and intersections. The creation and maintenance of bicycle-friendly environments could consider the implementation of more infrastructure on flat and connected streets with changes in speed limits in neighborhoods, especially in regions with low density of intersections, to decrease accidents and increase cyclists’ perception of safety.
Article
Through its novel and systematic application of the multi-level perspective (MLP), sustainable mobility paradigm (SMP), and strategic niche management (SNM) principles, this article provides a framework for evaluating the relationship between cycling innovations and sustainability goals within a given institutional context. It then demonstrates the practical application of this framework with an analysis of the implementation of three comparable cycling innovations in three different mobility regimes. The article contributes to the literature on the transition to sustainable transportation systems by showing how the application of the SMP to transition theories provides an improved understanding of the role that cycling innovations play in transition processes. It also critically evaluates the limited amount of literature examining cycling innovations through the lens of transition theories and how this literature has been adopted by other scholars.
Book
Full-text available
Describes technological methods and tools for objective and quantitative assessment of quality of life (QoL) Appraises technology-enabled methods for incorporating QoL measurements in medicine Highlights the success factors for adoption and scaling of technology-enabled methods
Article
Full-text available
There are ways to quantify the value of walking (the activity) and walkability (the quality of walking conditions, including safety, comfort, and convenience). Walking and walkability provide a variety of benefits, including accessibility, consumer cost savings, public cost savings (reduced external costs), more efficient land use, community livability, improved fitness and public health, economic development, and support for equity objectives. Yet current transportation planning practices tend to undervalue walking. More comprehensive analysis techniques are likely to increase public support for walking and other nonmotorized modes of travel.
Article
Full-text available
This article examines four phases in bicycle evolution in China from initial entry and slow growth (1900s to 1978), to rapid growth (1978 to 1995), bicycle use reduction (1995 to 2002), and policy diversification (2002 to present). Two bicycle innovations, electric bikes, and public bikesharing (the shared use of a bicycle fleet), are also explored in this article. Electric bikes could provide a transitional mode on the pathway to bicycle and public transportation integration or to small battery electric cars. Four lessons have been learned from China's electric bike experience relevant to government policy and management. Public bikesharing represents an important step towards integrating the bicycle with bus, metro, and rail systems. Five early operational lessons have been identified from China's limited public bikesharing experience.
Article
Full-text available
Concern over climate change, traffic congestion, and the health consequences of sedentary lifestyles has resulted in a surge of interest in cycling as an efficient form of sustainable transportation. In order to best serve the needs of current cyclists and attract future ones, methodologies are needed to objectively determine the optimum location of new cycling facilities. This article uses Montréal, Canada, as a case study to demonstrate various methods for locating facilities. This research can be beneficial to transportation engineers and planners since it uses readily available data sources to recommend additions and improvements to a city's cycling infrastructure.
Article
Full-text available
This paper begins by providing an overview of bike share programs, followed by a critical examination of the growing body of literature on these programs. This synthesis of previous works, both peer-reviewed and gray, includes an identification of the current gaps in knowledge related to the impacts of bike sharing programs. This synthesis represents a critically needed evaluation of the current state of global bike share research, in order to better understand, and maximize the effectiveness of current and future programs. Several consistent themes have emerged within the growing body of research on bike share programs. Firstly, the importance bike share members place on convenience and value for money appears paramount in their motivation to sign up and use these programs. Secondly, and somewhat counter intuitively, scheme members are more likely to own and use private bicycles than nonmembers. Thirdly, users demonstrate a greater reluctance to wear helmets than private bicycle riders and helmets have acted as a deterrent in jurisdictions in which helmets are mandatory. Finally, and perhaps most importantly from a sustainable transport perspective, the majority of scheme users are substituting from sustainable modes of transport rather than the car.
Article
Cross-sectional and prospective associations of personality disorder with childhood trauma provide an important clue regarding the biological mechanism of personality disorder. In this review, empirical literature from several domains is summarized. These include relevant findings from behavioral genetics, preclinical models of early life parental care, and clinical translational studies of personality disorder. Identification of the biological mechanism by which childhood trauma exerts an effect on personality disorder may require modification of the conceptualization of personality disorder, either as a set of categories or dimensions.
Article
The preparation and implementation of a system of access ways throughout the community will result in economic improvements that will benefit the entire community. Private property owners will benefit, especially for commercial property that allows access to nearby customer bases in residential areas and employment centers. At the same time, the provision of access ways will reduce the magnitude of the public's subsidies to and adverse externalities that result from automobile dependency. Separating pedestrian and bicycle traffic from streets and providing pedestrian and bicycle access ways will make travel easier for all who access such ways. Public benefits include reduced congestion, reduced air and noise pollution, reduced public costs associated with highway construction and maintenance, reduced energy consumption, improved pedestrian and bicyclist safety, and overall improvements in environmental and social quality of life factors. Private benefits include reduced driving costs, increased investment in downtowns, and increased private property values.
Article
Economists traditionally view a Pigouvian fee on carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gas emissions, either via carbon taxes or emissions caps and permit trading (“cap-and-trade”), as the economically optimal or “first-best” policy to address climate change-related externalities. Yet several political economy factors can severely constrain the implementation of these carbon pricing policies, including opposition of industrial sectors with a concentration of assets that would lose considerable value under such policies; the collective action nature of climate mitigation efforts; principal agent failures; and a low willingness-to-pay for climate mitigation by citizens. Real-world implementations of carbon pricing policies can thus fall short of the economically optimal outcomes envisioned in theory. Consistent with the general theory of the second-best, the presence of binding political economy constraints opens a significant “opportunity space” for the design of creative climate policy instruments with superior political feasibility, economic efficiency, and environmental efficacy relative to the constrained implementation of carbon pricing policies. This paper presents theoretical political economy frameworks relevant to climate policy design and provides corroborating evidence from the United States context. It concludes with a series of implications for climate policy making and argues for the creative pursuit of a mix of second-best policy instruments.