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Abstract

Moringa oleifera leaves, seeds, bark, roots, sap, and flowers are widely used in traditional medicine, and the leaves and immature seed pods are used as food products in human nutrition. Leaf extracts exhibit the greatest antioxidant activity, and various safety studies in animals involving aqueous leaf extracts indicate a high degree of safety. No adverse effects were reported in association with human studies. Five human studies using powdered whole leaf preparations of M. oleifera have been published, which have demonstrated anti-hyperglycemic (antidiabetic) and anti-dyslipidemic activities. These activities have been confirmed using extracts as well as leaf powders in animal studies. A rapidly growing number of published studies have shown that aqueous, hydroalcohol, or alcohol extracts of M. oleifera leaves possess a wide range of additional biological activities including antioxidant, tissue protective (liver, kidneys, heart, testes, and lungs), analgesic, antiulcer, antihypertensive, radioprotective, and immunomodulatory actions. A wide variety of polyphenols and phenolic acids as well as flavonoids, glucosinolates, and possibly alkaloids is believed to be responsible for the observed effects. Standardization of products is an issue. However, the results of published studies to date involving M. oleifera are very promising. Additional human studies using standardized extracts are highly desirable. © 2015 The Authors Phytotherapy Research Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. © 2015 The Authors Phytotherapy Research Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
REVIEW
Review of the Safety and Efficacy of Moringa
oleifera
Sidney J. Stohs*and Michael J. Hartman
AdvoCare International, Plano, TX 75074, USA
Moringa oleifera leaves, seeds, bark, roots, sap, and flowers are widely used in traditional medicine, and the
leaves and immature seed pods are used as food products in human nutrition. Leaf extracts exhibit the greatest
antioxidant activity, and various safety studies in animals involving aqueous leaf extracts indicate a high degree of
safety. No adverse effects were reported in association with human studies. Five human studies using powdered
whole leaf preparations of M. oleifera have been published, which have demonstrated anti-hyperglycemic
(antidiabetic) and anti-dyslipidemic activities. These activities have been confirmed using extracts as well as
leaf powders in animal studies. A rapidly growing number of published studies have shown that aqueous,
hydroalcohol, or alcohol extracts of M. oleifera leaves possess a wide range of additional biological activities
including antioxidant, tissue protective (liver, kidneys, heart, testes, and lungs), analgesic, antiulcer, antihyper-
tensive, radioprotective, and immunomodulatory actions. A wide variety of polyphenols and phenolic acids as
well as flavonoids, glucosinolates, and possibly alkaloids is believed to be responsible for the observed effects.
Standardization of products is an issue. However, the results of published studies to date involving M. oleifera
are very promising. Additional human studies using standardized extracts are highly desirable. © 2015 The
Authors Phytotherapy Research Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Keywords: Moringa oleifera; leaf extract; anti-hyperglycemic; anti-dyslipidemic; antioxidant; chemoprotectant.
INTRODUCTION
Moringa oleifera Lam. is a tree that grows widely in
many tropical and subtropical countries. It is grown
commercially in India, Africa, South and Central
America, Mexico, Hawaii, and throughout Asia and
Southeast Asia. It is known as the drumstick tree based
on the appearance of its immature seed pods, the horse-
radish tree based on the taste of ground root prepara-
tions, and the ben oil tree from seed-derived oils. In
some areas, immature seed pods are eaten, while the
leaves are widely used as a basic food because of their
high nutrition content (Thurber and Fahey, 2009;
Mbikay, 2012; Razis et al., 2014). No human clinical
trials have been conducted looking at the efficacy of
M. oleifera for treating undernutrition.
Seeds, leaves, oil, sap, bark, roots, and flowers are
widely used in traditional medicine. Moringa leaves have
been characterized to contain a desirable nutritional
balance, containing vitamins, minerals, amino acids, and
fatty acids (Moyo et al., 2011; Teixeira et al., 2014; Razis
et al., 2014). Additionally, the leaves are reported to
contain various types of antioxidant compounds such as
ascorbic acid, flavonoids, phenolics, and carotenoids
(Alhakmani et al., 2013; Vongsak et al.,2014).According
to several commentaries (Anwar et al., 2007; Mbikay,
2012; Razis et al., 2014), various preparations of M.
oleifera are used for their antiinflammatory, antihyperten-
sive, diuretic, antimicrobial, antioxidant, antidiabetic,
antihyperlipidemic, antineoplastic, antipyretic, antiulcer,
cardioprotectant, and hepatoprotectant activities. The
therapeutic potential of M. oleifera leaves in treating
hyperglycemia and dyslipidemia was reviewed by Mbikay
(2012). Razis et al. (2014) summarized potential health
benefits of M. oleifera, focusing on their nutritional content
as well as antioxidant and antimicrobial characteristics.
SAFETY STUDIES
No adverse effects were reported in any of the human
studies that have been conducted to date, and these
studies will be described in more detail later in the text.
Furthermore, various preparations have been and con-
tinued to be used around the world as foods and as
medicinals without the report of ill effects. Several ani-
mal studies have specifically assessed the potential
toxicity of various preparations on M. oleifera.
The safety of an aqueous leaf extract given orally to
rats at doses of 400, 800, 1600, and 2000 mg/kg body
weight was examined (Adedapo et al., 2009). The treat-
ment was either an acute single dose or given daily for
21 days except the highest dose. Various parameters
were assessed including blood cell counts and serum
enzyme levels. The authors concluded that consumption
of M. oleifera leaves at doses of up to 2000 mg/kg were
safe. A dose-dependent decrease in body weights of
the rats occurred over the 21 days of the study.
* Correspondence to: Sidney J. Stohs, 7068 Maumee Valley Court, Frisco,
TX 75034, USA.
E-mail: sid.stohs9@gmail.com
This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons At-
tribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs License, which permits use and distri-
bution in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited, the use
is non-commercial and no modifications or adaptations are made.
PHYTOTHERAPY RESEARCH
Phytother. Res. (2015)
Published online in Wiley Online Library
(wileyonlinelibrary.com) DOI: 10.1002/ptr.5325
© 2015 The Authors Phytotherapy Research Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Received 08 October 2014
Revised 20 December 2014
Accepted 14 February 2015
Asare et al. (2012) examined the potential toxicity of
an aqueous leaf extract of M. oleifera in several different
experimental systems. In one set of experiments, human
peripheral blood mononuclear cells were exposed
in vitro to graded doses of the extract and cytotoxicity
was assessed. Cytotoxicity occurred at 20 mg/kg, a
concentration not achievable by oral ingestion. In
another set of experiments, rats were given 1000 and
3000 mg/kg of the extract, and the animals were assessed
for up to 14 days. The M. oleifera leaf extract was shown
to be genotoxic based on blood cell analysis at the
3000 mg/kg dose, a dose that greatly exceeds commonly
used doses. A dose of 1000 mg/kg was deemed safe and
did not produce genotoxicity when given to rats, a dose
still in excess of commonly used doses.
Ambi et al. (2011) divided 24 rats into four groups and
fed varying amounts of M. oleifera powdered leaves
mixed with standard livestock feed (25%, 50%, 75%,
and control) for 93 days. Total amount of M. oleifera
leaves consumed was not quantified. Following the
experimental period, some organs of the treated animals
had observable microscopic lesions with the 75% group
developed necrosis of hepatic cells, splenic blood ves-
sels, and neuronal glial cells. The control animals had
no observable microscopic lesions in all organs exam-
ined. No photomicrographs of any tissues were pro-
vided. The amounts of leaves consumed, although not
quantified by the authors, greatly exceeded doses that
would be typically used in either rats or humans. For
example, if the rats consumed an average of 1520 g of
chow per day, even at the low dose of 25% of the chow,
the daily dose would be approximately 1520 g of leaves
per kilogram for an adult rat, which would equate to
195260 g for an 80-kg human.
The toxicity of an aqueous extract of M. oleifera
leaves has also been evaluated in mice (Awodele et al.,
2012). In an acute study, mice were administered the
extract at up to 6400 mg/kg orally and 1500 mg/kg intra-
peritoneally. In a subchronic study, mice received 250,
500, and 1500 mg/kg orally for 60 days. The lethal dose
of 50% LD50 was estimated to be 1585 mg/kg. No signif-
icant effects were observed with respect to hematologi-
cal or biochemical parameters or sperm quality. A high
degree of safety was observed on oral administration.
The toxicological effects associated with consump-
tion of 50, 100, 200, or 400 mg/kg of methanol extract
of M. oleifera for 8 weeks was performed in 30 rats
(Oyagbemi et al., 2013). The extract was a 30:1 con-
centration. All experimental animals that received
M. oleifera had a significant increase in body weight in
a dose-dependent manner, contrary to what is observed
with an aqueous extract (Adedapo et al., 2009). Rats that
received M. oleifera at 200 and 400 mg/kg showed a sig-
nificant increase in serum alanine aminotransferase, as-
partate aminotransferase, blood urea nitrogen, and
creatinine. It should be noted that the extract was pre-
pared with methanol and not water. The 30:1 concentra-
tion of the methanol extract at a dose of 400 mg/kg would
be equivalent to 12 g of leaves per kilogram, a very unre-
alistic dose. The composition of the extract was not re-
ported, and it is not clear how the composition of the
methanol extract relates to the composition of aqueous
extracts, which are commonly used.
Bakre et al. (2013) determined that the lethal dose
of 50% of an orally administered ethanol extract of
M. oleifera leaves in mice was greater than 6.4 g/kg.
The dietary effects of M.oleifera leaves as a dietary sup-
plement for liver function were performed by Zvinorova
et al. (2014). Thirty-two weanling rats were randomly
assigned to diets of normal rat feed fed at 20% and
14% of body mass, or Moringa-supplemented feeds fed
at 20% and 14% of body mass for 5 weeks. Moringa sup-
plementation did not affect blood metabolite concentra-
tions, liver glycogen, or lipid storage.
The potential toxicological effects of a single oral
dose of 5000 mg/kg of an aqueous M. oleifera extract as
well as oral doses of up to 1000 mg/kg of the same ex-
tract for 14 days on rats were examined (Asiedu-Gyekye
et al., 2014). The authors noted that no overt adverse
reactions were observed at these doses, and no histo-
pathological findings were found. Small but statistically
significant dose-dependent increases in several liver en-
zymes were observed. A dose of 1000 mg/kg in a rat is
equivalent to over 30 times a typical 400 mg dose of an
aqueous extract in an 80-kg human.
The genotoxicity of an aqueous M. oleifera seed
extract was assessed using three separate assay systems
including the Ames assay (Rolim et al., 2011). The seed
extract was not genotoxic without metabolic activation,
and did not pose a risk to human health. The effect of
a hexane extract of M. oleifera leaves on reproductive
organs of male rats was examined (Cajuday and
Pocsidio, 2010). The extract was given orally at doses
of 17, 170, and 1700 mg/kg body weight for 21 days. A
dose-dependent increase in testis and epididymis
weights, in seminiferous tubule diameter, and epididy-
mal epithelium thickness without change in plasma
gonadotropin levels was observed. The authors con-
cluded that the changes were associated with an in-
crease in spermatogenesis.
For the sake of completeness, several studies involv-
ing M. oleifera seeds and roots will be described,
although the results cannot be directly compared or
equated with studies involving leaves. Cytotoxicity of
an aqueous extract of M. oleifera seeds was evaluated
by Araújo et al. (2013). Following 14 days of the extract
administration (500 and 2000 mg/kg) in mice, no signs of
systemic toxicity were observed, and all the animals sur-
vived. There were no changes in organ indices between
treatment and control groups. Small but insignificant
changes were observed in erythrocytes, platelets, hemo-
globin, and hematocrit. All values remained within the
normal range.
A methanol extract of seeds of M. oleifera were
screened phytochemically for chemical components
and used for acute and subacute toxicity studies in rats
(Ajibade et al., 2013). The phytochemical screening
revealed the presence of saponins, tannins, terpenes,
alkaloids, flavonoids, carbohydrates, and cardiac glyco-
sides but the absence of anthraquinones. Although signs
of acute toxicity were observed at an extract dose of
4000 mg/kg, mortality was recorded at 5000 mg/kg.
No adverse effects were observed at concentrations
lower than 3000 mg/kg. The authors concluded that
methanol extracts of seeds of M. oleifera are safe for
nutritional use.
Paul and Didia (2012) investigated the effect(s) of
methanol extract of M. oleifera root on the histo-
architecture of the liver and kidney of 24 guinea-pigs.
Experimental conditions included daily intraperitoneal
injections of the root extract at doses of 3.6, 4.6, and
7.0 mg/kg, and control for 3 weeks. Histological sections
S. J. STOHS AND M. J. HARTMAN
© 2015 The Authors Phytotherapy Research Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. Phytother. Res. (2015)
of all treated groups had ballooning degeneration of the
liver, suggesting time-dependent hepatotoxicity rather
than a dose-dependent response. Examination of the
kidneys, demonstrated mild tubular damage and inter-
stitial inflammation in the 4.6 mg/kg group, while the
7.0 mg/kg group had infiltration of the interstitium by
inflammatory cells and amorphous eosinophilic mate-
rials. No information was provided regarding extract
composition or degree of concentration. The results of
this study cannot be compared or equated with studies
involving aqueous extracts of leaves. This study
involved a methanol extract of roots, which was given
intraperitoneally and not orally.
In summary, based on human, animal, and in vitro
studies, and the extrapolation of results from animal
studies to humans, various preparations of M.oleifera
leaves including aqueous extracts appear to be exceed-
ingly safe at the doses and in the amounts commonly
utilized.
HUMAN STUDIES
Moringa oleifera has long been used in traditional med-
icine. While data collected from human subjects are
limited, several trials demonstrating potential benefits
for treating hyperglycemia and dyslipidemia primarily
in people with type 2 diabetes have been published.
In a single dose study with six type 2 diabetic subjects,
the feeding of 50 g of a M.oleifera leaf powder with a
standard meal on a one-time basis decreased blood
glucose levels by 21% (William et al., 1993). The authors
concluded that the reduced blood glucose response to
M.oleifera was not due to alterations in insulin secretion.
Kumari (2010) treated type 2 diabetic subjects with
8 g of powdered M.oleifera leaf in a tablet form per
day for 40 days. A total of 46 subjects were involved in
the study. At the end of the study, fasting blood glucose
and postprandial blood glucose were 28% and 26%
lower, respectively, in the treated subjects. Furthermore,
total cholesterol, triglycerides, Low density lipoprotein
(LDL)-cholesterol, and very low density lipoprotein-
cholesterol were 14%, 14%, 29%, and 15% lower rela-
tive to the control group.
Nambiar et al. (2010) examined the anti-dyslipidemic
effects of M.oleifera in 35 type 2 diabetic subjects. The
treated group received 4.6 g of a leaf powder in a tablet
form daily for 50 days. Compared with the control
group, the treated subjects experienced a 1.6% decrease
in total plasma cholesterol and a 6.3% increase in HDL.
Comparing this study with the previous studies suggests
that higher doses may be more effective.
Ghiridhari et al. (2011) conducted a study in which 60
type 2 diabetic subjects were given two M.oleifera leaf
powder tablets per day or placebo for up to 3 months.
Unfortunately, the weight of the tablets and therefore
the actual dose of the leaf powder were not given. After
3 months, postprandial blood glucose had decreased by
29% relative to the control group, while hemoglobin
A1C, an index of glycosylation related to blood glucose
levels, decreased by 0.4%.
In another human study, Kushwaha et al. (2012)
studied 30 postmenopausal women who were supple-
mented daily with 7 g of M.oleifera leaf powder for a
period of 3 months. A control group also consisted of
30 postmenopausal women. The data revealed significant
increases in serum glutathione peroxidase (18.0%), su-
peroxide dismutase (10.4%), and ascorbic acid (44.4%),
with decreases in malondialdehyde (16.3%; lipid peroxi-
dation), markers of antioxidant properties. In addition,
a significant decrease in fasting blood glucose levels
(13.5%) as well as an increase in hemoglobin (17.5%)
was observed. No adverse effects were reported.
In summary, the previous human studies indicate that
whole leaf powders of M.oleifera given orally exhibit
significant anti-hyperglycemic, anti-dyslipidemic, and
antioxidant effects in human subjects without produc-
tion of adverse effects. None of these studies involved
the use of leaf extracts.
ANIMAL AND IN VITRO STUDIES
An ever-expanding number of animal studies have been
conducted involving M.oleifera leaf powder, and aque-
ous and aqueous alcohol extracts. These studies have
exhibited the following properties: anti-hyperglycemic,
anti-dyslipidemic, antioxidant, tissue chemoprotectant,
immunomodulatory, radioprotective, antihypertensive,
and neuroprotective effects. These studies will be briefly
summarized later in the text.
Several reports exist concerning the anti-hyperglycemic
effects of M.oleifera leaf products in rats. Ndong et al.
(2007a) administered 2 g of a leaf powder per kilogram
to rats and demonstrated that the leaf powder decreased
blood glucose levels by 23% relative to controls. Jaiswal
et al. (2009) demonstrated that an aqueous extract of
M.oleifera leaves decreased blood glucose levels in a
dose-dependent manner when using doses of 100300 mg/
kg. A single oral dose of 200 mg/kg of an aqueous extract
of M.oleifera leaves decreased blood glucose levels in
mildly streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats following an
oral glucose tolerance test by 33.8% and by 51.2% in se-
verely diabetic animals.
Tende et al. (2011) examined the effects of an ethanol
extract of M.oleifera leaves on blood glucose levels of
streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Doses of the
extract at 250 and 500 mg/kg were given intraperitone-
ally. Significant reductions in blood glucose levels were
observed in fasted streptozotocin-induced diabetic
animals but not when the extract was administered to
control, normotensive animals. The authors postulated
that the effect was due to the terpenoid content of the
extract, but provided no direct evidence to support this
contention.
Yassa and Tohamy (2014) have also assessed the antidi-
abetic and antioxidant potential of an aqueous extract of
M.oleifera leaves in streptozotocin-induced diabetic
rats. M.oleifera treatment significantly decreased fasting
plasma glucose (380% to 145%), increased reduced gluta-
thione (22% to 73%), and decreased malondialdehyde
(385% to 186%) compared with control levels. Damage
of islet cells was also reversed following M.oleifera
leaf extract administration. The anti-hyperglycemic
effects of an aqueous leaf extract may be due in part
to the presence of an intestinal sucrose inhibitor
(Adisakwattana and Chanathong, 2011), but this action
cannot explain the effect of the leaf extract in response
to a glucose tolerance test.
MORINGA OLEIFERA SAFETY AND EFFICACY
© 2015 The Authors Phytotherapy Research Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. Phytother. Res. (2015)
When rats fed with a high-fat diet were given an aque-
ous M.oleifera leaf extract at an oral dose of 1 g/kg body
weight per day for 30 days, significant reductions in total
cholesterol in serum, liver, and kidneys of 14.4%, 6.4%,
and 11.1%, respectively, were observed (Ghasi et al.,
2000). Chumark et al. (2008) fed rabbits a high-
cholesterol diet for 12 weeks. When these animals were
concomitantly given an oral daily dose of 100 mg/kg of
an aqueous M.oleifera leaf extract, total serum choles-
terol and lipoprotein cholesterol were reduced by 50%
and 75%, respectively, while carotid plaque was
decreased by 97%. Jain et al. (2010) fed the rats with a
high-fat diet for 30 days with and without a methanol
extract of M.oleifera at daily doses of 150, 300, and
600 mg/kg body weight. A dose-dependent reduction in
serum lipids was observed. At the highest dose, total
cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, VLDL-cholesterol, and
total triglycerides were decreased by 37.5%, 61.4%,
23.5%, and 18.7%, respectively. A 50% reduction in
plaque formation was also observed.
Numerous studies have examined the antioxidant
properties of M.oleifera. Chumark et al. (2008) demon-
strated the free radical scavenging ability of an aqueous
extract of M.oleifera leaves in several in vitro systems,
and also showed that the extract inhibited lipid peroxi-
dation in both in vitro and ex vivo systems. Aqueous
extracts of M.oleifera leaves, fruits, and seeds were
assessed for their ability to inhibit oxidative damage to
DNA (Singh et al., 2009). The leaf extract was shown
to exhibit the greatest antioxidant activity and to have
the highest total phenolic content (105 mg gallic acid
equivalents/100 g), the highest total flavonoid content
(31 mg quercetin equivalents/100 g), and ascorbic acid
content (107 mg/100 g).
The antioxidant properties of different fractions of
M.oleifera leaves were examined both in vitro and
in vivo by Verma et al. (2009). The polyphenolic frac-
tion was shown to exhibit the greatest free radical scav-
enging activity in vitro. This fraction when administered
to rats inhibited carbon tetrachloride-induced toxicity and
hepatic lipid peroxidation while increasing hepatic gluta-
thione content. Glutathione is the primary antioxidant in
liver cells. This fraction also increased the antioxidant en-
zymes catalase and superoxide dismutase while decreasing
lipid peroxidases, thus providing a biochemical rationale
for the antioxidant and chemoprotectant effects.
The ability of an aqueous extract of M.oleifera leaves
to scavenge free radicals associated with 2, 2-diphenyl-
1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical, superoxide, and nitric
oxide as well as to inhibit lipid peroxidation was demon-
strated by Sreelatha and Padma (2009). In an in vitro sys-
tem involving rat liver slices, an extract of M.oleifera
leaves was shown to attenuate the toxicity of carbon tet-
rachloride as demonstrated by decreases in lipid peroxi-
dation and increases in the antioxidant enzymes
glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, catalase,
superoxide dismutase, and glutathione S-transferase
(Sreelatha and Padma, 2010).
These same investigators (Sreelatha and Padma, 2011)
subsequently showed that an aqueous extract of M.oleifera
leaves inhibited hydrogen peroxide-induced DNA dam-
age and lipid peroxidation in KB (human tumor) cells.
The aqueous extract also enhanced the antioxidant activity
of the enzymes superoxide dismutase and catalase. In yet
another study, Sreelatha et al.(2011)reportedthatan
aqueous extract of M.oleifera leaves exhibited an
antiproliferative effect in conjunction with apoptosis (pro-
grammed cell death) and prevented DNA fragmentation
in KB cells in culture. Santos et al. (2012) examined the an-
tioxidant activity of M.oleifera ethanol and saline extracts
from leaves, flowers, seeds, and stems. The greatest radical
scavenging and antioxidant activity was associated with
ethanol leaf extracts.
Jung (2014) has shown that an aqueous extract of
M.oleifera leaves exhibited significant antineoplastic
activity against a lung cancer cell line and several
other types of cancer cells. The extract induced apo-
ptosis, inhibited tumor cell growth, and lowered the
internal level of reactive oxygen species in human
lung cancer cells. Tiloke et al. (2013) have also shown
that an aqueous extract of M.oleifera leaves exhibited
antiproliferative activity against cancerous human al-
veolar epithelial cells. In neither of these studies were
attempts made to relate specific ingredients of the ex-
tracts to the observed effects.
Jaiswal et al. (2013) have investigated the antioxidant
activity of an aqueous extract of M.oleifera leaves in
normal and diabetic rats. Oxidative free radical scaveng-
ing enzymes were measured in response to 200mg/kg of
lyophilized powder. A significant increase in activities
of superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione
S-transferase and a decrease in lipid peroxidation were
observed. It was suggested that the high phenolic and
flavonoid contents in the extract can protect against oxi-
dative damage in normal and diabetic subjects.
A number of studies have examined the tissue protec-
tant activity of M.oleifera extracts. As noted earlier,
several studies have demonstrated that an aqueous ex-
tract protects against carbon tetrachloride hepatotoxic-
ity (Verma et al., 2009; Sreelatha and Padma, 2010).
Das et al. (2012) have shown that in mice fed with a
high-fat diet, an aqueous extract of M.oleifera leaves
protects against liver damage as demonstrated by reduc-
tions in tissue histopathology and serum activities of
marker enzymes aspartate aminotransferase (AST), ala-
nine aminotransferase (ALT), and alkaline phosphatase
(ALP) as well as reduced lipid peroxidation and in-
creases in reduced glutathione.
Pari and Kumar (2002) showed that an ethanol extract
of M.oleifera leaves protected rats against the hepatotox-
icity of various antitubercular drugs including isoniazid,
rifampicin, and pyrazinamide. The extract decreased
drug-induced levels of AST, ALT, ALP, and bilirubin,
and inhibited drug-induced lipid peroxidation in the liver.
Various studies have demonstrated that extracts of
leaves can prevent liver toxicity because of acetamino-
phen (paracetamol). Fakurazi et al. (2008) showed that
the administration of 200 and 800 mg/kg of aqueous
ethanol extracts of M.oleifera leaves prevented
acetaminophen-induced liver damage as determined by
decreases in AST, ALT, and ALP as well as increases in
hepatic glutathione. Fakurazi et al. (2012) expanded on
these studies and demonstrated that intraperitoneal ad-
ministration of 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight of
hydroethanol extracts of M.oleifera leaf and flower
protected against acetaminophen-induced liver damage.
The extracts decreased hepatic lipid peroxidation, in-
creased glutathione levels, and increased the levels of the
antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase and catalase.
Using a hydroethanol extract (80%) of M.oleifera
leaves at oral doses of 200 and 800 mg/kg (Uma et al.,
2010), the protective effect against the hepatotoxicity
S. J. STOHS AND M. J. HARTMAN
© 2015 The Authors Phytotherapy Research Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. Phytother. Res. (2015)
of acetaminophen (paracetamol) was demonstrated in
rats. The extract reduced hepatic lipid peroxidation
while restoring levels of the enzymes glutathione S-
transferase, glutathione reductase, and glutathione per-
oxidase to normal. Sharifudin et al. (2013) also reported
on the ability of hydroethanol extracts of M.oleifera
leaves and flowers at doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg given
intraperitoneally to inhibit acetaminophen-induced hep-
atotoxicity. No changes were observed with respect to
markers of kidney function.
An ethanol extract of M.oleifera leaf was shown to
protect against chromium-induced testicular toxicity in
rats (Sadek, 2013). When the extract was given orally
on a daily basis (500 mg/kg) for 60 days to rats that re-
ceived 8-mg potassium chromate intraperitoneally daily,
the extract significantly ameliorated the testicular chro-
mium effects on sperm parameters, local immunity, in-
flammatory markers, and antioxidant enzyme activities.
The ability of an extract of M.oleifera leaves to pre-
vent selenite-induced cataractogenesis was demonstrated
in rat pups weighing 1012 g (Sasikala et al., 2010). Pups
were given sodium selenite (4 μg/g) subcutaneously on
day 10 to induce cataracts. Some animals in addition
received 2.5 μg/g of the extract from days 8 through 15.
Cataracts were visualized on day 16. The extract effec-
tively prevented morphological changes (cataracts) and
oxidative damage to the lens. Furthermore, treatment
with the M.oleifera extract prevented selenite-induced
lipid peroxidation, and maintained glutathione levels in
the lens as well as the activities of antioxidant enzymes.
The retinoprotective effects of M.oleifera in
streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats were investigated by
Kumar Gupta et al. (2013). Treatment with M.oleifera
was shown to prevent diabetes-induced dilation of retinal
vessels andthe increase in inflammatory factors tumor ne-
crosis factor-αand interleukin-1β. In addition, M.oleifera
decreased the diabetes-induced angiogenic factors vascu-
lar endothelial growth factor and protein kinase C-β.
Therefore, the results indicated that an extract of M.
oleifera may be useful in preventing diabetes-induced
retinal dysfunction.
A hydroalcohol extract of M.oleifera leaves has been
shown to exhibit cardioprotective, antioxidant, and anti-
peroxidative activity in response to isoproterenol in rats
(Nandave et al., 2009). Rats were treated daily with
saline, isoproterenol, or isoproterenol plus the leaf ex-
tract (200 mg/kg) orally for 1 month. The M.oleifera leaf
extract prevented biochemical, histopathological, and
ultrasound changes in the heart induced by isoprotere-
nol. The extract prevented isoproterenol-induced hemo-
dynamic changes in the heart including changes in heart
rate, left ventricular end-diastolic pressure, left ventricu-
lar peak positive pressure, and left ventricular negative
pressure.
In a more recent study, the cardioprotective effect of
N,α-L-rhamnopyranosyl vincosamide, an indole alkaloid
isolated from the leaves of M.oleifera, was demonstrated
(Panda et al., 2012). This alkaloid when administered at
an oral dose of 40mg/kg per day for 7days markedly
reduced isoproterenol-induced cardiotoxicity in rats.
The cardioprotective effects were demonstrated by de-
creases in serum cardiac biomarkers, increases in cellu-
lar antioxidants and antioxidant enzymes, a reduction
in cardiac necrosis, a decrease in cardiac lipid peroxida-
tion, and a reduction in cardiac histopathology and
electrocardiographic (ECG) changes.
An aqueous ethanol (hydroalcohol) extract of M.
oleifera leaves was reported to prevent gentamicin-
induced (80 mg/kg) nep hrotoxicity in rabbits at doses
of 150 and 300 mg/kg body weight (Ouedraogo et al.,
2013). The leaf extract significantly decreased markers
of gentamicin-induced kidney toxicity including histo-
logical changes, lipid peroxidation, and serum urea and
creatinine levels. The feeding of an iron-deficient diet
to rats results in hepatic ultrastructural changes (Ndong
et al., 2007b). The addition of a leaf extract of M.oleifera
to the diet normalized the mitochondria, and prevented
hyperlipidemia and ultrastructural changes in the hepa-
tocytes due to iron deficiency. This beneficial effect was
due to the high iron content of the M.oleifera leaves
(Teixeira et al., 2014).
Two reports have looked at the immunomodulatory
effects of extracts of M.oleifera leaves. In a study in
mice, it was shown that a methanol extract of M.oleifera
leaves given orally at doses of 250 and 750 mg/kg stimu-
lated both cellular and humoral immune responses
(Sudha et al., 2010). The low dose was found to be more
effective than the high dose of the extract. Various assays
were used to assess cellular and humoral immunity. In
another study, the immunomodulatory effect of an etha-
nol extract of M.oleifera leaves was examined in mice
treated with cyclophosphamide (Gupta et al., 2010).
The extract was given orally at doses of 125, 250, and
500 mg/kg per day for 15days. The results demonstrated
that the extract reduced the cyclophosphamide-induced
immunosuppression by stimulating both cellular and
humoral immunity.
The analgesic effect of methanol extracts of leaves
and roots of M.oleifera was demonstrated in rats
(Manaheji et al., 2011). Extracts of both leaves and roots
(200, 300, and 400 mg/kg) as well as a combination of the
two extracts (200 mg/kg) were gi ven intraperitoneally to
rats after administration of complete Freunds adjuvant
to induce arthritis in the animals. Both extracts at the
two highest doses as well as the combination dose were
effective in reducing pain induced by complete Freunds
adjuvant on days 3 and 6.
In a wound healing study in rats, the administration of
300 mg/kg per day of an aqueous extract of M.oleifera
leaves significantly increased wound closure rate, skin-
breaking strength, and granuloma dry weight, and de-
creased scar area (Rathi et al., 2006). In a study involving
the use of human dermal fibroblasts, Muhammad et al.
(2013) showed that an aqueous extract of M.oleifera
leaves significantly increased cell proliferation and viabil-
ity as compared with untreated controls. It was deter-
mined that the bioactive aqueous fraction contained
vicenin-2 as well as quercetin and kaempferol, and this
fraction may enhance faster wound healing.
The ability of an aqueous extract of M.oleifera to
inhibit the ulcerogenic effects of aspirin (500 mg/kg) in
rats was demonstrated (Debnath et al., 2011). Maximum
protection was afforded with an oral dose of 300 mg/kg
of the extract. The authors provided evidence that the
prevention of aspirin-induced ulcers by the extract in-
volved the modulation of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)
secretion. Choudhary et al. (2013) examined the antiul-
cer potential of an M.oleifera ethanol root bark extract
with ethanol-induced and pylorus ligation-induced gas-
tric ulceration in rats. M.oleifera at doses of 350 and
500 mg/kg for 15 consecutive days decreased the ulcer
index significantly as compared with the control group
MORINGA OLEIFERA SAFETY AND EFFICACY
© 2015 The Authors Phytotherapy Research Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. Phytother. Res. (2015)
(p<0.01) and significantly reduced the free acidity, total
acidity, and ulcer index (p<0.01), and increased the pH
of gastric content compared with the control group. The
composition of this root extract was not determined, nor
is it clear how this root extract relates to leaf extracts in
terms of composition.
Two studies have shown that extracts of M.oleifera
can provide radioprotection in mice. In the initial study,
a methanol extract of M.oleifera leaves was given as a
single dose of 150 mg/kg or divided into five doses of
30 mg/kg and given over the course of the day. The
animals were exposed to lethal whole-body gamma radi-
ation 1 h later (Rao et al., 2001). Administration of the
extract conferred significant radioprotection to bone
marrow chromosomes. The fractionated administration
of the extract afforded higher protection than the single
dose. In the second study, mice were given 300mg/kg of
aM.oleifera leaf extract daily for 15 days followed by
exposure to gamma radiation (Sinha et al., 2012).
Administration of the extract restored hepatic glutathi-
one levels and prevented radiation-induced hepatic lipid
peroxidation.
Two studies have examined the hypotensive effects of
M.oleifera extracts in rats. In the initial study (Faizi
et al., 1998), ethanol extracts of seeds and pods exhibited
equivalent hypotensive activity at 30 mg/kg. Bioassay-
directed fractionation resulted in the isolation of
thiocarbamate and isothiocyanate glycosides as well as
hydroxybenzoate as the active principles, confirming
the earlier but unpublished studies of Saleem (1995).
In the second study, ethanol extracts of M.oleifera
leaves were used (Chen et al., 2012). Pulmonary hyper-
tension was induced in the rats by injection of monocro-
taline, which resulted in increased arterial blood
pressure and thickening of the pulmonary arterial
medial layer. Three weeks after induction, daily intra-
peritoneal injections of a freeze-dried extract resulted
in a dose-dependent decrease in pulmonary arterial
blood pressure that reached statistical significance at
4.5 mg/kg. Chronic administration of the extract re-
versed the monocrotaline-induced changes.
The neuroprotective effects of M.oleifera are an
emerging area of study. Sutalangka et al. (2013) have
determined that an aqueous M.oleifera leaf extract is a
potential cognitive enhancer and neuroprotectant in an
animal model of dementia-induced rats (intracerebro-
ventricular bilateral administration of a cholinotoxin).
Doses of 100400 mg/kg of the extrac t were given for
7 days. Brain levels of lipid peroxidation and increases
in the levels of the antioxidant enzymes superoxide
dismutase and catalase were observed in response to
the extract. The active constituents in the extract were
not determined.
Kirisattayakul et al. (2013) have demonstrated that a
hydroalcohol extract of M.oleifera leaves at oral doses of
100400 mg/kg for 3 weeks attenuated brain dysfunction
and brain damage induced by cerebral ischemia. The ex-
tract represented 17.5% of the starting material. The pro-
tective effects were believed to be due to decreased
oxidative stress based on assessment of various antioxi-
dant enzymes and decreases in brain lipid peroxidation.
Bakre et al. (2013) have shown an ethanol extract of
M.oleifera leaves possesses Central Nervous System
(CNS) depressant and anticonvulsant activities in mice
through the enhancement of central inhibitory mecha-
nism involving release of γ-amino butyric acid. Significant
dose-dependent (2502000 mg/kg) decreases in grooming,
rearing, head dips, and locomotion were observed.
Hannan et al. (2014) demonstrated neuroprotective prop-
erties of an ethanol extract of M.oleifera leaves when in-
cubated with a primary culture of hippocampal neurons.
The extract promoted neurite outgrowth in a
concentration-dependent manner, with significant in-
creases in the number and lengths of dendrites and axonal
branches. These findings suggest that M.oleifera may pro-
vide a neuroprotective benefit through reductions in
oxidative stress. However, further research regarding
the active ingredient(s) is still required.
In summary, animal studies have demonstrated
antihyperlipidemic, antidiabetic, antioxidant, tissue protec-
tant (liver, kidneys, heart, and eyes), immunomodulatory,
radioprotective, antihypertensive, cardioprotective, and
neuroprotective effects.
CHEMISTRY
One of the earliest and most extensive studies on the
chemical constituents of an ethanol extract of M.oleifera
leaves was conducted by Saleem (1995). The study was
published only as a thesis and never in a peer-reviewed
journal. The author isolated and provided structure elu-
cidation of 23 compounds using a variety of separation
and spectroscopic techniques such as infrared and ultra-
violet spectroscopy, mass spectroscopy, gas chromatog-
raphy, gas chromatographymass spectroscopy, and
nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. In addition
to the rhamnosyloxy benzyl isothiocyanate niaziminins,
niazinins, and niacicinins, various methylated, ethylated,
and acetylated rhamnosyloxy benzyl carbamates and
rhamnosyloxy benzyl thiocarbamates were isolated and
characterized. An additional 63 compounds were identi-
fied in an ethanol extract of M.oleifera pods.
As noted earlier, Faizi et al. (1998) used bioassay-
directed fractionation of ethanol extracts of seeds and
pods in the isolation of thiocarbamate and isothiocya-
nate glycosides as well as a hydroxybenzoate. They
demonstrated that these fractions possessed hypoten-
sive activity. The isolation of these chemical constituents
confirmed the earlier but unpublished studies of Saleem
(1995).
Guevara et al. (1999) isolated niazimicin and niazirin as
well as a rhamnosyloxy benzyl carbamate, rhamnosyloxy
benzyl isothiocyanate, and various derivatives of
β-sitosterol from the seeds of M.oleifera. No determina-
tion of these compounds in leaves was made. Niacimicin
was shown to have chemoprotective activity, serving as a
potent antitumor-promoting agent in vivo in a two-stage
carcinogenesis assay in mouse skin.
Niaziridin and niazarin were also isolated from leaves
and pods of M.oleifera by Shankar et al. (2007). They
noted that niazarin was present in higher concentrations
in leaves, while niaziridin was present in approximately
three times greater amounts in pods as compared with
leaves. These investigators demonstrated that niaziridin
enhanced the bioactivity of a number of antibiotics and
also facilitated the gastrointestinal absorption of vita-
mins and other nutrients.
Bennett et al. (2003) analyzed the glucosinolates and
phenolics in M.oleifera leaves, seeds, and roots. Present
in leaves were rhamnosyloxy benzyl glucosinolates and
S. J. STOHS AND M. J. HARTMAN
© 2015 The Authors Phytotherapy Research Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. Phytother. Res. (2015)
acetylated isomers thereof, quercetin 3-O-glucosides,
kaempferol 3-O-glucosides, and caffeoylquinic acids.
No proanthocyanidins or anthocyanidins were detected.
Again, this study supports the earlier work of Saleem
(1995).
Mbikay (2012) reviewed the bioactive phytochemicals
that have been isolated from M.oleifera leaves, seeds,
flowers, pods, and stems. Major classes of compounds
that have been isolated include phenolic acids,
glucosinolates, and flavonoids. The flavonol quercetin
is present in concentrations as high as 100mg/100 g of
the leaves, which exists primarily as the glucoside. Other
prominent ingredients include chlorogenic acid, rutin,
kaempferol rhamnoglucoside, myricetin, benzylamine
(moringinine), and the glycosides niaziminin and niazinin
(Mbikay, 2012).
Various derivatives of salicylic acid, gallic acid, coumarin
acid, and caffeic acid also exist in extracts of M. oleifera.
In addition, indole alkaloid N,α-L-rhamnopyranosyl
vincosamide has been isolated from M.oleifera leaves
and shown to exert a cardioprotective effect on rats (Panda
et al., 2012). Waterman et al. (2014) isolated and character-
ized four isothiocyanates from M.oleifera leaves. An
aqueous extract contained 1.66% isothiocyanates and
3.82% total polyphenols. The isothiocyanates were shown
to exhibit antiinflammatory activity in an in vitro macro-
phage cell system. These studies support the initial findings
of Saleem (1995).
A nutritional characterization of dried M.oleifera
leaves was made by Moyo et al. (2011) who reported
the content of calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, potas-
sium, sodium, sulphur, zinc, copper, manganese, iron,
and selenium. They noted that the dried leaves
contained 77 mg/100 g of vi tamin E and 18.5 mg/100 g
of ascorbic acid. The dried leaves also contained
30.3% protein, 19.89% fiber, 1.8% lignin, 4.0% cellu-
lose, 3.2% tannins, and 2.0% polyphenols.
The microelemental and macroelemental composi-
tion of an aqueous extract of M.oleifera leaves was
determined by energy-dispersive X-ray technology with
triaxial geometry (Asiedu-Gyekye et al., 2014). The
authors determined the amounts of 35 elements (14
macroelements and 21 microelements) in the aqueous
extract. Elements present in the greatest abundance in
decreasing order were sulphur, calcium, potassium,
magnesium, sodium, phosphorus, silicone, and alumi-
num, in general agreement with the report of Moyo
et al. (2011).
Tei xeira et al. (2014) also characterized various chemical
constituents in the dried, powdered leaves of M. oleifera.
The leaf powder sample examined contained 28.7% crude
protein, 7.1% fat, 10.9% ash, 44.4% carbohydrates, 3.0 mg
calcium and 103.1 mg of iron per 100 g, 20.7 mg tannins/g,
17 mg nitrate/g, 10.5mg oxalate/g, 161 μgβ-carotene/g,
and 47 μg lutein/g. The analysis of an aqueous (10:1)
extract of M.oleifera leaves by the authors of this
review was conducted The dried extract contained 22.6%
fiber, 2.73% ash, 3.78% protein, 9.53% total sugars,
0.00746% calcium, 0.0549% iron, and 0.0468% total
catechins/flavonoids (0.0323% epicatechin). No caroten-
oids, vitamin C, or phytosterols were present in the extract
(Stohs and Hartman, unpublished).
Vongsak et al. (2014) have conducted a quantitative
analysis of an ethanol extract of M.oleifera leaves by
HPLC, and have shown that the average values for
crypto-cholorgenic acid, isoquercetin, and astragalin in
the dried extract were 0.081%, 0.120%, and 0.153%, re-
spectively. They have suggested that these compounds
and this analysis may serve as a guideline for the
standardization of M.oleifera extracts. However, these
standards could only be applied to ethanol extracts
and not to aqueous extracts.
Several procyanidin compounds have been shown to
be present in root and stem barks (Atawodi et al.,
2010). Additionally, the flowers of M.oleifera are
reported to contain various types of antioxidant com-
pounds such as ascorbic acid and carotenoids, as well
as tannins, flavonoids, alkaloids, and cardiac glycosides
(Alhakmani et al., 2013).
The chemical composition of an ethanol extract of
M.oleifera leaves, which represents the essential oil
component, was determined by gas chromatography
mass spectroscopy (Chuang et al., 2007). The extract rep-
resented 5.6% of the total dry weight of the leaves from
which the extract was prepared. The authors identified
a total of 44 compounds. Pentacosane, hexacosane, (E)-
phytol, and 1-[2,3,6-trimethylphenyl]-2-butanone repre-
sented 17.4%, 11.2%. 7.7%, and 3.4%, respectively, of
the extract. Thus, these four components represented ap-
proximately 40% of the total neutral oil constituents. It
should be noted that while all of the 44 constituents are
present in low concentrations in whole leaves and leaf
powders, little if any of these compounds will be present
in an aqueous extract. A number of these ingredients had
been previously identified in the pods of M.oleifera by
Saleem (1995).
Phytochemical variations of 13 M.oleifera cultivars col-
lected from around the globe were compared (Ndhlala
et al., 2014). Aqueous methanol extracts were compared
for total phenol content, total flavonoid content, free rad-
ical scavenging and antioxidant activity using three differ-
ent assay systems, and antimicrobial activity. As might be
expected, the results demonstrated variations between
the cultivars from different locations. The variations
could be due to many factors including genetic variations,
soil, climate, time of harvest, and storage conditions.
In summary, a large number of potentially bioactive
compounds are present in M.oleifera. As a consequence,
extracts are generally unstandardized. However, extracts
have been evaluated on the basis of their relative poly-
phenol, flavonoid, and glucosinolate contents, with aque-
ous leaf extracts exhibiting the greatest activities of these
indicators (Singh et al., 2009; Mbikay, 2012; Waterman
et al., 2014; Vongsak et al., 2014).
SUMMARY AND DISCUSSION
The human and animal as well as in vitro studies de-
scribed in the preceding text indicate that various prep-
arations of M.oleifera leaves and other plant parts
possess a wide range of physiological and pharmacolog-
ical activities. All published studies in human subjects
have used powdered leaf preparations, while the major-
ity of animal studies have used aqueous, hydroalcohol,
or alcohol (methanol or ethanol) extracts of M.oleifera
leaves or other plant parts. The most research support
exists for the antioxidant, antidiabetic (anti-hyperglyce-
mic), anti-dyslipidemic, and chemoprotective effects of
M.oleifera whole leaf powder and extracts thereof.
MORINGA OLEIFERA SAFETY AND EFFICACY
© 2015 The Authors Phytotherapy Research Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. Phytother. Res. (2015)
A rapidly growing number of research studies involv-
ing M.oleifera have been reported in recent years,
primarily in rodents. Little effort to standardize extracts
and to employ standardized extracts appears to have
been made, and as a consequence, it is difficult to relate,
compare, and contrast the results of one study with
another. In addition, few bioactivity-based extraction
procedures have been employed to determine the rela-
tionships between extraction procedures and solvents,
chemical constituents, and pharmacological activities.
It is not clear as to what extent the various constituents
present in M.oleifera preparations interrelate through
additive, synergistic, and /or inhibitory effects.
Various animal studies have assessed the general
safety of extracts, and have demonstrated a very high
degree of safety. No adverse effects were reported in a
human study conducted with whole leaf powder at up
to a single dose of 50 g or in a study using 8 g per day
dose for 40 days. A typical dose of an aqueous extract
in rats is approximately 300 mg/kg, which would be
equivalent to a dose of about 3.9 g in an 80-kg (176 lb)
human. No human studies involving aqueous extracts
have been reported, and little information is available
regarding the percentage of the powdered whole leaf
material that is typically solubilized by extraction with
water or alcohol. If 10% of the whole leaf powder is
solubilized by aqueous extraction, a 4 g dose of the
whole leaf powder would equate to 400 mg of an extract.
The results from published research studies to date
with M.oleifera are very promising. However, as is usu-
ally the case, additional studies are required to address
various points raised in the earlier discussion.
Conflict of Interest
The authors have no conflicts of interest to report.
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MORINGA OLEIFERA SAFETY AND EFFICACY
© 2015 The Authors Phytotherapy Research Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. Phytother. Res. (2015)
... In another study, the experimental rats were given a treatment with 1000 and 3000 mg/kg of the leaf extract; genotoxicity was observed in rats treated with a 3000 mg/kg dose of the extract and not the lower dose [9]. However, even 1000 mg/kg of the extracts is still an excessive dose for normal application [20]. A cytotoxicity assessment of an aqueous seed extract of M. oleifera has found that even at the 2000 mg/kg dose of administration in mice, no systemic toxicity was observed with no significant changes in erythrocytes, platelets, hemoglobin, and hematocrit observed for the control group [10]. ...
... M. oleifera has been reported to carry enormous phytochemical constituents that beneficial and significant medically, which are mostly found on the leaves and see [6,20,27]. The leaves are found to be rich in many nutritious and bioactive compoun such as potassium, calcium, phosphorous, iron, protein, vitamins, carotenoids, polyp nols, isothiocyanates, tannins and more [7,[28][29][30]. ...
... M. oleifera has been reported to carry enormous phytochemical constituents that are beneficial and significant medically, which are mostly found on the leaves and seeds [6,20,27]. The leaves are found to be rich in many nutritious and bioactive compounds such as potassium, calcium, phosphorous, iron, protein, vitamins, carotenoids, polyphenols, isothiocyanates, tannins and more [7,[28][29][30]. ...
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... being the most frequently cultivated because of its rapid growth and its good adaptability to any soil [1]. It is native to the Himalayan mountain ranges and is now cultivated in numerous regions such as India, Africa, South and Central America, Mexico, Hawaii and throughout Asia and Southeast Asia [2]. Moringa leaves are of special interest because of their medical and pharmaceutical applications based on their high nutritional value as a rich source of proteins, vitamins, beta-carotene, amino acids and phenolic compounds [1,3,4]. ...
... The results are shown in Table 3, as well as the R 2 statistic, which indicates the extent to which the fitted model explains the degree of variability of each one of the response variables in the study. As can be seen in Table 3, the values of the adjusted coefficient of determination ranged from 84.352 up to 94.788, which means that there was a close correlation between Table 2. TFC (mg g −1 sample) = 7.150 -2.294A + 0.926B − 0.094A 2 + 0.070AB − 0.415B 2 (1) Following the statistical model, the maximum values of the response variables were calculated, as well as the optimum values of the independent factors for a maximum response. These values are presented in Table 4 as mg of compound g −1 sample. ...
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... Moringa oleífera ha sido consumida por el hombre durante siglos por sus múltiples propiedades benéficas para el organismo, en los que se reporta que es relativamente segura para el consumo humano (Stohs & Hartman, 2015). Sin embargo, se han identificado como principios tóxicos el benzil, ácido moríngico y ácido cianhídrico (Benitez et al., 2016). ...
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... The tree is originally native to India but cultivated worldwide for its health effects and as a food resource specially in India, China and African countries for its edible tree parts e.g. leaves, seeds and pods (Stohs & Hartman, 2015). Different parts of this plant contain a rich profile of macro-/micronutrients i.e., protein, vitamins, and minerals warranting for its use in diets and supplements, particularly in developing nations that may suffer from malnutrition (Gopalakrishnan, Doriya, & Kumar, 2016;Ragasa, Medecilo, & Shen, 2015). ...
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... The nutritional contents of each part of the M. oleifera tree are summarized in Figure 1. M. oleifera possesses a wide range of biological activities, including antioxidant, tissue protective (liver, kidneys, heart, testes, and lungs), analgesic, antiulcer, antihypertensive, radioprotective, and immunomodulatory properties in addition to being an important nutritional agent (Stohs and Hartman, 2015;Okumu et al., 2017). ...
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The leaves of Moringa oleifera Lam., Moringaceae, are used by the Indians in their herbal medicine as a hypolipidemic agent in obese patients. Albino Wistar rats were fed with methanolic extract of M. oleifera (150, 300 and 600 mg/kg, p.o.) and simvastatin (4 mg/kg, p.o.) along with hyperlipidemic diet for 30 days. Moringa oleifera and simvastatin were found to lower the serum cholesterol, triacylglyceride, VLDL, LDL, and atherogenic index, but were found to increase the HDL as compared to the corresponding high fed cholesterol diet group (control). The Moringa oleifera methanolic extract was also investigated for its mechanism of action by estimating HMG CO-A reductase activity. Moringa oleifera was found to increase the excretion of fecal cholesterol. Thus, the study demonstrates that M. oleifera possesses a hypolipidemic effect.
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Moringa oleifera is an important source of antioxidants, tools in nutritional biochemistry that could be beneficial for human health; the leaves and flowers are used by the population with great nutritional importance. This work investigates the antioxidant activity of M. oleifera ethanolic (E1) and saline (E2) extracts from flowers (a), inflorescence rachis (b), seeds (c), leaf tissue (d), leaf rachis (e) and fundamental tissues of stem (f). The radical scavenging capacity (RSC) of extracts was determined using dot-blots on thin layer chromatography stained with a 0.4 mm 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH) solution; spectrophotometric assays were recorded (515 nm). Antioxidant components were detected in all E1 and E2 from a, b and d. The best RSC was obtained with E1d; the antioxidants present in E2 reacted very slowly with DPPH. The chromatogram revealed by diphenylborinate-2-ethylamine methanolic solution showed that the ethanolic extract from the flowers, inflorescence rachis, fundamental tissue of stem and leaf tissue contained at least three flavonoids; the saline extract from the flowers and leaf tissue revealed at least two flavonoids. In conclusion, M. oleifera ethanolic and saline extracts contain antioxidants that support the use of the plant tissues as food sources. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.