Most infants at about the time of their first birthdays or shortly thereafter demonstrate the ability to mark on pa-per with a crayon or other writing instrument (Bayley, 2006; Griffiths & Huntley, 1996; Hresko, Miguel, Sherbenou, & Burton, 1994). During the next several years, infants and toddlers show remarkable progress in their ability to engage in controlled mark making, scribbling, and drawing (e.g., Yamagata, 2001). By three years of age, young children are capable of rudimentary graphic representations of people, objects, and events (Lancaster, 2007). Yamagata (1997, 2007), Levin and Bus (2003) and oth-ers (e.g., Lancaster, 2007; Martlew & Sorsby, 1995) have proposed coding systems for categorizing different types of infant, toddler, and preschooler mark making, scribbling, drawing, and writing. Table 1 shows the major types of draw-ing that emerge between 1 and 5-6 years of age. The multi-level level sequence is based on the above sources as well as descriptions of the development of drawing and writing found elsewhere in the literature (e.g., Akita, Padakannaya, Prathibha, Panah, & Rao, 2007; Di Leo, 1996; Sheridan, 2005). Figure 1 shows examples of the first eight levels of drawing which were the focus of this research synthesis. The two-fold purpose of this research synthesis is: (1) describe the developmental progression in the emergence of infant and toddler mark making and scribbling and (2) exam-ine the factors associated with variations in the acquisition of emergent drawing skills. The first purpose was achieved by estimating the ages at which infants and toddlers attain This research synthesis was prepared as an activity of the Center for Early Literacy Learning funded by the U.S. Department of Education, Office of Special Edu-cation Programs (Grant #H326B060010). The opinions expressed are those of the authors and are not nec-essarily endorsed by the funder. Special thanks to Dr. Kyoko Yamagata, Kyoto Notre Dame University, Kyoto, Japan, for providing English translations to her research published in Japanese. The development of infant and toddler mark making, scribbling, and drawing was examined in 25 studies including 48 samples of participants. The 25 studies included 1675 infants and toddlers (birth to 42 months of age). A multi-level scale of emergent drawing was used to estimate the average age of acquisition of the different types of drawing landmarks, and comparisons of different characteristics of the types of drawing activities were made to identify the conditions under which early drawing abilities were affected. Results showed that there are discernable age-related changes in infant and toddler mark making and scribbling, and that visual and verbal prompts, collaborative drawing, and the visual conse-quences associated with drawing acts, facilitated and reinforced infant and toddler emergent drawing behavior. Implica-tions for practice are described.