ChapterPDF Available

The investigation of energy efficiency measures in the traditional buildings in Oporto World Heritage Site

Authors:

Abstract

the degree is awarded by the Oxford Brookes University the thesis is submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirements of the award of Doctor of Philosophy
The investigation of energy efficiency measures in the
traditional buildings in Oporto World Heritage Site
Joaquim António De Moura Flores
Oxford Brookes University
Faculty of Technology, Design and Environment
School of Architecture
the degree is awarded by the Oxford Brookes University
the thesis is submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirements
of the award of Doctor of Philosophy
Oxford
July 2013
Title: The investigation of energy efficiency measures in the traditional buildings
in Oporto World Heritage Site
Author: Joaquim António de Moura Flores
Copyright © author
Graphic Design: Author
Cover: Author
Edition: Author
Porto, September 2014
Copies: 30
ISBN: 978-989-20-4400-2
Abstract
i
Abstract
Background
The improvement of energy efficiency in buildings is widely promoted as a measure to mitigate
climate change through the reduction of CO2 emissions. Thermal regulations worldwide
promote it, for both new and existing buildings. Among the existing stock, traditional and
historic buildings pose the additional challenge of heritage conservation. Their energy
efficiency upgrade raises the risk of provoking negative impacts on their significance.
Aims and Methodology
This research used an approach based on impact assessment methodologies, defining an inital
baseline scenario for both heritage and energy, from which the appropriate improvement
solutions were identified and assessed. The measures were dynamically simulated and the
results for energy, CO2, cost and comfort compared with the initial scenario, and then being
further assessed for their heritage impact to eventually determine the most feasible solutions.
To test this method, ten case studies, representative of the identified typological variants,
were selected among Oporto’s traditional buildings located in the World Heritage Site.
Findings and Conclusions
The fieldwork data revealed that the energy consumption of these dwellings was below the
European average. Additionally, the households expressed that their home comfort sensation
was overall positive. The simulations showed that the introduction of insulation and solar
thermal panels were ineffective on these cases in terms of energy, cost and comfort. At the
same time, these measures pose a great risk to the buildings heritage value. The most
efficient solutions were obtained from behavioural changes and DHW retrofit. The study
reinforced the idea that traditional buildings performed better than expected and can be
retrofitted and updated at a low-cost and with passive solutions. The use of insulation and
solar panels should be disregarded.
Key words: traditional buildings, heritage, energy efficiency upgrade, Oporto, World Heritage
Site
The investigation of energy efficiency measures in the traditional buildings in Oporto World Heritage Site: Joaquim Flores
ii
Acknowledgements
iii
Acknowledgements
First of all, I would like to express my deepest gratitude to my supervisors, Dr. Aylin Orbasli and
Professor Rajat Gupta. A special mention goes to my director of studies Dr. Aylin, because
without her support, patience and perseverance this dissertation would not have come to an
end.
The support of some local institutions was crucial for the development of the research, as they
generously shared their data and facilitated the field contacts. These institutions are: the
Centro Social e Paroquial de S. Nicolau, the Junta de Freguesia de S. Nicolau, the Câmara
Municipal do Porto and the Porto Vivo SRU. From the staff of these institutions, a special
recognition goes to the Dra. Liliana Pinto and the architect Rui Loza.
A very special greeting to the tenants participating in the study and for giving their consent to
the collection of the data from the energy supplier. Further on, a special mention goes to the
ones who additionally participated in the sensor monitoring.
The help from my wife Teresa Cardoso on the SPSS statistical analysis was also invaluable.
Last, but obviously not least, I want to express my gratitude for the support and patience I
received from all my family, in particular Teresa, Simão and Ana, which was fundamental for
achieving the final goal.
The investigation of energy efficiency measures in the traditional buildings in Oporto World Heritage Site: Joaquim Flores
iv
Preface
v
Preface
Personal Background
This research started from the professional and academic interest in heritage and
sustainability, combined in the field of traditional and historic building refurbishment. The
personal background related with this thematic started with an architecture graduation thesis
that addressed the refurbishment project of the historic Barcelos City Hall, covering
constructions from the fourteenth to twentieth centuries. The professional and academic
careers have since been related with the urban and architectural refurbishment design
projects.
The Master degree thesis (2000) addressed the planning and management of conservation of
historic Portuguese city centres. After some years as an architecture professional, the work in
the Oporto City Council Architectural Record consolidated the interest in traditional urban
buildings, with focus on Oporto’s historic centre.
As an academic, the practice as lecturer of ‘Urban Design’ and ‘Sites Regeneration’ in the
Architecture Course of Oporto Superior Arts School (ESAP), lead to the research and interest in
the sustainable city. From then, the academic objective was focused on urban and
architectural conservation as strategies for achieving urban sustainability. This approach was
presented in 2001, through a communication at the 6th Symposium of World Heritage Cities
(Flores, 2002) and constitutes the conceptual basis of the current research.
The investigation of energy efficiency measures in the traditional buildings in Oporto World Heritage Site: Joaquim Flores
vi
List of Acronyms
vii
List of Acronyms
3D - Three dimensional
ADENE - Agência para a Energia - Portuguese Energy Agency
AIP - Área de Intervenção Prioritária - Priority Intervention Area
ASHRAE - American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers
BIM - Building Information Model
BPIE - Buildings Performance Institute Europe
BRE - Building Research Establishment
BREEAM - Building Research Establishment Environmental Assessment Methodology
CAD - Computer Aided Design
CCHP - Combined Cooling, Heat and Power
CFD - Computational Fluid Dynamics
CFL - Compact Fluorescent Lamps
CHP - Combined Heat and Power
CO2 - Carbon Dioxide Emissions
CRUARB - Comissariado de Renovação Urbana da Área Ribeira-Barredo - Ribeira-Barredo
Urban Renewal Committee
DHW - Domestic water heating
DIY - Do-It-Yourself
DSM - Demand side management
DTM - Digital Terrain Model
EC - European Commission
EDP Energias de Portugal - Portuguese Energy supplier
EEA - European Environment Agency
EH - English Heritage
EIA - Environmental Impact Assessments
The investigation of energy efficiency measures in the traditional buildings in Oporto World Heritage Site: Joaquim Flores
viii
EPBD - Energy Performance of Buildings Directive
EPI - Energy Performance Index
EPIMAX - Maximum allowed Energy Performance Index
ERSE Entidade Reguladora dos Serviços Energéticos - Portuguese Energy Regulatory Authority
EU - European Union
EU27 - Twenty seven European Union states
GHG - Greenhouse gas
GIS - Geographic Information System
HIA - Heritage Impact Assessments
HVAC - Heating, Ventilating and Air Conditioning
ICOMOS - International Council on Monuments and Sites
IGESPAR - Instituto de Gestão do Património Arquitectónico e Arqueológico - Portuguese
Architectural and Archaeological Heritage Institute
IPMA Instituto Português do Mar e da Atmosfera - Portuguese Weather Institute (former IM -
Instituto de Meteorologia)
IPCC - Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change
ISO - International Standards Organization
LCA - Life Cycle Analysis
LEED - Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design
LiderA - Liderar pelo Ambiente para a construção sustentável Leading for the Environment
towards a sustainable construction (Portuguese sustainable buildings scoring system)
nZEBs - nearly Zero Energy Buildings
NZEB - Net Zero-Energy Buildings
OUV - Outstanding Universal Value
PCM - Phase Change Materials
PMV - Predicted Mean Vote
PPD - Predicted Percentage of Dissatisfied
POE - Post-Occupancy Evaluation
List of Acronyms
ix
Porto Vivo SRU Porto Vivo Sociedade de Reabilitação Urbana - Oporto Urban Renewal
Company
RCCTE - Regulamento das Características do Comportamento Térmico dos Edifícios -
Portuguese Buildings thermal performance regulation
RES - Renewable Energy Sources
ROI - Return Of the Investment
RUTE - Rede Urbana de Energia Térmica Oporto Thermal Energy Urban Network
SCE - Sistema Nacional de Certificação Energética e da Qualidade do Ar Interior nos Edifícios
Portuguese national energy performance certification scheme
SI - International System of Units
SPAB - Society for the Protection of Ancient Buildings
TND - Traditional Neighbourhood Design
UK - United Kingdom
UNESCO - United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization
USA - United States of America
USDOE - United States Department of Energy
WEC - World Energy Council
WHS - World Heritage Site
The investigation of energy efficiency measures in the traditional buildings in Oporto World Heritage Site: Joaquim Flores
x
Table of Contents
xi
Table of Contents
Chapter One: Introduction ...................................................................................................... 1
1.1 - Background ...................................................................................................................... 3
1.1.1 Carbon Dioxide Emissions (CO2)................................................................................ 4
1.1.2 Buildings and Energy ................................................................................................. 4
1.1.3 Building Energy Efficiency ......................................................................................... 7
1.1.4 Existing Buildings Stock ............................................................................................. 8
1.1.5 Traditional Buildings and Energy Efficiency ............................................................... 9
1.1.6 Traditional Buildings of Oporto ................................................................................10
1.1.7 Current Research .....................................................................................................11
1.2 - Research Objectives ........................................................................................................13
1.2.1 Research Questions .................................................................................................14
1.3 - Thesis Structure and Research Development ...................................................................15
Chapter Two: Valuing Heritage ...............................................................................................19
2.1 - Introduction ....................................................................................................................21
2.2 Heritage .........................................................................................................................21
2.2.1 Heritage as a Concept ..............................................................................................22
2.2.2 Architectural Heritage ..............................................................................................23
2.2.3 Significance, Authenticity and Integrity ....................................................................24
2.3 Architectural Heritage Values Assessment ......................................................................25
2.3.1 Architectural heritage values ...................................................................................27
2.3.2 Architectural heritage values assessment.................................................................30
2.4 Architectural Heritage: Management of Change .............................................................33
2.4.1 Architectural assessment methodologies .................................................................34
2.4.2 Heritage Grading ......................................................................................................35
2.4.3 Heritage Impact Assessment ....................................................................................36
The investigation of energy efficiency measures in the traditional buildings in Oporto World Heritage Site: Joaquim Flores
xii
2.5 - Conclusion ...................................................................................................................... 39
Chapter Three: Traditional Buildings and Energy Efficiency ................................................... 41
3.1 - Introduction .................................................................................................................... 43
3.2 - Traditional Buildings ....................................................................................................... 43
Oporto’s Traditional Buildings ......................................................................................... 44
3.2.1 Refurbishment......................................................................................................... 44
3.2.2 Sustainability and refurbishment ............................................................................. 46
3.3 Energy Efficiency ............................................................................................................ 48
3.3.1 Buildings energy efficiency concepts ........................................................................ 48
Economic vision and fuel poverty .................................................................................... 49
Cost-effectiveness and eco-efficiency .............................................................................. 49
Technology ..................................................................................................................... 49
Renewables .................................................................................................................... 50
Behaviour ....................................................................................................................... 50
3.3.2 - Buildings energy efficiency framework ..................................................................... 51
Portuguese energy efficiency framework ........................................................................ 52
3.4 Factors Influencing Energy Efficiency in Traditional Buildings.......................................... 52
3.4.1 Building physics parameters .................................................................................... 54
3.4.2 - Building systems ....................................................................................................... 55
3.4.3 Occupants’ Behaviour .............................................................................................. 56
Fuel poverty .................................................................................................................... 57
3.4.4 - Indoor thermal comfort ............................................................................................ 57
3.4.5 Cost-Efficiency ......................................................................................................... 60
3.4.6 - Traditional Buildings thermal performance assessment ............................................ 60
3.5 Conclusions .................................................................................................................... 63
Chapter Four: Energy Efficiency Improvement in Traditional Buildings.................................. 65
4.1 - Introduction .................................................................................................................... 67
4.2 - Energy Efficiency in Traditional Buildings......................................................................... 67
Table of Contents
xiii
4.2.1 Existing Buildings Energy Efficiency Approach .......................................................... 68
4.3 Improvement of Traditional Buildings Energy Efficiency .................................................. 71
4.3.1- Solutions for Traditional Buildings ............................................................................. 73
Insulation ........................................................................................................................ 77
Glazing ............................................................................................................................ 79
Communal spaces ........................................................................................................... 80
Cost-effectiveness ........................................................................................................... 80
Renewables ..................................................................................................................... 81
4.3.2 - Traditional buildings energy efficiency upgrade in Portugal ...................................... 82
4.4 Heritage in Energy Efficiency Improvement of Traditional Buildings ................................ 84
4.5 - Conclusions ..................................................................................................................... 87
Chapter 5: Methodology ........................................................................................................89
5.1 - Introduction ....................................................................................................................91
5.1.1 Methodological Framework .....................................................................................91
5.1.2 Data Types and Tools ...............................................................................................93
5.2 Baseline Assessment .......................................................................................................94
5.2.1 Heritage ...................................................................................................................94
Expert Analysis ................................................................................................................95
Secondary Research ........................................................................................................96
Mapping ..........................................................................................................................96
Primary Research ............................................................................................................96
Descriptive Statistics........................................................................................................96
Ethnography ....................................................................................................................97
5.2.2 Buildings Performance .............................................................................................97
Baseline Performance Modelling ...................................................................................101
Modelling Software .......................................................................................................101
5.3 Energy Efficiency Improvement and Management of Change .......................................103
5.3.1 - Measures Identification ..........................................................................................104
The investigation of energy efficiency measures in the traditional buildings in Oporto World Heritage Site: Joaquim Flores
xiv
5.3.2 - Heritage Impact Assessment .................................................................................. 104
5.3.3 - Measures Effectiveness .......................................................................................... 106
5.4 Research Process.......................................................................................................... 107
5.4.1 Research Area Selection ........................................................................................ 107
5.4.2 Fieldwork .............................................................................................................. 107
5.4.3 Typological Variants Identification ......................................................................... 108
5.4.4 Case Studies Selection ........................................................................................... 109
5.4.5 Case Studies Survey ............................................................................................... 109
5.4.6 Household Questionnaire ...................................................................................... 110
5.4.7 Units and Variables ................................................................................................ 111
5.4.8 - Terminology ........................................................................................................... 112
5.5 - Conclusion .................................................................................................................... 112
Chapter Six: Traditional Buildings in Oporto ........................................................................ 113
6.1 - Introduction .................................................................................................................. 115
6.2 Research Area Background ........................................................................................... 115
6.2.1 Oporto’s Natural and Climatic Context................................................................... 115
Location ........................................................................................................................ 115
Geomorphology ............................................................................................................ 115
Climate ......................................................................................................................... 116
Temperature ................................................................................................................. 116
Relative Humidity .......................................................................................................... 116
Precipitation ................................................................................................................. 116
Wind ............................................................................................................................. 116
Insolation ...................................................................................................................... 117
6.2.2 Oporto’s Historic Centre ........................................................................................ 118
6.2.3 - Oporto World Heritage Area .................................................................................. 119
6.3 Traditional Buildings Typologies ................................................................................... 120
6.3.1 Functional Typology............................................................................................... 120
Table of Contents
xv
6.3.2 Built Form ..............................................................................................................123
Buildings: Number of Floors and Height .........................................................................123
Buildings: Geometry and Urban Insertion ......................................................................124
Solar Orientation ...........................................................................................................126
Roof Types ....................................................................................................................127
Main Facade Design ......................................................................................................128
6.3.3 Construction System ..............................................................................................132
Building Envelope: Walls................................................................................................133
Roof ..............................................................................................................................137
Horizontal Structure ......................................................................................................137
Ceiling and Floor ............................................................................................................138
Partition Wall ................................................................................................................139
Windows and Exterior Doors .........................................................................................140
Decorative Elements .....................................................................................................143
6.4 - Heritage Value...............................................................................................................144
6.4.1 Admissible Change .................................................................................................146
6.5 Conclusion ....................................................................................................................148
Chapter Seven: Case Studies First Stage Findings .................................................................149
7.1 - Introduction ..................................................................................................................151
7.1.1 - Oporto Building Stock .............................................................................................151
7.1.2 Research Area Selection .........................................................................................152
7.1.3 Research Area Survey ............................................................................................153
7.1.4 Identification of Typological Variants .....................................................................154
7.2 Case Studies .................................................................................................................155
7.2.1 Case Studies Selection ...........................................................................................155
7.2.2 Case Studies Survey ...............................................................................................156
7.2.3 Household Questionnaire ......................................................................................157
7.3 Survey Results ..............................................................................................................158
The investigation of energy efficiency measures in the traditional buildings in Oporto World Heritage Site: Joaquim Flores
xvi
7.3.1 - Buildings and Energy in Oporto .............................................................................. 158
7.3.2 Buildings ................................................................................................................ 162
7.3.3 Dwellings ............................................................................................................... 163
7.3.4 Construction Systems ............................................................................................ 165
7.3.5 Occupation ............................................................................................................ 167
7.3.6 - Energy .................................................................................................................... 170
7.3.7 Sensors Survey ...................................................................................................... 174
7.4 Building Heritage .......................................................................................................... 177
7.5 - Conclusion .................................................................................................................... 185
Chapter Eight: Case Studies Modelling and Simulation ........................................................ 187
8.1 - Introduction .................................................................................................................. 189
8.1.1 Modelling and Simulation ...................................................................................... 189
8.1.2 - Model Calibration................................................................................................... 190
8.1.3 Equipment Model .................................................................................................. 192
8.1.4 Dynamic Model ..................................................................................................... 193
8.2 Modelling ..................................................................................................................... 194
8.2.1 Design Scenarios.................................................................................................... 195
8.3 Results ......................................................................................................................... 197
8.3.1 - Baseline Performance ............................................................................................ 198
8.3.2 Equipment Simulation ........................................................................................... 199
8.3.3 Dynamic Simulation ............................................................................................... 200
8.3.4 Future Weather ..................................................................................................... 207
8.3.5 - Heritage Impact Assessment .................................................................................. 209
8.4 - Conclusion .................................................................................................................... 213
Chapter Nine: Energy Efficient Measures in Traditional Buildings ........................................ 215
9.1 - Introduction .................................................................................................................. 217
9.2 Energy Efficiency Measures for Oporto's Traditional Buildings ...................................... 217
9.2.1 Baseline Performance ............................................................................................ 218
Table of Contents
xvii
Energy ...........................................................................................................................218
Comfort .........................................................................................................................220
9.2.2 Measures Simulations ............................................................................................222
Behavioural Measures ...................................................................................................222
Fabric Measures ............................................................................................................223
9.2.3 - Short-term and long-term scenarios .......................................................................227
9.2.4 - Future-Proofing ......................................................................................................230
9.3 Main Findings ...............................................................................................................231
Chapter Ten: Conclusions and Future Research ....................................................................235
10.1 - Introduction ................................................................................................................237
10.2 Main Conclusions........................................................................................................237
10.2.1 Review of the Thesis Aims and Objectives ............................................................237
10.2.2 Findings Summary ................................................................................................238
Traditional Buildings Performance .................................................................................238
The Most Effective Measures ........................................................................................239
The Social Perspective ...................................................................................................241
The Methodological Approach .......................................................................................241
Results Extrapolation .....................................................................................................244
10.3 Contribution to Knowledge .........................................................................................244
10.4 Policy Recommendations ............................................................................................245
Main Recommendations:...............................................................................................246
10.5 Research Limitations ...................................................................................................247
10.6 Suggestions for further research .................................................................................248
Bibliography .........................................................................................................................249
Appendices ...........................................................................................................................273
The investigation of energy efficiency measures in the traditional buildings in Oporto World Heritage Site: Joaquim Flores
xviii
List of Figures
Chapter One
Figure 1 2009 end-use greenhouse gas emissions from energy use in EU27 in EEA (2011b, p.9) ........... 5
Chapter Two
Figure 2 Intervention process identified in heritage regulations (France, Greece, Great Britain, Italy,
Portugal and Spain) ................................................................................................................... 21
Figure 3 The heritage management process proposed by Mason (2002, p.6) positions significance and
value assessment at the centre of the process. ............................................................................. 31
Chapter Three
Figure 4 Net Zero-Energy Buildings (NZEB) step approach for the existing stock in Ayoub (2011, p.9) . 51
Figure 5 Proposed buildings energy efficiency framework ............................................................ 52
Chapter Four
Figure 6 Dynamic interactions of sub-systems in buildings in Hensen and Lamberts (2011, p.2) ......... 68
Figure 7 - Building layers of change in Brand (1994, p.13) ............................................................... 69
Figure 8 Oporto historic centre roofscapes as seen from the Cathedral hill ..................................... 84
Chapter Five
Figure 9 Proposed sequential approach for energy efficiency improvement and management of change
in traditional buildings ............................................................................................................... 92
Figure 10 - Heritage assessment methodologies used in the research ............................................... 95
Figure 11 Oporto’s traditional buildings energy assessment process .............................................. 98
Chapter Six
Figure 12 Oporto Serra do Pilar bioclimatic chart (Baruch Givoni method) in Gonçalves and Graça
(2004, p.19) ............................................................................................................................ 117
Figure 13 Oporto Historic Centre over the Digital Terrain Model (DTM)........................................ 118
Figure 14 Infante Research Area before the nineteenth century major urban transformations AHMP
(285 FD) ................................................................................................................................. 119
Figure 15 CRUARB Survey - Parcels 189 and 190 ground and first floors plans. .............................. 121
Figure 16 CRUARB Archive Parcel 189 section ........................................................................ 122
Figure 17 - Research area buildings floors ................................................................................... 124
Figure 18 Research area buildings’ facades facing the street ....................................................... 125
Figure 19 - Research area buildings’ fronts (facades facing the street or backyard) ........................... 125
Figure 20 Research area buildings’ main facade solar orientation ................................................ 126
Figure 21 Research area buildings’ roof types ........................................................................... 127
Table of Contents
xix
Figure 22 Oporto traditional skylights in Oliveira and Galhano (1992, p.356) .................................128
Figure 23 Oporto research area buildings’ roofs and skylights .....................................................128
Figure 24 Opening bays accentuating the verticality of buildings in Oliveira and Galhano (1992, p.313)
.............................................................................................................................................130
Figure 25 Traditional windows evolution (from eighteenth to nineteenth centuries) ......................131
Figure 26 Wood beams for pavement support in two ruined traditional buildings ..........................133
Figure 27 CRUARB’s refurbishment work showing the timber framing construction system (Magalhães,
2010) .....................................................................................................................................134
Figure 28 Timber framing extension with wood imitating stone in a ruined building .......................134
Figure 29 Exterior timber stud wall framing with lath and plaster in a ruined building ....................135
Figure 30 Glazed ceramic tiles covering an exterior wall in a ruined building .................................136
Figure 31 - Slate tiles covering the exterior wall in a ruined building ...............................................136
Figure 32 Simplified roof construction system based in Teixeira (2004, p.97) .................................137
Figure 33 - CRUARB archive Parcel 159 section. .........................................................................138
Figure 34 Schematic 3D drawing of traditional timber stud partition wall, floor and ceiling systems. 139
Figure 35 Exterior view, plan and detail of the traditional sash window with inner shutters.............141
Figure 36 Exterior view, plan and detail of the traditional balcony door with inner shutters. ...........141
Figure 37 Ancient inner shutters .............................................................................................142
Figure 38 Inner view and section of traditional sash window with inner shutters. ..........................142
Figure 39 Inner shutters/panelling: shutters opened, closed and top and bottom details. ...............143
Figure 40 Traditional Oporto stucco ceiling ...............................................................................144
Figure 41 Original and new frames imitating traditional design....................................................145
Chapter Seven
Figure 42 Census 2011: Oporto buildings age (INE, 2012)............................................................152
Figure 43 Research Area (AIP Infante) ......................................................................................153
Figure 44 - Variants distribution in the total Research Area (316 buildings) ......................................155
Figure 45 - Case study variants location ......................................................................................156
Figure 46 Energy consumption in Oporto by energy sources based on AdEPorto et al. (2008, p.26) ..158
Figure 47 CO2 emissions associated with the energy sources in Oporto based on AdEPorto et al. (2008,
p.26) ......................................................................................................................................158
Figure 48 Energy demand by sector in Oporto (detailing the building sector in households and services
sub-sectors) based on AdEPorto et al. (2008, p.29).......................................................................159
Figure 49 Residential buildings’ primary and final energy consumption for Oporto based on AdEPorto
et al. (2008, p.32) ....................................................................................................................160
Figure 50 Energy demand for Oporto’s residential sector based on AdEPorto et al. (2008, p.35) ......160
The investigation of energy efficiency measures in the traditional buildings in Oporto World Heritage Site: Joaquim Flores
xx
Figure 51 Energy sources for cooking in Oporto’s residential sector based on AdEPorto and UCP (2011,
p.1) ....................................................................................................................................... 161
Figure 52 - Energy sources for space heating in Oporto’s residential sector based on AdEPorto and UCP
(2011, p.1) ............................................................................................................................. 161
Figure 53 - Energy sources for domestic water heating in Oporto’s residential sector based on AdEPorto
and UCP (2011, p.1) ................................................................................................................ 161
Figure 54 Research area buildings age distribution .................................................................... 163
Figure 55 Houses space organization ....................................................................................... 164
Figure 56 Homes construction systems .................................................................................... 166
Figure 57 Electricity daily average consumption for all cases in 2009-2010 (data from EDP Company)
............................................................................................................................................. 173
Figure 58 - Electricity daily average consumption per m2 for all cases in 2009-2010 (data from EDP
Company) .............................................................................................................................. 174
Figure 59 - Electricity daily average consumption per person for all cases in 2009-2010 (data from EDP
Company) .............................................................................................................................. 174
Figure 60 - Oporto traditional buildings solid walls thermal behaviour ............................................ 177
Figure 61 Case 2 main facade with granite mouldings in light yellow. ........................................... 178
Figure 62 Historic centre building in Oporto where plaster is above the granite jambs ................... 179
Figure 63 Case 6 main facade showing the relation between granite mouldings and glazed ceramic tiles
............................................................................................................................................. 179
Figure 64 Case 3 facade with slate tiles cladding ....................................................................... 180
Figure 65 Aluminium frame imitating traditional casement design in traditional building in Oporto . 181
Figure 66 - Wood frame imitating the traditional sash design in a traditional building in Oporto ........ 181
Figure 67 Original balcony door with special glass in a traditional building in Oporto ..................... 182
Figure 68 Traditional building in Oporto with Photovoltaic panels on the roof ............................... 183
Figure 69 Traditional building in Oporto with DHW solar thermal panel on the roof (street level view)
............................................................................................................................................. 183
Figure 70 Oporto World Heritage Site panoramic view from the South and solar panels photomontage
............................................................................................................................................. 184
Figure 71 - Oporto World Heritage Site panoramic view from the South and solar panels photomontage
(detail) ................................................................................................................................... 185
Chapter Eight
Figure 72 Variants modelling framework .................................................................................. 190
Figure 73 Comparison between modelled and measured temperatures (Case 1 Sensor 4)............ 192
Figure 74 - Comparison between modelled and measured temperatures (Case 2 Sensor 1) ..............192
Table of Contents
xxi
Figure 75 IES VE PRO data and modules integration ...................................................................194
Figure 76 Energy, CO2 and PPD percentage variations from the baseline ......................................204
Figure 77 - Comparison between yearly dry-bulb temperatures in Oporto baseline and future weather
2080 simulations, using the IES VE PRO software .........................................................................208
Figure 78 Windows granite casing in a 19th century traditional building (in ruins) in Oporto ...........211
Chapter Ten
Figure 79 Detailed methodological process ...............................................................................243
The investigation of energy efficiency measures in the traditional buildings in Oporto World Heritage Site: Joaquim Flores
xxii
List of Tables
Chapter One
Table 1 Energy import dependency in 2007 based in EC (2010b, p.30) ............................................. 6
Chapter Two
Table 2 Buildings heritage values in literature, partially based on (Mason, 2002) and completed with
(Choay, 1992; English Heritage, 2008; Orbaşli, 2008; Roders, 2006).................................................. 26
Table 3 Buildings heritage values in England and Mediterranean Laws (footnotes 15 and 16). ........... 30
Table 4 Heritage Impact Assessment Stages in (ICOMOS, 2011, p.13) ............................................. 32
Table 5 Values assessment methods in (Mason, 2002, pp.19-22) ................................................... 33
Table 6 - Buildings heritage typologies and grades in England and Mediterranean Laws (footnotes 15 and
16) .......................................................................................................................................... 35
Table 7 Built heritage and historic urban landscape values grading in (ICOMOS, 2011, p.14-16) ......... 36
Table 8 - Built heritage and historic urban landscape impacts grading in (ICOMOS, 2011, pp.16-17) ..... 38
Table 9 Change/Impact in World Heritage in (ICOMOS, 2011, p.9) ................................................. 38
Table 10 Significance of impact in heritage in (ICOMOS, 2011, p.10) .............................................. 39
Chapter Three
Table 11 Measured and calculated U-values before and after refurbishment in Rye et al. (2012, p.6) . 63
Chapter Four
Table 12 Compared building approach framework ...................................................................... 71
Table 13 Traditional buildings improvement framework proposed ................................................ 72
Table 14 Residential traditional buildings energy efficiency toolkit in (English Heritage, 2011) ............ 74
Table 15 Solutions framework .................................................................................................. 75
Table 16 Traditional buildings energy efficiency case studies in the United Kingdom ........................ 76
Table 17 Payback periods from typical energy efficiency measures in (Changeworks, 2008, p.26) ...... 81
Table 18 Energy efficiency improvements and their heritage consequences in traditional buildings ... 86
Chapter Five
Table 19 Data types and tools framework .................................................................................. 93
Table 20 Building dynamic simulation design scenarios heritage impact assessment ...................... 105
Table 21 List of the equipment used in the survey ..................................................................... 110
Chapter Six
Table 22 Research area buildings’ geometric parameters ........................................................... 124
Chapter Seven
Table 23 Variants according to exposed facades. ....................................................................... 154
Table of Contents
xxiii
Table 24 Main characteristics of the case study buildings ...........................................................162
Table 25 Area distribution in the houses ..................................................................................163
Table 26 Case study dwellings main geometric parameters .........................................................165
Table 27 Dwellings ownership .................................................................................................167
Table 28 Cases occupation by age breakdown ...........................................................................167
Table 29 - Total questionnaire results .........................................................................................169
Table 30 - Equipment comparison ..............................................................................................171
Table 31 Percentage of equipment (LPG, entertainment and appliances) and lighting in the total yearly
energy consumed (estimated from the equipment simulation) ......................................................172
Table 32 - Total energy consumption results (electricity data from the supplier and gas data from the
occupant’s information) ...........................................................................................................173
Table 33 Temperature and humidity sensors placement .............................................................175
Chapter Eight
Table 34 Electricity consumption comparison between the real data and the equipment and dynamic
models baseline ......................................................................................................................191
Table 35 Design scenarios used in the equipment simulations .....................................................195
Table 36 Design scenarios used in the dynamic simulations ........................................................196
Table 37 Energy baseline comparison between the equipment and the dynamic models ................198
Table 38 Predicted Percentage Dissatisfied (PPD) from the thermal simulation..............................199
Table 39 Case studies energy costs (2013 base prices including VAT)............................................199
Table 40 - Potential savings from the appliances simulation results ................................................200
Table 41 Potential savings from thermal simulation results .........................................................203
Table 42 Comparison between energy, CO2 and PPD indicators in baseline and future weather design
simulation (Year 2080) .............................................................................................................208
Table 43 Heritage impact assessment of the equipment simulation design scenarios .....................209
Table 44 Heritage impact assessment of the building dynamic simulation design scenarios .............211
Table 45 The limit of change identified for simulated design scenarios .........................................212
Chapter Nine
Table 46 Compared mean energy consumption between simulations, national and Oporto energy
surveys ...................................................................................................................................218
Table 47 Literature case studies savings ...................................................................................226
Table 48 Potential savings from the equipment simulation regarding the yearly total energy in short-
term scenarios ........................................................................................................................228
Table 49 - Potential savings from the equipment simulation regarding the yearly total energy in long-
term scenarios ........................................................................................................................228
The investigation of energy efficiency measures in the traditional buildings in Oporto World Heritage Site: Joaquim Flores
xxiv
Table 50 - Potential savings from the dynamic simulation regarding the yearly total energy in short- and
long-term scenarios ................................................................................................................. 229
Table 51 Long and short term scenarios from the thermal and equipment simulations .................. 229
ResearchGate has not been able to resolve any citations for this publication.
103 5.3.1 -Measures Identification
  • Efficiency Energy
  • Improvement
  • Change.............................................................................................................................. Management
Energy Efficiency Improvement and Management of Change.......................................103 5.3.1 -Measures Identification..........................................................................................104