ArticlePDF Available

Bridging the distributional gap of Tylorida striata (Thorell, 1877) and new synonymy (Araneae: Tetragnathidae)

Authors:

Abstract

The tetragnathid spider Tylorida striata (Thorell, 1877) is redescribed on examination of its long unknown syntypes from Kendari, Southeast Sulawesi deposited in the Natural History Museum of Giacomo Doria, Genoa, Italy and additional material from Kendari and other Indonesian regions. Description of Tylorida stellimicans (Simon, 1885) mentions its identity with T. striata, which however characterizes sub-adult of T. striata and is accordingly synonymized. Tylorida striata is newly recorded from India which links the distributional gap between China to Australia and Comoros Islands. Distributional and taxonomic records of Tylorida species with T. striata- like globose abdomen infer probable synonymy, which is subject to genus revision.
Biodiversity Data Journal 3: e4878
doi: 10.3897/BDJ.3.e4878
Taxonomic Paper
Bridging the distributional gap of Tylorida striata
(Thorell, 1877) and new synonymy (Araneae:
Tetragnathidae)
Siddharth Kulkarni , Swara Yadav
‡ Biome Conservation Foundation, Pune, 18, Silver Moon Apts.,1/2A/2, Bavdhan Kh.,Pune 411021, India
§ Zoology Department, Yashavantrao Chavan Institute of Science, Satara, Satara, Maharashtra, India
Corresponding author: Siddharth Kulkarni (sskspider@gmail.com)
Academic editor: Pedro Cardoso
Received: 12 Mar 2015 | Accepted: 25 Mar 2015 | Published: 26 Mar 2015
Citation: Kulkarni S, Yadav S (2015) Bridging the distributional gap of Tylorida striata (Thorell, 1877) and new
synonymy (Araneae: Tetragnathidae). Biodiversity Data Journal 3: e4878. doi: 10.3897/BDJ.3.e4878
Abstract
Background
Although Tylorida striata has not been reported from India, observations on India
Biodiversity Portal (IBP 2015), an open access repository for biodiversity information of
Indian subcontinent, showed images resembling this species. The respective locality in
Gujarat, India was explored and specimens were studied to confirm record of T. striata in
India. Literature study showed some taxonomic lacunae which needed to be resolved.
New information
The tetragnathid spider Tylorida striata (Thorell, 1877) is redescribed on examination of its
long unknown syntypes from Kendari, Southeast Sulawesi deposited in the Natural History
Museum of Giacomo Doria, Genoa, Italy and additional material from Kendari and other
Indonesian regions. Description of Tylorida stellimicans (Simon, 1885) mentions its identity
with T. striata, which however characterizes sub-adult of T. striata and is accordingly
synonymized. Tylorida striata is newly recorded from India which links the distributional gap
‡ §
© Kulkarni S, Yadav S. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License
(CC BY 4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and
source are credited.
between China to Australia and Comoros Islands. Distributional and taxonomic records of
Tylorida species with T. striata- like globose abdomen infer probable synonymy, which is
subject to genus revision.
Keywords
Tylorida, syntypes, synonymy, new record, wide distribution.
Introduction
The World Spider Catalog (2015) currently consists of ten accepted Tylorida species
distributed in parts of Asia, Australasia and Africa. Simon (1894) established genusTylorida
on the basis of Meta striata Thorell, 1877. Currently valid as Tylorida striata (Thorell, 1877),
this species has a long and interesting taxonomic and faunistic history. In a series of
publications on spiders from Malaysia and Papua New Guinea, Thorell (1877) described
Meta striata based on female specimens collected from Kandari (now Kendari), South east
Sulawesi, Indonesia mentioning this species is also found on Amboina (now Ambon
Islands), Indonesia. Hasselt (1882) described its male from Sumatra. Strand (1922)
reported a male from Bandar Bahive, Sumatra. He noted that it is not easy to identify this
species on the basis of previous literature and warned that, difficulty in understanding its
femoral setae could lead to its placement in wrong genus. Gerhardt (1923) nicely illustrated
the male palp showing the coiled spermatic ducts.
Bösenberg and Strand (1906) described Tylorida magniventer from an unknown location in
Japan which was later synonymised with T. striata by Tanikawa (2005). Tylorida striata has
been reported a number of times from Japan (Yaginuma (1960), Yaginuma (1971),
Yaginuma (1986)). Kulczyński (1911) reported the species from Andai, North New Guinea
based on a female specimen; Chrysanthus (1963), Chrysanthus (1975) reported the
species based on a female from South New Guinea; Lee (1966) reported a male from
Taiwan; Davies (1988) illustrated female epigynum and male palp using Australian
specimens.
Dimitrov et al. (2008) examined male holotype of Sternospina concretipalpis Schmidt &
Krause, 1993 from the Comoros Islands and synonymised with T. striata, thus extending
the species distribution far to the west. They noted conspicuous distributional gap and
speculated that it may be due to lack of study, particularly from the Indian subcontinent. A
detailed morphological description and phylogenetic position of T. striata in reference to its
genus was provided in the atlas of Tetragnathidae (Álvarez-Padilla and Hormiga 2011).
However, the whereabouts of Thorell's type(s) of Meta striata were unknown (Álvarez-
Padilla and Hormiga 2011, Dimitrov et al. 2008).
2Kulkarni S, Yadav S
Materials and methods
Syntypes of Meta striata were loaned from Natural History Museum of Giacomo Doria,
Genoa, Italy (MSNG) at Naturalis Biodiversity Center, Leiden, The Netherlands for
examination by Siddharth Kulkarni and imaged using Nikon DS-Ri1 mounted on Leica
M165C™ stereozoom microscope, Indonesian material using Zeiss™ Stemi SV11
stereomicroscope and Indian material using Brunel IMXZ™stereozoom microscope and
imaged using Canon 1200D™ mounted camera. Indonesian specimens are deposited at
Naturalis Biodiversity Center (RMNH), Leiden, The Netherlands and Indian specimens are
deposited at Bombay Natural History Society (BNHS), Mumbai. Map was prepared using
QGIS (2015). All morphological measurements are in millimetres (mm).
Taxon treatment
Tylorida striata (Thorell, 1877)
MorphBank 853163
MorphBank 853158
Nomenclature
Meta striata Thorell, 1877: 427.
Meta striata Hasselt, 1882: 25.
Argyroepeira bigibba Thorell, 1887: 140.
Argyroepeira s. Thorell, 1887: 142.
T. striata Simon, 1894a: 737, f. 809.
Argyroepeira s. Workman & Workman, 1894: 19, pl. 19.
Tylorida magniventer Bösenberg & Strand, 1906: 187, pl. 15, f. 397.
T. striata Bösenberg & Strand, 1906: 187, pl. 15, f. 420.
Sternospina concretipalpis Schmidt and Krause, 1993: 7, f. 1.
Tylorida stellimicans Simon, 1885: 449. New synonymy.
Materials
Syntype:
a. scientificName: Tylorida striata; taxonomicStatus: accepted; scientificNameID:
urn:lsid:nmbe.ch:spidersp:014401; kingdom: Animalia; phylum: Arthropoda; class:
Arachnida; order: Araneae; family: Tetragnathidae; taxonRank: species;
nomenclaturalCode: ICZN; genus: Tylorida; scientificNameAuthorship: (Thorell, 1877);
Bridging the distributional gap of Tylorida striata (Thorell, 1877) and ... 3
locationID: Ambon Islands, Indonesia; continent: Asia; islandGroup: Maluku archipelago;
island: Ambon; country: Indonesia; countryCode: IDN; year: 1874; individualCount: 2;
sex: Female; lifeStage: adult; recordedBy: O. Beccari; occurrenceStatus: present;
identifiedBy: Thorell; identificationReferences: Studi sui Ragni Malesi e Papuani. I.
Thorell, T. (1877); type: specimen; institutionID: Museo Civico di Storia Naturale
“Giacomo Doria”, Italy; institutionCode: MSNG; basisOfRecord: Preserved specimen
Other material:
a. scientificName: Tylorida striata; taxonID: urn:lsid:nmbe.ch:spidersp:014401; kingdom:
Animalia; phylum: Arthropoda; class: Arachnida; order: Araneae; family: Tetragnathidae;
taxonRank: species; genus: Tylorida; scientificNameAuthorship: (Thorell, 1877);
locationID: TYPE LOCALITY; continent: Asia; country: Indonesia; countryCode: IDN;
stateProvince: SOUTH EAST SULAWESI; locality: Taneah, 40 km south of Kendari, sea-
faced; eventDate: 08/11/1980; individualCount: 1; sex: 1 female; recordedBy: C.L.and
P.R. Deeleman; type: specimen; institutionID: Naturalis Biodiversity Center, Leiden;
institutionCode: RMNH; collectionCode: Arachnida; basisOfRecord: PreservedSpecimen
b. scientificName: Tylorida striata; taxonomicStatus: accepted; scientificNameID:
urn:lsid:nmbe.ch:spidersp:014401; kingdom: Animalia; phylum: Arthropoda; class:
Arachnida; order: Araneae; family: Tetragnathidae; taxonRank: species;
nomenclaturalCode: ICZN; genus: Tylorida; scientificNameAuthorship: (Thorell, 1877);
locationID: 853155; continent: Asia; country: India; countryCode: IN; stateProvince:
Gujarat; locality: Pariyer; verbatimCoordinateSystem: decimal degrees; decimalLatitude:
22.56; decimalLongitude: 72.954; samplingProtocol: visual searching; eventDate:
2014-07-09; year: 2014; month: 7; day: 9; habitat: Low grass; eventRemarks: post
monsoon; individualCount: 6; sex: 6 females; lifeStage: adult; catalogNumber: BNHS Sp.
139–144; occurrenceRemarks: live in its orb web; recordedBy: Prathamesh Patel;
occurrenceStatus: present; identifiedBy: Siddharth Kulkarni; identificationReferences:
Studi sui Ragni Malesi e Papuani. I. Thorell, T. (1877); Morphological and phylogenetic
atlas of the orb-weaving spider family Tetragnathidae. Álvarez-Padilla, F.; type: specimen;
institutionID: Bombay Natural History Society, Mumbai; collectionID: Spider;
institutionCode: BNHS; collectionCode: Sp.; basisOfRecord: PreservedSpecimen
c. scientificName: Tylorida striata; taxonomicStatus: accepted; scientificNameID:
urn:lsid:nmbe.ch:spidersp:014401; kingdom: Animalia; phylum: Arthropoda; class:
Arachnida; order: Araneae; family: Tetragnathidae; taxonRank: species;
nomenclaturalCode: ICZN; genus: Tylorida; scientificNameAuthorship: (Thorell, 1877);
continent: Asia; country: India; stateProvince: Maharashtra; locality: Boisar;
verbatimCoordinateSystem: decimal degrees; decimalLatitude: 19.8; decimalLongitude:
72.75; samplingProtocol: visual searching; eventDate: 2014-10-10; year: 2014; month:
10; day: 10; habitat: Low grass; eventRemarks: post monsoon; individualCount: 4; sex: 4
females; lifeStage: adult; catalogNumber: BNHS Sp. 154-157; occurrenceRemarks: live in
its orb web; recordedBy: Atul Vartak; occurrenceStatus: present; identifiedBy: Siddharth
Kulkarni; identificationReferences: Studi sui Ragni Malesi e Papuani. I. Thorell, T. (1877);
Morphological and phylogenetic atlas of the orb-weaving spider family Tetragnathidae.
Álvarez-Padilla, F.; type: specimen; institutionID: Bombay Natural History Society,
Mumbai; collectionID: Spider; institutionCode: BNHS; collectionCode: Sp.;
basisOfRecord: PreservedSpecimen
d. scientificName: Tylorida striata; taxonID: urn:lsid:nmbe.ch:spidersp:014401; kingdom:
Animalia; phylum: Arthropoda; class: Arachnida; order: Araneae; family: Tetragnathidae;
taxonRank: species; genus: Tylorida; scientificNameAuthorship: (Thorell, 1877);
continent: Asia; country: Indonesia; countryCode: IDN; stateProvince: NORTH
SULAWESI; locality: (Palu) Lore Lindu Res; eventDate: 07/23/1982; individualCount: 5;
4Kulkarni S, Yadav S
sex: 4 females, 1 juvenile; recordedBy: C.L and P.R. Deeleman; type: Specimen;
institutionID: Naturalis Biodiversity Center, Leiden; institutionCode: RMNH;
collectionCode: Arachnida; basisOfRecord: PreservedSpecimen
e. scientificName: Tylorida striata; taxonID: urn:lsid:nmbe.ch:spidersp:014401; kingdom:
Animalia; phylum: Arthropoda; class: Arachnida; order: Araneae; family: Tetragnathidae;
taxonRank: species; genus: Tylorida; scientificNameAuthorship: (Thorell, 1877);
continent: Asia; country: Indonesia; countryCode: IDN; stateProvince: SUMATRA; locality:
20 km east of Medan; eventDate: 01/07/2001; individualCount: 1; sex: 1 Female;
recordedBy: C.L and P.R. Deeleman; type: Specimen; institutionID: Naturalis Biodiversity
Center, Leiden; institutionCode: RMNH; collectionCode: Arachnida; basisOfRecord:
PreservedSpecimen
f. scientificName: Tylorida striata; taxonID: urn:lsid:nmbe.ch:spidersp:014401; kingdom:
Animalia; phylum: Arthropoda; class: Arachnida; order: Araneae; family: Tetragnathidae;
taxonRank: species; genus: Tylorida; scientificNameAuthorship: (Thorell, 1877);
continent: Asia; country: Indonesia; countryCode: IDN; stateProvince: SUMATRA; locality:
Mount Singalang; eventDate: 07/10/1994; individualCount: 2; sex: 1 male, 1 juvenile;
recordedBy: Deeleman; type: Specimen; institutionID: Naturalis Biodiversity Center,
Leiden; institutionCode: RMNH; collectionCode: Arachnida; basisOfRecord:
PreservedSpecimen
g. scientificName: Tylorida striata; taxonID: urn:lsid:nmbe.ch:spidersp:014401; kingdom:
Animalia; phylum: Arthropoda; class: Arachnida; order: Araneae; family: Tetragnathidae;
taxonRank: species; genus: Tylorida; scientificNameAuthorship: (Thorell, 1877);
continent: Asia; country: Indonesia; countryCode: IDN; stateProvince: SULAWESI;
locality: Tangkoko; eventDate: 02/26/1997; individualCount: 2; sex: 1 male, 1 female;
recordedBy: leg. Preston; type: Specimen; institutionID: Naturalis Biodiversity Center,
Leiden; institutionCode: RMNH; collectionCode: Arachnida; basisOfRecord:
PreservedSpecimen
h. scientificName: Tylorida striata; taxonID: urn:lsid:nmbe.ch:spidersp:014401; kingdom:
Animalia; phylum: Arthropoda; class: Arachnida; order: Araneae; family: Tetragnathidae;
taxonRank: species; genus: Tylorida; scientificNameAuthorship: (Thorell, 1877);
continent: Asia; country: Indonesia; countryCode: IDN; stateProvince: BALI; locality:
Ambengan; eventDate: 03/19/1990; individualCount: 21; sex: 15 females, 6 juveniles;
recordedBy: leg. Preston-Mafham; type: Specimen; institutionID: Naturalis Biodiversity
Center, Leiden; institutionCode: RMNH; collectionCode: Arachnida; basisOfRecord:
PreservedSpecimen
i. scientificName: Tylorida striata; taxonID: urn:lsid:nmbe.ch:spidersp:014401; kingdom:
Animalia; phylum: Arthropoda; class: Arachnida; order: Araneae; family: Tetragnathidae;
taxonRank: species; genus: Tylorida; scientificNameAuthorship: (Thorell, 1877);
continent: Asia; country: Indonesia; countryCode: IDN; stateProvince: SUMBAWA
BESAR; locality: Samokat, 20 km west; eventDate: 01/03/1990; individualCount: 4; sex: 3
females, 1 juvenile; recordedBy: Deeleman and leg. Suh. Djojosudharmo; type:
Specimen; institutionID: Naturalis Biodiversity Center, Leiden; institutionCode: RMNH;
collectionCode: Arachnida; basisOfRecord: PreservedSpecimen
j. scientificName: Tylorida striata; taxonID: urn:lsid:nmbe.ch:spidersp:014401; kingdom:
Animalia; phylum: Arthropoda; class: Arachnida; order: Araneae; family: Tetragnathidae;
taxonRank: species; genus: Tylorida; scientificNameAuthorship: (Thorell, 1877);
continent: Asia; country: Indonesia; countryCode: IDN; stateProvince: WEST IRIAN;
locality: Sorong; eventDate: 08/05/1984; individualCount: 3; sex: 3 juveniles; recordedBy:
Leg. M.v.D. Putten; type: Specimen; institutionID: Naturalis Biodiversity Center, Leiden;
institutionCode: RMNH; collectionCode: Arachnida; basisOfRecord: PreservedSpecimen
Bridging the distributional gap of Tylorida striata (Thorell, 1877) and ... 5
k. scientificName: Tylorida striata; taxonID: urn:lsid:nmbe.ch:spidersp:014401; kingdom:
Animalia; phylum: Arthropoda; class: Arachnida; order: Araneae; family: Tetragnathidae;
taxonRank: species; genus: Tylorida; scientificNameAuthorship: (Thorell, 1877);
continent: Asia; country: Indonesia; countryCode: IDN; stateProvince: WEST SUMATRA;
locality: Mount Singalang; eventDate: 10/19-07-1994; individualCount: 3; sex: 2 females,1
juvenile; recordedBy: Deeleman and leg. Suh. Djojosudharmo; type: Specimen;
institutionID: Naturalis Biodiversity Center, Leiden; institutionCode: RMNH;
collectionCode: Arachnida; basisOfRecord: PreservedSpecimen
l. scientificName: Tylorida striata; taxonID: urn:lsid:nmbe.ch:spidersp:014401; kingdom:
Animalia; phylum: Arthropoda; class: Arachnida; order: Araneae; family: Tetragnathidae;
taxonRank: species; genus: Tylorida; scientificNameAuthorship: (Thorell, 1877);
continent: Asia; country: Indonesia; countryCode: IDN; stateProvince: EAST
KALIMANTAN; locality: Sepaku; eventDate: 07/13/1979; individualCount: 1; sex: 1 male;
recordedBy: P.R. Deeleman; type: Specimen; institutionID: Naturalis Biodiversity Center,
Leiden; institutionCode: RMNH; collectionCode: Arachnida; basisOfRecord:
PreservedSpecimen
m. scientificName: Tylorida striata; taxonID: urn:lsid:nmbe.ch:spidersp:014401; kingdom:
Animalia; phylum: Arthropoda; class: Arachnida; order: Araneae; family: Tetragnathidae;
taxonRank: species; genus: Tylorida; scientificNameAuthorship: (Thorell, 1877);
continent: Asia; country: Indonesia; countryCode: IDN; stateProvince: BALI; locality:
Ambengan; eventDate: 01/20/1990; individualCount: 3; sex: 3 females; recordedBy:
Deeleman; type: Specimen; institutionID: Naturalis Biodiversity Center, Leiden;
institutionCode: RMNH; collectionCode: Arachnida; basisOfRecord: PreservedSpecimen
n. scientificName: Tylorida striata; taxonID: urn:lsid:nmbe.ch:spidersp:014401; kingdom:
Animalia; phylum: Arthropoda; class: Arachnida; order: Araneae; family: Tetragnathidae;
taxonRank: species; genus: Tylorida; scientificNameAuthorship: (Thorell, 1877);
continent: Asia; country: Indonesia; countryCode: IDN; stateProvince: AMBON; locality:
Hila Garden; eventDate: 01/30/1995; individualCount: 1; sex: 1 female; recordedBy:
Deeleman; type: Specimen; institutionID: Naturalis Biodiversity Center, Leiden;
institutionCode: RMNH; collectionCode: Arachnida; basisOfRecord: PreservedSpecimen
o. scientificName: Tylorida striata; taxonID: urn:lsid:nmbe.ch:spidersp:014401; kingdom:
Animalia; phylum: Arthropoda; class: Arachnida; order: Araneae; family: Tetragnathidae;
taxonRank: species; genus: Tylorida; scientificNameAuthorship: (Thorell, 1877);
continent: Asia; country: Indonesia; countryCode: IDN; stateProvince: WEST.SUMATRA;
locality: Mount Singalang; eventDate: 07/12/1994; individualCount: 3; sex: 1 male, 2
females; recordedBy: Deeleman and leg. Suh. Djojoosudharmo; type: Specimen;
institutionID: Naturalis Biodiversity Center, Leiden; institutionCode: RMNH;
collectionCode: Arachnida; basisOfRecord: PreservedSpecimen
p. scientificName: Tylorida striata; taxonID: urn:lsid:nmbe.ch:spidersp:014401; kingdom:
Animalia; phylum: Arthropoda; class: Arachnida; order: Araneae; family: Tetragnathidae;
taxonRank: species; genus: Tylorida; scientificNameAuthorship: (Thorell, 1877);
continent: Asia; country: Indonesia; countryCode: IDN; stateProvince: NORTH BALI;
locality: Ambengan; eventDate: 01/09/1990; individualCount: 12; sex: 3 males, 9 females;
recordedBy: Deeleman and leg. Suh. Djojoosudharmo; type: Specimen; institutionID:
Naturalis Biodiversity Center, Leiden; institutionCode: RMNH; collectionCode: Arachnida;
basisOfRecord: PreservedSpecimen
6Kulkarni S, Yadav S
Description
Syntypes (Fig. 1) (examined by Siddharth Kulkarni). Two adult females, undissected
epigyna, abdomen detached from cephalothorax; abdomen of one female damaged
right laterally. Measurements of one syntype. Total length 5.36, carapace 2.03, 1.60
wide, abdomen 2.74 long, 3.14 high.
Carapace brown, sternum and legs fawn; trichobothrial sockets on proximal quarter
length of femora IV. Abdomen yellowish brown with shiny guanine patches lined from
apex towards ventral side, as also seen in live specimen (Fig. 2). Abdomen globose,
a b
c d
Figure 1.
Meta striata, female syntype.
a: Habitus (detached cephalothorax and abdomen placed together), dorsal view (Scale=5 mm)
b: Abdomen of same syntype, lateral view (Scale=3 mm)
c: Vulva, ventral view (Scale=0.3 mm)
d: Labels in syntype vial
Bridging the distributional gap of Tylorida striata (Thorell, 1877) and ... 7
roughly triangular in lateral view with two small tubercles at apex. Epigynal plate flat,
1.5 times wider than long, coils of fertilization ducts seen translucently (Fig. 1c).
Dissected epigynum in other material shows, coiled and sclerotized fertilization and
copulatory ducts, parallel just before joining spermatheca (Fig. 3).
Remarks: The female length of T. striata per taxonomic literature and examined
specimens ranges between 3.2-5.5 mm (Suppl. material 1). Álvarez-Padilla and
Hormiga (2011) reported average size of female as 10 mm which is an error (pers.
comm. Fernando Álvarez-Padilla).
Figure 2.
Tylorida striata, live female from India (BNHS Sp. 139).
Figure 3.
Tylorida striata, vulva, dorsal view, specimen from India (BNHS Sp. 139) CD- copulatory duct,
FD- fertilization duct, S- spermatheca (Scale=0.2 mm).
8Kulkarni S, Yadav S
Synonymy: Original description of T. stellimicans by Simon (1885) mentioned
'excessivement voisine' (extremely close) to T. striata distinguished T. stellimicans on
the basis of arrangement and size of eyes. This description is of sub-adult T. striata
where eye dimensions vary and ventral side of abdomen including epigynal plate
surface is blackish. Also, wide distribution of T. striata including locality region of T.
stellimicans and apparent absence of records elsewhere of T. stellimicans; we propose
T. stellimicans as synonym of T. striata.
Taxon discussion
Dimitrov et al. (2008) stated the location of type material was uncertain and possibly in
the Natural History Museum of the city of Geneva based on unpublished notes of Levi.
The type(s) of T. striata are not there and none of Thorell’s types have been deposited
in Geneva (pers. comm. Peter Schwendinger, Curator, Natural History Museum,
Geneva). There is likely to be confusion between Geneva (Switzerland) and Genoa
(Italy) due to similar spellings and pronunciation. Many of Thorell’s types have been
deposited at Museo Civico di Storia Naturale di Genova (also known as the Natural
History Museum of Giacomo Doria, Genoa). The existence of two syntypes collected
by O. Beccari in 1874 from Kandari, Indonesia was confirmed (Fig. 1d) at this museum
in Genoa. Thorell (1877) mentions collection of three females, but only two were found
in the vial labelled as ‘Cotypi’ and one remaining specimen is missing.
Discussion
The new record of T. striata from the Indian peninsula joins the disjunction of this species’
distribution between Comoros Islands and China to Australia (Fig. 4). Interestingly, the
species is found on either sides of the Wallace line, thus distributed throughout the two
ecozones of Asia (Indo-Malayan & Palearctic) and Australasia. The record from Comoros
Islands, which belongs to the Afrotropical ecozone is noteworthy. The wide distribution of T.
striata could be attributed to the dispersal and adaptive capacity of this species. On the
other hand, Tylorida sataraensis Kulkarni, 2014 is restricted to a smaller part of Western
Ghats in India (Kulkarni and Lewis 2015). These distributional variations of species
belonging to same genus may suggest contrasting adaptive capacities, since T. striata
undoubtedly sustains in anthropogenically exploited habitats whereas, T. sataraensis is a
habitat specialist, currently under threat of habitat degradation (Kulkarni 2014, Kulkarni and
Lewis 2015). Two other Tylorida species having T. striata-like globose abdomen, Tylorida
mornensis (Benoit, 1978) and Tylorida seriata (Thorell, 1899) are only known from their
respective type localities (Fig. 4). Tylorida seriata has not been reported since its original
description from Cameroon whereas T. mornensis was recorded again from its type locality
Seychelles and reported as endemic (Saaristo 2003, Saaristo 2010). Whether this is a
natural disjunction, or due to lack of study (Dimitrov et al. 2008) or a case of synonymy
similar to T. stellimicans needs to be resolved, subject to a future genus revision.
Bridging the distributional gap of Tylorida striata (Thorell, 1877) and ... 9
Acknowledgements
Thanks to Maria Tavano for loan of syntypes, Christa Deeleman-Reinhold for making the
South-east Asian collection available, Jeremy Miller for provision of laboratory resources at
Naturalis Biodiversity Center, Leiden, The Netherlands, Peter Schwendinger and Christian
Kropf for help in locating the types of Meta striata. Thanks also to Atul Vartak and
Prathamesh Patel for help during field work, Jeremy Miller, Cor Vink, Dimitar Dimitrov and
Pedro Cardoso for suggestions to the manuscript. Siddharth Kulkarni would like to thank
Ernst Mayr Travel Grant received for studying museum specimens.
Author contributions
Siddharth Kulkarni was involved in field work, specimen examination and manuscript
writing, Swara Yadav reviewed the literature and examined specimens from India.
References
Álvarez-Padilla F, Hormiga G (2011) Morphological and phylogenetic atlas of the orb-
weaving spider family Tetragnathidae (Araneae: Araneoidea). Zoological Journal of the
Linnean Society 162 (4): 713879. DOI: 10.1111/j.1096-3642.2011.00692.x
Bösenberg W, Strand E (1906) Japanische Spinnen. 30. Abhandlungen der
Senckenbergischen Naturforschenden Gesellschaft, 93-422 pp.
Chrysanthus P (1963) Spiders from south New Guinea V. Nova Guinea (Nova Serie,
Zoologia) 24: 727750.
Figure 4.
Map showing distribution of Tylorida species with T. striata-like globose abdomen.
10 Kulkarni S, Yadav S
Chrysanthus P (1975) Further notes on the spiders of New Guinea II (Araneae,
Tetragnathidae, Theridiidae). Zoologische Verhandelingen 140: 150.
Davies VT (1988) An illustrated guide to the genera of orbweaving spiders in Australia.
Memoirs of the Queensland Museum 25: 273332.
Dimitrov D, Álvarez-Padilla F, Hormiga G (2008) Until dirt do us apart: On the
unremarkable palp morphology of the spider Sternospina concretipalpis Schmidt.
Zootaxa 1698: 4956.
Gerhardt U (1923) Weitere sexualbiologische Untersuchung an Spinnen. Archiv für
Naturgeschichte 89: 1125.
Hasselt AWMv (1882) Araneae. In: Weth PJ (Ed.) Midden Sumatra IV. 3de Aflev.
Naturlijke Historie, Leiden, 11A, 1-56 pp.
IBP (2015) India Biodiversity Portal. http://indiabiodiversity.org/group/spiderindia/show.
Accession date: 2015 2 14.
Kulczyński W (1911) Spinnen aus Nord-Neu-Guinea. In: Nova Guinea. Resultats de
l'expedition Scientifiqe neerlandaise a la Nouvelle Guinee en 1903 sous les auspices
d'Arthur Wichmann. Leiden Zool 3 (4): 423518.
Kulkarni S (2014) A new species of the genus Tylorida Simon, 1894 (Araneae:
Tetragnathidae) from a rocky outcrop in the northern Western Ghats, India. Journal of
Threatened Taxa 6 (3): 55585561. DOI: 10.11609/jott.o3606.5558-61
Kulkarni S, Lewis T (2015) Description of male Tylorida sataraensis Kulkarni, 2014
(Araneae, Tetragnathidae) with notes on habits and conservation status. Biodiversity
Data Journal 3: e4451. DOI: 10.3897/bdj.3.e4451
Lee C (1966) Spiders of Formosa (Taiwan). Taichung Junior. Teachers College
Publisher, 84 pp.
QGIS (2015) QGIS Geographic Information System. Open Source Geospatial
Foundation Project. 2.8.1.
Saaristo MI (2003) Tetragnathid spiders of Seychelles (Araneae, Tetragnathidae).
Phelsuma 11: 1328.
Saaristo MI (2010) Araneae. In Gerlach, J. Siri Scientific Press, Manchester UK, 304
pp.
Simon E (1885) Matériaux pour servir à la faune arachnologiques de l'Asie méridionale.
III. Arachnides recueillis en 1884 dans la presqu'île de Malacca, par par M. J. Morgan.
IV. Arachnides recueillis à Collegal, district de Coimbatoore, par M. A. Theobald G. R.
Bulletin de la Société Zoologique de France 10: 436462.
Simon E (1894) Histoire naturelle des araignées. 1. Paris, 489760 pp.
Strand E (1922) Über einige indoaustralische Spinnen. Archiv für Naturgeschichte 88
(4): 143149.
Tanikawa A (2005) Japanese spiders of the genus Tylorida (Araneae: Tetragnathidae).
Acta Arachnologica, Tokyo 53: 151154.
Thorell T (1877) Studi sui Ragni Malesi e Papuani. I. Ragni di Selebes raccolti nel 1874
dal Dott. O. Beccari. Annali del Museo Civico di Storia Naturale di Genova 10: 341637.
World Spider Catalog (2015) World Spider Catalog. Natural History Museum Bern
(version 16). http://wsc.nmbe.ch. Accession date: 2015 3 01.
Yaginuma T (1960) Spiders of Japan in colour. Hoikusha, Osaka, 186 pp.
Yaginuma T (1971) Spiders of Japan in colour (enlarged and revised edition). Hoikusha,
Osaka, 197 pp.
Bridging the distributional gap of Tylorida striata (Thorell, 1877) and ... 11
Yaginuma T (1986) Spiders of Japan in color (new ed.). Hoikusha Publishing Co.,
Osaka, 229 pp.
Supplementary material
Suppl. material 1: Female length of Tylorida striata per taxonomic reference, examined
syntypes and specimens from India
Authors: Siddharth Kulkarni and Swara Yadav
Data type: Morphological
Filename: Tylorida_sizes.xlsx - Download file (11.16 kb)
12 Kulkarni S, Yadav S
... The big-jawed spider Tylorida striata belongs to the family of Tetragnathidae, which includes about 9000 described species in 50 genera (Kulkarni and Yadav 2015;Platnick 2015). Most of these spiders are important predators of several insects and usually live in grassy places and swamps (Zhang et al. 2002). ...
Article
Full-text available
The complete mitochondrial genome of Tylorida striata (GenBank accession number MN615900) is 14,422 bp in length with a high AT bias of 71.73%. It contains 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), 22 transfer RNA genes (tRNAs), 2 ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes, and a putative control region. The gene order of T. striata was identical to other spider mitogenomes. Eleven tRNAs (trnW, trnY, trnC, trnD, trnG, trnL2, trnR, trnF, trnP, trnI, and trnL1) lose the TΨC-stems, whereas two tRNAs (trnS1 and trnS2) lack the dihydrouracil (DHU) arm. Phylogenetic tree based on concatenated amino acid sequences of 13 PCGs showed that T. striata is clustered with two Tetragnathidae species and recovered as sister of other two Tetragnathids.
... Kulkarni (2014) described Tylorida sataraensis as a new species from India. Kulkarni & Yadav (2015) recorded T. striata for the first time from India and synonymised Tylorida stellimicans Simon, 1885 with T. striata. Breitling (2015) transferred Linyphia nicobarensis Tikader, 1977 to Tylorida. ...
Article
Full-text available
The tetragnathid spider genus Tylorida Simon, 1894 is reviewed in India. The relationship of Tylorida with Orsinome Thorell, 1890 is discussed and illustrated. The taxonomic significance of male chelicerae of Tylorida spp. is discussed and an identification key based on the features of male chelicerae to separate Indian Tylorida spp. is provided. A new species, Tylorida flava sp. nov. is described and illustrated. Two new transfers and four new synonyms are proposed: Orsinome marmorea Pocock, 1901 and Tylorida culta (O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1869) are transferred to Tylorida and Mesida Kulczyn'ski, 1911 respectively, Tylorida cylindrata (Wang, 1991) and Tylorida sataraensis Kulkarni, 2014 are synonymised with Tylorida marmorea (Pocock, 1901) comb. nov., Tylorida nicobarensis (Tikader, 1977) is synonymised with Tylorida striata (Thorell, 1877) and Leucauge pondae Tikader, 1970 is synonymised with Tylorida ventralis (Thorell, 1877). The biology, natural history and intraspecific variations of T. marmorea comb. nov. are noted. The occurrence of intraspecific variations and colour polymorphism in T. ventralis is discussed and two colour morphs (Silver and Yellow morphs) and three varieties (varieties I, II & III) for the species are recognised. Additionally, the genus Atelidea Simon, 1895 is recorded for the first time from India and provided the description and illustration of Atelidea nona sp. nov.. The current distribution of Atelidea is mapped.
Article
Full-text available
ABSTRACT : Spiders belonging to order araneae are one of the biggest groups of predaceous organisms in the animal kingdom. Along with their diverse structure, they are popular for their tough silk and spider venom which is of pharmaceutical importance.Also they are playing a major role in lower food web in the ecosystem to maintain the ecological equilibrium and are one of the best bioindicators of natural ecosysytems.Now a days, due to the habitat destruction caused by natural calamities and anthropogenic activities ,the number of spiders species are found to be declined, as a result number of species of spiders are getting extinct before they are explored. One of the major hotspots of biodiversity of India is Western Ghats, known for their high species diversity. Taking into account the importance of spiders as bioindicators of environment, the present article was aimed to review on Araneae diversity from Satara Sangli and Kolhapur districts lying in the Northern Western Ghat regions of Maharashtra, India . This study shall help to record the number of species found in this regions. This review provides a checklist of total 27 families of 101 genera representing 178 species along with some new species recorded with special reference to their behaviour, habitat and variations among them. The review mainly provides a baseline information for the future study on diversity of spiders.From this review it is concluded that Northern Western Ghats being one of the biggest hotspots of diversity have a large number of spiders species, which are very less as compared to the spider diversity of India as suggested by the world catalogue of spiders, suggesting for an urgent need to explore further the areneae diversity in order to maintain the ecological equilibrium and the products obtained from them.
Article
Full-text available
Examination of the holotype of the tetragnathid spider Sternospina concretipalpis Schmidt & Krause, 1993 demonstrates that the extraordinary claim by the authors of the original description of this species that the male palps are fused is unfounded. The monotypic genus Sternospina Schmidt & Krause, 1993 is a junior synonym of Tylorida Simon, 1894 and S. concretipalpis is a junior synonym of the common species Tylorida striata (Thorell, 1877). The genus Prionolaema Simon, 1894 is a junior synonym of Tetragnatha Latreille, 1804, resulting in two new combinations, Tetragnatha aetherea (Simon, 1894) and T. gracilis (Bryant, 1923). Tetragnatha earmra Levi, 1981 is a junior synonym of Tetragnatha gracilis (Bryant, 1923).
Article
Full-text available
The notes and illustrations for 57 genera of Salticidae are presented.
Article
Full-text available
The male sex of Tylorida sataraensis Kulkarni, 2014 is described based on specimens from the type locality. The distinguishing characters from its closest species Tylorida ventralis (Thorell, 1877) are detailed. An interesting behaviour of going underwater by T. sataraensis, on disturbance is recorded and tested for significance. The surveys have shown sighting of this species only to the perennial streams of the rocky outcrops in Satara region. The potential threats to this species and the possible conservation status based on known distribution are discussed.
Article
Full-text available
A new species Tylorida sataraensis sp. Nov. is described from the northern Western Ghats based on female only. Its behaviour of holding under water in response to disturbance is discussed.
Article
Full-text available
The Japanese spiders of the genus Tylorida is revised. T. magniventer Bösenberg & Strand 1906 is newly synonymized with T. striata (Thorell 1877). T. ventralis (Thorell 1877) is a new record for Japan, although whether or not it is an indigenous species remains unclear.
Article
In this paper a part of a large collection of spiders, originating from South New Guinea is treated. All specimens have been collected by Br. Monulf in the environs of Merauke (southcoast, 1956/57) and Mindiptana (more inland, 1958—1965). The following families and species are dealt with: Ecribellatae (continued). Sicariidae: Scytodes longipes Lucas, S. fusca Walckenaer, S. tardigrada Thorell, S. pallida Doleschall. Pholcidae: Arteina atlanta Walckenaer, Crossopriza lyoni (Blackwall), Psilochorus nigromaculatus Kulczynski. Zodariidae: Storena zebra Thorell. Cribellatae. Uloboridae: Uloborus geniculatus (Olivier), U. albofasciatus nov. spec. Deinopidae: Deinopis camela Thorell. Amaurobiidae: Titanoeca fulmeki Reimoser. Psechridae: Fecenia angustata (Thorell), Psechrus argentatus (Doleschall).
Article
Ten tetragnathid species are reported from the granitic Seychelles. The male of Leucauge argyrescens Benoit, 1978 is described for the first time. The following synonyms are presented: Leucauge russel-smithi Locket, 1980 = Leucauge argyrescens Benoit, 1978 n. syn., Tetragnatha modesta Hirst, 1911 = Tetragnatha ceylonica O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1869 n. syn., Tetragnatha foliifera Simon, 1898 and Tetragnatha grenda Roberts, 1983 = Tetragnatha demissa L. Koch, 1872 n. syn. and Tetragnatha infuscata Benoit, 1978 = Tetragnatha boydi O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1898 n. syn.. Also two new combinations are established, viz. Mesida thorellii (Blackwall, 1877) n. comb. and Tylorida mornensis (Benoit, 1978) n. comb. Finally the single loose chelicera found among detritus and considered by Benoit (1978a) to belong to some theraphosid is represents a femlae Nephila inaurata right chelicera.
Article
INTRODUCTION In the first part of this series (Chrysanthus, 1971), I dealt with 61 species of the family Argiopidae, originating from New Guinea, the Bismarck Archipelago, the Solomon Is., and islands of the Great Barrier Reef and in the Coral Sea. The greater part of the material belongs to the Rijksmuseum van Natuurlijke Historie, Leiden; also other museums allowed me to study spiders from this region, which form part of their collections. Some further collecting has since been done by the staff of the Department of Forests, Bulolo, Territory of Papua and New Guinea (abbreviation BUL), mostly by Dr. B. Gray, and by Dr. M. H. Robinson and mrs. B. Robinson of the Bishop Museum Field Station in Wau, near Bulolo. In this second part will be treated the Tetragnathidae and Theridiidae from the same region and belonging to the same Institutions. For abbreviations, lists of collections and collectors or expeditions, maps and alphabetic list of localities I may refer to my 1971 paper. TETRAGNATHIDAE TETRAGNATHINAE Tetragnatha Latreille, 1804 According to Roewer (1942: 978) 43 species of this genus have been described in the Australian region; seven of these are also known from the Indian region and one from Southern Europe and Africa. Gravely (1921: 424), who studied a large Tetragnatha collection from the Indian region, observed that it contained ten species, seven of which were new, notwithstanding the large number of species already described from that region by Thorell and others and: "____the wide distribution of some of them [both
Article
The present atlas documents the morphology of representative species of 22 tetragnathid genera, with emphasis on nontetragnathines. It includes approximately 960 scanning electron micrographs, morphological drawings and web photographs. The 213 characters used in the phylogenetic analyses are described and illustrated. We discuss the optimal cladograms obtained by the analysis of the morphological and behavioural data, and compare our results to a recent hypothesis of tetragnathid phylogenetic relationships that combined similar data with multigene DNA sequences. Based on the cladistic hypothesis that results from the total evidence analysis, we study the evolution of six morphological character systems within Tetragnathidae: spinneret spigots, respiratory structures, trichobothria, chelicerae, and male and female genitalia.© 2011 The Linnean Society of London, Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society, 2011, 162, 713–879.