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Morphological variation, cultivation techniques and management practices of Moringa oleifera in Southern Benin (West Africa) International Journal of Agronomy and Agricultural Research (IJAAR)

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This study examined the phenotypic variation and the modalities for integrating Moringa oleifera in agroforestry systems in southern Benin in order to contribute to sustainable management of the species. Morphological characterization of M. oleifera based on measurements taken on the trees, leaves, leaflets and fruits, and ethno-botanical survey on cultivation techniques and management of plantation of the species were performed. The morphological analysis showed significant variation between populations of M. oleifera in the phytodistricts considered in relation to tree height, leaf length, petiole diameter, length and width of leaflets (P <0.001); length, median diameter and fresh weight of pods (P <0.01). In the phytodistricts considered in the southern Benin, the culture of M. oleifera was mainly by cuttings (92.85 to 97.8%) and row planting (91.83 to 98.03%). The adoption rate of M. oleifera varied between 89.79 and 97.05%. There was significant dependence between the management practices and the willing for adoption (ΔG2 = 5.59, P = 0.018), between management practices and the origin of planting materials (ΔG2 = 5.50, P = 0.019).
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Agoyi et al.
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RESEARCH PAPER OPEN ACCESS
Morphological variation, cultivation techniques and
management practices of
Moringa oleifera
in Southern Benin
(West Africa)
Eric E. Agoyi1,2, Elie A. Padonou1*, Amoussa W3., Achille E. Assogbadjo1, Romain
Glèlè Kakaï4, Brice Sinsin1
1Laboratory of Applied Ecology, University of Abomey-Calavi, Cotonou, Benin.
2Department of crop science, Makerere University of Uganda, Kampala, Uganda
3Department of Nutrition and Food Sciences, University of Abomey-Calavi, Cotonou, Benin.
4Laboratory of Biomathematics and Forest estimations, University of Abomey-Calavi, Cotonou, Benin
Article published on March 21, 2015
Key words: Moringa oleifera, Phenotypic variation, Management practices, Phytodistricts.
Abstract
This study examined the phenotypic variation and the modalities for integrating Moringa oleifera in agroforestry
systems in southern Benin in order to contribute to sustainable management of the species. Morphological
characterization of M. oleifera based on measurements taken on the trees, leaves, leaflets and fruits, and ethno-
botanical survey on cultivation techniques and management of plantation of the species were performed. The
morphological analysis showed significant variation between populations of M. oleifera in the phytodistricts
considered in relation to tree height, leaf length, petiole diameter, length and width of leaflets (P <0.001); length,
median diameter and fresh weight of pods (P <0.01). In the phytodistricts considered in the southern Benin, the
culture of M. oleifera was mainly by cuttings (92.85 to 97.8%) and row planting (91.83 to 98.03%). The adoption
rate of M. oleifera varied between 89.79 and 97.05%. There was significant dependence between the management
practices and the willing for adoption (ΔG2 = 5.59, P = 0.018), between management practices and the origin of
planting materials (ΔG2 = 5.50, P = 0.019).
* Corresponding Author: Elie A. Padonou padonouelie@yahoo.fr
International Journal of Agronomy and Agricultural Research (IJAAR)
ISSN: 2223-7054 (Print) 2225-3610 (Online)
http://www.innspub.net
Vol. 6, No. 3, p. 97-105, 2015
International Journal of Agronomy and Agricultural Research (IJAAR)
ISSN: 2223-7054 (Print) 2225-3610 (Online)
http://www.innspub.net
Vol. 5, No. 1, p. 14-22, 2014
Agoyi et al.
Page
98
Introduction
Moringa oleifera is a multipurpose plant species that
originated from India and widespread in Africa. It is
used by rural populations in human and animal
feeding, traditional medication, house and field
fencing. M. oleifera has gained interest in this last
century because of its nutritional and medicinal
values. Fahey (2005), Thurber and Fahey (2009)
reported that M. oleifera contains all the essential
nutritional elements essential for livestock and
human beings (highly digestible proteins, Calcium,
Iron and Vitamin A and C). It also contains vitamin
B-Complex, chromium, copper, magnesium,
manganese, phosphorus and zinc (Fuglie, 2001a,b).
Since 1998, the World Health Organization has
promoted M. oleifera as an alternative of imported
food supplies to treat malnutrition (Sreelatha and
Padma, 2009). Authors reported that to solve
malnutrition issues, doctors, nurses, and midwives
were trained in preparing and using M. oleifera leaves
powder (Johnson, 2005; Manzoor et al., 2007;
Sreelatha and Padma, 2009; UNWFP, 2004).
Number of studies have shown that M. oleifera
induces antiulcer effect, effect on immune response,
spasmolytic activities, hypercholesterolemia effects,
antibacterial activity (Talreja, 2010). Sympatholytic
activity and antiviral activity against herpes simplex
virus type-1 (Haristoy et al., 2005). According to
(Sreelatha and Padma, 2009), the extracts of M.
oleifera leaves have probable antioxidant activity
against free radicals, prevent oxidative damage to
major biomolecules and afford significant protection
against oxidative damage. It has been reported that
M. oleifera leaves are suitable for livestock feed and
fodder (Mathur, 2006; Reyes- Sánchez et al., 2006).
Recently, M. oleifera has been reported having a role
in growth enhancement (Anjorin et al., 2010; Phiri
and Mbewe, 2010; Ali et al., 2011; Yasmeen et al.,
2013) of crops such as wheat (Yasmeen et al., 2012
and 2013). Authors have been interested in
management practices of plantations of M. oleifera.
Plants spacing and harvesting frequencies were the
most targeted. Amaglo et al. (2006) recommended a
spacing of 5 cm x 15 cm for leaves production coupled
by an interval between two harvestings of 35 d where
the leaves are found to be richest in nutrients.
Gadzirayi et al. (2013) found a spacing of 15 cm x 15
cm or 20 cm x 20 cm more efficient. According to
them cutting should occur at intervals of 60 to 75
days. In Benin, M. oleifera is well known and
appreciated by the local populations for its nutritional
and medicinal values, even some initiatives of
commercializing its products arose (Agoyi et al.,
2014). Despite the NGOs and other associations
promoting M. oleifera in Benin, little has been done
in terms of research on this species (Aissi et al., 2014;
Agoyi et al., 2014). In view of the importance M.
oleifera gains in Benin and worldwide, there is need
for seeking its best management. For this purpose,
the present study aims at assessing i) the
morphological variation between populations of M.
oleifera, and (ii) the cultivation techniques and
management practices of M. oleifera plantations.
Materials and methods
Study area
The study took place in four phytodistricts (Plateau,
Coast, Oueme and Pobe) located in humid climate
zone in Benin (Fig. 1).
Fig. 1. Location of the phytodistricts considered in
the climate zones of Benin.
Agoyi et al.
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The rainfall in this zone is bimodal with an annual
average of 1200 mm. The annual average temperature
ranges between 25 and 29°C and the relative
humidity between 69 and 97 %. The soils are deep
ferralsols or rich in clay, in humus and minerals. The
main ethnic groups in the zone are Fon, Adja, Yoruba
and other assimilated groups (Floquet and Van den
Akker, 2000).
Morphological variation of M. oleifera between
phytodistricts
The morphological characterization of M. oleifera
concerned the trees, leaves, leaflets and fruits. In each
phytoditrict, 25 trees were sampled at random. Plant
height (H) and diameter at breast height (DBH) were
measured using respectively a clinometer SUUNTO
and a girthing tape.
A total of 15 fresh leaves and 15 fruits were collected
at random per tree because a minimum of 10 samples
of a given plant part is enough to describe the existing
variations in the population regarding the plant part
for a given agro-ecological zone (Palmerg, 1985). The
leaf length (LFe), the diameter of petiole (Dp), the
leaflet length (LFo) and width (lfo) were measured in
centimeter (cm) using electronic calipers. On the
fruits collected, pod length (LFr), diameter (Dm) and
fresh pod weight (PFr) were measured with a spring
balance (American Weigh Scale Sr-1kg Gray Digital
Hanging Scale, Gray, 1000g X 1 G).
Analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Student Newman
Keuls test were used to compare the variation
observed on the tree (height and DBH), the leaves
(leaf length, diameter of petiole, leaflet length and
width) and the fruits (pod length, median diameter
and fresh pod weight) between phytodistricts using
SAS 9.2 statistical software (SAS Inc., 2008). No data
transformation was applied because normality and
homoscedasticity were checked without
transformation using the Ryan-Joiner test of
Normality, and the Levene test for homogeneity of
variances (Glèlè Kakaï et al., 2006).
Cultivation techniques and management practices of
M. oleifera
Data on the cultivation techniques and management
practices of M. oleifera were collected through
individual semi-structured interviews. Focus group
discussions were completed to check the reliability of
the data collected during the individual interview. The
discussion groups were often formed by 5 to 7 people.
The information collected were about: (i) the
cultivation techniques and management practices, (ii)
the willingness to plant the species at large scale as
well the origin of the cuttings, seeds and nurseries
used for plantation. The sample size was determined
using the normal approximation of binomial
distribution (Dagnelie, 1998):
n= U21-α/2 x P(1-P)/d2 where n is the sample size, P is
the proportion of informants using and planting the
species. U1-α/2 is the value of the normal random
variable. For a probability value of 1-α/2, U21-α/2
1.96 with α = 0.05. d is the margin error of the
estimation; 5 % was considered.
To compute the size of the sample, a brief survey on
30 persons per locality was carried out. The
interviewed persons were asked if they have planted
M. oleifera. The proportion P of positive answers was
considered. On this basis 384 people with 150 women
were interviewed.
Data on the cultivation techniques and management
practices were encoded after counting the
questionnaire sheets. Frequencies were attributed to
the variables measured (origin of seed, cultivation
techniques, space management and willingness to
adopt). Log-linear analysis was used to test the
relationships between the variables and the
phytodistricts.
Results
Morphological variation in M. oleifera between
phytodistricts
The analysis of variance showed significant difference
(p < 0.001) between phytodistricts regarding tree
(height and DBH) and leaves (leaf length, diameter of
petiole, leaflet length and width). The difference
Agoyi et al.
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between phytodistricts regarding fruit (pod length,
median diameter and fresh pod weight) was
significant at 0.01. The tallest trees (7.18 m) were
found in Oueme (p < 0.05) while the shortest (3.51 m)
were found in Plateau (Table 1).
Table 1. Morphological variation in M. oleifera trees in height and DBH between phytodistricts.
Phytodistricts
Height (cm)
DBH (cm)
Coast
4.25 ± 0.29c
10.26 ± 0.70a
Plateau
3.51 ± 0.14c
6.38 ± 0.21b
Pobe
5.95 ± 0.37b
7.58 ± 0.90b
Oueme
7.18 ± 0.20a
4.51 ± 0.30c
Values are means ± standard error. The mean values followed by the same letter in the same column are not statistically different at 5% (Student
Newman Keuls test).
The variation between the Plateau and the Coast
regarding the trees height was not significant. The
DBH of the trees from the Coast were the highest
(10.26 cm), while the smallest (4.51 cm) were from
Oueme. The variation in DBH of the trees between
Plateau and Pobe was not significant (table 1).
Overall, the Oueme had the tallest and slimmest trees
whereas the Coast had the shortest and fattest trees.
The Oueme had the highest values for the variables
measured on leaves compared to the other
phytodistricts (Table 2).
Table 2. Morphological variation in M. oleifera leaves and leaflets between phytodistricts.
Variation in leaves
Variation in leaflets
Leaf length (cm)
Diameter of petiole
(cm)
Leaflet length (cm)
Leaflet width
(cm)
40.93 ± 1.12b
0.55 ± 0.01c
2.33 ± 0.05c
1.23 ± 0.03b
36.72 ± 0.77c
0.49 ± 0.01d
2.43 ± 0.03cb
1.29 ± 0.02b
39.65 ± 1.15b
0.61 ± 0.01b
2.53 ± 0.04b
1.38 ± 0.03a
48.56 ± 1.11a
0.66 ± 0.01a
2.71 ± 0.05a
1.41 ± 0.03a
Values are means ± standard error. The mean values followed by the same letter in the same column are not statistically diffe rent at 5% (Student
Newman Keuls test).
The difference in leaf length between the
phytodistricts of Coast and Pobe was not significant.
The phytodistrict of Plateau had the shortest leaves
with small diameter of petiole (Table 2). The shortest
leaflets in length were found in the Coast (Table 2).
The leaflet width was statistically similar in the Coast
and Plateau in one hand and in Pobe and Oueme in
other hand (Table 2).
The variation in fruit (pod length, median diameter
and fresh pod weight) between phytodistricts was
presented in Table 3. The longest pods (34.20 cm)
were from the phytodistrict of Plateau, while the
shortest (27.45 cm) from Oueme. The difference in
pod length between the Coast and Pobe was no
significant (Table 3).
Table 3. Morphological variation in M. oleifera fruit (pod length, median diameter and fresh pod weight)
Phytodistricts
Pod length
Median diameter
Average weight
Coast
30.56 ± 1.61ab
2.06 ± 0.06a
66.80 ± 7.34a
Plateau
34.20 ± 0.83a
1.89 ± 0.03ab
83.96 ± 3.80a
Pobe
30.76 ± 1.73ab
1.87 ± 0.07ab
67.07 ± 7.89a
Oueme
27.45 ± 1.66b
1.73 ± 0.07b
73.65 ± 7.60a
The values are means ± standard error. The mean values followed by the same letter in the same column are not statistically different at 5%
(Student Newman Keuls test).
Agoyi et al.
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Concerning the median diameter of pods, the
phytodsitricts of Plateau and Pobe were statistically
similar (Table 3). The biggest pods were from the
Coast while the smallest were from the Oueme. The
average weight of pods was statistically similar in all
the phytodistricts (Table 3).
Cultivation techniques and management practices of
M. oleifera
Generally, the planting materials of M. oleifera were
collected directly in the locality, either given by a
neighbor or bought from others (Table 4). The
cultivation with the cuttings was the most spread. In
the Coast and Plateau, the direct seedling had a non-
negligible share (14.28 and 14.70%) likewise the use
of nurseries in the Plateau (8.79%). The space
management was mainly done by row planting (91 to
98%), in the purpose of fencing fields and houses.
However, M. oleifera was also planted in house
gardens (Table 4). The open field cultivation was at its
beginning and met only in localities where initiatives
seeking the valorization and commercialization of M.
oleifera were going on or in project. The spacing was
0.3 m - 2 m in the Plateau and 0.5 m in the Oueme.
Most of the people were willing to adopt the
cultivation of M. oleifera at large scale in a condition
of an available market (Table 4).
Table 4. Cultivation techniques and management practices of M. oleifera
Phytodistricts
Origins of
planting
materials (%)
Cultivation techniques (%)
Management practices
(%)
Willingness to
adopt
Locally
Imported
Direct
seedling
Propagation
by cutting
Propagation
by nurseries
Row
planting
House
garden
Open
field
planting
Coast (n=102)
96.07
3.92
14.70
96.07
6.86
98.03
11.76
1.96
97.05
Plateau (n=91)
94.50
5.49
14.28
97.80
8.79
95.60
7.69
9.89
95.60
Pobe(n=93)
100
0
7.52
93.54
7.52
95.69
12.90
7.52
95.69
Oueme (n=98)
97.95
2.04
2.04
92.85
4.08
91.83
7.14
2.04
89.79
n is the number of respondents
The log-linear analysis showed high significant
difference between management practices and the
origin of planting materials (ΔG2= 5.50; p = 0.02),
likewise between management practices and the
willing for adoption (ΔG2= 5.59; p = 0.02). However,
there was no difference between phytodistricts and
respectively cultivation techniques (ΔG2= 2.66; p =
0.95), management practices (ΔG2 = 1.34; p = 0.99),
origins of planting materials (ΔG2=0.40; P = 0.82),
willingness to adopt the species (ΔG2= 2.11; p = 0.55).
The difference between the cultivation techniques and
the origins of planting materials in one hand (ΔG2=
1.26; p = 0.53) and the management practices (row
planting, house garden and open field planting) in
another hand (ΔG2= 9.01; p = 0.06) was not
significant.
Discussion
Morphological variation of M. oleifera between
phytodistricts
M. oleifera trees in our study area were 3.51 m to 7.18
m in height and 4.51 cm to 10.26 cm in diameter in
the phytodistricts considered. The trees are then short
and small in these phytodistricts compared to the size
reported by Parrotta (1993), up to 10 to 12 m in height
with stem diameter up to 75 cm. The shortest and
biggest trees were observed in the Coast. This can be
explained by the precociously mass harvesting of the
leaves in this phytodistrict (Agoyi et al., 2014),
leading to the stunting of the trees.
The average leaf length of M. oleifera in the
phytodistricts considered was 40.47 cm. This value
Agoyi et al.
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falls into the range of 6.5 to 60 cm observed by Bosch
(2004) and the one (20 to 70 cm) observed by Foidl et
al. (2001) and Roloff et al. (2009). This suggests that
the leaves in Southern Benin are relatively long. The
average leaflet length is above 2 cm in all the
phytodistricts compared to those (1.2 to 2 cm)
reported by Roloff et al. (2009), and the one (1.3 to 2
cm) reported by Ashfaq et al. (2012). The same
observation was found with the leaflet width which is
above 1 cm in all the phytodistricts compared to those
(0.6 to 1 cm and 0.3 to 0.6 cm) mentioned
respectively by Roloff et al. (2009) and Ashfaq et al.
(2012). This suggests that like the leaves, the leaflets
are large in our study area.
The average pod length observed 32.22 cm fall into
the range 20 to 50 cm evoked by Roloff et al. (2009)
as well as 20 to 60 cm found by Foidl et al. (2001).
This result contrast with 30 cm to 120 cm reported by
Ashfaq et al. (2012) and 15 to 23 cm found by
Suthanthirapandian et al. (1989). The longest pods
were observed in the Plateau. This performance may
be explained by the fact that in the plantations found
in this phytodistrict, the plants were well spaced (2 m
x 2 m) and the leaves were not frequently harvested.
Cultivation techniques and management practices of
M. oleifera
Concerning the management practices and cultivation
techniques in Southern Benin, M. oleifera is mostly
cultivated using cuttings. According to the
populations, this is because cuttings allow rapid
growth. This statement is confirmed by several
authors (Nautiyal and Venhataraman, 1987;
Ramachandran et al., 1980; Nouman et al., 2012).
However, the seed germination which might take up
to 30 days after sowing (Sharma and Raina, 1982;
Jahn et al., 1986) coupled with the loss of seed
viability when stored longer than two months and low
germination percentage (60, 48 and 7.5 %) evoked by
Verma (1973); Sharma and Raina (1982); Morton
(1991) must be regarded as major causes of preferring
propagation by cuttings. This cultivation technique
makes the populations to become clones leading to
inbreeding depression and low diversity. The fact that
the management practices are similar between
phytodistricts might worsen the above mentioned.
Moreover the precocious and frequent harvesting
prevents flowering and podding to occur and
therefore hinders cross-pollinations which increase
genetic diversity. The high willingness to adopt shows
how rural populations are interested in this species
and can lead to a well pleading for its introduction in
agroforestry systems and development of the chain
value of M. oleifera in Benin.
Conclusion
In Southern Benin M. oleifera is propagated, mostly
by cuttings. Propagation by seed is still at low rate.
Garden and house fencing still the most management
practiced. The open field planting is likely to gain
more importance, since more than 90% of the local
population is willing to adopt it in agroforestry. The
differences between encountered populations were
significant or sometimes inexistent. The significant
difference observed may be due to the soil fertility
and the amount of rainfall rather than genetic
diversity, since the best performances were observed
in the Oueme which has the highest rainfall coupled
with fertile soils. Thus, there is need of carrying out
genetic diversity studies to confirm whether these
differences are due to genetic variations in order to
make them useful tools for further breeding
programs.
Aknowledgement
Our acknowledgment goes to the local authorities and
populations for facilitation and help in data collection
also to Prof. Dr. Brice TENTE and Ruth Mukhongo
for their revisions. We thank SALAKO Valère and
BALOGOUN Ibouraîma for technical support.
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... Some studies have addressed the species growth and biomass production patterns (Edward et al., 2014;Gadzirayi et al., 2013;Reyes-S anchez et al., 2006). Genetic patterns (Ganesan et al., 2014;Muluvi et al., 1999;Popoola et al., 2014;Shahzad et al., 2013) and morphological traits (Agoyi et al., 2015;Dao and Kabore, 2015;Diouf et al., 2007;Ganesan et al., 2014) of the species were investigated. However, to which extent variations in ecological conditions and farmers' management practices influence morphological traits of the species have received little attention. ...
... Ethnobotanical knowledge and uses of the species were investigated in southern Benin (Agoyi et al., 2014). The morphological variation and farmers' management practices of M. oleifera were studied in Southern Benin especially in the GuineoCongolese biogeographical zone (Agoyi et al., 2015). Because this study was limited to only one biogeographical zone of Benin and that a limited number of traits (height and diameter of trees; leaves length, petiole diameter, leaflet length and width; length, diameter and weight of pod and seed) were considered, additional investigations are needed for a comprehensive assessment. ...
... Moreover, findings confirmed that (Table 3). The trend observed in the Guineo-Congolese zone for seed source, propagation methods and cultivation systems was previously reported by Agoyi et al. (2015). M. oleifera is mostly cultivated using cuttings in the GuineoCongolese zone while the propagation by seed was mostly used in the sudano-guinean and Sudanian zones. ...
Article
Moringa oleifera Lam. is an agroforestry species grown for its various uses. Despite its great socio-economic importance, the species is still not well exploited and considered as a neglected and underutilised species. This study aimed at identifying the morphotypes of M. oleifera and assessing how they were related to climatic conditions and farmers’ management practices. The study was conducted in 30 districts spanning the three biogeographical zones and 11 major sociocultural groups of Benin. Twenty-four morphological traits describing the trunk, crown, leaf, leaflet, pod, and seed were collected on 810 adult individuals randomly selected within districts. Linear mixed-effects models were used to investigate variation in morphological traits of M. oleifera according to biogeographical zones and management practices. Then, hierarchical clustering and canonical discriminant analyses were performed on morphological traits to identify and characterise the morphotypes of M. oleifera. Results revealed great variability in morphological traits of M. oleifera according to climate gradient and farmers’ management practices. Four morphotypes were identified with five morphological traits (number of tertiary branches, leaf maximum width, leaf length, pod length and dry pod weight) as the most discriminant. According to the most harvested organs (leaves and seeds), the best morphotype was from the sudano-guinean zone. These findings are crucial for selection and breeding programs and for the improvement of domestication strategies of the species. This will support efficiently the implementation of more environmental and socioeconomic-friendly promotion of the species through its cultivation and use in Benin, as well as in West Africa.
... Moringa oleifera Lam. is an agroforestry species introduced in Africa and now is widespread (Agoyi et al. 2014). This species is used for multiple purposes including medicine, food, fodder, domestic cleaning agent, green manure, rope, tanning hides, and as a water purifier (Adebayo et al. 2011). ...
... Others studies have documented the species growth and biomass production (Dos Santos et al. 2011;Edward et al. 2014;Gadzirayi et al. 2013;Nouman et al. 2013;Reyes-Sánchez et al. 2006) and physico-chemical and microbiological composition (Anwar and Rashid 2007;Reyes-Sánchez et al. 2006;Rockwood et al. 2013). Genetic diversity and structuring (Ganesan et al. 2014;Muluvi et al. 1999;Popoola et al. 2014;Shahzad et al. 2013) and morphological traits variation (Agoyi et al. 2015;Dao and Kabore 2015;Ganesan et al. 2014) within the species are among the crucial current issues for its effective domestication. Despite its considerable economic importance, M. oleifera is still not well exploited (Pandey et al. 2011) and is considered an underutilized species (Singh and Prasad 2013). ...
... Despite its considerable economic importance, M. oleifera is still not well exploited (Pandey et al. 2011) and is considered an underutilized species (Singh and Prasad 2013). Although M. oleifera is used in several programs of food assistance for preventing malnutrition in children and nursing mothers (Afuang et al. 2003;Sreelatha and Padma 2009), it is under-cultivated locally and there is still some knowledge gap regarding the species, notably concerning local knowledge on its uses (Agoyi et al. 2014). To this end, local ethnobotanical knowledge can play a vital role in enhancing the livelihoods of locals and maintaining biological diversity through the identification of useful resources for local people and their promotion in development programs (Dawson et al. 2009;Talberth and Leopold 2013). ...
Article
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Factors Determining the Use and Cultivation of Moringa oleifera Lam. in the Republic of Benin. Despite its nutritious leaves and considerable economic importance, the agroforestry species Moringa oleifera Lam. is still considered a neglected and underutilized species. To contribute to the development of an effective valorization strategy for M. oleifera, this study identified factors driving its use and cultivation in Benin. To this end, an ethnobotanical survey through individual interviews (n = 801) was performed in 46 localities across biogeographical zones in Benin. Conditional inference tree–based classification models allowed us to identify factors that mostly influence the use, cultivation, and cultivation system of M. oleifera. Awareness, knowledge of the plant biology, gender, cultivation system, and age are factors influencing the use of M. oleifera. Cultivation systems are driven by ethnicity, knowledge of the plant’s biology, and the main socioprofessional activity. Effective valorization of M. oleifera requires awareness rising on its usefulness while providing knowledge on the plant biology.
... The great variability is probably due to various ecological conditions in which the species is grown and the various management practices. Actually, the significant variation in morphological trait found in Southern Benin may be due to ecological conditions, time of leaf harvesting, harvesting frequency and plant density (Agoyi et al., 2015). However, to what extent variations in ecological conditions and farmers' management practices influence morphological traits of the plant parts of M. oleifera, have received little attention. ...
... Through investigations on variability in the species variability was reported in flowering time (from annual type to perennial type) (Raja et al., 2013), tree nature (from deciduous to evergreen), tree shape (from semi spread to upright), and resistance to hairy caterpillar (Mgendi et al., 2011;Raja et al., 2013). Although Moringa shows diversification in many characters and high morphological variability (Ganesan et al., 2014; Agoyi et al., 2015), which may become a resource for its improvement, the major factors that limit productivity are the absence of elite varieties adapted to local conditions and the use of seeds obtained through open pollination from plants in the planted area (Leone et al., 2015). Moringa oleifera being indigenous to India, many ecotypes exist with various morphological traits. ...
... This trend is obviously more observed in areas where the species have been naturalised. For instance, in Southern Benin, significant differences were observed in pods length and diameter; while the species is not widely used and leaves are the most plant part used (Agoyi et al., 2015). Similar trends were recorded in India for the use of edible oil (Vishnu, 1981), vegetable and pickled fruits (Jain, 1981;Sawian et al., 2007) and edible leaves, ûowers, fruits (Bhargava, 1981). ...
Article
Full-text available
Moringa oleifera (Moringaceae) is a medium-size agroforestry tree that originated from south Asia, but has become naturalised in many countries globally. Moringa oleifera has gained importance due to its multipurpose uses and good adaptability to both humid and dry climates. Almost all parts of the plant are used. The species is considered as a neglected and underutilised as its potential is still not well economically known and valued. This review presents the status and factors responsible for underutilisation of this, otherwise important crop as a basis for formulation of viable development strategies of knowledge on taxonomy, distribution, diverse utilisations, nutritional value, socioeconomic importance, morphological and genetic diversity, domestication, propagation and management of M. oleifera. Knowledge gaps, and research and development avenues are suggested and discussed for improved valorisation. To that purpose, articles were searched in Google Scholar, Web of Science and BioMed Central database with relevant keywords on M. oleifera. All the articles found, including reviews and peer-reviewed articles were critically read and analysed for inclusion in this review. Findings revealed that the species is one of the most studied and used species with various uses stretching from food and medicinal uses to water purification, biopesticide and production of biodiesel. Findings also highlight high morphological and genetic diversity of the species, which may become a resource for the conservation and the selection of germplasm. However, many aspects of the species are still waiting for further research. Key Words: Domestication, economy, genetic resources, Moringa oleifera, nutrition value
... (ii) farmers' preferences and prioritisation (e.g., [74,118,129,211,285,286,405,406,414,415]); and (iii) combined literature review and prioritization schemes [416]. ...
... This may be indicative of how socio-economic factors including gender may influence the choices and decisions of farmers with regard to agroforestry tree cultivation and domestication, which ought to be considered in agroforestry programmes. Moreover, Moringa oleifera appears to be a promising tree for domestication in Benin with an adoption rate of up to 97% in the southern part of the country, where row planting of species was found to be preferred [414]. ...
Article
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This paper follows the transition from ethnobotany to a deeper scientific understanding of the food and medicinal properties of African agroforestry tree products as inputs into the start of domestication activities. It progresses on to the integration of these indigenous trees as new crops within diversified farming systems for multiple social, economic and environmental benefits. From its advent in the 1990s, the domestication of indigenous food and non-food tree species has become a global programme with a strong African focus. This review of progress in the third decade is restricted to progress in Africa, where multi-disciplinary research on over 59 species has been reported in 759 research papers in 318 science publications by scientists from over 833 research teams in 70 countries around the world (532 in Africa). The review spans 23 research topics presenting the recent research literature for tree species of high priority across the continent, as well as that in each of the four main ecological regions: the humid zone of West and Central Africa; the Sahel and North Africa; the East African highlands and drylands; and the woody savannas of Southern Africa. The main areas of growth have been the nutritional/medicinal value of non-timber forest products; the evaluation of the state of natural resources and their importance to local people; and the characterization of useful traits. However, the testing of putative cultivars; the implementation of participatory principles; the protection of traditional knowledge and intellectual property rights; and the selection of elite trees and ideotypes remain under-researched. To the probable detriment of the upscaling and impact in tropical agriculture, there has been, at the international level, a move away from decentralized, community-based tree domestication towards a laboratory-based, centralized approach. However, the rapid uptake of research by university departments and national agricultural research centres in Africa indicates a recognition of the importance of the indigenous crops for both the livelihoods of rural communities and the revitalization and enhanced outputs from agriculture in Africa, especially in West Africa. Thus, on a continental scale, there has been an uptake of research with policy relevance for the integration of indigenous trees in agroecosystems and their importance for the attainment of the UN Sustainable Development Goals. To progress this in the fourth decade, there will need to be a dedicated Centre in Africa to test and develop cultivars of indigenous crops. Finally, this review underpins a holistic approach to mitigating climate change, as well as other big global issues such as hunger, poverty and loss of wildlife habitat by reaping the benefits, or ‘profits’, from investment in the five forms of Capital, described as ‘land maxing’. However, policy and decision makers are not yet recognizing the potential for holistic and transformational adoption of these new indigenous food crop opportunities for African agriculture. Is ‘political will’ the missing sixth capital for sustainable development?
... Daun kelor mengandung berbagai macam asam amino, antara lain asam amino aspartat, glutamat, alanin, valin, leusin, isoleusin, histidin, lisin, arginin, venilalanin, triftopan, sistein, dan metionin (Simbolan et al., 2007). Ekstrak daun kelor memiliki aktivitas antioksidan yang dikenal sebagai penangkal radikal bebas dan memberikan perlindungan yang signifikan terhadap kerusakan oksidatif, sehingga daun kelor dapat digunakan sebagai imbuhan pakan ternak (Agoyi et al., 2015). Daun kelor selain menjadi sumber vitamin dan asam amino yang baik, juga digunakan dibidang medis sebagai obat (Banjo, 2012). ...
Article
Daun kelor (Moringa oleifera Lam.) mengandung antioksidan, vitamin C, vitamin A, kalsium, protein, dan berbagai macam asam amino. Semua kandungan nutrien tersebut berperan penting dalam menunjang produktivitas itik pengging, baik daging maupun organ dalam. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menganalisis pengaruh imbuhan tepung daun kelor pada pakan terhadap bobot organ dalam dan lemak abdominal itik pengging. Penelitian menggunakan Rancangan Acak Lengkap (RAL) yang terdiri atas 5 perlakuan dengan 3 kali ulangan, yaitu kelompok kontrol dan perlakuan pakan basal yang diberi suplemen tepung daun kelor 2,5; 5; 7,5 dan 10%. Pemberian pakan dan minum dilakukan secara ad libitum. Data dianalisis dengan pola distribusi normal dan homogenitas data, kemudian untuk mengetahui perbedaan antarkelompok, data dianalisis dengan ANOVA-satu arah. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa imbuhan suplemen tepung daun kelor pada pakan itik pengging tidak berpengaruh signifikan (P>0,05) terhadap bobot jantung, limpa, lambung, dan lemak abdominal itik pengging. Kesimpulan dari penelitin ini adalah imbuhan tepung daun kelor pada pakan tidak meningkatkan bobot jantung, limpa, dan lambung, serta tidak menurunkan lemak abdominal itik pengging. Kata kunci: daun kelor, jantung, limpa, lambung, lemak abdominal, itik pengging.
Chapter
Basic research advances in plant genetics and crop breeding methods have been translated into crop improvement and contributed to enhance food security and agricultural sustainability. Such impact has also been witnessed in Moringa and this chapter provides an account of cultivars that have been developed using different conventional breeding methods and strategies. Further, it also provides an overview of available Moringa ecotypes in India and the ways and means to explore these valuable genetic resources for further genetic improvement.
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Abstract For decades, plant species, particularly those used as non-tree forest products (NTFPs), have been known to play an important role in the livelihood of local populations, particularly in rural Africa. The present study investigated the uses of various parts of Moringa oleifera Lam. in southern Benin. It aimed at capturing indigenous knowledge on the uses of M. oleiferaas a preliminary step toward future efforts to devise better management options of this plant species. An ethnobotanical survey was carried out in southern Benin (Guineo-Congolese zone) with a sample of 439 informants (201 women and 238 men) belonging to Fon, Waci, Xwla, Sahouè, Djerma, Kotafon, Aïzo, Goun, and Yoruba socio-cultural groups. It was found that M. oleiferais known in South Benin under different local names depending on the socio-cultural group. Leaves were the most used part followed by roots, bark, seeds, and pods. Leaves are eaten as a vegetable and also used for medicinal purposes. They are consumed fresh or dried and reduced to powder. Different parts of M. oleiferaare used to treat up to 34 diseases according to the local populations. Leaves are also used as fodder for pigs, sheep, and rabbits. The seeds are used to carry out rites for blessing and attracting customers. The study showed that M. oleiferaplays an important role in rural areas of South Benin where it is used as a nutritional and medicinal plant. Local populations could benefit by further adoption of the species in agroforestry systems.
Article
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Moringa oleifera is a miracle tree that can be used in multiple ways, including as foodstuff , livestock fodder, a plant growth enhancer, or a water purifi er. While the stem cutting method is easy and successful for tree propagation, the recent introduction of moringa as a fi eld crop for biomass production requires propagation through seeds. Th e germination of stored moringa seeds is a problem of great concern that may be overcome by employing seed priming techniques. A pot study was conducted to explore the potential of seed priming in moringa. Seeds were subjected to hydropriming, matripriming, and priming with moringa leaf extract (MLE) for 8, 16, and 24 h. Most of the priming strategies enhanced the emergence rate, synchronized the emergence, and improved seedling vigor. However, hydropriming (8 h) was more eff ective in improving emergence, shoot vigor, and chlorophyll b contents, while MLE priming (8 h) produced vigorous roots and increased the chlorophyll a and mineral contents of moringa leaves. Both of these priming sources are natural, cheap, environmentally friendly, and easily adaptable for farmers to grow Moringa oleifera from seed.
Article
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Amongst naturally occurring plant growth stimulants, moringa (Moringa oleifera Lam.) has attained enormous attention being rich in cytokinin, antioxidants and macro–micro nutrients in its leaves. In this study, potential of foliar applied moringa leaf extract (MLE; 30 times diluted), benzyl amino purine (BAP; 50 mg L−1) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2; 120 μM) at tillering, jointing, booting and heading growth stages was evaluated to induce salt resistance in wheat. Water spray treatment was taken as control. Wheat cv. Sehar-2006 was grown under normal (4 dS m−1), medium (8 dS m−1) and high (12 dS m−1) soil saline conditions. Application of these stimulants decreased the shoot Na+ and Cl− contents, with simultaneous increase in shoot K+ contents. Maximum shoot K+ (48.62 %) contents were recorded with MLE application under high salinity. Activities of leaf antioxidants viz. superoxide dismutase, peroxidase and contents of total soluble phenolics were increased at medium salinity level; whereas ascorbate contents were also improved by MLE application at high salinity level. However, maximum increase in leaf total soluble protein (35.9 %) was observed with BAP application at medium salinity. The shoot length, shoot and root dry weights were decreased with increase in level of salt stress. Grain weight (18.5 %) and kernel yield (18.5 %) were also improved by MLE application under saline and normal conditions than other stimulators used. In conclusion, foliar applied moringa leaf extract could ameliorate salinity-induced adverse effects by activation of antioxidant defense system and decrease in accumulation of Na+ and Cl− into shoots under moderate saline conditions.
Article
Influence of Moringa (Moringa oleifera) leaf extracts on germination and seedling survival of three popularly consumed legumes; beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.), groundnut (Arachis hypogea L.) and cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.) was investigated. Extracts from Moringa leaves forced beans to germinate early and increased duration to first germination by 100%. Extract from Moringa increased germination percentage of cowpea by 4%, while reduced germination of groundnut seed by 4%. Moringa extract lowered seedling survival by 3.7% each of beans and cowpea and 10% in groundnut. Moringa extract increased radical length by 4% in beans, but reduced radicle length of cowpea by 24% and by 21% in groundnut. These extracts increased hypocotyl length by 16.6% in groundnut, but reduced hypocotyl length by 14% in cowpea, while it did not affect hypocotyl length in beans. Moringa extract reduced development of seed hypocotyls by 4% in beans, 4.4% in cowpea and 66.6% in groundnut. Application of Moringa leaf extracts to legume seeds will delay crop emergence and reduce root length and field survival of legume crops.
Article
An experiment was conducted in Nicaragua to determine the effect of feeding different levels of foliage from Moringa oleifera Lam (synonym: Moringa pterygosperma Gaertner) to dairy cows on intake, digestibility, milk production and milk composition. The treatments were: Brachiaria brizantha hay ad libitum, either unsupplemented or supplemented with 2 kg or 3 kg of Moringa on a dry matter (DM) basis. Six Bos indicus cows of the Creole Reyna breed, with a mean body weight of 394 F 24 kg were used in a replicated 3 Â 3 Latin square design. Supplementation with Moringa increased (P b 0.05) DM intake from 8.5 to 10.2 and 11.0 kg DM day À 1 and milk production from 3.1 to 4.9 and 5.1 kg day À 1 for B. brizantha hay only and supplementation with 2 kg and 3 kg DM of Moringa, respectively. Milk fat, total solids and crude protein and organoleptic characteristics, smell, taste and colour, were not significantly different between the diets. Apparent digestibility coefficients of DM, OM, CP, NDF and ADF increased (P b 0.05) in the diets supplemented with Moringa compared with B. brizantha hay alone. The results showed that the inclusion of Moringa as a protein supplement to low quality diets improved DM intake and digestibility of the diet and increased milk production but did not affect milk composition. D 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Article
The horseradish tree (Moringa pterygosperma,) is being introduced into drought-ridden lands to augment the local food and fodder supply. The tree grows up to 5 m per year. The foliage is high in calcium and has half the oxalates of amaranth. Seeds yield edible oil and the seed meal is used as fertilizer and as a coagulant to clarify turbid water. The philanthropic center, ECHO (Educational Concerns for Hunger Organization), North Fort Myers, Florida, receives many requests for seeds. A missionary in Mali wrote: “The seeds you sent arrived during the worst year of 14 years of dry weather. Only the moringa survived, and they have flourished. ”Another seed shipment resulted, after harvesting a crop, in 25 000 trees being planted by university students and faculty, around laborers’ houses in Maranhao, Brazil. The tree is not limited to tropical lowlands, but thrives at elevations of 800-1200 m in protected mountain areas of southern Mexico. The long-range effects of ingesting various parts of the tree as food or folkmedicine need study. Attention should be given to horticultural improvement, perhaps through hybridization with one or more related species now being compared with M. pterygosperma in India and Africa.
West Africa) Ethnobotany Research and Applications
  • Benin
Benin (West Africa). Ethnobotany Research and Applications 12, 551-560.