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Impact of climate on seed morphology and plant growth of Caesalpinia bonduc L. in West Africa International Journal of Agronomy and Agricultural Research (IJAAR)

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Caesalpinia bonduc L. is an important medicinal plant threatened by overexploitation. In the present study, the impact of climate on seed morphology, germination capacity, seedling and plant growth of C. bonduc were evaluated. A total of 2000 seeds were collected in Sudanian and Guinean climate zones of Africa and their length, width, thickness, weight and color were recorded. A hierarchical classification and canonical discriminant analysis were applied to the above traits of seeds from the different climatic zones. An analysis of variance with repeated measures was applied to seeds morphotypes identified by the hierarchical classification to test for the effect of these morphotypes on seed germination, seedling and plant growth. Hierarchical classification helped to identify four seed morphotypes. Canonical discriminant analysis performed on these morphotypes revealed highly significant differences. Morphotypes 1 and 3 comprised green seeds mainly from Sudanian zone while morphotypes 2 and 4 gathered grey seeds mainly from Guinean zone. Morphotype 3 had the longest seeds while the shortest seeds were from morphotype 1. The heaviest seeds were found in morphotype 4 whereas the lightest ones were from morphotype 1. Seeds of morphotype 4 were the thickest and widest, while the slimmest and most narrow ones were grouped in morphotype 1. Moprhotype 3, consisting of large green seeds mainly from Sudanian zone, was superior in terms of seedling and plant growth among all morphotypes and should be the best choice for planting purposes of the species.
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RESEARCH PAPER OPEN ACCESS
Impact of climate on seed morphology and plant growth of
Caesalpinia bonduc
L. in West Africa
Elie A. Padonou1*, Oscar D. Ahossou1, Farris O.Y. Okou1, Achille E. Assogbadjo1,
Romain Glèlè Kakaï2, Anne Mette Lykke3, Brice Sinsin1
1Laboratory of Applied Ecology, University of Abomey-Calavi, Cotonou, Benin
2Laboratory of Biomathematics and Forest Estimations, University of Abomey-Calavi, Cotonou, Benin
3Department of Bioscience, Aarhus University, Silkeborg, Denmark
Article published on March 21, 2015
Key words: Sudanian and Guinean climate zones, Hierarchical classification, Canonical discriminant analysis,
Morphotypes.
Abstract
Caesalpinia bonduc L. is an important medicinal plant threatened by overexploitation. In the present study, the
impact of climate on seed morphology, germination capacity, seedling and plant growth of C. bonduc were
evaluated. A total of 2000 seeds were collected in Sudanian and Guinean climate zones of Africa and their length,
width, thickness, weight and color were recorded. A hierarchical classification and canonical discriminant
analysis were applied to the above traits of seeds from the different climatic zones. An analysis of variance with
repeated measures was applied to seeds morphotypes identified by the hierarchical classification to test for the
effect of these morphotypes on seed germination, seedling and plant growth. Hierarchical classification helped to
identify four seed morphotypes. Canonical discriminant analysis performed on these morphotypes revealed
highly significant differences. Morphotypes 1 and 3 comprised green seeds mainly from Sudanian zone while
morphotypes 2 and 4 gathered grey seeds mainly from Guinean zone. Morphotype 3 had the longest seeds while
the shortest seeds were from morphotype 1. The heaviest seeds were found in morphotype 4 whereas the lightest
ones were from morphotype 1. Seeds of morphotype 4 were the thickest and widest, while the slimmest and most
narrow ones were grouped in morphotype 1. Moprhotype 3, consisting of large green seeds mainly from Sudanian
zone, was superior in terms of seedling and plant growth among all morphotypes and should be the best choice
for planting purposes of the species.
* Corresponding Author: Elie A. Padonou padonouelie@yahoo.fr
International Journal of Agronomy and Agricultural Research (IJAAR)
ISSN: 2223-7054 (Print) 2225-3610 (Online)
http://www.innspub.net
Vol. 6, No. 3, p. 86-96, 2015
International Journal of Agronomy and Agricultural Research (IJAAR)
ISSN: 2223-7054 (Print) 2225-3610 (Online)
http://www.innspub.net
Vol. 5, No. 1, p. 14-22, 2014
Padonou et al.
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87
Introduction
Caesalpinia bonduc L. is an important medicinal
plant widely distributed throughout the tropical and
subtropical regions of the world (Anonymous, 1956;
Kapoor, 1990). Different parts of the plant are used to
treat several diseases (Jain et al., 1992; Nandkarni,
1976; Jethmalani et al., 1966), e.g. to ease childbirth,
to treat burns and also for cultural practices like
games, weddings and the ritual in Benin
(Assogbadjo et al., 2011). Different parts of the plant
have been found to have a variety of pharmacological
activities (Simin et al., 2001; Kannur et al., 2006;
Datté et al., 2004; Rastogi et al., 1996). The roots of
the plant are more intensively used than the leaves
and seed, which cause a stress to exploited
populations; moreover, there is low genetic diversity
within the species which accentuates a need for
conservation (Assogbadjo et al., 2012).
The medicinal and sociocultural importance of the
species had led to an overexploitation making it a rare
and endangered species (Harden, 2002), and in
Benin C. bonduc has been reported to be extinct in
the wild, although it can be found in home gardens
from the Guinean zone to the Sudanian zone
(Adomou, 2005; Assogbadjo et al., 2012).
Few researches have addressed the conservation and
domestication of C. bonduc in Benin. The existing
results were only related to the contribution of ethnic
migrations on the propagation and persistence of the
species and its morphological variability between
climate zones (Assogbadjo et al 2012); the ethnic
differences in use value and use patterns of the
species (Assogbadjo et al 2011); and the germination
technique of the seeds of the species (Hessou, 2009).
Little is known about the morphological variation
among seeds of C. bonduc in different climate zones
although the local environment is known to shape
morphological trait of seed (Salazar and Quesada,
1987; Assogbadjo et al., 2005; 2006). Moreover, the
link between seed morphology, seed germination, and
seedling and plant growth of C. bonduc were not yet
established while many studies revealed a link
between seed morphology, germination and plant
growth (Assogbadjo et al., 2006 Fandohan et al.,
2010; Padonou et al., 2013, 2014). Thus the present
study aims to contribute to the conservation and
domestication of C. bonduc by (i) assessing the level
of natural variation in seed morphology related to the
climatic zones in order to identify C. bonduc
morphotypes based on seed characteristics (ii)
assessing the germination and plant growth ability of
the identified morphotypes in order to determine the
suitable morphotype and climate zone for
propagation of C. bonduc.
Materials and methods
Study area
Seeds were collected in the Sudanian and Guinean
climatic zones of Benin (Fig. 1).
Figure 1. Climate zones of Benin
The Sudanian zone is located between 9°45' and
12°25' N, while the Guinean zone is located between
6°25' and 7°30' N. The mean annual rainfall in the
Sudanian zone is often less than 1000 mm and the
relative humidity vary from 18 to 99% (highest in
August). The temperature varies from 24 to 31°C. The
Sudanian zone has hydromorphic, well-drained soils
and lithosols. The vegetation in this zone is composed
mainly of savannas with trees of smaller size. In the
Guinean zone, the rainfall is bimodal with a mean
annual rainfall of 1200 mm. The mean annual
Padonou et al.
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temperature varies between 25 and 29°C and the
relative humidity ranges from 69 to 97%. The soils are
either deep ferralitic, or rich in clay, humus and
minerals. The vegetation in this zone is mainly dense
semi-deciduous forest.
Identification of C. bonduc morphotypes and
differences between the climate zones according to
seed morphology
A total of 100 mature trees of C. bonduc, located at
least 100 m from each other, in order to avoid
narrowing-down the genetic base due to relatedness
or inbreeding, were sampled in each climatic zone, as
recommended by Turnbull (1975). A total of 1000
seeds were collected at random in each climatic zone.
The collected seeds were kept under ambient
temperature conditions for 10 days prior to sowing.
The length, width, and thickness of each seed were
measured using electronic calipers during these 10
days. The weight of each seed was measured using
electronic balance with 0.0001 g sensitivity. The color
of the dry seeds was determined using the standard
color chart published by the Royal Horticulture
Society (1966). Color was coded by 1 if green and 0 if
grey. Seed were subjected to a viability test using the
flotation method in which those seeds that floated on
water after 24 hours of soaking were considered to be
non-viable and were discarded.
The seed length, width, thickness, weight and color
data were subjected to Ascending Hierarchical
Classification (AHC) using Ward agglomerative
method and Euclidian distance using SAS 9.2
statistical software (SAS, 2008). Mahalanobis
distance was used to test the distance between pairs
of the morphotypes. Canonical discriminant analysis
was performed on the morphotypes identified from
the AHC in order to validate and test the differences
between the morphotypes. The assumptions of the
canonical discriminant analysis were met (the within-
group covariance structure was homogeneous for all
morphotypes and data within the morphotypes had
multivariate normal distributions). The morphotypes
were also described according to their differences,
using canonical discriminant axes defined by seed
morphology. The same analysis was also performed to
test and describe the differences between the climate
zones according to seed morphology.
Germination, seedling and plant growth of C.
bonduc seeds according to the morphotypes
For germination tests on C. bonduc seeds and
measurement on seedling and plant growth, a nursery
experiment was carried out in January 2013 at the
University of Abomey-Calavi, Benin (6°45’N; 2°35’ E
in the Guinean climatic zone). Four morphotypes of
seeds were identified from the hierarchical
classification. For each morphotype, 90 seeds were
sown; one in each pot (5.5 cm × 18 cm) made from a
polythene bag and filled with forest soil. The seeds
were sown at an equal depth and the pots were
watered equally twice daily (morning and evening)
throughout the duration of the experiment. The
experimental units were arranged in a randomized
complete block design in a nursery with three
replicates of 30 pots per each of the four
morphotypes. The experimental units were kept in a
weaning shed to reduce the rate of evaporation. The
number of seeds of each morphotype that germinated
was recorded daily over a 30 days period. At the end
of this period collar diameter, stem height and
number of leaves were measured weekly on five
seedlings selected at random for each morphotype
and from each replicate block for 45 days.
The five seedlings measured per morphotype and
replicate were planted in the field following the same
design and measured during 180 days. The collar
diameter, stem height and the number of leaves were
measured monthly on two plant select at random for
each morphotype per replicate block for 180 days.
The germination rate of each morphotype was
calculated each day over 30 days and the data were
used to test the effects of time and morphotype on the
germination of C. bonduc seeds using a mixed model
ANOVA with repeated measures in SAS software
(SAS, 2008). In this model, the factor “block” was
considered to be random, whereas the factor
morphotype” was considered to be fixed. No data
transformation on germination percentages was
Padonou et al.
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needed because normality and homoscedasticity
assumptions were met using the Ryan-Joiner test of
normality, and the Levene test for homogeneity of
variances (Glèlè Kakaï et al., 2006). The effects of
morphotype on seedling and plant growth were
assessed using the same statistical methods.
Results
Identification of C. bonduc morphotypes
Four morphotypes were identified from the
hierarchical classification accounting for 58% of the
information. The results of canonical discriminant
analysis performed on the morphotypes of C. bonduc
seeds showed that Mahalanobis distances between
pairs of the four identified morphotypes were all
highly significant (p 0.001).
Table 1. Standardized canonical coefficients (SCC)
and correlation coefficients between canonical axes
(Can 1, Can 2) and the morphological traits of C.
bonduc seed according to the morphotypes.
Variable
Can 1
Can 2
rz
SCC
rz
Length
0.06
0.79
0.90
Width
-0.09
0.56
0.89
Thickness
-0.16
0.28
0.71
Weight
-0.20
0.34
0.85
Colour
0.99
0.12
0.07
zSimple correlation between each morphological traits and its respective
canonical axes
The morphotypes identified were thus highly
significantly different according to morphological
traits of C. bonduc seed. Other results from canonical
discriminant analysis performed on individuals of the
four morphotypes revealed that the first two axes
were highly significant (P 0.001) and explained
80% of the variations between morphotypes (Fig. 2).
The standardized canonical coefficients and the
correlation coefficients between the two canonical
axes and the morphological traits of C. bonduc seed
(Table 1) indicated that the first axis (Can 1) described
91% of the variation discriminated between
morphotypes according to seed color. The second axis
(Can 2) describing 9% of the variation discriminated
between morphotypes according to the length, width,
thickness and weight of the seed. On this axis, heavy
seeds were often long, wide and thick.
Seeds from morphotypes 1 and 3 were green, while
seeds from morphotypes 2 and 4 were grey. The
heavy, long, wide and thick seeds were from
morphotype 3 and 4 while the small seeds were from
morphotypes 1 and 2. A more detailed description of
each morphotype is provided in Table 2. A deep
analysis of our data indicated that each morphotype
identified, was composed of seeds from the two
climate zones. However, seeds of morphotype 1 and 3
came mainly from the Sudanian zone (56% and 63%,
respectively), while morphotype 2 and 4 seeds were
mainly from the Guinean zone (58% and 88%
respectively). Morphotype 3 had the longest seeds
(mean length 19.29 mm), while the shortest seed were
from morphotype 1 (mean length 17.65 mm). The
heaviest seeds were found in morphotype 4 (mean
weight 2.85 g), whereas the lightest ones were from
morphotype 1 (mean weight 1.95 g). With regard to
seed thickness, seed of morphotype 4 were the
thickest (mean thickness 15.27 mm), while
morphotype 1 seed were the thinnest (mean thickness
13.46 mm).
Table 2. Mean values and standard deviations of the morphometric traits of four morphotypes of C. bonduc seed.
Traits
Morphotype 1
Morphotype 2
Morphotype 3
Morphotype 4
Guinean zone
Sudanian zone
m
s
m
s
m
s
m
s
m
s
m s
Guinean zone (%)
44
-
58
-
37
-
88
-
-
-
-
-
Sudanian zone (%)
56
-
42
-
63
-
12
-
-
-
-
-
Length (mm)
17.7
0.76
17.89
0.75
19.29
0.6
19.28
0.45
18.3
0.92
18.4
1.09
Width (mm)
15.8
0.99
16.52
1.14
18.04
0.7
18.64
0.65
16.9
1.47
16.9
1.32
Thickness (mm)
13.5
0.79
14.05
0.8
14.75
0.9
15.27
0.75
14.2
1
14.1
1.03
Weight (g)
1.95
0.26
2.2
0.33
2.52
0.3
2.85
0.17
2.29
0.45
2.24
0.34
Colour
Green
Grey
Green
Grey
Grey
Green
All values are means +/- SD (n = 2000)
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Differences between the climate zones according to
seed morphology
The results of canonical discriminant analysis
performed on the seed morphology of C. bonduc
according to the climatic zones showed that
Mahalanobis distance between the two climate zones
was highly significant (p 0.001). Seed morphology
of C. bonduc was thus highly significantly different
according the climate zones.
Table 3. Standardized canonical coefficients (SCC)
and correlation coefficients between canonical axes
(Can 1) and the morphological traits of C. bonduc
seed according to climate zones.
Variable
Can 1
SCC
rz
Length
0.39
0.24
Width
-0.01
-0.03
Thickness
0.13
-0.09
Weight
-0.49
-0.25
Colour
0.88
0.94
zSimple correlation between each morphological traits and its respective
canonical axes
Other results from canonical discriminant analysis
performed on individuals of the seeds revealed that
the first axe was highly significant (P 0.001) and
explained 100% of the variations between the climate
zones (Fig. 2). The standardized canonical coefficients
and the correlation coefficients between the canonical
axe and the morphological traits of C. bonduc seed
(Table 3) indicated that the first axis (Can 1)
describing discriminated between morphotypes
according to seed color. Seeds from the Guinean zone
were mostly grey while those from Sudanian zone
were mostly green (Table 2). Seeds length varied from
18.38 mm in Sudanian zone to 18.26 mm in Guinean
zone. The mean width of the seeds was 16.91 mm in
Guinean zone and 16.88 mm in Sudanian zone. The
mean tick of seeds from Guinean zone was 14.18 mm
while it was 14.13 mm in Sudanian zone. The weight
of the seeds varied from 2.29 g in Guinean zone to
2.24 g in Sudanian zone.
Germination ability of C. bonduc seeds according to
morphotype
The germination ability of each morphotype varied in time
between sowing and 30 days after sowing (Table 4).
Table 4. ANOVA with repeated measures related to
the germination ability of the four morphotypes of C.
bonduc seed
Source
DF
Type
III SS
Mean
Square
F-value
Time (T)
5
1952.31
390.46
3400.81***
Block (B)
2
74.23
37.11
45.55ns
T x B
10
23.82
2.38
20.75ns
Morphotype
(M)
3
20.79
6.93
8.51***
T x M
15
22.65
1.51
13.15***
B x M
6
44.28
7.38
9.06ns
T x B x M
30
24.77
0.83
7.19***
DF, degree of freedom; Type III SS, Ty pe III Sum of Squares; F-value, Fisher
value; ns, non-significant at P ≥ 0.05; ***, significant at P ≤ 0.001.
Table 5. ANOVA with repeated measures related to seedling growth on collar diameters, heights and number of
leaves in four morphotypes of C. bonduc seed.
Collar diameter
Height
Number of leaves
Source
DF
Mean Square
F-value
Mean Square
F-value
Mean Square
F-value
Time (T)
8
3.23
58.48***
278.69
555.15***
24.00
75.16***
Block (B)
2
2.50
2.14ns
1.38
1.24ns
6.17
0.57ns
T x B
16
0.04
0.78ns
0.63
1.27ns
0.31
0.98ns
Morphotype (M)
3
2.66
2.27ns
9.41
8.41**
0.38
0.04ns
T x M
24
0.06
1.13ns
0.61
1.23ns
0.16
0.51ns
B x M
6
0.10
0.09ns
4.30
3.85*
14.16
1.30ns
T x B x M
48
0.03
0.60ns
0.63
1.27ns
0.28
0.89ns
DF, degree of freedom; F-value, Fisher value, ns, non-significant at P ≥ 0.05; *, significant at P ≤ 0.05; **, significant at P ≤ 0.01; ***, significant at P ≤ 0.001.
The blocking factor and the two ways interactions
with the block were non-significant, indicating
homogeneity of the environmental characteristics
between blocks. Germination of the seeds started 5
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days after sowing and reached their maximum in 20
days (Fig. 2). The germination rate varied
significantly in time, between morphotypes, between
morphotypes in time and between block and
morphotypes in time. The percentage of germination
varied from 80% (morphotype 2 and 4) to 88%
(morphotype 1) after 30 days.
C. bonduc seedling growth according to morphotype
No difference was observed between morphotypes in
number of leaves and collar diameter, while the
growth in height differed between morphotypes
(Table 5). The blocking factor and all its interactions
were non-significant indicating homogeneity of the
environmental characteristics between blocks.
Morphotypes seedling growth in terms of collar
diameter, height and number of leaves varied
between the end of germination (30 days after
sowing) and 45 days later (Fig. 4).
Plant growth of C. bonduc according to the
morphotypes
There are significant differences in plant growth
between morphtypes (Table 6).
Table 6. ANOVA with repeated measures related to plant growth on collar diameters, stem heights and number
of leaves in the four morphotypes of C. bonduc seed.
Collar diameter
Height
Number of leaves
Source
DF
Mean
Square
F-value
Mean
Square
F-value
Mean
Square
F-value
Time (T)
5
156.63
42.28***
2504.47
30.68***
343.61
18.78***
Block (B)
2
6.38
12.19*
20.04
4.83*
9.36
0.62ns
T x B
10
0.70
0.19ns
25.46
0.31ns
10.30
0.56ns
Morphotype (M)
3
22.52
42.98***
1124.23
24.70***
34.35
8.34**
T x M
15
1.74
0.47ns
197.55
2.42**
34.35
1.88*
B x M
6
1.95
3.74ns
112.18
2.46ns
50.97
3.40*
T x B x M
30
0.70
0.19ns
64.95
0.80ns
14.89
0.81ns
DF, degree of freedom; F-value, Fisher value; ns: non-significant at P ≥ 0.05; *, significant at P ≤ 0.05; **, significant at P ≤ 0.01; ***, significant at P ≤ 0.001.
Plants of morphotype 3 have the highest values of
collar diameter and height. The highest values of the
number of leaves were observed with morphotype 4,
followed by morphtype 3 (Figure 5). The blocking
factor and all its interactions were non-significant,
indicating homogeneity of the environmental
characteristics between blocks. Growth in terms of
collar diameter, height and number of leaves varied
between the end of seedling period and six months
later for all four morphotypes (Figure 5).
Figure 2. Projection of the four morphotypes of C. bonduc seed on the canonical
axes defined by seed morphology. Can 1 discriminated between morph otypes
according to seed color. Can 2 di scriminated between morphotypes according to
the length, width, thickness and weight of the seed
Figure 3. Cumulative germination rates of C. bonduc seed
according to morphotype.
Padonou et al.
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Discussion
Morphological variation in C. bonduc seed
C. bonduc showed variation concerning
morphological seed traits. Four morphotypes of seed
were significantly distinct according to some of their
morphological traits. Seed of morphotypes 3 and 4
were heaviest, longest, widest and thickest, in
contrast to morphotypes 1 and 2 which were smaller.
This differentiation confirmed with canonical
discriminate analysis confirmed the statement that
tropical plant species often have important
intraspecific variation of seed traits (Foster, 1986;
Khan et al., 1999, 2002; Khan and Uma, 2001; Khan,
2004). The results corroborated with recent studies
on other species such as Jatropha curcas (Ginwal et
al., 2005; Padonou et al., 2014), Afzelia africana
(Padonou et al., 2013) Tamarindus indica
(Fandohan, 2010) and Prunus jenkinsii (Upadhaya,
2007). Indeed, seeds from Guinean zone were mostly
grey and presented more compact morphological
traits (shortest, thickest, widest, and heaviest) than
those from Sudanian climatic zone. However, none of
the four morphotypes had characteristics which fitted
perfectly those of Guinean or Sudanian seed traits.
Thus the overall environmental factors cannot explain
the substantial morphological variation found within
populations (Assogbadjo et al., 2012). These results
are consistent with a recent study in Benin on the
morphological and genetic diversity of C. bonduc
trees, which reported that the species is characterized
by a high morphological variation among individuals
of the same populations, while a much lower degree
of such variation were observed among the
populations and climatic zones (Assogbadjo et al.,
2012). According to Mathur et al. (1984), the
morphological difference between seeds could be of
genetic origin, due to the adaptive strategies of
species to their environment. But Assogbadjo et al.
Figure 4. Trends in seedling traits over time (in days) following
germination in C. bonduc based on collar diameter (Panel a), height (Panel
b) and leaves (Panel c) according to seed morphotype.
Figure 5. Trends in plant traits over time (in days) following
seedling growth in C. bonduc based on collar diameter (Pan el a),
height (Panel b) and leaves (Panel c) according to seed morphotype.
Padonou et al.
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93
(2012) revealed that C. Bonduc is characterized by a
very low genetic diversity within populations. The
phenotypic plasticity of the species in response to
micro habitat factors, and the difference of age of
targeted individuals can explain the observed
differences of seed morphology (Heaton et al., 1999;
Assogbadjo et al., 2005; Assogbadjo et al., 2012).
Seed germination, seedling and plant growth in C.
bonduc seed
This difference in germinataion rate could be
explained by morphology, which is an important
factor influencing the germination rate. Many reports
existed on the conflicting relationships between the
variation in seed weight and germination behaviour.
For instance, large seeds may germinate at higher
percentages than small seeds (Tripathi and Khan,
1990; Bhuyan and Khan, 2000; Khan and Uma,
2001), and small seeds may germinate at higher
percentages than large seeds (Marshell, 1986), or
germination may be independent of seed size (Gross
and Kromer, 1986; Perez-Garcia et al., 1995). Since
morphotype 1 is the lightest and morphotype 4 is the
heaviest, we could conclude that our data revealed an
independent relationship between germination and
seed mass. Beside the main factor which
discriminated these two groups, and could explain the
difference observed, is the color of the coat. Indeed
morphotypes 1 and 3 were green while the two others
had a grey coat. Similar results were obtained by Mavi
(2010) who revealed that the seed coat color of
Crimson sweet seeds could explain the differences of
seed quality. Moreover, the grey coat color was
mainly characteristic of seeds from Guinean climatic
zone while green coat indicated seeds collected from
Sudanian. But these hypotheses need additional
research to test. On one hand, for Crimson sweet
seeds, the seeds color (brown) was coupled with high
seeds mass, to explain good germination rate. But in
our case, seed size do not influence germination
percentage.
As far as seedling and plant growth concern, seeds of
morphotype 3 confirmed their vigour and quality.
Indeed, these seeds germinated maximally and had
the greatest collar diameter of seedling and the
greatest collar diameter, height and number of leaves
of plant. We could suggest that seed mass could
explain observed performance of morphotype 3.
Many authors reported that heavier seeds possess
large reserves of nutritive substances available, which
confer an advantage to their seedlings for survival and
growth (Tripathi and Khan, 1990; Ke and Werger,
1999; Khan et al., 1999, 2002; Khan and Uma, 2001).
This advantage is a good start which remains during
plant growth phase. Nevertheless bad performance of
seeds of morphotype 4, which were heavy seeds too,
supposed that good germination percentage of C.
bonduc seeds, influenced juvenile and plant growth
phase later.
Conclusion
The study revealed that considerable variation exists
in C. bonduc populations with respect to seed
morphology. Except seed color which varied from
grey in Guinean zone to green in Sudanian zone, there
were no significant differences between the two
climatic zones on the others traits. Seed germination
was not significantly related to seed morphology.
Nevertheless, seedling and plant growth were
influenced by seed morphology. Moprhotype 3, which
consists of large green seeds mostly from the
Sudanian zone is superior in terms of seedling and
plant and should be the best choice for planting
purposes.
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... In Morocco, 12 promising genotypes of A. spinosa have been selected from a group of 52 candidate genotypes based on fruit density and kernel yield to address the specific environmental conditions in the country [432]. Although it is not known how well the selected elite trees and ideotypes will perform under a wider set of field conditions, the study provides useful information for consideration under different conditions prior to the commencement of full scale agroforestry programmes [433]. ...
... Vegetative propagation is used to capture elite phenotypes as putative cultivars and has been evaluated in a number of important tree species in the region, including Prosopis africana [433], Argania spinosa [435,436], B. aegyptiaca [437,438], A. digitata [76] and V. paradoxa [136]. For instance, in Niger, Prosopis africana has been found to be amenable to air layering with no significant differences between the diameter classes and between the positions, although the success rate was low (28% after 4 months) [439]. ...
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This paper follows the transition from ethnobotany to a deeper scientific understanding of the food and medicinal properties of African agroforestry tree products as inputs into the start of domestication activities. It progresses on to the integration of these indigenous trees as new crops within diversified farming systems for multiple social, economic and environmental benefits. From its advent in the 1990s, the domestication of indigenous food and non-food tree species has become a global programme with a strong African focus. This review of progress in the third decade is restricted to progress in Africa, where multi-disciplinary research on over 59 species has been reported in 759 research papers in 318 science publications by scientists from over 833 research teams in 70 countries around the world (532 in Africa). The review spans 23 research topics presenting the recent research literature for tree species of high priority across the continent, as well as that in each of the four main ecological regions: the humid zone of West and Central Africa; the Sahel and North Africa; the East African highlands and drylands; and the woody savannas of Southern Africa. The main areas of growth have been the nutritional/medicinal value of non-timber forest products; the evaluation of the state of natural resources and their importance to local people; and the characterization of useful traits. However, the testing of putative cultivars; the implementation of participatory principles; the protection of traditional knowledge and intellectual property rights; and the selection of elite trees and ideotypes remain under-researched. To the probable detriment of the upscaling and impact in tropical agriculture, there has been, at the international level, a move away from decentralized, community-based tree domestication towards a laboratory-based, centralized approach. However, the rapid uptake of research by university departments and national agricultural research centres in Africa indicates a recognition of the importance of the indigenous crops for both the livelihoods of rural communities and the revitalization and enhanced outputs from agriculture in Africa, especially in West Africa. Thus, on a continental scale, there has been an uptake of research with policy relevance for the integration of indigenous trees in agroecosystems and their importance for the attainment of the UN Sustainable Development Goals. To progress this in the fourth decade, there will need to be a dedicated Centre in Africa to test and develop cultivars of indigenous crops. Finally, this review underpins a holistic approach to mitigating climate change, as well as other big global issues such as hunger, poverty and loss of wildlife habitat by reaping the benefits, or ‘profits’, from investment in the five forms of Capital, described as ‘land maxing’. However, policy and decision makers are not yet recognizing the potential for holistic and transformational adoption of these new indigenous food crop opportunities for African agriculture. Is ‘political will’ the missing sixth capital for sustainable development?
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... On la retrouve uniquement dans les systèmes agroforestiers (champs, jardin de case, jachère etc). Les études conduites sur l'espèce au Bénin ont toutes annoncé sa présence dans plusieurs jardins de case dans le pays(Padonou et al., 2015a;Padonou et al., 2015b;Assogbadjo et al., 2011), et autour des champs et des maisons(Assogbadjo et al., 2012), illustrant sa domestication pour la survie de sa population. ...
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... It is the most commercialized medicinal plants in this region (Vodouhê et al., 2008). The mainly used organs are the roots, leaves and seeds (Padonou et al., 2015). The roots are widely used in the treatment of prostate diseases in Africa, which compromises the long-term viability of the species (Hutton, 2001;Upadhyay et al., 2001;Hessou et al., 2009). ...
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The effects of differences in seed weight on growth and repduction of Oenothera biennis, a facultative biennial, were examined in a greenhouse experiment. Seeds of known weight were sown onto two soil types to provide two microsite types. Per cent germination, survival and reproductive output were determined in relation to seed weight on each soil type. Seed weight effects were small (on seedling-rosette diameter) and did not persist beyond the fourth week after emergence. Soil type however, had an increasing effect on seedling growth and significantly affected rosette growth rate, final plant size and the proportion of plants flowering. There was also significant variation in the average seed weight produced in the progeny that could not be accounted for by plant size or emergence time. The effect of seed weight variation on establishment and persistence in variable environments is discussed.
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The chicozapote (Manilkara zapota) is a tropical fruit tree that occurs in two morphologically distinct populations in the Yucatan peninsula of Mexico. Forest populations consist of tall, straight trees, while swamp populations have a short, shrub-like growth form. Swamp populations also have smaller leaves, fruit and seeds. We performed a random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis on four different populations of chicozapote to test if there was a genetic component to this variation. The populations differed in respect to habitat type (swamp vs. forest) and geographical location (east vs. west). We surveyed 80 random primers, nine of which revealed interpopulation band differences (28 band differences in total). Unweighted pair group method analysis (UPGMA) and neighbour-joining dendrograms showed no separation of individuals between the different populations. Analysis of the RAPD data showed no significant differences between swamp and forest populations (P > 0.1). The lack of genetic differentiation suggests a failure to find a correlation between the RAPD loci and adaptive traits. The observed morphological differences between the swamp and forest populations of chicozapote may either be that gene flow has prevented a build-up of neutral marker differences or a plastic response to differences in habitat.
Seed source variation in morphology, germination and seedling growth of Jatropha curcas
  • Rl
RL. 2005. Seed source variation in morphology, germination and seedling growth of Jatropha curcas
  • G J Harden
Harden GJ. 2002. Flora of New South Wales. Vol. 2, 2nd ed. UNSW Press, Sydney, p. 574.