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Aphrodisiac effects of Panax ginseng extract standardized with ginsenoside Rg3 in male rats

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Keywords Abstract Panax ginseng Sildenafil citrate Sex behavior Sexual disorders In traditional medicine, Panax ginseng has been used to treat various behavioral effects. However, a little is known about the effect of ginsenoside Rg3, the most ingredients in panax ginseng, on male copulatory and sexual behavior. The aim of the current study was to investigate the effect of panax ginseng extract standardized with ginsenoside Rg3 (PGRg3) on general mating behaviour, libido, potency and the adverse effects in normal male Sprague-Dawley rats. Four tests were carried out to evaluate different sexual parameters. Male rats were divided into different groups in each test and treated with different doses of PGRg3 (50, 250 and 500 mg/kg b.w.) and Sildenafil citrate (5 mg/kg b.w). Female rats with oestrus phase were used to analyze the mating behavior.The results indicated that PGRg3 significantly increased mounting frequency, intromission frequency, ejaculatory latency in the first and second series, erection, quick flips, long flips and aggregate of penile reflexes. Whereas, it significantly decreases mounting latency, intromission latency and post ejaculatory intervals in dose dependent manner. Moreover, PGRg3 was found to be devoid of any conspicuous gastric ulceration and any other adverse effects. PGRg3 extract at the higher dose (500 mg/kg b.w.) was comparable to the standards drug Sildenafil citrate with regards to all the tested parameters. It could be concluded that PGRg3 extract produced a significant and sustained increase in the sexual activity of normal male rats without any conspicuous gastric ulceration and adverse effects. The most important conclusion is that the resultant aphrodisiac effectively of PGRg3 extract lends support to the claims for its traditional usage in sexual disorders.
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Aphrodisiac effects of Panax ginseng extract standardized with
ginsenoside Rg3 in male rats
Mosaad A. Abdel-Wahhab *
Food Toxicology & Contaminants Dept., National Research center, Dokki, Cairo, Egypt.
Olivier Joubert
Faculty of Pharmacy, Lorraine University, EA 3452 CITHEFOR, Nancy Cedex, 54001, France.
Aziza A. El-Nekeety
Food Toxicology & Contaminants Dept., National Research center, Dokki, Cairo, Egypt.
Myung H. Park
Ambo Institute, Seoul, South Korea.
Won J. Yoon
Lotte R & D Center, Lotte Group, Seoul, 150-964, South Korea.
Yong T. Kim
Lotte R & D Center, Lotte Group, Seoul, 150-964, South Korea.
Bertrand H. Rihn
Faculty of Pharmacy, Lorraine University, EA 3452 CITHEFOR, Nancy Cedex, 54001, France.
*Corresponding author: mosaad_abdelwahhab@yahoo.com
Keywords Abstract
Panax ginseng
Sildenafil citrate
Sex behavior
Sexual disorders
In traditional medicine, Panax ginseng has been used to treat various behavioral effects. However, a little is
known about the effect of ginsenoside Rg3, the most ingredients in panax ginseng, on male copulatory and
sexual behavior. The aim of the current study was to investigate the effect of panax ginseng extract
standardized with ginsenoside Rg3 (PGRg3) on general mating behaviour, libido, potency and the adverse
effects in normal male Sprague-Dawley rats. Four tests were carried out to evaluate different sexual
parameters. Male rats were divided into different groups in each test and treated with different doses of
PGRg3 (50, 250 and 500 mg/kg b.w.) and Sildenafil citrate (5 mg/kg b.w). Female rats with oestrus phase
were used to analyze the mating behavior.The results indicated that PGRg3 significantly increased mounting
frequency, intromission frequency, ejaculatory latency in the first and second series, erection, quick flips,
long flips and aggregate of penile reflexes. Whereas, it significantly decreases mounting latency,
intromission latency and post ejaculatory intervals in dose dependent manner. Moreover, PGRg3 was found
to be devoid of any conspicuous gastric ulceration and any other adverse effects. PGRg3 extract at the
higher dose (500 mg/kg b.w.) was comparable to the standards drug Sildenafil citrate with regards to all the
tested parameters. It could be concluded that PGRg3 extract produced a significant and sustained increase in
the sexual activity of normal male rats without any conspicuous gastric ulceration and adverse effects. The
most important conclusion is that the resultant aphrodisiac effectively of PGRg3 extract lends support to the
claims for its traditional usage in sexual disorders.
1. Introduction
Sexual dysfunction and/or erectile dysfunction (ED) are major challenges for an individual’s subjective well-being. It is a common problem with
increase in prevalence and etiological factors, including degenerative diseases, increase in injuries and stress associated with industrialized
lifestyles [1]. Clinically, ED is defined as the persistent inability to achieve or maintain a penile erection sufficient for satisfactory sexual
performance [2] and it is a medical problem affecting young as well as old men. The incidence of ED increases with age, reaching 20-40% in
men 60-69 yr of age and 50-100% in men in their 70s and 80s, depending on the differing definitions of ED in various studies [3]. Beyond the
aging process, other cardiovascular (CV) risk factors such as hypertension, diabetes, smoking, obesity, and dyslipidemia have been shown to be
significantly associated with ED [4][5].
Although a number of treatments became available in the last two decades, problems with costs, efficacy, safety and ease to administer were
experienced [6]. These treatments ranged from herbal remedies used by native healers, mostly in the Eastern countries, to the more sophisticated
designer drugs, which are based on a better understanding of the physiological mechanism of erection [2]. Dietary supplement use has
experienced tremendous growth in the past years [7]. Supplements are becoming more important and more commonly used by consumers in
their personal healthcare regimens [8] [9]. Numerous products are currently promoted for enhancing erectile function and sexual performance in
men and are marketed with the implied assumption that they are safe and natural. Yet reports of adulteration for products in this category
abound. Adulterants found in dietary supplements include, but aren’t limited to, active pharmaceutical ingredients such as the PDE-5 inhibitors
sildenafil (Viagra®), vardenafil (Levitra®), tadalafil (Cialis®) and, in an attempt to avoid detection, the unapproved analogues of these drugs
[10][11][12][13][14][[15][16].
In recent years, several studies report the benefits of functional food and herbal ingredients such as Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer in the treatment
of ED [17] [18]. For 2,000 years Panax ginseng has had a rich medicinal history [19]. Practitioners of Chinese medicine use it as a tonic and
restorative to promote health and longevity [20]. It has been prescribed to improve stamina, concentration, stress resistance, and work efficiency
General Health and Medical Sciences, Vol(1), No (1), October, 2014. pp. 3-8
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in the healthy as well as to improve well-being in patients with degenerative conditions associated with old age and chronic disease [21]. The
tonic and adaptogenic activity of Panax ginseng is thought to enhance physical performance, which includes sexual stamina. The aim of the
present study was to investigate the aphrodisiac effect of Phoenix Ginseng extract standardized with ginsenoside Rg3 in detail compared with the
standard drug Sildenafil citrate (Viagra), using multiple parameters along with its probable gastric ulceration and adverse effects in sexually
normal male Sprague-Dawley rats.
2. Materials and Methods
2.1. Plant material
The standardized Panax ginseng extract EFLA400 (Batch No. 303298) of Panax ginseng C. A. Mayer was prepared according to the published
procedure (Korean patent 0425022, PCT/KR2003/000003) and was supplied from Lotte Group R & D Centre (Seoul, Korea).
2.2. Chemicals
Sildenafil citrate (Viagra) was purchased from Pfizer Inc. (Cairo, Egypt), ethinyl oestradiol, progesterone and xylocane ointment (5%) were
purchased Sigma Chemical Co. (St. Louis, USA).
2.3. Animals
Twelve weeks old male (350-400 g) and female Sprague-Dawley rats (225-275 g) were purchased from Animal House Colony, NRC, Giza,
Egypt. Animals were housed singly in separate standard cages and were maintained under standard laboratory conditions (temperature 24-28°C,
relative humidity 60-70%, 12 h light-dark cycle) with free access to standard lab diet (Protein: 16.04%; Fat: 3.63%; Fiber: 4.1%, and metabolic
energy: 0.012 MJ) and water ad libitum throughout the study except during the experiment. The study design was approved by the ethical
committee for animal care and use of the National Research Center, Dokki, Cairo, Egypt.
2.4. Drug and PGRg3 preparation
PGRg3, Sildenafil citrate and ethinyl oestradiol were suspended in distilled water using Tween 80 (1%) and were administrated orally.
Progesterone was dissolved in olive oil for subcutaneous injection. All the drug solutions were prepared just before the administration.
2.5. Mating behavior test
The test was carried out according to the methods described by Dewsbury and Davis [22] and Szechtman et al. [23] as modified by Amin et al.
[24. Fifty healthy and sexually experienced male Sprague-Dawley rats that were showing brisk sexual activity were selected for the study.
Animals were divided into 5 groups (10 rats/group) and kept singly in separate cages during the experiment. Group (1); received 10 ml/kg
distilled water and represented the control group. Groups (2-4); received oral daily doses of PGRg3 (100, 250 and 500 mg/kg b.w, respectively)
for 7 days at 18:00 h. Group (5); served as standard and was given orally suspension of sildenafil citrate (5 mg/kg b.w), 1 h prior to the
commencement of the experiment. Since the male animals should not be tested in unfamiliar circumstances, the animals were bring to the
laboratory and exposed to dim light (in 1 w fluorescent tube in a laboratory of 14' × 14') at the stipulated time of testing daily for 6 days before
the experiment. The female animals were artificially brought into oestrus (heat) by orally administration of ethinyl oestradiol suspension (100
µg/animal) 48 h prior to the pairing plus progesterone injected subcutaneously (1 mg/animal) 6 h before the experiment [23]. The receptivity of
the female animals was confirmed before the test by exposing them to male animals, other than the control, test and standard animals. The most
receptive females were selected for the study. The experiment was carried out on the 7th day after commencement of the treatment of the male
animals at 20:00 h in the same laboratory and under the light of same intensity. One receptive female was introduced into each cages of one
male. The observation for mating behaviour was immediately commence and continue for first 2 mating series.
The test was terminated if the male failed to evince sexual interest. If the female did not show receptivity she was replaced by another artificially
warmed female. The occurrence of events and phases of mating were recorded on audio-cassette as soon as they appeared. Their disappearance
was also recorded. Later, the frequencies and phases was determined from cassette transcriptions: number of mounts before ejaculation or
mounting frequency (MF), number of intromission before ejaculation or intromission frequency (IF), time from the introduction of female into
the cage of the male up to the first mount or mounting latency (ML), time from the introduction of the female up to the first intromission by the
male or intromission latency (IL), time from the first intromission of a series up to the ejaculation or ejaculatory latency (EL), and time from the
first ejaculation up to the next intromission by the same male or post ejaculatory interval (PEI). However, in the second mating series only the
EL was recorded.
2.6. Libido test
This test was carried out by the method described by Amin et al. [24]. Another fifty sexually experienced male rats were divided into 5 groups
(10 rata/group) and were kept singly in separate cages during the experiment. Group (1); represented the control group and received oral dose of
distilled water (10 ml/kg b.w). Groups (2-4); received oral doses of PGRg3 suspension (100, 250 and 500 mg/kg b.w, respectively) once a day in
the evening (18:00 h) for 7 days. Group (5); was served as standard and given oral dose of sildenafil citrate (5 mg/kg b.w) 1 h prior to the
commencement of the experiment. The female rats were made receptive by hormonal treatment and all the animals were accustom to the testing
condition as previously mentioned in the mating behavior test. The animals were observed for the mounting frequency (MF) on the evening of
day seven at 20:00 h. The penis was exposed by retracting the sheath and 5% xylocaine ointment was applied 30, 15 and 5 min before starting
observations. Each male animal was placed individually with the receptive female in the same cage. The number of mountings was noted and the
animals were observed for intromission and ejaculation.
2.7. Potency test
The potency test was carried out according to the methods described previously [24]. Another fifty male rats were divided into 5 groups (10
rats/group) and were kept singly in separate cages during the experiment. Group (1); the control group, received oral dose of distilled water (10
ml/kg b.w). Groups (2-4); received daily oral dose of PGRg3 (100, 250 and 500 mg/kg b.w respectively) for 7 days. Group (5); received oral
dose of sildenafil citrate (5 mg/kg b.w.) 1 h before the commencement of the experiment. On the 8th day, the test for penile reflexes was carried
out by placing the animal on its back in a glass cylinder partial restraint. The preputial sheath was push behind the glans by means of thumb and
index finger and held in this manner for a period of 15 min. Such stimulation elicits a cluster of genital reflexes. The following components were
recorded: Erections (E), Quick Flips (QF) and Long Flips (LF).
4 Mosaad A. A. Abdel-Wahhab *, Olivier Joubert, Aziza A. El-Nekeety , Myung H. Park, Won J. Yoon, Yong T. Kim, Bertrand H. Rihn
General Health and Medical Sciences Vol(1), No (1), October, 2014.
2.8. Ulcerogenecity test
Another Forty male animals (350-400 g) were divided into 4 groups 10 rats/group) including the control group (received 10 ml/kg b.w of
distilled water), the groups treated daily for 7 days with oral doses of PGRg3 (100, 250 and 500 mg/kg b.w. respectively). At the 8th day, all the
animals were killed and the stomach was incised along the greater curvature and washed carefully with physiological saline and examined for
any gastric lesions immediately using a magnifying glass. The number of erosions per stomach were assessed for severity by two observers, who
were followed the same evaluation criteria, according to the score of Cioli et al. [25]: (0) absence of lesion, vasodilation or up to 3 pin point
ulcers; (1) more than 3 pin point ulcers, (2) from 1 to 5 small ulcers (< 2 mm); (3) more than 5 small ulcers (< 2 mm) and (4) 1 or more giant
ulcers.
2.9. Adverse effects
All treated rats were observed at least once daily for any overt sign of toxicity (salivation, rhinorrhoea, lachrymation, ptosis, writhing,
convulsions and tremors), stress (erection of fur and exophalmia) and changes in behaviour (such as spontaneous movement in the cage,
climbing, cleaning of face). In addition, food and water intake were noted.
2.10. Statistical analysis
All data were statistically analyzed using the General Linear Models Procedure of the Statistical Analysis System [26]. The significance of the
differences among treatment groups was determined by Waller-Duncan k-ratio [27] . All statements of significance were based on probability of
P < 0.01.
3. Results
3.1. Mating behavior test
The current results (Table 1) indicated that PGRg3 at the three tested doses increased significantly the mounting frequency (MF), intermission
frequency (IF), ejaculatory latency in the first series (EL1) and ejaculatory latency in the second series (EL2) in a dose dependent manner
compared with the control animals. Whereas; the extract at the same doses decreased significantly the mounting latency, intromission latency
and post ejaculatory interval. The same data clearly indicated that administration of the standard drug Sildenafil citrate at 5 mg/kg b.w resulted in
a significant increase in MF, IF, EL1 and EL2 accompanied by a significant decrease in ML, IL and PEI. It is of interest to mention that there is
no significant difference between PGRg3 at the higher dose (500 mg/kg b.w.) and the standard drug regarding all the tested parameters although
animals treated with PGRg3 at the higher dose showed an increase in the number of mount before ejaculation (MF) and the time from the first
ejaculation up to the next intromission than the standard drug. On the other hand, EL2 recorded the same values in the animals received PGRg3
at 500 mg/kg b.w. and those in the standard drug group. However, the other parameters showed insignificant decrease compared to the standard
drug.
3.2. Test for libido
The test for libido showed that administration of PGRg3 increased the mounting frequency (MF) at the three tested doses (Table 2). The extract
at 100 and 250 mg/kg b.w. significantly increased MF compared to the control group although there was a significant difference between these
groups and the group received the extract at the higher dose (500 mg/kg b.w.) and those received the standard drug sildenafil. On the other hand,
there was no significant difference in MF between the higher dose group (500 mg/kg b.w.) and the group received sildenafil. The number of
intromission before ejaculation or intromission frequency (IF) and ejaculation were found to be absent in the entire treatment group including the
standard drug group (Table 2).
3.3. Test for potency
The current results for potency test (Table 3) indicated that the three tested doses of PGRg3 and the standard drug significantly increased
erection (E), quick flips (QF), long flips as well as the aggregate of these penile reflexes (TPR) compared to the control group. Although there
was a significant difference in all the test for potency parameters between the groups treated with PGRg3 at 50 and 100 mg/kg b.w. and the
sildenafil group, the group received the higher dose of PGRg3 (500 mg/kg b.w) was comparable to the sildenafil group in all the tested
parameters.
3.4. Test for ulcerogenecity
The current study revealed that treatment with PGRg3 for 7 days at the three tested doses did not result in any ulceration in gastric mucosa of
male Sprague-Dawley rats (Fig. 1). Moreover, there were neither treatment related defects nor overt clinical signs of toxicity (salivation,
rhinorrhoea, lachrymation, ptosis, writhing, convulsions and tremors), stress (erection of fur and exophalmia) and changes in behaviour (such as
spontaneous movement in the cage, climbing, cleaning of face) and appearance evident. The food and water intake of all groups of rats treated
with the three tested doses of PGRg3 and the standard drug remained similar to those of the control group.
Table 1: Effect of PGRg3 mating behavior in male rats
Parameter control PGRg3
(100 mg) PGRg3
(250 mg) PGRg3
(500 mg) Sildenafil
citrate*
Mounting Frequency (MF) 12.5 ± 0.43a 15.3 ± 0.5b 18.3 ± 0.76c 37.7 ± 1.23d 37.5 ± 1.4d
Intromission Frequency (IF) 11.3 ± 1.05a 14.3 ± 0.7b 18.3 ± 1.1c 26.5 ± 0.7d 26.8 ± 0.6d
Mounting Latency (ML, sec) 22.3 ± 0.8a 18.8 ± 0.6b 15.5 ± 0.8c 10.5 ± 0.4c 10.17 ± 0.48c
Intromission Latency (IL, sec) 46.17 ± 1.8a 42.3 ± 2.14b 39 ±1.65c 34.8 ± 1.01d 37.33 ± 1.45e
Ejaculatory Latency in first series (EL 1, sec) 68 ± 1.67a 74.16 ± 2.18b 84 ± 2.62c 117 ± 3.37d 119 ± 3.25d
Ejaculatory Latency in second series (EL 2 , sec) 90 ± 2.65a 110.8 ± 3.86b 134.3 ± 2.25c 148.5 ± 2.4d 148.5 ± 2.2d
Post Ejaculatory Interval (PEI, sec) 519.7 ± 16.4a 444.5 ± 10.6b 405.7 ± 11.1c 299.7 ± 3.6d 295.5 ± 7.02d
*Sildenafil citrate was used at 5 mg/kg b.w
Within each raw, means superscript with different letters are significantly different (P≤ 0.01).
5Aphrodisiac effects of Panax ginseng extract standardized with ginsenoside Rg3 in male rats
General Health and Medical Sciences Vol(1), No (1), October, 2014.
Table 2: Effect of PGRg3 on Mounting Frequency (test for libido) in male rats
Groups Mounting Frequency (MF) Intromission Frequency (IF) Ejaculation (EJ)
control 16.8 ± 1.5a Nil Absent
PGRg3 (100 mg) 25.5 ± 1.4b Nil Absent
PGRg3 (250 mg) 38.5 ± 1.1c Nil Absent
PGRg3 (500 mg) 56 ± 3.2d Nil Absent
Sildenafil citrate* 56.5 ± 2.6d Nil Absent
*Sildenafil citrate was used at 5 mg/kg b.w
Means superscript with different letters are significantly different (P≤ 0.01).
Table 3: Effect of PGRg3 on Penile reflexes (test for potency)
Groups Erections (E) Quick Flips (QF) Long Flips (LF) Total Penile Reflexes (TPR)
Control 7.17 ± 0.5a 5.5 ± 0.43a 2.3 ± 0.42a 15.5 ± 0.43a
PGRg3 (100 mg) 10.17 ± 0.5b 7 ± 0.37b 4.2 ± 0.5b 16.8 ± 0.54a
PGRg3 (250 mg) 15 ± 0.9c 8.5 ± 0.67c 8.8 ± 0.47c 18.5 ± 0.43b
PGRg3 (500 mg) 28.17 ± 1.14d 10 ± 0.51d 29.3 ± 1.12d 29.3 ± 1.12c
Sildenafil citrate* 29.5± 1.18d 10 ± 0.58d 31.16 ± 1.08d 31.16 ± 1.08c
*Sildenafil citrate was used at 5 mg/kg b.w
Within each column, means superscript with different letters are significantly different (P≤ 0.01).
Fig. 1: Photograph of gastric mucosa of male Sprague-Dawley showing that
no ulceration was found in any of PGRg3-treated rats at the three tested doses.
4. Discussion
Ginseng, the root of Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer, is a traditional folk medicine that is reported to have many beneficial effects. In Asian
countries, ginseng has been used by both patients and healthy individuals to restore and enhance vital energy [28]. Several studies and clinical
trials have investigated the pharmaceutical effects, efficacies, and active components of ginseng [29]. In addition, studies have proposed that
ginseng reduces physical, chemical, and biological stress, while increasing general vitality and immune function, including physical and mental
capacity [30][31]. The chemical constituents of ginseng have been identified and approximately 40 active ingredients, including ginsenosides,
polyacetylenes, sesquiterpenes, polysaccharides, and peptidoglycans, have been isolated [32]. Ginsenosides are well characterized and known to
have a four-ring steroid-like structure with sugar moieties attached and exert their diverse effects in central and peripheral nervous systems [33].
Within the ginsenoside fraction of ginseng, particular attention was focused on ginsenoside Rg3, as it had been ascribed potent vasodilator
properties in animal models and is thought to be a significant contributor to ginseng-mediated vasoactivity [34][35]. Jang et al. [36] evaluated
the evidence regarding the effectiveness of red ginseng for treating ED and suggested a significant effect of red ginseng for the treatment of ED.
In the current study, we evaluated the effect of panax ginseng extract standardized with ginsenoside Rg3 (PGRg3) on general mating behaviour,
libido, potency and the adverse effects in normal male Sprague-Dawley rats. The results indicated that PGRg3 possesses a significant sexual
function enhancing activity as observed in sexual behaviour tests. PGRg3 significantly increased MF, IF, EL1 and EL2 accompanied with a
significant reduction in ML and IL which indicated a sexual function improving effect and proved that PGRg3 is endowed with sexual function
improving activity. This is in consonance with our earlier results which showed a sexual function improving effect of PGRg3 in male mice
[37][38]. Although the established drug (Sildenafil citrate) exhibited, as expected, tremendous activity. The increase of MF and IF in PGRg3-
treated rats (indicating the sexual motivation and efficiency of erection and penile orientation) and increasing of the libido might be the result of
increase in the several hormones that are secreted from pituitary [39].
On the other hand, PGRg3 significantly increased the frequency of all the components of penile reflexes (E, QF and LF) in the tested animals as
compared to control group but comparatively lesser than the standard drug. The aggregate of penile reflexes was also found to be increased in
the animals treated with PGRg3 and sildenafil citrate however, there was no significant difference between the groups received the extract at the
low dose (100 mg/kg b.w.) and those in the control group. Therefore, the current results revealed that PGRg3 produced a marked increase in
potency at the doses as low as 250 mg/kg b.w. It was suggested that PGRg3-induced changes in neurotransmitter levels or their action at cellular
levels [40] could change sexual behaviour [41]. Hence, the increased sexual function could be also due to the nervous stimulant action of PGRg3
6 Mosaad A. A. Abdel-Wahhab *, Olivier Joubert, Aziza A. El-Nekeety , Myung H. Park, Won J. Yoon, Yong T. Kim, Bertrand H. Rihn
General Health and Medical Sciences Vol(1), No (1), October, 2014.
[31][42]. On the other hand, several reports revealed that ginsenosides inhibit voltage-gated Ca2+ channels in the dorsal root ganglion
nociceptive neurons and adrenal chromaffin cells [43] and also inhibit brain voltage-gated Na+ channels [43][44][45]. Moreover, the resultant
aphrodisiac affectivity of PGRg3 extract might also be increasing the release of nitric oxide [46][47] although there is also a possible impact on
the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis with a corresponding impact on cortisteroid and prolactin levels.
In a previous work, we reported that PGRg3 administration increased testosterone secretion [38]. The increase in the levels of testosterone in
adult males resulted in a moderate but significant increase in sexual desire and libido [48] which may be responsible for the enhanced sexual
behaviour in the animals [49] and probably raise the level of luteinizing hormones (LH) [41][50][51]. The prolonged of ejaculatory latency in the
PGRg3-treated rats indicating an increase of ejaculatory threshold [51]. Moreover, the steroidal saponins such as PGRg3 increase LH and FSH
levels that in turn increase testosterone. These hormones are found at high concentrations in rat testis and seminal fluids [39]. Testosterone also
enhances sexual desire, index of libido, motivation and sexual performance.
Different herbs are reported to produce an increase in gastric acid secretion by a cholinergic mechanism [52], thus, their use for sexual
invigoration may cause gastric ulceration and other adverse effects. Therefore, ulcerogenic and other adverse effects of PGRg3 were also
evaluated. The results of this evaluation were negative. This suggests that the short term use of PGRg3 for this purpose is apparently safe.
5. Conclusion
The results indicated that the traditional folk medicine, panax ginseng via its higher content of PGRg3 can produced a significant and sustained
increase in the sexual activity of normal male rats, without any conspicuous gastric ulceration and adverse effects. Thus, the resultant
aphrodisiac effectivity of the extract lends support to the claims for its traditional usage in sexual disorders. The mechanism by which PGRg3
may induce its action may be hormonal and/or nervous stimulant.
Acknowledgments
This work was full supported by Lotte R & D Center, Lotte Group, Seoul, 150-964, South Korea.
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8 Mosaad A. A. Abdel-Wahhab *, Olivier Joubert, Aziza A. El-Nekeety , Myung H. Park, Won J. Yoon, Yong T. Kim, Bertrand H. Rihn
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... Ginseng [37] Panax ginseng Araliaceae Root 250 ...
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A man’s aptitude to acquire and continue an erection is frequently equated with masculinity and virility and can greatly influence men’s confidence. The sexual healthiness is a significant determinant of the worth of life. Erectile dysfunction (ED) as the inability to have or sustain a penile erection long enough to have momentous sexual intercourse with a partner. As per the literature, it is revealed that the millions of men populations are suffering from ED and there is an extreme need to overcome the ED. The various natural traditional herbs, synthetic pioneered chemical entities/potentials are preferred to treat ED. The present review discusses ED therapy including drug selection, application site, and choice of formulation. Moreover, this review updates the various pharmaceutical formulation such as liposomes, ethosomes, transfersomes, nanoemulsion, self-nano-emulsifying drug delivery system, solid dispersion, penetrosomes, solid lipid nanoparticles, and nanostructured lipid carriers development in ED therapy through the oral route, topical and nasal route, etc., which are helpful for researchers to develop new nanocarriers based formulations.
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Korean ginseng (Panax ginseng CA Meyer) is important traditional medicinal plants whose ginsenosides are generally accepted as serving to improve sexual functions, such as penile erection. The aim of the current study was to utilize panax ginseng extract standardized with ginsenoside Rg3 (PGRg3) to improve the sexual behavior in rats. Male rats were categorized on the basis of seven consecutive mating pre-tests as sexually-active (SA) and sexually-inactive (SI); and stretching-yawning, penile erection, sedation and stereotyped behavior of the same animals. The results indicated PGRg3 at three tested doses (50, 150 and 450 mg/kg b.w) enhanced the copulatory pattern of both SI and SA rats, ejaculation mechanisms, increase the sexual drive of SI rats. The two groups of rats, exhibited different behavioral responses to PGRg3. Moreover, PGRg3 was effective in SA rats at dose as low as 50 mg/kg b.w however it was effective in SI rats at the higher doses (150 and 450 mg/kg b.w). It could be concluded that PGRg3 succeeded to enhance sexual behavior and has beneficial effects as traditional medicinal herbal plant in male with sexual dysfunction.
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Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer is a common herb with many purported health benefits. However, there is no conclusive evidence supporting its use in the treatment of any particular disease. We conducted a systematic review to evaluate randomised controlled trials. Four English databases were searched with no publication date restriction. Included studies evaluated P. ginseng in patients with any type of disease or in healthy individuals. We assessed the quality of studies using the Cochrane risk of bias tool. Of the 475 potentially relevant studies, 65 met the inclusion criteria. These studies examined P. ginseng's effects on psychomotor performance (17 studies), physical performance (ten), circulatory system (eight), glucose metabolism (six), the respiratory system (five), erectile dysfunction (four), immunomodulation (four), quality of life/mood (four), antioxidant function (two), cancer (two), menopausal symptoms (two) and dry mouth (one). The risk of bias was unclear in most studies. Authors evaluated adverse events in 40 studies, with 135 minor events and no serious adverse events reported. P. ginseng shows promising results for improving glucose metabolism and moderating the immune response. This may have implications for several diseases including type 2 diabetes and chronic respiratory conditions. Further studies are needed to explore P. ginseng's potential as an effective treatment for these and other health conditions. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
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Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of Panax ginseng extract standardized with ginsenoside Rg3 (PGRg3) on the mating behavior of sexually active or inactive male rats treated with dopamine antagonists. Methodology: Animals were treated with PGRg3 (50,150 and 450mg/kgb.w) with or without dopamine antagonists. The penile erection, motor activity and stretching-yawning episode were evaluated in animals treated with PGRg3 alone or in combination with lisurode or SND 919. Testosterone and sperm counts were also evaluated in different treatment groups. Results: The results showed that (-) Eticlopride counteracted PGRg3-induced penile erection but not motor hyperactivity. PGRg3 treatment enhanced lisuride-induced behavioral effects. Moreover, PGRg3 plus SND 919 showed a marked stretching-yawning behavior compared to the animals received SND 919 alone. PGRg3 also succeeded to increase testosterone level and sperm count in a dose dependent fashion. Conclusion: It could be concluded that DAD2 receptors are involved in PGRg3-induced mating behavior and testicular function improvement. PGRg3 could be used to improve sexual function and mating behavior in people suffering from erectile dysfunction.
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The seeds of M. pruriens are widely used for treating male sexual dysfunction in Tibb-e-Unani (Unani Medicine), the traditional system of medicine of Indo-Pak sub-continent. The effect of the powdered seeds on general mating behaviour, libido and potency, was studied in sexually normal male rats. The drug produced a striking and sustained increase of sexual activity.
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Objective: To study the effect of V.tessellata on the sexual behaviour of male mice and general toxicity, if any, in mice. Methods: An aqueous suspension (2 g/kg, wet wt.) or extract (water or alcohol, 200 mg/kg) of root, flower or leaf of V. tessellata was administered (p.o.) to male mice and 1 hr, after administration their mounting behaviour was observed. The most active extract (alcohol extract of flower) was administered (50 or 200 mg/kg, p.o.) to different groups of male mice and their mounting behaviour, mating performance and reproductive performance were determined. The general short term toxicity of the alcohol extract in male mice was also determined. Results: The flower and, to some extent, the root, but not the leaf of V. tessellata was found to stimulate the mounting behaviour of male mice. This activity was found in the alcohol extract of the flower. This extract (50 or 200 mg/kg) also increased mating performance in the mice. The pups fathered by the extract treated mice were found to be normal with an increasing trend in the male/female ratio of these pups. The alcohol extract was devoid of any conspicuous general toxicity. Conclusion: The alcohol extract of V.tessellata flower stimulates the sexual behaviour of male mice.
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The Phoenix dactylifera date palm pollen (DPP) is used for curing male infertility and impotency in traditional medicine. However, the validity has not been scientifically tested. Therefore, the present study was undertaken to evaluate the effect of aqueous extract of Phoenix dactylifera pollen on the sexual behavior of male rats. Sixty male rats were randomized into 6 groups (A-F). Group A received 0.2 ml of Normal Saline mixed with Dimethyl Sulphate (DMSO), while groups B-F were injected same volume containing 35, 70, 105, 140 and 350 mg/kg of DPP extract, respectively. Sexual behavioral parameters including mounting, intromission and ejaculation frequencies and latencies were recorded in male rats one hour after injection of extract by mating with a receptive female (1:1).The male serum testosterone and estradiol concentrations were also determined. All doses stimulated male sexual behavior. Extract significantly increased mount, ejaculation, intromission frequencies and ejaculation latency in comparison to controlled ones (p<0.001). Mount and intromission latencies significantly reduced (p<0.001). Maximum effect was observed at a dose of 140 mg/kg. This extract was found to enhance Testosterone, Estradiol and the orientation of males toward female ones by increasing mounting and ano-genital investigatory behavior. Our results revealed that the aqueous extract of Phoenix dactylifera pollen can be used as a sex enhancer and seems to cure male infertility. Also, our findings support the traditional use of this plant as acclaimed aphrodisiac and for the treatment of pre-ejaculation and impotency. Keywords: Aphrodisiac activity, aqueous extract, male rat, Phoenix Dactylifera, pollen grain, pre-ejaculation, sexual behavior
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A simple LSD (least significant difference) rule is presented for simultaneously testing the differences between n treatments considered in all possible pairs. This rule is a simpler, fully completed, version of the Bayes rule presented for special cases in Duncan [4]. It is based on the same multiple decision theory model except for a modified and extended use of a conjugate chi-square density in the prior. The new rule has the same intuitively appealing dependence on the between-treatment F ratio, varying from a sensitive comparisonwise-α-like rule when F is large or moderate, to a conservative experimentwise-α-like rule when F is small. Tables of t for computing the LSD are presented for three choices of a type-1 to type-2 error-seriousness ratio, k = 50, 100 and 500 (analogous to the usual choices of α = .10, .05 and .01 in testing a single difference), and for full ranges of F and its degree of freedom q and f.
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The copulatory behavior of 20 male rats was studied in a series of experiments using doses of tetrabenazine from 1.0 mg/kg to 16.0 mg/kg. Most of the animals attained ejaculation at all dose levels. Doses of 1.0, 2.0 and 3.0 mg/kg of tetrabenazine produced little alteration of copulatory behavior. Administration of tetrabenazine, 4.0 mg/kg, produced a reduction in the number of mounts without intromission and in the number of intromissions required to attain ejaculation. Similar effects were obtained with tetrabenazine, 5.0 mg/kg, in addition to increases in mean inter-intromission intervals and post-ejaculatory intervals. An interpretation is offered according to which tetrabenazine, like reserpine, produces two independent effects on copulatory behavior. Its specific effect at intermediate doses is to reduce intromission frequency and mount frequency. At higher doses, these effects become mixed with increases in latency measures. The animals appear to be in cataleptic-like state and much behavior is inhibited. These data are consistent with the hypothesis that moderate decreases in brain monoamine levels facilitate copulatory behavior in male rats.