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A major challenge for conservation reserve (CR) to stay intact is the ever-growing economic activities surrounding it which may pose harmful effects to the area. Worldwide, buffer zone (BZ) is said as one of mechanisms to safeguard the CR. Although its requirement is stated in various international and national policies and regulations, its delineation criteria and approaches are not explicitly mentioned. Since the surrounding areas, so called potential BZs, belong to various stakeholders, this research is conducted to assess the BZ-stakeholders’ relationship and gain consensus among them, and translates it into a set of ideal delineation criteria for BZ.
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P r o c e d i a - S o c i a l a n d B e h a v i o r a l S c i e n c e s 1 0 5 ( 2 0 1 3 ) 6 1 0 6 1 8
1877-0428 © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd. Open access under CC BY-NC-ND license.
Selection and peer-review under responsibility of Centre for Environment-Behaviour Studies (cE-Bs), Faculty of Architecture, Planning & Surveying,
Universiti Teknologi MARA, Malaysia.
doi: 10.1016/j.sbspro.2013.11.064
Asia Pacific International Conference on Environment-Behaviour Studies
University of Westminster, London, UK, 4-6 September 2013
"From Research to Practice"
of Criteria for Delineation of
Buffer Zone at Conservation Reserve: FRIM heritage site
Jamalunlaili Abdullaha,c,
, Che Bon Ahmada, Jasmee Jaafarb,
aCentre for Environmental Design and Management
bCentre of Geospatial Technology
cMalaysian Academy of SME and Entrepreneurship Development
Universiti Teknologi MARA, 40450 Shah Alam, Malaysia
A major challenge for conservation reserve (CR) to stay intact is the ever-growing economic activities surrounding it
which may pose harmful effects to the area. Worldwide, buffer zone (BZ) is said as one of mechanisms to safeguard
the CR. Although its requirement is stated in various international and national policies and regulations, its
delineation criteria and approaches are not explicitly mentioned. Since the surrounding areas, so called potential BZs,
belong to various stakeholders, this research is conducted to assess the BZ-stakeholder relationship and gain
consensus among them, and translates it into a set of ideal delineation criteria for BZ.
© 2013 Published by Elsevier Ltd. Selection and peer-review under responsibility of the Centre for Environment-
Behaviour Studies (cE-Bs), Faculty of Architecture, Planning & Surveying, Universiti Teknologi MARA, Malaysia.
Keywords: onservation reserve; buffer zones; FR IM na tional heritage site
1. Introduction
Conservation Reserve (CR) is important for biodiversity; flora and fauna that contribute to a wide
range of benefits, from local to global (Klar et al., 2012). CR is also vital for carbon off-set; current
mitigation to overcome the climate change phenomena (Liu, Ouyang, & Miao, 2010; Strohbach, Arnold,
& Haase, 2012). Nonetheless, CR face major threats from the surrounding land uses particularly
Corresponding author. Tel.: +6-019-669-5857 ; fax: +6-03-5544-4353.
E-mail address:
Avai lable o nl in e at
© 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd. Open access under CC BY-NC-ND license.
Selection and peer-review under responsibility of Centre for Environment-Behaviour Studies (cE-Bs), Faculty of Architecture,
Planning & Surveying, Universiti Teknologi MARA, Malaysia.
Jamalunlaili Abdullah et al. / Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences 105 ( 2013 ) 610 – 618
economic activities that may pose harmful effects to the area (DeFries, Karanth, & Pareeth, 2010). Thus,
there is a need for it to be better protected through BZ (Lynagh & Urich, 2002). BZs have long been a
prominent feature in urban development, but recently it has become a necessity for natural areas.
Although the requirement of BZs for CR is stated in national land use plan, their approach and criteria for
delineation are not explicitly mentioned. There is a need for refine and delineation of the boundary of the
BZ, to ensure a rational basis for the implementation of regulations applied to the CR, as well as to reflect
the underlying physiographic and environmental determinants (Sheil, Nasi, & Johnson, 2004). One
important thing is to establish criteria preferably multiple criteria, including spatial design and socio-
political criteria to be used for demarcation of the boundary of the Buffer Zone (Gilmour & Nguyen,
1999; Moffett, Dyer, & Sarkar, 2006). Since the surrounding areas, so called potential BZs, belong to
various stakeholders (someone who
share ideas, solutions, threats and opportunities is important to reflect the collective responses to human-
nature interface problems (Rastogi, Badola, Hussain, & Hickey, 2010). An important issue of BZ is to
reach the agreement between the stakeholders to ensure the delineation area contribute significant
advantages to all stakeholders.
1.1. Stakeholders
Why stakeholders are important? It is because local knowledge, in particular, should be considered a
valuable source and although it is always a challenge in finding a balance between local and more general
priorities, the outcome of any conciliation is more likely to have positive results if the approaches adapt to
the local context (Sheil, Nasi, & Johnson, 2004). consensus is required to determine the
necessary decision (e.g., managers, adjacent communities, legal enforcement agencies). In general, broad
participation becomes a norm in good practice. Nonetheless, it is effective only if they involve in the
planning process and the outcome of the process favor all parties ( ). A
reasonable initial point is to simply improve the integration of local stakeholders and their needs into the
planning process of determining the criteria. These decisions may be due to economic considerations of
the existing and future changes of the land uses. As decisions are made, stakeholders should be aware of
the potential changes in desired buffer functions that occur and the potential compromise of long-term
values. In most cases, a buffer width can be determined which will meet landowner needs while also
providing an adequate function of BZs (Liu et al., 2010). In actuality, many BZs constitute a geographical
expansion of the state authority beyond the boundaries of the CA and into the communities and economic
stablishment of it resulted in
restrictions on lan (Stræde & Treue, 2006). Sadly to say, this approach might be unwise
without recognizing the ideal mutual support between local communities or surrounding stakeholders and
the conservation purposes.
1.2. Concept and criteria
BZs are supposed to serve the dual purpose of 'extension buffering', or an extension of core habitat
areas, and 'socio buffering' to provide goods and services to humans (Jotikapukkana, 2010). There is no
, but they should be explicit and quantifiable (Bibby,
1998). Previous studies have considered various factors in establishing the criteria for the delineation of
BZs (Borgström, Cousins, & Lindborg, 2012; Datta, Guha, & Chattopadhyay, 2010; DeFries et al., 2010;
Khoi & Murayama, 2010; Martino, 2001; Semlitsch & Jensen, 2001; Wild & Mutebi, 1997), but there is
no set of criteria which covers all the said factors . Among considered factors are:
612 Jamalunlaili Abdullah et al. / Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences 105 ( 2013 ) 610 – 618
Social factors - Traditional use of land, harvesting of non-timber forest product (NTFP), agricultural
activities, man-made structure etc.
Economic factors Agriculture, aquaculture, timber, mining etc.
Environmental factors which include:
Biophysical factors Topography, soil, hydrology, road network, boundary, size, elevation, slope etc.
Ecological factors Forest patch size, number and size, change in forest structure, habitat and
conservation areas etc.
Biological factors Criteria based on use by target species for life history functions such as feeding,
mating, nesting etc.
Legal and political factors - determined by various levels of jurisdiction and agreements, from
international to national to local.
Other important factors that needs to be considered while establishing the criteria is the types of BZ
(Department of Wildlife and National Parks Malaysia, 2001):
Traditional use zones inside PAs - There are situations when there are no suitable land exists outside
reserves for BZs. It is preferable to permit collection for certain natural forest products from some
parts of the reserve at certain time rather than have to exercise valuable lands for buffers. For
examples, fishing without poisons or explosive and collecting gums and raisin.
Forest buffers - These include fuel wood or timber forests outside PA boundaries but on public land.
These maybe natural forests, enriched secondary forest or even plantations where emphasis is on
maximizing sustained yield for local village use, while maintaining good soil and water protection.
Economic buffers - It is needed to reduce the needs of villagers to rely on the park resources from PAs.
This could be in the form of special agriculture or provision of productive buffer lands, cash tree
plantations, and wildlife cropping outside PA boundaries, but on state land, where the emphasis is on
maximizing cash returns to benefit villagers. Such buffer lands could be provided on public or other
land around PAs if the necessary legislation exists.
Physical buffers - Where there is no land available for BZ development the boundary itself must serve
as a buffer and there is sometimes a need for physical barriers such as fences, ditches, canals, bamboo
or spiny hedges. These help encourage wildlife from leaving the reserve and deter people and domestic
stock from entering.
the delineation of BZ may be the best answer. This implies that both
conservation and development thoughts be engaged as appropriate for the specific conditions that pertain
for each BZ, with social settings considered at least as important as environmental factors, and that nature
conservation and socioeconomic development are not only complementary, but also strengthen each
Greve, 2000). Various approaches and formulas
have been devised to determine and evaluate the needed sizes of a BZ (Alexandre, Crouzeilles, & Grelle,
2010; Hill, Braaten, Veitch, Lees, & Sharma, 2005; Li, Wang, & Tang, 1999). Establishing criteria that
are scientifically based should be the goal of resource and conservation agencies.
2. Purpose of study and study area
This research is conducted to assess the BZ-stakeholder relationship, how these may be improved
through the mutual understanding and consensus among them which will be translated into a set of ideal
delineation criteria for BZ of CR and help to promote the conservation purposes. The objectives of the
study include identifying stakeholders and their experiences related to the study area; their perception of
the buffer zone concept, criteria and factors influencing the criteria and proposed buffer zone delineation
for the study area. This study is a preliminary stage with the intension to gauge the level of understanding
Jamalunlaili Abdullah et al. / Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences 105 ( 2013 ) 610 – 618
of the key important stakeholders towards the BZ concept and criteria. Further study will be carried which
involve more stakeholders.
Fig. 1. Map showing FRIM and the surrounding
The study area is Forest Research Institute of Malaysia (FRIM), which was declared as a National
Heritage site in 2012 and now gearing towards UNESCO Heritage Site in 2015. Being one of the largest
man-made forests in the world, it can serve as a model for reforestation, forest management and forest
protection for the world. FRIM is located in Kepong, Kuala Lumpur and is surrounded by the Bukit
Lagong Forest Reserve on one side and new developments, mainly residential and commercial areas, on
the other. It stakeholders consist of Land Office, Forestry Department, Environmental Department,
District Office, local community and etc.
As a national heritage site, FRIM enjoys secure protection in law. However, while the area is relatively
large in local terms, it is relatively narrow in width and thus is vulnerable to disturbance and
nonconforming physical development in the peripheries. The need for the study arose out of increasing
pressure for various forms of development in these peripheries, which had the potential to negatively
affect the integrity of the park and the unique resources of the area, especially their biodiversity, water
production, and scenic values.
Landscape transformation by a number of land uses such as agriculture, commercial afforestation, and
new settlement was found to be a significant threat to the natural beauty of much of the area.
3. Methodology and limitation of the study
The study uses qualitative approach with in-depth interviews to the stakeholders. Regardless to their
level of interest and influences, identifying the stakeholders were based on their expertise, knowledge,
experience and position in the organization The representatives of an organization are likely to be the
director or the person in-charged that is reliable to be interviewed. Five key important stakeholders were
identified FRIM, Selayang District Office, Forestry Department of Peninsular Malaysia, representative
of residence (Taman Ehsan) and WWF Malaysia. Although there were more stakeholders of FRIM, five
are selected as this study is meant for a preliminary exploratory stage in order to clarify the thoughts and
614 Jamalunlaili Abdullah et al. / Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences 105 ( 2013 ) 610 – 618
opinions of the stakeholders regarding the concept and criteria of BZ delineation, and become a basis for
further detail study which will be carried out later.
4. Results and discussions
Five key important stakeholders and their position and working experiences were listed in Table 1.
Table 1. Profile of stakeholders at FRIM, Malaysia
Forest Research Institute of Malaysia
Senior Fellow Researcher. Oversee the FRIM/UNESCO project. Has 25 years of
experiences with various positions. Expert in forest management, conservation project.
Selayang District Office (SDO)
District Officer. More than 4 years working experience in local authority.
Forestry Department of Peninsular
Malaysia (FDPM)
Head of Deputy Director. 22 years of experience in forestry management and policy
Taman Ehsan residence
Community representative
World Wildlife Fund, Malaysia
Senior Officer. More than 15 years working with WWF Malaysia
criteria for delineation of BZ
Understanding of concept of buffer
zone for conservation reserve
Forestr y
Department of
An area allocated around the forest
meant for protection purposes. It
determines by specific functions and
benefits of the forest reserve
according to 11 forest classes assign
by the dept.
* virgin jungle forest (VGR),
permanent forest estate (PFE) and
water catchment area do not require
Functions and benefits based
on sustainability concept:
Environment, economic and
social features
District Office
activities. It may be in the form of
open spaces, railways, highways,
power lines and rivers.
*BZ is government land unless
mutual agreement is made between
two landowners
Community benefits
Forest Research
Institute of
An area around, inside or outside the
conservation reserve allocated for
protection of conservation reserve
and cater for specific functions.
Community and conservation
benefits. Based on type of land
use activities, i.e., residential,
industrial, forest area, highland
area and stakeholders, i.e., JPS,
JKR, Forestry Dept, Env. Dept.
Taman Ehsan
Open space between two areas, i.e.,
residential and conservation reserve
Community benefits and
World Wildlife
Fund, Malaysia
Transition land which
complementing both par
*existing or introduced forest
i.e., water
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4.1. Concept of buffer zone for conservation reserve
The study found that the understanding of the BZ concept for CR differ significantly among the
stakeholders (Table 2). FDPM defines BZ as an area located around the forest or other protected areas
meant for protection purposes. Its size determines by specific functions and benefits provided by the
forest reserve according to 11 major forest classes and some other type of protected areas, define by the
es for example, virgin jungle forest (VGR),
permanent forest estate (PFE) and water catchment area do not require BZ. While other areas for
examples, selective logging forest, river stream, and research plots, sample plots, salt lake areas, wildlife
coverage (small mammal, elephant and tiger) requires BZ. Buffer width or size for those areas has been
assigned according to
Meanwhile, SDO defines
It may be in the form of open spaces, railways, highways, power lines and rivers as well as conservation
reserve and other protected areas. The area gazetted for BZ should be handed over to government (unless
mutual agreement is made between two respective landowners), and SDO become the manager and
enforcement agencies. Similar to FDPM, SDO has its own guidelines especially in terms of the size and
functions. All BZ should cater for the local community benefits for example BZ in the form of landscape
area, basic amenities (playground and play field) and infrastructures.
On the other hand, FRIM defines BZ as an area around; inside or outside the conservation reserves
allocated for the protection of conservation reserve and cater for specific functions. The sizes vary
depending on the local condition and functions. Whilst, local community define BZ as an open space
between two areas for example, between residential and conservation reserve and should provide benefits
and protections to the community. BZ may be in the form of open space, landscape area and basic
amenities. WWFM describe BZ as a transition area which complementing
regardless to the sizes, BZ should be in the form of existing or introduced forest areas.
Nonetheless, all stakeholders agree that BZ is necessary for CR. Out of five stakeholders, only FDPM
suggest not having a buffer zone between permanent forest reserve which include water catchments
(covering the northern part) and FRIM. This is due to no activities carry out in the permanent forest
reserve; even selective logging is prohibited, which may affect the FRIM area. Thus, the entire area may
become a CR and having a BZ in between does not serve any purpose. On the other hand, all of them
agree that BZ should be inside the FRIM at the area bordering the residential due to the land ownership
constraints It is economically wise to have a BZ inside rather than outside and on private land because
these residential areas are medium low density which does not have much land or open space left for BZ.
4.2. Criteria for delineation of buffer zone at conservation reserve
The findings of the study further highlighted the understanding of the stakeholders on the delineation
criteria proposed for BZs. Although there is some dispute among them, but in general its leads to common
agreements where BZ should serve specific functions mainly for the conservation and community
benefits - Interestingly, FDPM has been practicing the sustainability concept that
covers environment, economy and social factors for their BZ. They also suggest that BZ contributes to the
preservation and improvement of natural habitat and also to enhance the environmental services provided
by the conservation reserve, for example, watershed protection. Additionally, FRIM suggests community
and conservation benefits as the criteria for their BZ with regards to the type of land use activities, i.e.,
residential, industrial, forest area, highland area and stakeholders, i.e., JPS, JKR, Forestry Department,
and Environmental Department. On the other hand local community suggests the criteria for BZ should
, and
616 Jamalunlaili Abdullah et al. / Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences 105 ( 2013 ) 610 – 618
FDPN and SDO further suggested that
there needs to abide to laws and regulations and also local arrangements. In many cases, principles are
less clear-cut and are better when agreed upon rather than simply imposed.
In conclusion, it is found that the criteria suggested are very important though, are quite general and
overlap with each other. It becomes a basis to develop further in the next research whereby more
stakeholders will be participated.
4.3. Factors determining the criteria
All stakeholders manage to list down some of the common factors which influence the establishment
of the criteria that they propose. FDPM has come out with factors specifically meant for their BZ and
mentioned in the management plan. On the other hand, SDO has listed three main factors; existing land
use, future land use and constraints resulted from both factors. These factors require further elaboration to
form sub-factors. SDO further suggest three important documents which help to identify all the related
factors National Physical Plan, Structure Plan and Local Plan. Whilst, FRIM listed five main factors;
land use, topography, activity, constraint and conflict. Those factors too require further elaborations.
Local community manages to come out with two factors; type of activity and basic amenity, while WWF
suggested four important factors; topography, biodiversity coverage, ecosystem coverage and adjacent
land use activities.
In conclusion, it is found that all factors are important, and some of it is overlapping with each other
and requires further elaboration so that sub-factor could be identified. It is also necessary to refer to
documents suggested by stakeholders and other related document such as policies and guidelines.
5. Conclusion
This study in general concludes that the stakeholders agreed on the requirement to have a buffer zone
for conservation reserve though there is dispute in term of understanding on the concept of BZ.
Interestingly, all stakeholders have the same perceptions on the delineation criteria for BZ which is to
serve specific functions and provide conservation and community benefits. This is in line with the
globally accepted concept of BZ where it serves as dual-purpose environmental and socioeconomic
benefits. No doubt, stakeholders are extremely influential towards the development of BZ. The failures
and success of BZ are depending on the stakeholders. Defining coherent conservation goals are
impossible if conflicts and disagreement remain unsolved among them.
6. Recommendation
As mentioned earlier, this is the first attempt in Malaysia to delineate a buffer zone on private and
communal land around the peripheries of a major conservation area such as FRIM. The proposed buffer
zone was designed to benefit both, the park itself, as well as landowners, visitors, and tourists, through the
implementation of control measures to conserve the integrity and natural character of both, the CA and
the buffer, and by promotion of sustainable land uses, including tourism. This research may be of more
significant should there be more important stakeholders is included especially the local community group,
tourism operators, managers and enforcement bodies. Generally, apart from the other stakeholders, local
community play important role because the factors which influence their perceptions and attitudes, as
well as the nature and the extent of the impact are likely to be different in each community (Eshlik &
Kaboudi, 2012).
useful in order to support the findings from the stakeholder
Jamalunlaili Abdullah et al. / Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences 105 ( 2013 ) 610 – 618
The authors would like to extend the utmost appreciation to the respondents for their exceptional
dedication and enthusiasm and for sharing their valuable time and support. This appreciation also goes to
Research Management Institute, Universiti Teknologi MARA, Shah Alam, Selangor, Malaysia for the
expertise and financial support. The authors also acknowledge the constructive comments for reviewing
the manuscript.
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Protected areas (PAs) play a vital role in environmental conservation, particularly in Asian countries. Numerous studies were conducted on PAs in Nepal. We analyzed 864 papers from the Web of Science database using two visualization tools: VOSviewer and CiteSpace. This study identified the most influential journals, institutions, countries, and regions. In addition, we investigated the changing trend of research hotspots on PAs in Nepal. Keyword mapping was conducted for each type of PA and their differences were compared. We found that the research hotspots are changing with the shifting of conservation policies in Nepal. We suggest conducting more predictive studies on the future development of PAs. Currently, PA research is mainly conducted in traditional disciplines, but with the impact of climate change and the consequent increase in its negative impacts, academic contributions from other disciplines are expected to increase much more. We found that there was a shift in research power in countries and regions. We also detected an imbalanced distribution in which “protected areas” and “national parks” have been studied the most. Only 12 publications were about the hunting reserve, despite its importance to snow leopard conservation and economic significance to the buffer zone communities.
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Inefficient management of protected areas (PAs) is often due to ignoring their surrounding matrix in the baseline studies, especially in wooded landscapes. In Iran, the application of landscape structure studies in protection policies and PA management is not prevalent. In this study, land cover changes in Dena Rural District (including parts of inside and outside Dena PA) have analyzed using the process of the Landsat images along with field survey two times (1989 and 2018). The landscape structural integrity was quantified based on the situation of oak forest land and its alteration. The composition and the configuration of oak forest land were assessed by metrics based on the moving extent of the Persian squirrel, Sciurus anomalus (which is an endangered focal endemic species completely dependent on the oak forest). Alterations of landscape structural integrity were compared for inside and outside Dena PA and at different altitudes. The results show connectivity loss and increased fragmentation of oak remnant patches, but this deforestation is more severe near areas facing direct human impacts and interventions. These are among attributes that are to be considered for zoning PA (such as controlling zone and training/participation zone). At higher altitudes, physical protection and strict control are more effective, while training local communities for stewardship is more essential at lower altitudes for conserving woodland integrity.
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Protected area policies negatively affect local people whose lives depend on these resources and cause conflicts between park managers and local residents. Buffer zone management is one of the tools developed to solve the problems. For the determination of buffer zones, some social, economic and ecological basic indicators should be defined. However, the most decisive factor is the local people living in the protected area. For this purpose, the data obtained by survey and interview method with experts working in the field and Kovada Lake National Park residents were analyzed with using SPSS 20 statistical package program. Mann-Whitney U test and Kruskal Wallis H tests were used in analyzes for obtained data. In addition, frequency and percentage values were used to explain the subject. According to the results of the study, all factors to be taken into consideration in determining the buffer zone, which consists of 35 factors and evaluated by experts, received a score above 3.5 points on average and were found important by the experts. In these evaluations made by experts, the highest scores were obtained from ecological and biological factors. In the assessments made by the local people, issues related to environmental protection (protection of plants and animals, prevention of poaching) and administrative matters (legal regulations, participation, information provision) were found important. Based on these findings, the determination and management of buffer zone evaluated by experts depended on effective factors and the conditions of the study area, it is thought to be convenient and useful.
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This study is an application of cultural heritage valuation using non-market methods. Contingent Valuation Method used to measure the amount of economic value by estimating willingness to pay from Surabaya residents. The economic value of the Old Town Area of Surabaya if there were improvementanddevelopment of heritage tourism is Rp. 1.471.764 billion.This value is greater than before improvement and development that is only Rp. 3.914.892.240. Multinomial logit regression was used to identify factors that affect the interest to visit and willingness to pay for the respondent. Results indicates that age, education, income, and knowledge significantly influence the interest to visit and willingness to pay. Therefore, it is necessary to encourage the development of heritage tourism, having regard to the determination of stakeholder and policy priorities.The method used in the determination of stakeholder and policy priorities is the Analytic Hierarchy Process.Overall, the use of three methods provide complete results so it can be a reference in the field of cultural heritage research and advice in the development of heritage tourism, especially in the old city area of Surabaya. Keywords: Economic Valuation, Multinomial Logistic Regression, Contingent Valuation Method, Analytical Hierarchy Process. JEL Classification: A130, D10
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Context. Buffer zones are supposed to serve the dual purpose of 'extension buffering', or an extension of core habitat areas, and 'socio buffering' to provide goods and services to humans; however, few studies have evaluated both human use of buffer zones and the occurrence of wildlife. Aims. The aim of the present study was to quantify the effects of human disturbance on wildlife by recording the use of the 4-km-wide buffer zone of Huai Kha Kaeng Wildlife Sanctuary (HKKWS), Thailand, by humans and domestic animals. Methods. Occurrence of signs of large mammals were recorded along 37 transects and relationships among distance to settlements, human activities, occurrence of domestic animals and different wildlife species were analysed. Key results. In total, 210 interviewed respondents from adjacent villages all used the buffer zone, and the transect survey revealed that a large proportion of the plots (71%) were used by humans and/or domestic animals. The frequency of human use decreased linearly with distance from the buffers-zone edge, whereas the use by cattle decreased rapidly at a distance of 2000m from the buffer-zone edge. In general, the HKKWS buffer zone was a suitable habitat for several wildlife species. Sambar deer and banteng occurred in >25% of the plots. The proportion of plots with signs of sambar deer, banteng and elephant was negatively associated with the proportion of plots with signs of domestic animals, whereas the proportion of plots with signs of common muntjac was negatively associated with the proportion of plots with signs of human activities. Conclusions. The results from the present study suggest that the 4-km buffer zone in HKKWS reduces the impact of both humans and domestic animals. Implications. The size of human populations, restrictions for grazing domestic animals and habitat quality are suggested to be factors of importance for establishment of well designed buffer zones.
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The problems existing in design of buffer zones are analyzed, and a procedure for designing the buffer zone of reserves is proposed. The Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) is applied to design the width of buffer zone. The different importance of influences in different sections around the reserve leads to different widths of buffer zone being designated around the reserve. The method is illustrated by a case study, designing the buffer zone for the Yancheng Biosphere Reserve, China.
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A strategy to avoid the loss of habitats and preserve large areas is the establishment of protected areas. Brazil's Conservation Units National System (SNUC) determines that protected areas should be surrounded by buffer zones where human activity is restrict, but the established size of the buffer seems arbitrary. The restrictions provided by SNUC could be based on limits that allow the persistence of species' ecological function. Here we use the "landscape species" concept as a tool for buffer zone design, using the marsupial Micoureus paraguayanus as a model organism. We used its minimum area requirement for population viability (5,000 ha) to define the size of buffer zones around protected areas with smaller size that the minimum required area. The amount of habitat within protected areas was negatively correlated with the buffer size. Therefore, the largest the protected area, the smaller should be its buffer zone, provided that it does not have an impermeable barrier. Buffer zones are generally in private properties and, therefore, governmental incentives are essential to stimulate land uses compatible with biological flux through a permeable matrix. The method proposed here provides a simple analysis that can be used to establish the limits of buffer zones.
This literature review is based on 53 articles (26 from peer-reviewed journals). Forty-two of these articles specifically refer to the type of buffer zones analyzed here. The main goals set for this review are to identify the principal issues around the buffer zone concept at the present date and to determine the main problems and advantages of the concept. It is clear from the review that there is no agreement among conservationists regarding what is, or should be, the role of buffer zones. Due to this, confusion arises on what the objectives of buffer zones are. Two antagonist positions are identified. One proposes buffer zones as an extension of national parks and the other argues for buffer zones whose major role is to integrate parks and people. I conclude that regardless of the position taken there is an urgent need for a clear definition on the objective of buffer zones.
Cities play an important role in the global carbon cycle. They produce a large proportion of CO2 emissions, but they also sequester and store carbon in urban forests and green space. However, sequestration by urban green space is difficult to quantify and also involves emissions. The carbon footprint analysis is an established method for systematically quantifying carbon sinks and sources throughout the lifetime of goods and services. We applied this method to an urban green space project in Leipzig, Germany. To the best of our knowledge it is the first application in this field. We simulated carbon sequestration by growing trees and contrasted it with all related carbon sources, from construction and maintenance over the lifetime of 50 years. In addition, we explored alternative design and maintenance scenarios. Total net sequestration was predicted to be between 137 and 162 MgCO2 ha−1. Park-like design and maintenance is less effective than forest-like design and maintenance. Much uncertainty is linked to tree growth and tree mortality. Increasing annual tree mortality from 0.5 to 4% reduces sequestration by over 70%. In conclusion, urban green space can act as a carbon sink and the design and maintenance have a strong influence on the carbon footprint. The carbon footprint analysis is a valuable tool for estimating the long-term environmental performance of urban green space projects. Compared to emissions from people, the overall potential for carbon mitigation is limited, even in cities such as Leipzig with widely available space for new urban green space.
As populations increase and forest areas decline, protected areas are being defined in an attempt to preserve remnants of original flora and fauna. This is problematic where local populations exist within or close to protected area boundaries. These people are often compelled to exploit protected area resources to survive. Theoretically, socioeconomic activities and projects directed at buffer areas can decrease pressure on protected areas and provide opportunities for local populations to become active in their management. This research studied a group of rice farmers and laborers in a remote village in the Philippines to ascertain whether potential increases in farmer income affect pressure for production within the national park. From in-depth interviews, field visits, and wealth and status ranking, our case study substantiates some of the claims made by other authors, but goes further to more comprehensively implicate land tenure as a central issue in this particular situation.
Management of mangroves in a sustainable ecological as well as economic way is a difficult proposition and needs multi-disciplinary intervention. This paper highlights the importance of criteria and indicators to evaluate the status of performance of communities in managing their mangroves sustainably. The framework developed on the basis of 6 principles, 12 criteria, 36 indicators and 47 verifiers had been applied for assessment of Eco-Development Committees of the Sunderbans, India. Results show the presence of a highly positive correlation between performance of the committees and condition of the mangrove environment. Level of implementation of legal and institutional management strategies to protect mangroves proves to be the essential pre-condition in achieving sustainability. The study further demonstrates the effectiveness of the developed framework in the context of community forestry since the methodology was designed to be simple and flexible so as to apply it in forest management unit level without any major difficulty.