Article

The Bullying Dynamic: Prevalence of Involvement Among a Large-Scale Sample of Middle and High School Youth with and without Disabilities

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Abstract

Bullying has been the topic of much debate and empirical investigations over the past decade. Contemporary literature contends that students with disabilities may be overrepresented within the bullying dynamic as both perpetrators and victims. Unfortunately, prevalence rates associated with the representation of students with disabilities is limited due to measurement, disability status identification, and definition issues. The present study attempted to address these issues by assessing the prevalence rates of specific subgroups of students with disabilities in a large-scale cross-sectional study with 13,325 students without disabilities and 1,183 students with disabilities in Grades 6 through 12. Results suggest that overall, students with disabilities reported proportionally higher rates of bullying, fighting, relational aggression, victimization, online victimization, and relational victimization than did their peers without disabilities. These findings suggest that schools must begin to establish targeted interventions to support skill development based on characteristics associated with specific disability identification.

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... result from anger, delinquent behaviors, depression, aggression, lack of social skills, and prior victimization (Rose et al., 2010(Rose et al., , 2015Rose & Espelage, 2012). In fact, some scholars have questioned whether bullying perpetration as defined traditionally is applicable to youth with disabilities (Blake et al., 2012;Rose et al., 2015). ...
... result from anger, delinquent behaviors, depression, aggression, lack of social skills, and prior victimization (Rose et al., 2010(Rose et al., , 2015Rose & Espelage, 2012). In fact, some scholars have questioned whether bullying perpetration as defined traditionally is applicable to youth with disabilities (Blake et al., 2012;Rose et al., 2015). Given that many children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and related disabilities are less accepted and more rejected by their peers (Chamberlain et al., 2006;Symes & Humphrey, 2010), they may not have the social power to perpetrate bullying. ...
... Prior studies on ASD and bullying have mainly focused on victimization as opposed to perpetration; these studies have found that students with ASD are at an increased risk for victimization compared to typically developing (TD) peers, with victimization rates ranging from 38.5% (Rodriguez et al., 2021) to 72.6% (Rose et al., 2015). In a meta-analysis and systematic review, children with ASD had pooled victimization prevalence rates of 33% for physical, 55% for verbal, and 31% for relational bullying. ...
Article
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Children with ASD are more likely to be involved in bullying compared to typically developing peers; however, studies rarely examine bullying perpetration and the contributing factors among this population. The primary aim of this study was to examine the extent to which parent-reported ASD symptoms, social skills, and comorbid externalizing and internalizing symptoms predicted bullying perpetration in a sample of 390 children with ASD without intellectual disability. Findings from hierarchical regression analyses indicated that social skill deficits, externalizing symptoms (i.e., hyperactivity, aggression, and conduct problems), and depressive symptoms were associated with higher likelihood of bullying perpetration, while severity of ASD symptoms and anxiety were not significant predictors. Further research is needed to better understand bullying perpetration among children with ASD.
... context Previous research identifies three common characteristics of target suitability for cybercrime: gender, disability and public Wi-Fi use (see e.g. Kalia & Aleem, 2017;NortonLifeLock Inc., 2020;Rose et al., 2015). Gender is one of the most extensively researched demographic characteristics for online crime risks, but there is conflicting evidence for which gender is more vulnerable. ...
... It is argued that individuals with disabilities may be more suitable targets for cybercrime as they are often marginalised by peers, lack social support, have difficulties participating in social interactions, or even understanding their victimisation. These vulnerabilities thus place them at higher risk of online victimisation, and cyberbullying in particular (Rose et al., 2011(Rose et al., , 2015Schroeder et al., 2014). More systematic evidence can be drawn from a recent review of eight studies conducted in Europe, North America, the Middle East, and Australia, suggesting that students with neurodevelopmental disorder are more likely to experience cyberbullying compared to students without any neurodevelopment conditions (Beckman et al., 2020). ...
... Research has found individuals with either physical or mental disabilities, suffer a higher risk of online victimisation 5 (Rose et al., 2015;Sourander et 5 Otherwise in the offline context, research has also suggested an increased risk of both personal and property victimisation among people with a physical disability (Mueller- Johnson et al., 2014) and mental or intellectual disability (Fogden et al., 2016;Hughes et al., 2012;Nixon et al., 2017;Silver et al., 2005;Tsigebrhan et al., 2014;Wilson et al., 1996;Wilson & Brewer, 1992). An additional example could be found in the fact that people with intellectual disabilities are commonly abused by their carers (Petersilia, 2001). ...
Thesis
Environmental criminology concerns the role of opportunities (both people and objects) existing in the environment that make crimes more likely to occur. Research consistently shows that opportunity perspectives (particularly with regard to individuals’ lifestyles and routines) help in explaining the prevalence and concentration of crimes. However, there is a paucity of studies investigating crime patterns from an opportunity perspective both outside western countries and in relation to cybercrimes. Hence, it is not clear whether non-Western and online contexts exhibit similar patterns of crime as would be predicted by an opportunity perspective. This thesis is concerned with criminal victimisation in Taiwan – a less researched setting in the field of environmental criminology. It covers both offline victimisation (with a focus on burglary) and online victimisation from the aforementioned opportunity perspective. The goal of this thesis is to identify individual- and area-level characteristics that affect the patterns of victimisation in Taiwan. To achieve this, the thesis draws on a range of secondary datasets, including police recorded crime statistics, the Taiwan Area Victimisation Survey, and the Digital Opportunity Survey for Individuals and Households. With the application of quantitative modelling, the thesis suggests that the generalisability the lifestyle-routine activity approach in explaining crime patterns in Taiwan should be taken with caution. The findings provide partial support for its applicability in relation to burglary and cybercrime in Taiwan. Furthermore, the findings reported here in relation to patterns of repeat and near repeat victimisation depart from those observed in the western literature. The thesis concludes by discussing the implications of the findings for academic research and practice in crime prevention.
... Studies which analyzed prevalence of bullying and victimization do not always clearly differentiate between bullying in school and cyberbullying. In addition, the prevalence rates for (cyber-)bullying can vary depending on the type of question used (e.g., dichotomous, scaled) (Rose et al., 2015). A German survey from 2018 which specifically dealt with cyberbullying came to the result that around 4% of the students stated that they bullied someone online and/or were bullied online (Fischer et al., 2020). ...
... As already mentioned, studies state that adolescents with special educational needs in emotional-social development and learning are more often involved in bullying than adolescents without special educational needs (Cho et al., 2009;Kaukiainen et al., 2002;Margraf & Pinquart, 2016;Nabuzoka, 2003;Rose et al., 2015). Researchers reported that bullying is associated with the following individual characteristics (Cho et al., 2009): academic difficulties, rejection by peers, poor social skills, inadequate problem-solving strategies, negative social relationships, low socioeconomic status (Cho et al., 2009;Cook et al., 2010;Margraf & Pinquart, 2016), externalization behavior, aggression and hyperactivity (Kaukiainen et al., 2002;Margraf & Pinquart, 2016;Nabuzoka, 2003), low social intelligence and competence (Kaukiainen et al., 2002;Nabuzoka, 2003). ...
... indicate the reciprocal relationship in the bullying dynamic, which has also been discussed in other studies (Blake et al., 2016;Hong & Espelage, 2012;Rose et al., 2015). ...
Article
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Bullying in school and cyberbullying are highly relevant issues. Students with special educational needs in emotional–social development and learning show individual characteristics that could be risk factors for bullying perpetration and victimization (e.g., externalizing behavior problems or poor social skills). Therefore, the present study was carried out to explore differences in school bullying and cyberbullying between adolescents without and with the aforementioned special educational needs. A cross-sectional questionnaire study was carried out with N = 649 (Mage = 13.66, SD = 2.17, 61% boys and 39% girls) participants from Lower Saxony (Germany). Analyses of covariance only revealed differences regarding school bullying. Adolescents with special educational needs in emotional–social development were significantly more often bullying perpetrators. For the victim role, there are no differences between the groups without and with special educational needs in emotional–social development and in learning. The externalizing behavior problems of adolescents were considered to be the main predictor of bullying behavior and victim experiences. To imply targeted bullying interventions and preventions further research is needed focusing on characteristics, risk, and protective factors of special educational needs in emotional–social development.
... Children with EBD have been found to have higher incidence in self-reports for many categories of bullying behaviour including bully, victim, and bully-victim (Rose, Simpson, & Moss, 2015). The notion that perhaps students with exceptionalities as a whole may even be predisposed to participation due to individual characteristics such as temperament and personality traits has also been explored (Farmer, Wike, Alexander, Rodkin, & Mehtaji, 2015;Marini & Dane, 2008;Rose & Espelage, 2012;Zinner et al., 2012). ...
... Understanding the psychological impact of the bully-victim roles on certain students is crucial in understanding and developing intervention programs (Marini & Dane, 2008;Espelage, Rose, & Polanin, 2015). Recent research indicates that students with EBD make up a large portion of students with exceptionalities involved in bullying situations (Maag & Katsiyannis, 2012;Rose & Espelage, 2012;Rose et al., 2015). Rose and Espelage (2012) and Rose et al. (2016) found that students with EBD reported significantly higher levels of bullying and fighting than other subgroups of students with exceptionalities. ...
... Although many scholars have researched this topic and made recommendations for intervention, children with EBD continue to be involved in bullying as victims and bullies (Farmer et al., 2015;Rose et al., 2015;Rose et al., 2016;Rose & Monda-Amaya, 2011). To date much of the research has focused on measures to establish percentages of individuals who can be classified into categories of bullying. ...
Article
Young people with emotional and behavioural disorders (EBD) comprise a unique group of students involved in school bullying. The present case study examined the bullying experiences of a group of students, aged 10–14 years, identified as having EBD. A total of ten students participated in self-report questionnaires and interview-style journaling. The main research questions were related to type of involvement in bullying and the bullying experiences in this population. Questionnaires and journaling gathered information about involvement in bullying, as well as about psychological risk factors including normative beliefs about anti-social acts, impulsivity, problem solving, and coping strategies. The overall results indicated that all ten students had participated in bullying as either a bully, a victim, or both. They described their experiences involving both external and internal aggression. These personal accounts offer insight into implications for intervention and educational practices.
... Adolescents with disabilities tend to be less positive about their friendships (Coudronnière et al. 2018;Franke et al. 2019;Ecotiere 2015;MacArthur 2013) and less likely to report having a cohesive network of friends (Gerhardt et al. 2015;Tipton et al. 2013). In addition, students with disabilities face harassment, bullying and peer violence more often than their peers without disabilities (Daley et al. 2018, Humphrey andHebron 2015;Jones et al. 2012;Rose et al. 2015;Sentenac et al. 2013). Edwards et al. (2003) investigated composite quality of life (including each of the three components of SWB) among American high school students with (n = 220) and without (n = 740) self-reported disabilities, and found that no statistically significance difference existed after controlling for measures of social adversity (e.g. ...
... In preadolescence and adolescence, children with disabilities reported more impoverished peer relationships and greater exposure to peer victimisation than same age peers. These results are congruent with previous studies suggesting that adolescents with disabilities report greater difficulty building and maintaining close bonds with peers, and are more likely to be exposed to harassment, bullying and violence when compared with their counterparts without disabilities (Daley et al. 2018;Humphrey and Hebron 2015;Jones et al. 2012;MacArthur 2013;Rose et al. 2015;Sentenac et al. 2013;Tipton et al. 2013). ...
... Targeted school-based interventions including anti-stigma programmes, social skills training, guided peer interaction, and providing specialised training for teachers and support staff, have demonstrated promise in the short term (e.g. Beaumont and Sofronoff 2008;Brock et al. 2016;Humphrey and Hebron 2015;Mikton et al. 2014;Raghavendra et al. 2013;Raskauskas and Modell 2011;Rose et al. 2015). Further research in this area is needed to find the most efficient and long-lasting means of countering the roots of exclusion and victimisation of children and adolescents with disabilities. ...
Article
Full-text available
In line with growing interest in subjective well-being (SWB) as a goal of public policy, a substantial research base examining the correlates, effects and determinants of adolescent SWB is beginning to develop. However, there is a dearth of data on the SWB of adolescents with disabilities. The limited available data suggest that adolescents with disabilities in high-income countries face a heightened risk of poorer SWB relative to peers without disabilities. Few studies have investigated potential causes of disability-based differences in adolescent SWB. This lack of research may be due, in part, to the widely held but now contested assumption that disability is inherently negative and therefore a direct cause of poorer SWB. Utilising data from the Canadian National Longitudinal Survey of Children and Youth, this study investigated the potential mediating role of adverse life conditions, including socioeconomic disadvantage, impoverished peer relationships, and peer victimisation. Employing structural equation modelling, the study found evidence consistent with a causal chain running from early childhood disability, through adverse life conditions, to poorer adolescent SWB. The findings suggest that poorer SWB in adolescents with disabilities cannot be assumed or attributed to disability in any straightforward way. With equivalent means, including economic and social resources, adolescents with disabilities may enjoy levels of SWB that are not significantly different from their peers without disabilities.
... Youth with disabilities have been identified as being at particular risk for bullying victimization and perpetration (Rose and Gage 2017;Rose et al. 2015). Highlighting this, the aforementioned study by Lebrun-Harris et al. (2018) reported that bullying victimization was experienced by 52.36% of children and 60.27% of adolescents with developmental delays, whereas bullying perpetration was carried out by 14.99% of children and 13.69% of adolescents with developmental delays. ...
... The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between participation in extracurricular activities and bullying perpetration and victimization among children and adolescents with disabilities. Consistent with previous studies (Lebrun-Harris et al. 2018;Rose and Gage 2017;Rose et al. 2015) children and adolescents with disabilities were significantly more likely to experience bullying victimization and engage in bullying perpetration than those without disabilities. Thus, the importance of examining engagement in extracurricular activities as a mechanism that influences bullying behaviors is reinforced, particularly given the associated social, emotional, and psychological consequences of these behaviors (Benedict et al. 2015;Due et al. 2005;Shetgiri et al. 2013). ...
... In conclusion, consistent with previous research (Rose and Gage 2017;Rose et al. 2015) this analysis demonstrated that children and adolescents with disabilities are at particular risk for bullying victimization and engagement in bullying perpetration. Similar to children without disabilities, it appears that engagement in extracurricular activities is significantly associated with lower odds of experiencing bullying victimization among those with disabilities. ...
Article
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Objectives The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between participation in extracurricular activities and bullying perpetration and victimization among children and adolescents with disabilities. Methods A nationally representative sample of 1906 children with and 15,901 children without disabilities and 1782 adolescents with and 15,885 adolescents without disabilities from the 2016 National Survey of Children’s Health was utilized. Parent-reported responses pertaining to bullying perpetration and victimization and extracurricular engagement were analyzed. Separate multilevel logistic regression analyses were conducted for children and adolescents, and separate analyses were conducted with a full sample of children as well as with a subset of children with disabilities. Results A nationally representative sample of 1906 children with and 15,901 children without disabilities and 1782 adolescents with and 15,885 adolescents without disabilities from the 2016 National Survey of Children’s Health was utilized. Parent-reported responses pertaining to bullying perpetration and victimization and extracurricular engagement were analyzed. Results indicated that extracurricular engagement can reduce the likelihood of experiencing bullying victimization among adolescences with disabilities. However, extracurricular engagement was not associated with lower odds of bullying perpetration. Conclusions for Practice These findings contribute to our understanding of the role extracurricular engagement can play in bullying behaviors among youth with disabilities. Similar to children without disabilities, it appears that engagement in extracurricular activities is significantly associated with lower odds of experiencing bullying victimization among those with disabilities. Conversely, the positive effects of extracurricular involvement on bullying perpetration risk was not evident in this current study.
... Three research lines are followed on the issue of bullying and SEN, each one characterized by the use of a type of measurement instrument: (1) studies on bullying in a general minor population who are distinguished in terms of having SEN or not [3,25,26,28,29]; (2) specific studies on bullying in minors with SEN [23,27,30]; and (3) studies of diagnosis and clinic observation in cases of SEN that consider bullying experiences (e.g., [31]). ...
... The study of bullying in Latin American countries on wide samples by means of reliable and validated measurement instruments, equivalent to the ones used in other countries from other regions, is a scientific challenge. Furthermore, another challenge is to identify and learn more about the particularities of the aggression and victimization in school-aged children with SEN in order to prevent and reduce it [28,35]. This second challenge is conditioned by: (1) the absence of validated and standardized instruments that assess bullying in students with SEN [27]; and (2) the scarcity of studies on discriminatory bullying towards individuals with SEN [23]. ...
... In the discriminatory bullying around SEN, we observed a high correlation between its factors of discriminatory victimization and discriminatory aggression. This is coherent with recent observations [21][22][23]28], so we may raise the possibility that there is also certain dynamism between roles in discriminatory bullying. ...
Article
Full-text available
Two important challenges in research on bullying are to have reliable tools to measure traditional bullying and discriminatory bullying related to special educational needs (SEN), and to learn more about their prevalence. We present the validations of two instruments to measure bullying (European Bullying Intervention Project Questionnaire, EBIPQ) and discriminatory bullying with respect to SEN (EBIPQ-Special Education Needs Discrimination version, henceforth EBIPQ-SEND). A total of 17,309 teenagers from Ecuador took part in the study (M = 14.76, SD = 1.65; 49.9% male). The item response theory analyses evidenced accuracy and quality of the measures. The confirmatory factor analyses of the EBIPQ and the EBIPQ-SEND revealed the same two-factor structure-aggression and victimization-regardless of gender, showing optimal fit indexes. We present the results of the prevalence according to the roles of participation in traditional bullying and discriminatory bullying around SEN. Significant gender and age differences were observed for involvement in both phenomena. We also discuss the advantages of applying the EBIPQ and the EBIPQ-SEND to evaluate and diagnose harassment and discriminatory harassment around SEN.
... Studies have found that compared with typically developing children, autistic children face a significantly higher risk of child maltreatment (50.4%-80%) 1,10-12,14-17 and bullying (44%-97.8%). 1,12,[17][18][19][20][21][22] Victimization often continues into adulthood, and autistic adults report more sexual victimization and bullying than nonautistic adults. 23,24 Many factors associated with autism increase vulnerability to IPT. ...
... 9 However, there is little research exploring gender, IPT, and PTSD for autistic adults. Two studies found that trauma-exposed autistic females and males are equally likely to develop posttraumatic stress, 22,25 and an Israeli study found elevated PTSD symptoms in autistic females but not males. 24 Even less is known about the risk for autistic gender minorities despite transgender individuals having a high risk for traumatic events and subsequent posttraumatic stress. ...
Article
Background: Many autistic adults report interpersonal traumas (IPTs) such as physical or sexual assault, which are often associated with posttraumatic stress and dissociation. Factors such as gender might make autistic individuals particularly vulnerable to experiencing IPT and negative posttraumatic symptoms. Methods: In this study, 687 self-identified autistic adults completed an online survey on their traumatic experiences and mental health symptoms. Results: Seventy-two percent of participants reported experiencing sexual assault, other unwanted or uncomfortable sexual experiences, or physical assault. Forty-four percent of participants met the criteria for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), including 50% of those who had experienced IPT and 28% of those who had not (odds ratio = 2.50; 95% confidence interval 1.74–3.60). IPT was also significantly associated with higher levels of psychoform (p < 0.001) and somatoform (p < 0.001) dissociation. Autistic cisgender women and gender minorities experienced a significantly higher number of traumas (p = 0.004) and were significantly more likely than cisgender men to experience sexual IPT (p < 0.001) and meet the criteria for PTSD (p < 0.001). There were no significant differences between autistic individuals with and without a professional autism spectrum disorder (ASD) diagnosis. Conclusions: IPT is associated with potentially severe mental health outcomes for autistic adults. Autistic women and gender minorities may be particularly vulnerable to sexual IPT and adverse outcomes. Increased screening for a history of IPT and posttraumatic symptoms is recommended for all autistic adults regardless of ASD diagnosis status.
... Similar to other disabilities, individuals who stutter experience higher rates of victimization than individuals who do not stutter (Rose et al., 2015). CWS are less popular than their classmates and suffer a higher risk of being rejected and bullied (Erickson & Block, 2013). ...
... Within a group, the role of the person who enacts bullying behaviors is most often played by an individual without special needs (Kozmus & Pšunder, 2018), while individuals with special educational needs (SEN) suffer higher levels of victimization and bullying compared to their peers (Andreou, Didaskalou, Vlachou, 2015). Moreover, students with disabilities (i.e., specific learning disability, another health impairment, intellectual disability, emotional behavioral disability, autism spectrum disorder, speech, or language impairment, deafness, orthopedic impairment, visual impairment, or traumatic brain injury) display higher rates of online victimization, relational victimization, bullying, fighting, and aggression when compared with students without disabilities (Rose et al., 2015). ...
Article
Full-text available
Children who stutter are at risk of being excluded, rejected, or bullied at school because of their impairment. The aim of the current research is to assess the relationship between students and teachers and students’ social status in their peer group and bullying dimensions in children who stutter. A total of 536 children – 62 affected by stuttering and 474 in the control group – participated in the study, with a mean age of 11.42 (SD = 1.55), and 50.2% of whom were male. Among the tested models, model 2 showed better fit with statistically significant relations: χ2 = 109.02, df = 38, p <.01; CFI = .94; RMSEA = .06 [90% CI = .05, .07]; and, thus, it was retained as the best representation of the data. This study offers preliminary evidence about the role of the presence of stuttering in students as a predictor of bullying.
... The existing body of research on the peer relations of students with EBD suggest that many of them struggle to gain peer acceptance and experience problematic peer interactions as exemplified by their increased risk for peer rejection and involvement in peer victimization (e.g., Farmer, Pearl, & Van Acker, 1996;Rose, Simpson, & Moss, 2015). For instance, in a study of 14,000 middle and high school students, including youth with and without disabilities, Rose and colleagues (2015) found that students with EBD reported higher rates of victimization and aggression as compared to youth in several other disability categories and those without disabilities. ...
... For example, youth's ability to garner acceptance from peers and their risk for victimization involvement is influenced by their social skills (Rose et al., 2015) and the opportunity to utilize those skills with peers (Farmer et al., 1996). Consider that how youth interpret social cues will influence how they make bids for friendships. ...
Chapter
This chapter discusses developmental processes and tasks during the middle and high school years with a particular focus on the contextual changes for youth with emotional and behavioral disorders (EBD). Normative developmental changes to internal factors across the cognitive, emotional, psychological, and behavioral domains are discussed. A discussion of how external factors, such as the family and school context, can impact adolescents’ development is presented and the utility of the developmental science perspective for understanding internal and external changes in combination is discussed. The importance of understanding how the context can impact the functioning and adaptation of youth with emotional and behavioral disorders is emphasized with examples of school and family experiences of youth with EBD. Lastly, this chapter advocates for utilizing knowledge about developmental processes in intervention efforts to promote adaptation and positive adjustment for youth with EBD.
... My experience kind of made me more empathetic than a bully." While most participants appeared to have portrayed the typical role of a passive victim, who does not act out toward her bullies (Rose, Simpson, & Moss, 2015), Terrell was one participant to recall taking on a role as a provocative victim, or someone that develops bullying characteristics as a result of exposure to victimization (Rose et al., 2011). For example, Terrell described one retaliatory instance in high school: HAEGELE ET AL. ...
... Terrell provided a depiction of an account as a provocative bullying victim who adopts bullying behaviors as a way to combat prior victimization (Rose et al., 2015). This is consistent with research among individuals without disabilities, which suggests that large numbers of bullying victims exhibit aggressive behaviors to eliminate the Among youth with visual impairments, instances of verbal harassment (e.g., name calling, teasing) have been reported as being among the most frequent types of bullying (Bear et al., 2015;Dane-Staples et al., 2013). ...
Article
The purpose of this study was to describe the reflections of adults with visual impairments regarding bullying experiences during their school-based education. An interpretative phenomenological analysis research approach was used and 11 participants (aged 20-35 years; seven women, four men) participated in this study. The sources of data were semi-structured audiotaped telephone interviews and reflective field notes. Thematic development was undertaken utilizing a three-step analytical process guided by the research approach. Based on the data analysis, three interrelated themes were constructed: (a) "It would be when they knew there weren't teachers watching": bullying experiences in unowned and unstructured spaces; (b) "Going through the motions": feelings about verbal, social, and physical victimization ; and (c) "They had their own insecurities": understanding the bullies and bystanders. The emerged themes provide a unique insight into the way in which those with visual impairments experienced bullying in schools and the meaning they ascribed to those experiences.
... Esta vulnerabilidad social les convierte en objetivos fáciles para los agresores, quienes tienden a buscar víctimas débiles con poca capacidad para defenderse ( Gómez-Ortiz et al. 2017). El mayor riesgo de Parte 1 La inclusión en la educación como meta implicación directa en relación a sus pares, que puede asociarse no sólo con el tipo de discapacidad, sino también con la gravedad, la visibilidad, el entorno escolar, la situación económica social y las redes de apoyo ( Rose et al. 2015). Por ejemplo, en el estudio de Zeedyk et al. (2014) que evaluó las tasas de victimización por bullying entre adolescentes con TEA, discapacidad intelectual y pares con desarrollo típico, se obtuvo resultados que muestran que los adolescentes con TEA tenían más probabilidades de experimentar la victimización, seguidos por aquellos con discapacidad intelectual y finalmente los jóvenes con desarrollo típico. ...
... La comprensión de los factores precursores y protectores asociados con la sobrerrepresentación de los estudiantes con NEE es fundamental para establecer programas y políticas eficaces contra la intimidación ( Rose et al. 2015). Algunas investigaciones apuntan a indagar las construcciones sociales sobre discapacidad y las relaciones de poder asimétricas resultantes en el ambiente escolar ( Chatzitheochari et al. 2016). ...
Book
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La educación inclusiva es el esfuerzo para garantizar el acceso a una educación de calidad para todos, independientemente de su estatus social y económico, riqueza familiar, ubicación geográfica, raza, etnia, género, edad, cultura o idioma. Esta es una preocupación de larga data, pero aún muy apremiante en todo el mundo, como señalan inequívocamente los Objetivos de Desarrollo Sostenible de las Naciones Unidas (ODS 4). Este libro reúne una gran cantidad de material sobre tendencias y problemas actuales en la educación inclusiva. Muchos factores y fuerzas están en juego aquí. Algunos residen dentro de los diversos sistemas educativos locales, regionales y nacionales, como los obstáculos en la disponibilidad y calidad del personal docente y la infraestructura educativa, y las formas adecuadas de atenderlos. Pero también hay factores y fuerzas que se originan en el exterior, que conducen a un complejo entrelazado de cuestiones y consideraciones políticas, culturales, económicas, financieras, judiciales, legales y democráticas. Este libro documenta críticamente estas situaciones para el mundo globalizado de hoy. Una característica única es que lo hace en particular desde una perspectiva latinoamericana, cubriendo así una amplia variedad de contextos, pueblos y países (Argentina, Bolivia, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, Honduras, México, Paraguay), cuyas voces a menudo no son bien escuchadas en las comunidades educativas y académicas internacionales y en los círculos políticos. Como resultado de una colaboración única de más de veinte instituciones de Educación Superior de América Latina con universidades europeas, este volumen presenta el libro en español titulado Cultura, Ciudadanía, Participación-Perspectivas de la Educación Inclusiva, editado por Anna Bon y Mónica Pini, publicado simultáneamente en inglés con la colaboración de Hans Akkermans. La fuerte interacción entre lo local y lo global es sorprendente. Existe una dura lucha en todas partes, local y nacionalmente, para obtener los profesionales adecuados y los recursos de infraestructura necesarios. Como se desprende de los diversos capítulos del libro, se deben tener en cuenta muchos detalles culturales y sociales locales. Al mismo tiempo, del libro surge que en muchos lugares hay una tendencia a la privatización neoliberal y a la comercialización de la educación orientada a las ganancias, que tiende a producir y reproducir desigualdades crecientes en la sociedad que contrarrestan el logro de la inclusión en la educación. Este es solo uno de los aspectos que hacen que las experiencias y perspectivas latinoamericanas sean reconocibles y altamente relevantes a nivel mundial.
... The four items loaded onto a common factor in both exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses (Cronbach's a = .88; Espelage & Holt, 2001) and had good reliability among middle schoolers (e.g., Cronbach's a = .79-.80; Rose et al., 2015). These items also loaded onto a common bullying factor with high reliabilities at each grade in the ECLS-K: 2011 (.89, 90, and .90 in third, fourth, and fifth grade, respectively). ...
Article
Full-text available
We analyzed a population-representative cohort (N=13,611; Mage at kindergarten, first, and second grade = 67.5, 79.5, and 91.5 months, respectively) to identify kindergarten to second grade factors predictive of being bullies or victims during third to fifth grade. We did so by estimating a block recursive structural equation model (SEM) with three sets of predictors. These were: (a) individual and school socio-demographics; (b) family distress and harsh parenting; and (c) individual behavior and achievement. Relations between each of the included variables and the bullying outcomes were simultaneously estimated within the SEM. Thus, each variable served as a control for estimating the effects of the other variables. We used robust standard errors to account for student clustering within schools. Results indicated that externalizing problem behavior strongly predicted being a bully ([ES] = .56, p<.001) and a victim (ES=.29, p<.001). We observed a negative relation between being Hispanic and being a victim (ES = -.10, p<.001) and a positive relation between being Black and being a bully (ES = .11, p<.001). We also observed statistically significant relations between a family’s socioeconomic status and being a bully (ES = -.08, p<.001) as well as school poverty and being a victim (ES = .07, p<.001). The results advance the field’s limited understanding of risk and protective factors for bullying perpetration or victimization during elementary school and provide additional empirical support for assisting young children already exhibiting externalizing problem behaviors.
... For example, exclusion can bring very severe effects in biased-based-bullying of young people with disabilities (Diez, 2010). At the same time, it is not included in some bullying tools and absent in various prevention programs (Rose et al., 2015). Also cyberbullying based on racial/ethnic grounds presents a high victimisation potential (Henry, 2013). ...
Article
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Nationality and ethnicity-based (cyber)bullying (NEBB) is generally understood as peer violence where the issues of nationality and ethnicity of the actors involved (mostly targets and perpetrators) come into play. Although central for this kind of bullying, the national, ethnic and cultural differences are not the only aspects that should be included in NEBB definition and measurement approach. Closer analysis of how specifically they may be involved and impact the dynamics and phenomenology of peer aggression suggests the need for establishing a set of criteria that may be implemented into operationalization strategies. This theoretical text presents the different level criteria that may be used for analysing and typologizing the phenomenon of NEBB. These include both behavioral and formal characteristics of hostile behaviours as well as specific issues concerning nationality and ethnicity of bullying actors and racist/nationalistic content. Then the impact of how aspects of the proposed criteria should be present in survey tools is discussed, in order to fully measure the specific types of nationality and ethnicity based bullying. Also the rationale is presented for including contextual aspects in both measurement strategies and interpretation of the results.
... Reviewed studies included also prevalence rates for some additional comorbidity such as suicide, bullying, trauma, tic disorder, gender identity disorder and enuresis/encopresis (14,15,30,35,(44)(45)(46)(47)(48)(49)(50)(51). These comorbidities were not included in the meta-analysis due to the low number of studies, however they are presented with details in the Supplement C in Supplementary Table for interested readers. ...
Article
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Psychiatric comorbidity in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a subject of critical scientific importance, affecting the quality of life, prognosis, and functional outcomes. The prevalence of psychiatric disorders vary considerably according to variables such as index subject characteristics, study setting, sampling frame, diagnostic methods used, as well as country of geographic origin. To date, most studies comprise clinical or treatment referral samples in tertiary care or subjects enrolled in clinical trials and genetic cohort collections. Such samples carry the potential for overestimation of both the frequency and severity of psychiatric comorbidity. A systematic literature search was performed using PubMed and Web of Science databases restricted to population-based study publications in the English between May 1, 2015, and May 31, 2020. A comprehensive keyword list was generated to investigate co-occurrence of psychiatric disorders in children and adolescents with ASD. A wide range of DSM-5 based disorders such as anxiety, mood, ADHD, intellectual disability/intellectual developmental disorder, eating/feeding, gender dysphoria and sleep-wake disorders were assessed. Initial search revealed a total of 1674 articles after removal of duplicates. Two independent researchers conducted a parallel-blinded screening process to identify the eligible studies based on titles and abstracts; 39 studies were analyzed in the current review. The main findings show prevalence estimates of 22.9% (95% CI: 17.7- 29.2) for intellectual disability; 26.2% (22-31) for attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder; 11.1% (8.6-14.1) for anxiety disorders; 19.7% (11.9-30.7) for sleep disorders; 7% (5.2- 9.3) for disruptive disorders; 2% (1.3- 3.1) for bipolar disorders; 2.7% (1.8- 4.2) for depression; 1.8% (0.4–8.7) for obsessive-compulsive disorder; and 0.6% (0.3–1.1) for psychosis. Psychiatric comorbidity in population-based studies is lower than in clinical and referred samples. However, our results also indicate that the frequency of psychiatric comorbidity in children and adolescents with ASD in the population context is considerable, without the influence of referral bias implicit in clinical and treatment samples. There is a need for better targeted diagnostic tools to detect psychiatric comorbidity in children and youth in future population-based studies, as an essential component in providing care as well as new insights into the nature and mechanisms of its underlying associations. Systematic Review Registration [https://www.crd.york.ac.uk/prospero/], identifier [CRD42021234464].
... 44%-97.8% of autistic children are bullied; contrary to common perception, this victimization may be complex and involve prolonged harassment, property theft or destruction, or group assault. It is also commonly repeated, with almost half of autistic people reporting being bullied 10 or more times (Baladerian et al., 2013;Chan et al., 2018;Griffiths et al., 2019;Hellstrom, 2019;Maïano et al., 2016;Paul et al., 2018;Rose et al., 2015;Schroeder et al., 2014;Weiss & Fardella, 2018). Autistic children are more likely to have reported and substantiated maltreatment (50.4%-80%) compared to neurotypical children, especially autistic children with co-occurring intellectual disability. ...
... Other studies do not provide participants with a definition of bullying, but instead employ descriptions of specific actions that fit with predetermined criteria in line with a researcher-chosen definition of bullying (e.g. Mischel & Kitsantas, 2020;Rose et al., 2015). A third line of research, which is far less prevalent, concerns direct assessments of participants' own verbal or written descriptions of bullying (e.g. ...
Article
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The purpose of this study was to examine lower secondary school students’ (n = 223) descriptions of bullying and their experiences with the phenomenon. Students at three schools in Norway completed a survey containing open-ended questions. We employed a mixed-methods analytical approach in which responses were coded thematically and then quantified. Findings indicate that students viewed bullying in a manner consistent with prevalent definitions in the literature. However, they were often unsure whether social conflicts they had experienced would be considered bullying. School was clearly featured as the primary arena for bullying, although bullying in free-time activities and on social media was also prevalent. Most students who had experienced bullying had told someone about it, usually their parents or teachers. Students who had not sought help did so for fear of exacerbating the problem or because they felt that they were not in a position to do so.
... Schools should consider when implementing new interventions and practices that the forms of communication and interaction between children and adolescents have mutated due to the expansion of digital technologies (Yang, Sharkey, Reed & Dowdy, 2020). Therefore, schools should aim to comprehensive prevention programs that incorporate the variety of dimensions around these behaviors, which consider that the effects of cyberbullying and bullying expand throughout time, thus requiring longer-term interventions over short-term approaches (Rose, Simpson & Moss, 2015). ...
Article
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Cyberbullying is a phenomenon that affects teenagers around the globe. Studies suggest that it has a negative impact on both victims and aggressors, becoming a public health concern. Previous studies have sought to define its predictors; however, most studies have not assessed the relationship between cyberbullying and traditional bullying or other types of aggression. Herein, we aimed to assess the association between antisocial behaviors and traditional bullying as forms of aggression that could predict cyberbullying in victims and perpetrators. A total of 791 adolescents from Santiago, Chile, were included in our study; mean age of 13.57 years old, 46.06% female. We used the structural equations model to test our model. Our results show a good fit of the model, showing a relation between antisocial behaviors and bullying, but only for the perpetrator. Bullies were associated with the roles of cyberbullying victim and cyberbullying perpetrator. Bullying victims were only associated with cyberbullying victims. Our results confirm the relation between different types of aggressive behavior, particularly for perpetrators, which could account for a unique dynamic for bullying and cyberbullying perpetrators. Prevention programs should explore more comprehensive interventions aimed at adolescents and promote a better understanding of this type of aggression.
... Our nationally representative study revealed that 41.9% of schoolattending adolescents currently engage in bullying perpetration, demonstrating a higher prevalence among the Lebanese population. In contrast with previous findings, the percentage of bullying perpetration in Lebanon is significantly greater than that in Italy (20.9%) [36], China (16.3%) [37], and the USA (19.4%) [38]. The percentage among Lebanese students should be treated with caution since the bullying scale has no cut-off point. ...
Article
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Background: Presently, 1 in 4 Lebanese adolescents is involved in bullying, with 12% being perpetrators. In Lebanon, around 90% of bullying incidents occur in schools. Given the lack of studies assessing individual and contextual variables associated with bullying perpetration in Lebanon, this study aims to identify and target risk factors of bullying perpetration among Lebanese adolescents, which would serve future prevention and intervention programs. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted between January and May 2019 using a proportionate random sample of schools from all Lebanese districts. Out of the 2000 questionnaires distributed, 1810 (90.5%) were completed and collected back. Results: Results showed that 831 (49.1%, CI: 0.46 – 0.51) participants had bullied other people. Items on the bullying scale converged on a one-factor solution with Eigenvalues greater than 1, accounting for a total of 73.63% of the variance (αCronbach=0.955). Higher psychological (Beta=0.12), sexual (Beta=0.26), neglect (Beta=0.08), and physical abuse (Beta=0.13), higher internet addiction (Beta=0.07), higher social fear (Beta=0.10), and having separated parents (Beta=1.60) were significantly associated with more bullying perpetration. Higher social avoidance (Beta=-0.03) was significantly associated with less bullying perpetration. Conclusion: This study has public health value and could shed light on social and psychological factors related to bullying perpetration among adolescents.
... There still remained a noticeable positive direct association between victimization and bullying. A growing body of literature recognizes victimization and bullying as a continuum (e.g., Chan & Wong, 2015;Cook et al., 2010;Lee & Kim, 2017;Rose et al., 2015). Previous studies have shown that victimization is correlated with reactive aggression (Pellegrini et al., 1999;Schwartz et al., 1997;Unnever, 2005). ...
Article
Bullying has become one of the most significant problem behaviors that school-aged adolescents face. The current study examines the strain–delinquency relationship by employing General Strain Theory as a guiding framework. “Strain” was operationalized as bullying victimization and family dysfunction, “delinquency” was operationalized as bullying perpetration, and “negative affect” was operationalized as anxiety and depression. Analyses were carried out based on a group of 2,139 Macanese schoolchildren. Using a structural equation modeling technique, the results revealed that exposure to family dysfunction and bullying victimization was associated with adolescents’ negative affect, such as anxiety and depression. Contrary to our expectations, the indirect effect of victimization on bullying through negative affect was negative, though the mediation effect was relatively small and only significant in boys. In addition, gender analyses of invariance showed that male adolescents who experienced more family conflict and parental control were less likely to engage in bullying. This study could lead to further anti-bullying interventions and practical efforts designed to improve positive parenting and adolescents’ interpersonal skills.
... It was hypothesized that school belonging would be associated with increased academic competence and academic efficacy, while being linked to decreased academic skepticism (Dotterer and Wehrspann 2016;Gillen-O'Neel and Fuligni 2013;McMahon et al. 2009). Furthermore, research suggests that not only is school belonging associated with positive academic outcomes, but it can also mitigate the impact of various negative experiences (Napoli et al. 2003;Rose et al. 2015). Thus, the study assessed whether school belonging moderated the relation between racial discrimination stress on academic attitudes and beliefs. ...
Article
Full-text available
It is important to consider racialized experiences and proximal indicators of academic success for Black youth when understanding the achievement gap. Acknowledging that racial discrimination is detrimental for the academic success of Black youth, this study extended previous research by examining the influence of racial discrimination stress. Using hierarchical regression analysis and a moderated moderation model, this study examined racial discrimination stress and school belonging as predictors of academic attitudes and beliefs among 344 Black youth (M age = 15.6). Additionally, we examined the interactive effects of school belonging as a buffer for racial discrimination stress, with particular focus on majority White schools. Analyses revealed that school belonging was linked with academic competence, academic efficacy, and academic skepticism. Furthermore, school belonging buffered the impact of racial discrimination stress on academic efficacy among Black youth in majority White schools. These findings highlight the co-occurrence of risk and protective factors among Black youth and demonstrate the additive influence of school racial composition on academic attitudes and beliefs. The practical and theoretical implications of these findings demonstrate the crucial role of school context in understanding risk and protective factors for the academic attitudes and beliefs of Black youth.
... Viewing this problem using a socio-ecological perspective can help us understand the multifaceted nature of bullying and victimization behaviours (Dahlberg & Krug, 2002;Swearer et al., 2012). It frames bullying and victimization phenomena as more fluid and dynamic relationships between individuals and systems that surround individuals, instead of a linear relationship between a perpetrator and a victim (Rose, Nickerson, & Stormont, 2015;Rose, Simpson, & Moss, 2015). Thus, viewing bullying from a socio-ecological approach highlights individual characteristics, direct relationships with family members and peers and characteristics of the school environment that promote or inhibit bullying (Rose, Nickerson, et al., 2015). ...
Article
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Aims To examine the moderating effects of individual, family, and social factors on the relationship between adolescent exposure to media violence and attitudes towards school bullying. Design A cross‐sectional study. Methods A total of 473 middle and high school students participated in a self‐reported survey between August and October 2016. Self‐reported questionnaires were used to measure perceived aggression, resilience, parental violence experience, parenting styles, satisfaction with school life, teacher attitudes towards school bullying, media violence exposure, and adolescent attitudes towards school bullying. The data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and hierarchical multiple regression. Results Resilience (an individual factor; β = −0.48, p = .049) and parenting styles (a family factor; β = −0.77, p = .045) moderated the negative influence of media violence exposure on adolescent attitudes towards school bullying. The findings indicated that higher individual resilience and parents with more positive parenting styles could reduce the harmful effects of media violence exposure on adolescent attitudes towards school bullying. The teachers’ attitudes towards school bullying (a school factor) contributed to predicting the adolescents’ attitudes towards school bullying. However, no moderating effect of school factors was found. Conclusion Resilience and parenting styles are important socio‐ecological factors influencing the relationship between adolescent exposure to media violence and attitudes towards school bullying. Impact Three types of intervention programmes can be suggested based on the results of this study. Reinforcing individual resilience and positive parenting styles should be considered important in developing intervention programmes targeted at eliminating the adverse effects of media violence exposure. Intervention programmes to develop parenting styles to increase the resilience of adolescents can also be considered. Lastly, programmes to screen for adverse outcomes of media violence exposure, low resilience, and poor parenting styles need to be developed.
... that LGBTQ+ youth experience bullying victimization at greater rates than their heterosexual peers (Berlan et al. 2010;Kahle 2017;DeSmet et al. 2018) as do persons with disabilities (Rose et al. 2015;Chatzitheochari et al. 2016;Beckman et al. 2019). ...
Article
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The role of bullying victimization in suicide has been discussed at length in the literature. Additionally, it is an association that has gained widespread attention in media, with shows like 13 Reasons Why receiving a great deal of attention. However, just how bullying victimization can contribute to suicidal thoughts is less understood. The present study explores two theoretical frameworks for suicide within the context of bullying victimization: the interpersonal-psychological theory of suicide (IPTS) and the social pain model (SPM). In a sample of college students (N = 252), we explored three models: (1) a model drawn from the SPM, (2) a model drawn from the IPTS, and (3) a combined model informed from model 1 and 2. The combined model showed greater support for the IPTS in understanding the bullying-suicide link—though this support was partly attenuated by the introduction of depressive and anxiety symptoms as a control. The findings highlight the role of perceived burdensomeness, hopelessness, and depressive and anxiety symptoms in the experience of suicidal thoughts. Further work is needed to expand upon the role of bullying in theoretical frameworks for suicide.
... Middle school years can be especially challenging as students enter a different school environment where they might experience some difficulties with peer relationships and new social dynamics that may contribute to instances of bullying and aggression (Espelage et al., 2013;Farmer et al., 2011). The middle school years are also when students enter adolescence, a particularly vulnerable stage for emotional and behavioral challenges-students experience compounding changes in the external and internal environments such as peer pressure, increasing academic expectations, and bodily changes (Foulkes & Blakemore, 2016;Mayo Clinic, 2021;Rose et al., 2015). Add to these challenges having an EBD and we see higher rates of bullying, fighting, relational (peer) aggression, victimization (target of bullying), online victimization, and relational victimization compared with middle school peers without disabilities (Rose et al., 2011). ...
Article
We report findings of two validation studies of the Student Risk Screening Scale for Early Childhood (SRSS-EC). Although previous exploratory inquiry suggested a two-factor solution, results of Study 1 conducted with 274 preschool-age youth suggested mixed support for a two-factor model, with only one fit index suggesting an adequate fit (incremental index, comparative fit index [CFI] = 0.963). However, results did provide additional evidence of convergent validity between SRSS-EC and Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire scores. In Study 2, results of convergent validity studies with 90 preschool-age children offered evidence between SRSS-EC and (a) Social Skills Improvement System—Performance Screening Guide and (b) Caregiver—Teacher Report Form (C-TRF) scores. Results suggested the following cutting scores: SRSS-EC E7 (0–5 low, 6–7 moderate, 8–21 high risk) and SRSS-EC I4 (0–2 low, 3–4 moderate, and 5–12 high risk), with C-TRF scores as the criterion. We discuss limitations and directions for future inquiry.
... The bullying pepetration rate was 13 % in a study conducted with 15,686 students in 6th-10th grade receiving their education at both state and private schools in the United States of America (Nansel et al., 2001). Two previous studies found no difference between ASD and TD groups in terms of bullying perpetration (Rose, Simpson, & Moss, 2015;Twyman et al., 2010). In a metaanalysis on peer bullying in children with ASD, the frequency of bullying perpetration was 10 % , while another meta-analysis on children diagnosed with mild ID reported the rate of peer bullying to be 15.1 % (Maiano, Aime et al., 2016). ...
Article
Background Children with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) may be vulnerable to social isolation and bullying victimisation. We investigated frequency and types of bullying and its association with severity of ASD. Method We compared bullying victimisation and perpetration levels between children with ASD (n = 45), those with mild intellectual disability (ID) (n = 40) and typically-developing (TD) children (n = 46). Children receiving formal education as inclusive students in primary or secondary schools in Ankara were included in the ASD and ID groups. Results Both the ASD and ID groups experienced more victimisation through verbal and emotional bullying than the TD group. There was no significant difference in the frequency of bullying perpetration between the groups. All groups were victimised mostly by their own male classmates and in the absence of their teacher from the classroom. There was a positive correlation between bullying victimisation and severity of ASD. Conclusions Teachers, parents, and physicians should take responsibility to protect children with special needs against peer bullying, as their risk for peer bullying is higher than for TD children.
... How is student disability status related to each of the five bullying-related behaviors (i.e., bullying, assisting, being victimized, defending, being an outsider) when controlling for gender, grade level, and free or reduced lunch status? It was predicted that students with disabilities would be involved in more negative bully role behaviors (i.e., bullying, assisting, being victimized) than students without disabilities Rose, Simpson, & Moss, 2015). This question and hypothesis serve as a replication analysis with the extension of additional bully role behaviors for which there is little to no research. ...
Article
Full-text available
Using a stigma-based bullying framework, the current study investigated how (a) disability status was related to bullying-related behaviors when controlling for gender, grade level, and free or reduced lunch status; (b) gender, grade level, and free or reduced lunch status moderated the associations of disability status with bullying-related behaviors; and (c) classification in specific disability categories was associated with bullying-related behaviors with a sample of 10,483 students (47.8% female) in elementary, middle, and high school. School records data were collected on grade level, gender, free or reduced lunch price status, disability status, and disability category. Students completed the Bullying Participant Behaviors Questionnaire (BPBQ), rating five types of bully role behaviors (bullying behavior, assistant behavior, victimization, defending behavior, and outsider behavior). Findings indicated that having a disability was associated with increased victimization, assisting, and defending behavior. Furthermore, disability status interacted in meaningful ways with several demographic factors: (a) females with a disability reported more victimization and reported engaging in more outsider behaviors than females without a disability, (b) elementary students with a disability reported more assisting and less defending behaviors than those without a disability, (c) high school students with a disability reported less bullying and assisting behaviors and more defending behaviors than those without a disability, and (d) students with a disability from low socioeconomic backgrounds reported more bullying and outsider behaviors than students not from lower socioeconomic family backgrounds. When comparing students from specific disability categories to those with no disability, students with an emotional disability reported more assisting, victimization, and outsider behaviors; students with other health impairment reported more assisting, victimization, and defending; students with autism reported less defending and outsider behaviors; and students with a learning disability reported more defending behavior. Exploratory analyses of the effects of school-level factors found that school size (enrollment) was positively related to prevalence of assisting and outsider behavior. The percentage of low-income students in a school was positively associated with the extent of victimization and defending behaviors reported, but negatively associated with the extent of outsider behaviors reported.
... • Bullying (Rose, Simpson, and Moss, 2015) • Fewer friendships (Pijl, Frostad, and Annlaud, 2008) • Stigmatization (Cooney, Gumley, and Knott, 2006) • ...
Poster
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This review examines the existing literature on the attitudes of typically developing adolescents toward their peers with intellectual disability. Nine studies were reviewed from seven countries. Synthesized results consistently reveal overall positive to neutral attitudes about general rights of persons with ID, but hesitation toward social closeness and/or friendship
... Between 5 and 10% of schoolchildren are bullied by peers regularly across cultures (Nansel et al. 2001;Craig et al. 2009;Chan and Wong 2015;Rose, Simpson, and Moss 2015), and Hong Kong is of no exception. In Hong Kong, teachers repeatedly voiced that they were not well equipped for handling violent students, and parents expressed in media that that they worried about how school would protect their children against bullying (Wong, 1999;. ...
Article
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The phenomenon that around ten percent of schoolchildren are bullied regularly in Hong Kong has attracted much scholarly attention in anti-bullying research. Current literature suggests taking into consideration the contextual features and socioeconomic factors in anti-bullying research, instead of applying identical intervention/prevention measures across cultures. Therefore, this article examines the role of school-family linkage as a mirror of the wide social-culture context, and analyzes the functions of such linkage in anti-bullying practice in Hong Kong. This study was conducted following a film approach in 2015. That is, a group of middle school teachers in Hong Kong were invited to watch small films showing typical bullying and anti-bullying episodes, followed by semi-structured interviews. The article demonstrates a list of good practices representing the functioning of a positive family-school linkage in bullying addressing. However, parental involvement does not always facilitate and can hinder bullying addressing on campuses. This study implies that efficient bullying addressing aligns with parental involvement in the intervention process, suggesting more parental involvement and more collaboration between family and school in anti-bullying. It also raises an urgent question in regards to balancing the various opinions between parents and teachers in child-raising and bullying addressing. This article suggests further and more investigations examining anti-bullying from a socioeconomic perspective.
... This social vulnerability makes them easy targets for aggressors, who tend to look for weak victims with little ability to defend themselves ( Gómez-Ortiz et al., 2017). This greater risk of direct involvement in relation to their peers can be associated not only the type of disability, but also the severity, visibility, school environment, social economic situation and support networks ( Rose et al., 2015). For example, the study by Zeedyk et al. (2014) that evaluated bullying victimization rates among adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) and intellectual disability, versus "typically developing" peers showed that adolescents with ASD were more likely to experience victimization, followed by those with intellectual disabilities and finally typically developing youth. ...
Book
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Inclusive education is the endeavor to ensure access to quality education for all - independent of social and economic status, family wealth, geographical location, race, ethnicity, gender, age, culture, or language. This is a longstanding but still very pressing concern world-wide, as the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals (SDG 4) unambiguously point out. This book brings together a wealth of material on current trends and issues in inclusive education. Many factors and forces are at play here. Some reside inside the local, regional and national educational systems, such as obstacles in availability and quality of teaching staff and education infrastructure, and appropriate ways to cater for them. But there are also factors and forces originating from the outside, leading to an intertwined complex of political, cultural, economic, financial, judicial, legal, and democratic issues and considerations. This book critically documents this for today's globalizing world. A unique feature is that it does so in particular from a Latin American perspective, thereby covering a wide variety of contexts, peoples and countries (Argentina, Bolivia, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, Honduras, Mexico, Paraguay), whose voices are often not well heard in international educational and academic communities and policy circles. Resulting from a unique collaboration of more than twenty Higher Education Institutions from Latin America with European universities, this volume presents the English companion edition of the book in Spanish entitled Cultura, Ciudadanía, Participación - Perspectivas de la Educación Inclusiva, edited by Anna Bon and Mónica Pini, both published simultaneously. The strong interactions between the local and the global are striking. There is a hard struggle everywhere, locally and nationally, to get needed human and infrastructural resources in place. As it emerges from the various chapters of the book, many local cultural and social specifics are to be taken into account. At the same time, it appears that in many places there is a trend of neoliberal privatization and profit-oriented commercialization of education, which tends to produce and reproduce growing inequalities in society that counteract achieving inclusiveness in education. This is only one of the aspects that make the Latin American experiences and perspectives recognizable and highly relevant globally.
... In addition, there are individual factors that put children at-risk for elevated bullying victimization. Children with an educational disability (Rose, Simpson, & Moss, 2015;Swearer, Wang, Maag, Siebecker, & Freichs, 2012) and those who identify as sexual minority students (Kosciw, Greytak, Giga, Villenas, & Danishchewski, 2016) are often targets for bullying victimization. Moreover, deficits in social skills place children at-risk for being victimized and/or bullying others (Jenkins et al., 2017). ...
Article
Bullying is a serious, complex problem that affects school-aged youth. Years of research on bullying has provided evidence that bullying victimization is linked with adverse outcomes for youth; however, researchers have yet to fully investigate how bullying victimization and maladjustment is associated with student engagement, and whether teacher support is a protective factor for victimized youth. A social-ecological perspective was used to guide the study given that a person’s bullying behaviors are related and interconnected to a network of systems and relationships in their environment.The purpose of the study was to investigate middle school students’ perspectives on bullying victimization (i.e., verbal/relational and physical), social and emotional maladjustment, student engagement (i.e., affective and cognitive indicators), and teacher support. Participants were 11-14 year-old students from an independent school in a mid-sized Western city. Path analysis was used to analyze five research questions. Bullying victimization and social and emotional maladjustment were correlated with student engagement. Social and emotional maladjustment was evaluated as a mediator between bullying victimization and engagement. Teacher support was evaluated as a moderator of the relationship between bullying victimization and engagement, and teacher support was also examined within a moderated mediation model. The findings indicated that bullying victimization and maladjustment can be risk factors for affective student engagement. Teacher support can be a positive factor foroverall student engagement, and there was limited evidence found that teacher support acts as a protective factor between bullying victimization and student engagement. Victimization and maladjustment tended to be unrelated to cognitive engagement. No evidence was found for mediation of social and emotional maladjustment explaining the relationships between bullying victimization and student engagement. Further, no evidence was found that teacher support moderated the pathways in the mediation model between bullying victimization and maladjustment. These results extend the broader literature on bullying victimization and its associations with school-related variables and may have implications for encouraging bullying prevention and intervention. Study limitations are discussed along with research and clinical implications. Advisor: Susan M. Swearer
... Peer harassment victimizations (PHVs), for instance, may not always be repetitive in nature or reflect an imbalance in power between the parties involved (Mitchell, Jones, Turner, Shattuck, & Wolak, 2016). Rates of PHV vary across studies (Blake, Lund, Zhou, Kwok, & Benz, 2012;Rose, Simpson, & Moss, 2015;Son et al., 2014), and not all studies in recent years include consideration of online components. Research measuring youth experiences with both online harassment and forms of in-person harassment have found that in-person harassment occurs more often than online harassment (Wang, Iannotti, & Nansel, 2009;Ybarra, Mitchell, & Espelage, 2012). ...
Article
This study examines how youths with different types of disabilities, mental health diagnoses, and special education services experience peer harassment victimization (PHV). This analysis examines how these youths experience harassment that only occurs in person, only through technology, and both in person and through technology ("mixed"). Data were collected as part of the Technology Harassment Victimization study, a U.S. telephone survey of 791 youths, ages 10 to 20. Results indicate that compared with youths not reporting peer harassment, youths diagnosed with depression were more likely to report a mixed mode form of peer harassment, youths with a physical disability were more likely to report harassment through technology, and youths with a learning disability were more likely to report in-person harassment. The type of disability, diagnosis, or special service among youths may be associated with unique vulnerabilities in terms of peer harassment experiences. School social workers and other school personnel should consider specific types of disabilities in assessing risks of PHV and in planning interventions.
Article
In this systematic review we evaluated the quality and rigor of the current evidence base for the Second Step social-emotional learning program in middle schools. Eleven studies were coded using the Council for Exceptional Children Standards for Evidence-Based Practices in Special Education (2014), using an 80% weighted criterion. We determined five studies met the weighted 80% criteria and one study demonstrated a positive effect as defined by CEC (2014). The other four studies demonstrated neutral/mixed results and we therefore classified Second Step for middle schools in the mixed evidence category. We discuss strengths of evaluated studies and future directions for research.
Chapter
Bullying is a widespread issue facing school-aged youth, where millions of students experience bullying each year in the United States. Bullying is a pervasive issue because involvement can impact all of life’s domains, including detrimental psychosocial, psychosomatic, behavioral, social, and academic outcomes. Unfortunately, research has demonstrated that certain subgroups of youth may be at increased risk for bullying involvement. Furthermore, these subgroups of students are also at risk for increased rates of exclusionary discipline practices. Currently, all 50 states and Washington D.C. have legislation that prohibits bullying and harassment, and federal civil rights laws protect youth from harassment based on race, ethnicity, national origin, gender, and disability status. Yet, minimal research has been conducted on schools’ use of exclusionary discipline as a response to incidents of bullying or harassment. This chapter analyzes bullying reports and discipline referrals from a national dataset to examine the risk associated with identifying related factors, including disability, race, and biological sex. Implications and considerations for practice are provided.KeywordsBullying Victimization Disproportionality Exclusionary discipline Harassment Social justice
Article
Bullying and victimisation are extremely damaging behaviours that are present in schools all over the world. However, there is little research on the involvement of students with emotional and behavioural disabilities in the bullying dynamic and their risk and protective factors. Following the PRISMA guidelines, the search terms were entered in bibliographic databases in February 2020. Articles needed to report on empirical studies that examined the association between EBD and bullying with primary data and be published in English in a peer-reviewed journal.Articles were excluded based on certain designs and no verifiable diagnosis. The narrative synthesis includes 12 articles, 8 are included in the meta-analysis. General trends indicate that students with EBD are more frequently victims and perpetrators of bullying. The meta-analysis reveals small to moderate significant effect sizes. Students with EBD are more often involved in the bullying dynamic. The heterogeneity of the studies is low to moderate. The funnel plots demonstrate evidence of publication for perpetration but none for victimisation . Limitations include the varying conceptualisations of bullying behaviour and the limited number of studies focusing on specific disabilities. Although more research is needed, the review provides indications of the significance of developing targeted interventions and preventions.
Article
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Students with emotional and behavioral disabilities and / or learning disabilities are overrepresented in the Bullying-Dynamic. They are associated with bullying others and being victimized by other students more often than students without disabilities. Studies focusing on certain types of disabilities have only recently become the focus of international and national research. Additionally, school climate is dis- cussed as an influencing factor regarding the participation in the bullying dynamic. The present cross-sectional-study is focusing on the differ- ences of bullying and victimization between students with emotional and behavioral and / or learning disabilities and students without disabil- ities. N = 649 (60.9 % male) adolescents (Age 8 – 19 years; M = 13.66; SD = 2.17) answered a self-rating questionnaire regarding bullying. The questionnaire focused on bullying perpetration and victimization. Allowing to differentiate between bullies, victims, and bully-victims. 393 Students attended a regular and 265 students attended a special needs school. The results of the current study indicate a significant differ- ence between bullying and victimization between the students with and without disabilities. Students with emotional and behavioral disabili- ties are more likely to be bully as well as victim. Students who do not enjoy going to school are more frequently categorized as bullies and vic- tims than students that enjoy going to school. The results of the study are discussed considering the limitations of the study. The relevance of prevention- and intervention programs focused on students with disabilities is highlighted in the current study. Keywords: Bullying, victimization, school satisfaction, special educational needs in learning, special educational needs in emotional-social development, adolescence
Article
Aggression toward peers is a pervasive problem among school-aged youth. Specifically, relational aggression refers to actions intended to harm another through manipulating social relationships. A diverse group of students (N = 14,083) were surveyed regarding their pro-bullying attitudes, perceived social status, and whether they had perpetrated relational bullying toward another student. Participants average age was 13 years and were diverse in grade level, racial identity, and disability status. Utilizing multiple-groups latent class analyses, a 3-class model emerged that involved the following classes: non-aggressors, those who perceived themselves as socially dominant and those who engaged in relational aggression, with differences in gender and school level representations in those groups. Implications regarding group distinction are made and recommendations for practitioners are provided.
Chapter
Decision making plays a pivotal role in a wide range of interpersonal situations that are associated with the heightened rates of maltreatment experienced by individuals with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDD). Furthermore, there is considerable evidence that limited decision-making skills contribute to this vulnerability. The chapter examines available research aimed at understanding the decision-making patterns of adolescents and adults with IDD to find ways to reduce their vulnerability. During adolescence, the study of maltreatment tends to focus on peer victimization (e.g., peer aggression, bullying, and cyberbullying), while in adulthood, the focus shifts to domestic abuse and intimate partner violence. A discussion of strategies for assessing effective decision making in situations of maltreatment is followed by a review of the research on maltreatment and decision making in adolescents and adults with IDD. Risk and protective factors are highlighted for each age group. The importance of developing effective interventions to strengthen the self-protective decision-making skills of individuals with IDD is emphasized. At both the adolescent and adult life stages, evidence-based decision-making training approaches are essential for strengthening relevant knowledge and skills, self-efficacy and goal clarity, and emotion regulation skills.
Article
The continued problem of bullying merits prevention. The resilience programme studied in this research teaches victimisation avoidance skills. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of a resilience programme on social skills, victimisation, and bullying among eight to thirteen‐year‐old students. This quantitative, quasi‐experimental design sampled students’ self‐reported social skills (n = 72), bullying (n = 67), and victimisation (n = 67) in two, Northeastern U.S. schools. Paired samples t‐test analyses showed that the programme had positive effects on social skills, no effects on bullying, and negative effects on victimisation. Recommendations were made regarding bullying prevention and future research.
Article
Exploiting data of 210,523 students in 51 countries from the Program for International Student Assessment (PISA), we estimate the causal effect of bullying victimization on adolescents’ academic literacy and social integration by using Logistic model, coarsened exact matching (CEM), and structural equation model (SEM). This article reviews risk and influencing factors associated with bullying victimization within the context of Bronfenbrenner’s ecological framework. The results indicate that: (1) boys, middle school students, repeaters, and truancy report significantly higher bullying victimization; (2) bullying victimization is associated with poor academic achievement and social integration problems such as bad classmate relations, lack of school belonging, and sense of loneliness; (3) study time, academic engagement, and online socialization are identified as the mediators between bully victimization and academic literacy and social integration. The findings highlight the importance of creating a safe and positive school environment to fight against negative outcomes associated with bullying victimization.
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Bullying is a serious problem that particularly affects schoolchildren with disabilities. However, studies in this group have been carried out on smaller cohorts and the results obtained are, therefore, less representative and sometimes inconclusive. The purpose of this paper is to perform a systematic review of the work carried out in recent years, including the analysis of several variables related to the sample, the methodology applied and the type of bullying. The guidelines set down by the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis (PRISMA) statement were followed in three phases. The total sample consisted of 55 children who fulfilled the inclusion criteria. The results reveal that half the studies were conducted in cohorts of less than 250 schoolchildren and drew no distinctions between the different types of disabilities. Furthermore, there is no consensus regarding the methodology used, and no specialized instruments were used. Hardly any specific interventions have been performed into the type of bullying investigated, in which victimization is the predominant mode. We concluded that there is an urgent need to increase the number of studies, including a larger number of individuals and using specialized instruments, in order to obtain more solid results. Such studies will allow us to create specific prevention and intervention programs to address the bullying of schoolchildren with disabilities.
Chapter
Decades of research have shown the range of negative outcomes associated with bullying and cyberbullying, and it is a topic that has received national attention from media, educators, parents, researchers, and legislators. Today, many youth have experienced some type of involvement in cyberbullying whether through perpetration, being victimized, and/or being a bystander (e.g., assistant, defender, outsider). Although limited, the goal of this chapter is to review existing literature examining youth with disabilities involved in cyberbullying and/or cybervictimization. Preliminary research suggests that as with traditional bullying, youth with disabilities may be at greater risk for involvement in events of cyberbullying and/or cybervictimization, which the authors conclude is a problematic finding. This chapter will provide an overview of both individual and environmental risks for involvement in cyberbullying and cybervictimization among adolescents with disabilities. Furthermore, both psychological and behavioral outcomes for involvement of adolescents with disabilities in cyberbullying and cybervictimization will be reviewed. Lastly, settings for cyberbullying behaviors and suggestions for prevention and intervention will be discussed.
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Through this meta-analysis, we sought to examine the prevalence of, risks for, and factors associated with bullying involvement (victimization, perpetration, perpetration-victimization) among students with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Additionally, we attempted to examine sources of variance in the prevalence and effect sizes of bullying in students with ASD across studies. Systematic database and literature review identified 34 relevant studies (31 for Western countries, three for Eastern countries). Pooled prevalence estimates for victimization, perpetration, and perpetration-victimization in general were 67%, 29%, and 14%, respectively. The risk of victimization in students with ASD was significantly higher than that in typically developing students and students with other disabilities. Further, deficits in social interaction and communication, externalizing symptoms, internalizing symptoms, and integrated inclusive school settings were related to higher victimization, and externalizing symptoms were related to higher perpetration. Finally, moderation analyses revealed significant variations in the pooled prevalences thereof depending on culture, age, school settings, and methodological quality and in the pooled effect sizes according to publication year and methodological quality. Our results highlight needs for bullying intervention for students with ASD, especially those who are younger, are in an inclusive school setting, and have higher social difficulties and externalizing/internalizing symptoms; for intensive research of bullying experiences among students with ASD in Eastern countries; and for efforts to improve the methodological quality of such research.
Article
The use of humor may affect how bystanders respond to slurs. Undergraduates ( N = 192) completed a measure of prejudice towards people with intellectual disabilities and were randomly assigned to read a scenario in which a peer uses a slur either as part of a joke (humor condition) or a statement (control condition). Participants responded to measures of intent to assertively respond and their evaluation of the speaker. Humor inhibited intent to nonverbally disagree and to verbally confront. Bystanders’ own prejudicial attitudes moderated the effects of humor on intent to verbally confront and negative evaluation. In the humor condition, compared to those with lower prejudice, those with higher prejudice showed less intent to confront and less negative evaluations. In the control condition, intent to confront, and negative evaluation were high, regardless of prejudice. These results suggest that humor inhibits assertive responses to slurs, particularly among people without highly favorable attitudes about the targeted social group.
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Resumen El objetivo principal de este artículo es conocer y discutir el papel mediador de la autoestima entre la intimidación y la resiliencia en adolescentes peruanos. Una muestra de 490 estudiantes de secundaria de 12 a 18 años participó en el estudio (ME = 14.66, DS = 1.29). Se obtuvo evidencia de confiabilidad de los instrumentos a través del coeficiente alfa y omega con valores aceptables y la validez basada en la estructura interna del constructo a través del análisis factorial confirmatorio mostró índices de ajuste adecuados. La autoestima (EA) se evaluó con la Escala de Autoestima de Rosenberg, la Resiliencia (ER) con la Escala de Resiliencia Wagnild & Young, y el Acoso (AC) con la Prueba de Intimidación Escolar Cisneros de Autoevaluación. La estimación del efecto mediador de la autoestima entre el bullying y la resiliencia representó el 77.4%. El efecto directo del Bullying sobre la resiliencia no fue estadísticamente significativo (p = .818, 22.6%). Las estimaciones del papel mediador de la autoestima muestran la incidencia principal en la variable de resiliencia. En conclusión, en la muestra del estudio se evidencia una fuerza predominante de explicación de la autoestima como variable mediadora.
Article
Aim Bullying is a significant problem among school children and within the climate and culture of many schools. Research has indicated that environmental and psychosocial factors may play an important role in the culture change needed to minimise bullying behaviours in schools (Goldweber et al., 2013; Mehta et al., 2013; Sapouna & Wolke, 2013). A growing body of literature suggests that belonging, one such type of psychosocial factor may act as a buffer for bullying perpetration. For this reason, the current study aimed to explore the relationship between peer, family, and school belonging and bullying behaviours. Method/Rationale Students from rural middle schools (ages 11–14; N=912) in the United States completed surveys including questionnaires on bullying and peer, family, and school belonging. Structural equation modeling was used to examine the relationship between belonging and bullying behaviour. Findings The results support the hypotheses and suggest there is a link between sense of belonging (peer, family, and school) and bullying behaviour. Limitations The most notable limitation is that the data are cross-sectional, examining the variables at one particular time point, which eliminates the possibility of studying longitudinal impact. Further, all measured constructs examined were done through self-report assessments. Thus, observational and behavioural information was not collected or utilised in the current study. Conclusions These findings have an important applied component and could lead to stronger intervention efforts. Specifically, interventions that focus on increasing positive peer-level interactions, coupled with a stronger sense of school community or belonging, could result in decreases in bullying behaviours.
Chapter
A student's social and emotional skills are related to how well equipped they are to address and adapt to the academic, behavioral, and functional demands of the classroom. With the increased attention on academic outcomes, the opportunities to teach social and emotional learning (SEL) are limited. However, SEL approaches have demonstrated increases in functional, behavioral, and academic outcomes for school aged youth. This chapter is designed to identify the key components of SEL, provide guidance in implementation, and describe how SEL can help reduce the social marginalization among youth with disabilities and those at-risk for disability identification.
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La investigación se focaliza sobre el acoso escolar y el ciberacoso en educación secundaria. El objetivo central de esta investigación es conocer los datos sobre violencia y victimización escolar en esta etapa educativa realizando una exploración sobre el conocimiento y perspectivas del acoso escolar entre alumnos, docentes y familias. Se trata de un estudio descriptivo en el que se emplea la metodología cuantitativa. Se utilizan tres instrumentos, consistentes en cuestionarios auto administrados los cuales respectivamente se aplican sobre alumnado, profesorado y familias de alumnos de un Instituto Público de Educación Secundaria. El análisis de datos se efectúa mediante el programa estadístico SPSS (versión 22). Los resultados alcanzados evidencian la falta de visibilización del acoso escolar y ciberacoso en las tres muestras, reflejando el potencial desconocimiento de la realidad en la que se desenvuelven los estudiantes.The research focuses on bullying and cyberbullying in secondary education. The main objective of this research is to know the data on violence and school victimization in this educational stage, making an exploration about the knowledge and perspectives of school bullying among students, teachers and families. It is a descriptive study in which the quantitative methodology is used. Three instruments are used, consisting of self-administered questionnaires which are respectively applied to students, teachers and families of students of the Public Institute of Secondary Education. The data analysis is carried out through the statistical program SPSS (version 22). The results obtained show the lack of visibility of bullying and cyberbullying in the three samples, reflecting the potential ignorance of the reality in which the students develop.
Book
This publication is the result of collaboration between people and institutions of the project From Tradition to Innovation in Teacher-Training Institutions (TO INN), with reference number 573685-EPP-2016-1-ES-EPP KA2-CBHE-JP, funded by the European Union through the Erasmus+ Key Action 2 Capacity Building programme. It is an initiative coordinated by the University of Barcelona in which 21 Higher Education institutions and one training centre from seven Latin American countries (Colombia, Argentina, Honduras, Mexico, Ecuador, Bolivia and Paraguay) and five EU countries (Spain, Italy, the Netherlands, France and Portugal) participate. The project is based on a systemic approach to Higher Education and aims to promote quality in universities where future teachers and other professionals from the world of education are trained. It aims to strengthen the social dimension, curricular relevance and teacher innovation in the unique formative contexts in order to have an impact on policies and institutional governance. The dimensions involved are articulated in terms of the following axes: culture, citizenship and participation, social cohesion and digital culture. This book is a polyphonic work that responds to complex realities, diverse contexts, academic interests and project objectives, but, above all, it is an example of collaboration and interest in inclusive education, equity and the just development of Higher Education. Its texts are by authors from different institutions and countries who unite their knowledge and interests and provide the encouragement and strength to continue on the path laid out in this international collaboration.
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A reasoned, conceptually sound, and important discussion is now occurring within education around the process for identifying evidence-based educational practices. We proposed here criteria for defining a practice and for considering the degree to which the practice is evidence based. We have applied these criteria to SWPBS and conclude that, as an approach, SWPBS does not fit easily and conveniently into past delineations of a practice. We also believe that the overall approach carries sufficient experimental documentation to be classified as evidence based and to warrant large-scale implementation. The current emphasis on defining evidence-based practices is useful and has identified an array of issues that will help guide future research, refine our adoption and implementation of practices, and evaluate our sustainability and scaling efforts.
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The authors examined the role of early adverse experiences, mental health problems, and disabilities in the prediction of juvenile delinquency and recidivism, using a matched-control group design. The delinquent group comprised 99,602 youth, born between 1981 and 1988, whose cases had been processed by the South Carolina Department of Juvenile Justice. Records of 99,602 controls, matched by age, race, and gender were drawn from the records of the South Carolina Department of Education. Data on Child Protective Services, foster care, mental health referrals, and diagnoses as well as information about eligibility for free/reduced-price lunch were obtained from the South Carolina Budget and Control Board, Office of Research and Statistics. Logistic regression analyses showed that parental maltreatment and foster care made unique contributions to the prediction of membership in a delinquent sample. Presence of a public school classification of learning disability or emotional/behavioral disorder was also predictive of delinquent outcomes. A prearrest Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed.) diagnosis relating to aggressive behavior (e.g., conduct disorder) was the strongest predictor of delinquency. Analyses conducted on the delinquent sample to predict recidivism showed a similar pattern, with an early mental health diagnosis of an aggressive disorder the strongest predictor of recidivism.
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The number of pupils with autistic spectrum disorders (ASD) attending mainstream schools is increasing, but there is evidence that their needs may not be fully met. Previous research has suggested that such pupils are at an increased risk of social exclusion. In light of this, the aim of the current study was to examine the sociometric status, perceived levels of peer social support, and the frequency of bullying experienced by this group of learners. Our sample comprised 40 pupils with ASD, 40 pupils with dyslexia, and a reference group of 40 pupils with no identified special educational needs, matched by age and gender (and, for the ASD and dyslexic groups, the stage of the SEN Code of Practice). Participants completed the Social Support Scale for Children (Harter, 1985) and the My Life in School Questionnaire (Arora & Thompson, 1987), and their peers completed the Social Inclusion Survey (Frederickson & Graham, 1999). Our analyses indicated that pupils with ASD experienced higher levels of rejection and lower levels of acceptance than either reference group. They also reported lower levels of peer social support and higher levels of bullying. These findings are discussed in relation to previous research and the efficacy of the inclusion movement.
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This study examined the association between peer dynamics and bullying behavior among early adolescents. Participants (N= 422) included middle school students in grades 6 through 8 from a small midwestern town. Students completed a 40-minute survey that included demographic questions, self-report and peer-report measures of bullying and victimization as well as measures of other psychosocial variables. Male adolescents self-reported more bullying and were nominated as bullies more often than female adolescents, and older students self-reported more bullying behavior than younger students. Approximately 14.5% of the sample met the criteria for bullying frequently. Cluster analysis yielded five distinct groups of bully/victim subtypes. Bullies had the same number of friends as students who did not bully their peers, and the relation between popularity and bullying behavior was the strongest for 6th grade male adolescents. With respect to peer affiliation and bullying, 75% of bullies nominated fellow bullies as friends, suggesting that bullies hang out with other bullies. Twenty-percent of victims scored within the clinical range on a standard depression and anxiety measure. This study provides initial support for the notion that bullying or teasing might be a strategy for obtaining power and status within the middle school.
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The current study investigated demographic variables, sense of belonging, and social supports as predictors for involvement in bullying for students with specific learning disabilities (SLD) and students without disabilities. Although these student groups are characteristically different, results suggested involvement in bullying was invariant. However, gender, race, grade point average, and participation in extracurricular activities emerged as significant predictors for involvement in the bullying dynamic. In addition, increased peer social support was found to be the most significant predictor of decreased bullying, victimization, fighting, and anger for both students with SLD and students without disabilities. Educational implications include the suggestion that schools adopt multitiered antibullying programs that foster increased social supports and peer acceptance and incorporate targeted interventions for at-risk subpopulations of students.
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This report consists of 11 research briefs on the prevention of bullying in schools and colleges prepared by a task force of the American Educational Research Association. This report is also available from AERA at http://www.aera.net
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Purpose: To evaluate the impact of the Second Step: Student Success Through Prevention (SS-SSTP) Middle School Program on reducing youth violence including peer aggression, peer victimization, homophobic name calling, and sexual violence perpetration and victimization among middle school sixth-grade students. Methods: The study design was a nested cohort (sixth graders) longitudinal study. We randomly assigned 18 matched pairs of 36 middle schools to the SS-SSTP or control condition. Teachers implemented 15 weekly lessons of the sixth-grade curriculum that focused on social emotional learning skills, including empathy, communication, bully prevention, and problem-solving skills. All sixth graders (n = 3,616) in intervention and control conditions completed self-report measures assessing verbal/relational bullying, physical aggression, homophobic name calling, and sexual violence victimization and perpetration before and after the implementation of the sixth-grade curriculum. Results: Multilevel analyses revealed significant intervention effects with regard to physical aggression. The adjusted odds ratio indicated that the intervention effect was substantial; individuals in intervention schools were 42% less likely to self-report physical aggression than students in control schools. We found no significant intervention effects for verbal/relational bully perpetration, peer victimization, homophobic teasing, and sexual violence. Conclusions: Within a 1-year period, we noted significant reductions in self-reported physical aggression in the intervention schools. Results suggest that SS-SSTP holds promise as an efficacious prevention program to reduce physical aggression in adolescent youth.
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Bullying in schools has received both media and scholarly attention for the past 20 years. A large body of research has identified variables associated with bullies, victims, and bully-victims in terms of predictive and preventative factors. However, less attention has been given to the role federal legislation and litigation has played in schools being held more accountable for bullying that may involve discriminatory practices based on disability. Students who have some obvious physical or cognitive disability are at greater risk for being bullied. When they retaliate, they are often considered bully-victims when, in reality, they are only trying to protect themselves in a manner consistent with their oftentimes limited skills. Students with emotional or behavioral disorders (EBD) are at particular risk for displaying bully-victim characteristics. The first purpose of this article is to describe legislative mandates and relevant litigation on bullying and harassment so that schools are better positioned to react appropriately and swiftly when bullying involving students with disabilities occurs. The second purpose is to describe evidence-based practices schools can implement for preventing bullying and responding to it appropriately.
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This article outlines the development and validation of the Online Victimization Scale (OVS). The OVS consists of four subscales capturing individuals' experiences with online victimization across general, sexual, and racial domains. Online surveys were administered in two studies from 2007-2009 to two diverse groups of adolescents ages 14-19 from high schools in the United States. A confirmatory factor analytic procedure was performed in Study 1 and Study 2, and both sets of analyses supported the hypothesized four-factor model for online victimization. Correlation results showed that online experiences associated with each domain of victimization were related to increased depressive symptoms, perceived stress, and anxiety and decreased self-esteem and satisfaction with life. The OVS is a comprehensive measure of online experiences that may be used in research, clinical and educational settings. Results are consistent with other victimization and discrimination measures that show correlations with poor mental health outcomes.
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Bullying has been recognized as a dynamic process, where involvement is based on interactions between an individual and the social-ecological factors related to the individual’s environment. While involvement in bullying is not exclusive to one population of students, evidence suggests that students with disabilities are overrepresented within the bullying dynamic. However, few empirical studies have explored subgroup differences among this population of students. The current study examined rates of bullying involvement and the intersection of individual attributes among middle school students (n = 163) identified with specific disabilities and their peers without disabilities (n = 163). As hypothesized, students with Emotional and Behavioral Disorders (EBD) engaged in significantly higher levels of bullying and fighting than other subgroups of students. Additionally, higher levels of anger predicted higher levels of bully perpetration for students with EBD, where higher levels of victimization predicted higher levels of bully perpetration for students with disabilities other than EBD. These findings demonstrate the importance of recognizing the influence of the characteristic differences between subgroups of students with disabilities, and the unique influence these characteristics may have on student involvement within the bullying dynamic.
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Familial and adult influences, peer relations, and distal contextual factors were tested as correlates of a continuous measure of bullying behavior within a sample of 558 middle school students. Only 19.5% of the sample reported exhibiting no bullying behavior in the past 30 days. Parental physical discipline, time spent without adult supervision, negative peer influences, and neighborhood safety concerns were each positively associated with bullying behavior. In contrast, positive adult role models were associated with less bullying behavior. Results suggest that counselors should focus prevention and intervention efforts on the risk factors within the larger social context of an adolescent's life.
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In this article, the authors review research on individual, peer, and school contributions that may be critical factors for enhancing efforts to address bullying among students. Methodological challenges are delineated, with an emphasis on how bullying is defined and assessed and the subsequent implications for bullying prevention and intervention program evaluation. The impact of school-based anti-bullying programs and the challenges currently facing educators and researchers in this area are discussed. The article concludes with a proposal for a broader, ecologically based model of school bullying based on the emerging literature.
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Bullying and victimisation remains a pervasive problem within the nation's schools. International research has indicated that students who are enrolled in special education curricula are victimised and perpetrate more bullying than their general education peers. Few empirical studies have examined bullying and victimisation rates among American schoolchildren within special education programmes. The current study examined rates of bullying and fighting perpetration and victimisation among middle-school students (n = 7331) and high-school students (n = 14,315) enrolled in general education and special education programmes. As hypothesised, students in special education reported greater rates of bullying and fighting perpetration, and victimisation than general education students. Students who were in self-contained classrooms reported more perpetration and victimisation than those in inclusive settings. Fighting perpetration was similar for younger and older students in special education settings, whereas fighting perpetration was lower for older students, versus younger students, in general education.
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Bullying perpetration and victimization have become pervasive problems in American schools. Recent research suggests a causal association between prolonged periods of victimization and overt acts of school violence. These findings are germane to students with disabilities in light of evidence suggesting these students are victimized more often than typically developing peers. The purpose of this review is to provide special educators with an overview of definitions and issues related to bullying perpetration and victimization and to synthesize research on this topic as it pertains to students with disabilities by disability type, personal characteristics, and educational placement. It was concluded that additional research is needed on prevalence and types of bullying, factors related to perpetration or victimization, and appropriate school-based interventions for special needs populations.
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Research on the predictors of 3 bully status groups (bullies, victims, and bully victims) for school-age children and adolescents was synthesized using meta-analytic procedures. The primary purpose was to determine the relative strength of individual and contextual predictors to identify targets for prevention and intervention. Age and how bullying was measured were also considered as moderators. From an original pool of 1,622 studies conducted since 1970 (when research on bullying increased significantly), 153 studies were identified that met criteria for inclusion. A number of common and unique predictors were found for the bully status groups. The implications of the meta-analytic findings for future research on bullying and victimization prevention and intervention are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Determining who is eligible under the Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act (IDEA) has plagued decision-makers for over three decades, leading to both over- and under-identification of eligible children and the disproportionate identification of minority students as disabled. The statutory requirements for finding a child IDEA-eligible appear straightforward: a child must have an enumerated disability that adversely affects educational performance and by reason thereof the child must need special education. Application of these provisions has proven problematic, however, and the authorities are divided as to what constitutes "educational performance," when is it "adversely affected" by the disability, under what circumstances does a child "need" special education and what is "special education?" This Article explores the diverse interpretations of these terms by courts and hearing and suggests the proper application of each of the IDEA-eligibility requirements. Uniform eligibility determinations cannot be hoped for on a national level, as the definition of many of the key terms are left to the states, but this Article outlines the proper analytical framework for eligibility decisions.
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In this article the authors review methodological issues that arise when interviews and self-report questionnaires are used with people with mental retardation and offer suggestions for overcoming some of the difficulties described. Examples are drawn from studies that use qualitative methodology, quantitative studies assessing different question types, and studies reporting on the development of instruments measuring psychiatric symptoms, self-concept, and quality of life. Specific problems that arise with respect to item content (e.g., quantitative judgments, generalizations), question phrasing (e.g., modifiers), response format (e.g., acquiescence, multiple-choice questions), and psychometric properties (factor structure and validity) are discussed. It is argued that because many self-report questionnaires include questions that have been found to be problematic in this population, more attention needs to be paid to establishing the validity of such measures and to clearly defining the population for which the instrument is designed.
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Bullying among schoolchildren is certainly a very old phenomenon. The fact that some children are frequently and systematically harassed and attacked by other children has been described in literary works, and many adults have personal experience of it from their own school days. Though many are acquainted with the bully/victim problem, it was not until fairly recently, in the early 1970s, that efforts were made to study it systematically (Olweus, 1973a, 1978). For a considerable time, these attempts were largely confined to Scandinavia. In the 1980s and early 1990s, however, bullying among schoolchildren has received some public attention in Japan, England, Australia, the United States, and other countries. There are now clear indications of an increasing societal as well as research interest into bully/victim problems in several parts of the world.
Article
School bullying exists as a societal epidemic that affects millions of school-aged students (Espelage & Holt, 201213. Espelage , D. L. and Holt , M. K. 2012. “Understanding and preventing bullying and sex harassment in school.”. In APA educational psychology handbook, Vol 2: Individual differences and cultural and contextual factors Edited by: Harris , K. R. , Graham , S. , Urdan , T. , Graham , S. , Royer , J. M. and Zeidner , M. 391–416. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.. [CrossRef]View all references). Youths involved in bullying—whether perpetrating, witnessing, or being victimized—face inequitable access to school-based resources and opportunities aimed at academic growth and empowerment. This article conceptualizes school bullying as a social justice issue and explores the concepts of culture-based intolerance and bullying. We offer a discussion highlighting how researchers and practitioners may move forward to work with students and stakeholders in the educational setting to promote tolerance and, ideally, acceptance for children and adolescents of all cultures and creed. We posit that, to effectively and meaningfully engage in prevention and intervention programming, professionals must be willing to aid students in building awareness and understanding the injustice of discrimination according to inherent characteristics while nurturing openness and acceptance of all cultures.
Article
Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are characterized by difficulties with social interaction, verbal and nonverbal communication, and the development and maintenance of interpersonal relationships. As a result, individuals with ASD are at an increased risk of bullying victimization, compared to typically developing peers. This paper reviews the literature that has emerged over the past decade regarding prevalence of bullying involvement in the ASD population, as well as associated psychosocial factors. Directions for future research are suggested, including areas of research that are currently unexplored or underdeveloped. Methodological issues such as defining and measuring bullying, as well as informant validity and reliability, are considered. Implications for intervention are discussed.
Article
Children with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) may be vulnerable to social isolation and bullying. We measured the friendship, fighting/bullying and victimization experiences of 10–12-year-old children with an ASD (N = 100) using parent, teacher and child self-report. Parent and teacher reports were compared to an IQ-matched group of children with special educational needs (SEN) without ASD (N = 80) and UK population data. Parents and teachers reported a lower prevalence of friendships compared to population norms and to children with SEN without an ASD. Parents but not teachers reported higher levels of victimization than the SEN group. Half of the children with an ASD reported having friendships that involved mutuality. By teacher report children with an ASD who were less socially impaired in mainstream school experienced higher levels of victimization than more socially impaired children; whereas for more socially impaired children victimization did not vary by school placement. Strategies are required to support and improve the social interaction skills of children with an ASD, to enable them to develop and maintain meaningful peer friendships and avoid victimization.
Article
Peer victimization is a serious social problem that can negatively affect children's psychosocial development and school adjustment, and may have lasting effects for victims. The rates of peer victimization among preschool children with disabilities, however, are unknown. This paper examines the prevalence and nature of peer victimization among children with disabilities in school settings using data from the Pre-Elementary Education Longitudinal Study (N = 1270). One-quarter to one-third of preschool children with disabilities experienced some form of peer victimization in school. Peer victimization increased over the 2003–2006 period (21% in Year 1, 25% in Year 2, 30% in Year 3), and there were also substantial rates of co-occurring types of victimization among children with disabilities. These results suggest the urgent need to provide bullying prevention strategies for children with disabilities—strategies which have been previously neglected in the context of school-based bullying prevention and intervention programs.
Article
Bullying involvement status (i.e., bully, victim, bully–victim) and school adjustment were examined in a sample of 1,389 fifth graders (745 female, 644 male) including 145 special education students who were served in general education classrooms for at least 50% of the day. The sample was drawn from 35 rural schools in seven states across all geographic areas of the United States. School adjustment difficulties including internalizing and externalizing behavior problems were most pronounced in students who were identified as bully–victims (students who were identified as both victims and perpetrators of bullying). In contrast, bullies tended to have more positive interpersonal characteristics and fewer negative ones than youth who were identified as victims or bully–victims. Furthermore, compared to their nondisabled peers, students who received special education services had elevated rates of involvement as victims and bully–victims, but not as bullies. Implications for intervention are discussed.
Article
Cyber bullying or electronic bullying refers to bullying that occurs through the Internet or cellular phones. With the rise of technology, researchers have shown a keen interest in the topic of cyber bullying. However, that interest has not extended to individuals with special needs. To address this gap in the literature, the current study examined the prevalence of both “traditional” bullying and cyber bullying in youth with ADHD and/or Asperger's Syndrome, and assessed the social, psychological, and health effects of bullying on participants. In addition, the study addressed the disconnect between parents’ understanding of their child's online experiences and their child's actual experiences in the virtual world. Forty-two children and youth reported high rates of bullying victimization through both traditional and electronic means. Individuals not involved with bullying showed greater levels of physical and psychological health relative to those involved with bullying. Parents and children disagreed on a number of issues related to use of the Internet, indicating the need for more clear communication between parents and their children. The results are discussed in terms of theory of mind, both for self and for others.
Article
Special education continues to document the poor within and post-school outcomes among children and youth with Emotional/Behavioral Disorders (EBD). While the poor outcomes are due to a myriad of causes, three issues routinely emerge as problematic in the field. First, the need for early intervention and prevention has been well documented, and yet educators continue to struggle with building effective prevention systems. Second, a clear disconnect exists between the current federal definition of “seriously emotionally disturbed” and the educational focus and intent of the law leading to inconsistencies and under-identification of students and the adoption of a pathology model versus a strength-based educational model. Finally, the field continues to struggle with the implementation and sustained use of evidence-based practices within and across schools and school districts. The purpose of this article is to discuss how School-Wide Positive Behavior Support can assist in addressing the issues related to the prevention, educational identification and effective intervention implementation through its systemic logic, data-based decision making, and capacity building within and across schools. Research to date is reviewed with respect to addressing EBD challenges in school and implications for future research and practice are discussed.
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This study examined the social relations of bullies, victims, and bully-victims in second-grade classrooms. Bully-victims are identified as both bullies and victims. The sample consisted of 537 ethnically diverse second-grade students (247 boys, 290 girls) from 37 classrooms across 11 participating schools. Bullies, bully-victims, and victims tended to have somewhat distinct sociometric status and peer-assessed behavioral characteristics. Furthermore, bullies and bully-victims had distinct affiliation patterns. Bullies tended to be members of peer groups that contained few victims and most were in groups in which more than 50% of the members were not involved in bullying. In contrast, bully-victims tended to be members of groups that were composed primarily of bullies (i.e., bullies and bully-victims) and victims (i.e., victims and bully-victims). Implications for understanding the social dynamics of bullying in elementary school are discussed.
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This study examined the prevalence rates of bully victimization and risk for repeated victimization among students with disabilities using the Special Education Elementary Longitudinal Study and the National Longitudinal Transition Study-2 longitudinal datasets. Results revealed that a prevalence rate ranging from 24.5% in elementary school to 34.1% in middle school. This is one to one and a half times the national average for students without disabilities. The rate of bully victimization was highest for students with emotional disturbance across school levels. Findings from this study also indicated that students with disabilities who were bullied once were at high risk of being bullied repeatedly. Elementary and middle school students with autism and high school students with orthopedic impairments were at the greatest risk of experiencing repeated victimization. Implications of the findings are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved).
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Bullying and peer victimization in school are serious concerns for students, parents, teachers, and school officials in the U.S. and around the world. This article reviews risk factors associated with bullying and peer victimization in school within the context of Bronfenbrenner's ecological framework. This review integrates empirical findings on the risk factors associated with bullying and peer victimization within the context of micro- (parent–youth relationships, inter-parental violence, relations with peers, school connectedness, and school environment), meso- (teacher involvement), exo- (exposure to media violence, neighborhood environment), macro- (cultural norms and beliefs, religious affiliation), and chronosystem (changes in family structure) levels. Theories that explain the relationships between the risk factors and bullying behavior are also included. We then discuss the efficacy of the current bullying prevention and intervention programs, which is followed by directions for future research.Highlights► Many studies have investigated individual and direct level factors for bullying. ► Relatively few researchers have examined other relevant (broader level) factors. ► Effective intervention strategies require an understanding of the social ecology.
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Prior studies of childhood aggression have demonstrated that, as a group, boys are more aggressive than girls. We hypothesized that this finding reflects a lack of research on forms of aggression that are relevant to young females rather than an actual gender difference in levels of overall aggressiveness. In the present study, a form of aggression hypothesized to be typical of girls, relational aggression, was assessed with a peer nomination instrument for a sample of 491 third- through sixth-grade children. Overt aggression (i.e., physical and verbal aggression as assessed in past research) and social-psychological adjustment were also assessed. Results provide evidence for the validity and distinctiveness of relational aggression. Further, they indicated that, as predicted, girls were significantly more relationally aggressive than were boys. Results also indicated that relationally aggressive children may be at risk for serious adjustment difficulties (e.g., they were significantly more rejected and reported significantly higher levels of loneliness, depression, and isolation relative to their nonrelationally aggressive peers).
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Students in general and special education experience bullying. However, few empirical investigations have examined involvement in bullying along the bully/victim continuum (i.e., as a bully, victim, or bully-victim) among students with disabilities. A total of 816 students, ages 9 to 16, participated in the present study. From this total sample 686 were not receiving special education services (categorized as "no disability"), and 130 were receiving special education services (categorized as "observable disability," "non-observable disability," and "behavioral disability"). Data on students' involvement in bullying, office referrals, and prosocial behavior were collected. Results indicated that students with behavioral disorders and those with observable disabilities reported bullying others more and being victimized more than their general education counterparts. Students with behavioral disorders also had significantly more office referrals than students in general education. Seventh graders in general education reported more bullying behavior than sixth graders and ninth grades in general education. Fifth graders in general education reported more victimization than students in all other grades in general education. However, the grade differences were not significant for students in special education. No gender differences on bullying and victimization were found. Students with disabilities reported less engagement in prosocial behaviors than their general education peers. Implications for bullying prevention and intervention across both general and special education are discussed.