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The "monolingual habitus" as the common feature in teaching in the language of the majority in different countries

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Abstract

This article describes a fixed pattern of assumptions about language learning implicit in the idea of a national language, and explores their role in failure in the multilingual, multicultural classroom. These examples are drawn from Europe, but they raise important issues for multilingual countries like South Africa with a dominant language of education.In hierdie artikel word 'n gevestigde patroon van aannames ondersoek oor die aanleer van 'n taal soos dit duidelik na vore kom in die opvatting oor 'n nasionale taal; verder word die rol wat dit by mislukking in die veeltalige, multikulturele klaskamer speel, ontleed. Hierdie voorbeelde word aan Europa ontleen, maar dit bring belangrike vraagstukke na vore in veeltalige lande soos Suid-Afrika waar 'n dominante taal van onderrig voorkom.
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... Due to the imposed use of the national language in education, the notion of a standardized dominant language was established and maintained (Enever, 2018;May, 2011). However, with around 7000 languages and close to 200 independent states (Lewis, 2009) the world as a whole is evidently multilingual and thus, the notion of 'one language one nation' appears markedly inapplicable as categorization or perception of an unmistakably multilingual world (see e.g., Gogolin, 1997). As Blommaert and Spotti (2017, p. 3) point out, 'the world is not neatly divided into monolingual states.' ...
Thesis
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This thesis explores the out-of-school language use and disposition of young adolescents in contemporary multilingual urban settings, located in the three largest cities in Sweden. More specifically, the thesis explores the interplay of out-of-school language use, language ideologies, investment in languages and identities. Dimensions of multilingualism have attracted wide scholarly interest, yet the knowledge about the out-of-school language use and encounters among this group of adolescents in connection to language ideologies and identities, is limited. Employing an explanatory sequential mixed methods design, three different instruments have been used (questionnaire, language diaries and interviews). The study was conducted between 2019–2021 with young adolescents (N=92) aged 11–14 at schools located in Stockholm, Gothenburg and Malmö. Adopting a Bourdieusian approach, the notion of habitus, and the related pillars of capital and field, have guided the integrated analysis of the findings of the young adolescents’ practices and dispositions. Findings reveal patterns of young adolescents’ everyday use and encounters with Heritage Languages, Swedish, English and additional languages in different activities and interactions. The findings also demonstrate how participants’ out-of-school language use is intertwined in various multifaceted ways with their language ideologies, investment in languages, identity constructions and linguistic sense of placement. The overall findings show how everyday language use and ideologies of languages play a vital role in shaping the young adolescents’ investment in languages, linguistic sense of placement and construction of identities. The study signifies the importance of bridging the gap between home and school and the urgent need for education to take seriously how hierarchical relations of languages and dominant ideologies impact young individuals’ perceptions of themselves, their imagined futures and sense of place in the social world.
... However, as has been well discussed in the literature, neoliberal public policies trumpeting the need for competitiveness (Phan & Barnawi, 2015;Reynolds, 2019) have propelled IBCs and other manifestations of transnational higher education to promote themselves as pathways to socially empowering command of English (Reynolds, 2021a(Reynolds, , 2021b. Within the university, the implicit goal of commanding English merges with monolingual ideologies of what that would mean (Blommaert & Rampton, 2012;Gogolin, 1997), ideologies that pit the learning of English against the use of other languages. My class was also labeled as an "English" class, and all the assigned readings were in English. ...
Book
In this chapter we contextualise, describe and discuss a language learning and teaching project designed and implemented at the Language Centre of the London School of Economics and Political Science. The project entitled En un lugar de Loñdres is based on the use of London’s linguistic landscape as a source of authentic input in second language acquisition. We explain the rationale and context for using the study of the linguistic landscape as learning input and outline the development of learning activities designed to facilitate the learners’ understanding and engagement with the linguistic landscape and London’s Spanish speaking communities. We conclude that the project succeeded in enhancing language learning and contributed to learners’ political and social awareness.
Article
Functional Multilingual Learning (FML) aims to leverage pupils’ full language repertoire in a strategic and transversal way across the curriculum in order to enhance access to conceptual understanding and improve skills in the language of schooling. This linguistic-ethnographic study explores the pedagogical decisions of four teachers in a French–speaking primary school in Brussels, Belgium as they create ‘meaningful multilingual tasks’ for their linguistically diverse classrooms. Findings indicate that tasks serving symbolic and linguistic functions were the easiest for teachers to conceptualise, and that class-level learning objectives often took precedence over individual objectives. Multilingual scaffolding only occurred in classrooms already functioning extensively within a socio-constructivist paradigm and needed to be supported by a free classroom language policy to be the most effective. Whole-class tasks generated a new sense of linguistic capital but entailed a reframing of the notion of inclusion as they sometimes generated feelings of linguistic insecurity or resulted in limited participation.
Chapter
English as an additional language (EAL) classrooms are becoming increasingly culturally and linguistically diverse. As students along with their teachers no longer seem to share a common language, they are encouraged to adopt a bilingual approach to teaching with the home language (HL) assuming a more prominent role. The purpose of this chapter is to broaden the research lens on HL use in increasingly linguistically diverse EAL classrooms by eliciting the views of in- but also pre-service EAL teachers in adopting a multilingual approach to teaching. The objective is to address the following questions: 1) What do pre- and in-service EAL teachers think of the use of the HL? 2) When do teachers think the HL should be used? 3) How do EAL teachers address the presence of different HLs in the classroom? 4) In what ways could teacher-training programs prepare teachers to work with multilingual students?
Article
This special issue consists of five original research papers from four European countries. By applying different methodologies (qualitative, quantitative, and mixed-methods), the contributions aim to better understand teachers’ beliefs about multilingualism in a time of increasingly globalised societies and intensified migration flows. The studies cover all educational stages and include pre-service as well as in-service teachers, and teacher educators. Both individual and collective beliefs are considered. While two of the studies are cross-sectional, the other three apply a pre-post study design in order to investigate whether teachers’ beliefs can be influenced through adequate learning opportunities. The special issue is wrapped up by a commentary piece that links the findings and issues raised by the individual papers and addresses four pressing matters which should be considered to advance further research on teachers’ beliefs about multilingualism. In this editorial, we briefly introduce the concept of teachers’ beliefs and explain its relevance for teaching and learning in multilingual settings. Based on an ongoing review study, we provide a summary of the most commonly used methodologies in research on teachers’ beliefs about multilingualism. We conclude with a summary of the five original papers as well as the commentary piece in this special issue.
Article
13.yüzyılın büyük sufilerinden biri olan Mevlana Celaleddin Rumi gibi yüzyıllar boyunca Anadolu’da yaşama, anlama, duyma kültürü oluşturmuş zirve bir şahsiyetin yapıtları üzerinden eril kültürü sorgulamak, yeni bir gözle yapıtlara sinmiş örtük eril cinsiyeti açık etmek gerekebilir. Mevlana’nın yapıtlarının dili olan Farsça ve yapıtların çeviri dili Türkçe cinsiyetsiz bir dildir. Türkçe ve Farsçada, ödünçleme sözcükler dışında erillik, dişilik ve yansızlık gösteren bir dilbilgisel ulam bulunmadığı gibi cinsiyet, dişil ve eril adıllarla da ayrılmamaktadır. Başka türlü söylenirse, Türkçe ve Farsça dilbilgisel ve adılsal cinsiyete sahip olmasa bile sözlüksel cinsiyete sahip bir dildir. Türkçe ve Farsça gibi, cinsiyetsiz ya da sözlüksel cinsiyetli dillerde dişil + eril + yansız olmaması durumunda yansız adıllar ve yansız sözcükler örtük eril cinsiyetle ifade edilmektedir. Örtük eril cinsiyet sınırlı sayıda ve belirli sözcüklerde görülmektedir. Mevlana’nın yapıtlarında seçili örnekler üzerinden {insan + adam/âdem + merd + beşer + genç + çocuk + yaşlı} gibi sözcükler ya da {biz + sen + o} gibi kişi adılları ya da {herkes/hepsi +kişi +kimse +biri} gibi belirsiz adıllar çoğu kez erkek cinsiyetini karşılayacak ve kapsayacak niteliktedir. Bu durum, Mevlana’nın yapıtlarındaki eril dilin ve söylemin altındaki kalıpların sorgulanarak dişilcil – feminist- bir okumaya tabi tutulmasını gerekli kılmaktadır. Mevlana’nın yapıtlarındaki eril dile ilişkin belki dilsel zamansalaykırılıktan –anakronizmden- değil, bir süreklilikten söz edilebilir. Çünkü 800 yıldır Farsçada ve Türkçenin eril dil kullanım sıklığından ve yaygınlığından pek bir şey kaybettiği söylenemez. Bu makalede, Mevlana’nın yapıtlarındaki örtük eril cinsiyet örnekleri üzerinden dilsel adaletsizlik serimlenecektir.
Chapter
The chapter defines the key elements of the book in terms of context and research design, and elucidates some necessary premises for the reader to better understand the analytical contents of the book. It explains why migrant languages matter and illustrates the main policies adopted in Europe to preserve them,with a focus on Austria and Italy as chosen case studies.
Book
Without even considering the 150 Aboriginal languages still spoken, Australia has an unparalleled mix of languages other than English in common usage, languages often described by the term 'community'. Drawing on census data and other statistics, this book addresses the current suitation of community languages in Australia, analysing which are spoken, by whom, and whereabouts. It focuses on three main issues: how languages other than English are maintained in an English speaking environment, how the structure of the languages themselves changes over time, and how the government has responded to such ethnolinguistic diversity. At a time of unprecedented awareness of these languages within society and a realisation of the importance of mutlilingualism in business, this book makes a significant contribution to understanding the role of community languages in shaping the future of Australian society.
Article
Bibliogr. s. 267-291 a s. 324-331
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