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Characterization and sensorial evaluation of cereal bars with jackfruit

  • Instituto Federal de Educação, Ciência e Tecnologia Baiano, Brasil, Campus Senhor do Bonfim

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The objective of this study was to elaborate a homemade and alternative cereal bar using dehydrated jackfruit and seed meal as fiber source, due to the availability of this fruit in the region, without reducing the nutritional values if comparing to those already existent in the market. In order to evaluate the centesimal content and the acceptance of the homemade bars, both light and traditional bars were used as reference. The results showed that the elaborated bar presented protein values very close with products already found in the market. However, the new bars presented higher content of fibers. Formulations of 30 and 40% of seed meal were the ones with the best acceptance.
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DOI: 10.4025/actascitechnol.v33i1.6425
Acta Scientiarum. Technology Maringá, v. 33, n. 1, p. 81-85 2011
Characterization and sensorial evaluation of cereal bars with jackfruit
Calila Teixeira Santos, Renata Ferreira Bonomo, Rafael da Costa Ilhéu Fontan,
Paulo Bonomo, Cristiane Martins Veloso and Gabrielle Cardoso Reis Fontan
Laboratório de Engenharia de Processos, Universidade Estadual do Sudoeste da Bahia, Praça Primavera, 40, 45700-000,
Itapetinga, Bahia, Brazil. *Author for correspondence. E-mail:
ABSTRACT. The objective of this study was to elaborate a homemade and alternative
cereal bar using dehydrated jackfruit and seed meal as fiber source, due to the availability of
this fruit in the region, without reducing the nutritional values if comparing to those
already existent in the market. In order to evaluate the centesimal content and the
acceptance of the homemade bars, both light and traditional bars were used as reference.
The results showed that the elaborated bar presented protein values very close with
products already found in the market. However, the new bars presented higher content of
fibers. Formulations of 30 and 40% of seed meal were the ones with the best acceptance.
Keywords: functional product, Artocarpus integrifolia, nutritional value, food fiber, jackfruit.
RESUMO. Caracterização e avaliação sensorial de barras de cereais com jaca.
Objetivou-se com o presente trabalho elaborar uma barra de cereal caseira e alternativa,
utilizando a jaca desidratada e o farelo da semente como fonte de fibras, a fim de aproveitar a
disponibilidade dessa fruta regional, sem reduzir o valor nutricional em relação às existentes
no mercado. Para avaliar a composição centesimal e aceitação das barras caseiras foram
utilizadas barras comerciais na forma light e tradicional, como parâmetros de referências. Os
resultados obtidos demonstraram que a barra formulada apresentou valores bem próximos
aos produtos comercializados no mercado no que se refere à proteína, mas com teores de
fibras superiores. As formulações com 30 e 40% de teor de farelo da semente foram as que
tiveram maior aceitação.
Palavras-chave: produto funcional, Artocarpus integrifolia, valor nutricional, fibra alimentar, jaca.
Due to the easiness of acquiring pre-prepared
and frozen food in the market, together with
several options offered by fast-foods and self-
service restaurants, the consumption of this type
of food has increased. Nowadays, eating habits
have demonstrated low ingestion of fiber, which
leads to nutritional problems (FREITAS;
MORETTI, 2006). According to few authors,
high ingestion of fiber is recommended for
intestinal treatments of adults and children. The
regular consumption of fiber is constantly
recommended by nutritionists and official food
departments (SUN-WATERHOUSE et al.,
2010). Such recommendations are based on the
fact that fiber presents certain effects responsible
for significant modifications in human
physiology, preventing chronic diseases
(DREHER, 1999; AACC, 2001). The
consumption of fatty food, with high energetic
density and the reduction in practicing exercises
have strongly influenced nutritional problems for
the youth and adults worldwide. Among these
problems it is worth to point out obesity and
hypertension (BRITO et al., 2004).
Cereal bars appear due to the necessity of
having a product combining easiness and
nutritional quality, in order to either improve or
substitute snacks between meals, to complement
meals, or simply gain energy in a healthy way
(MURPHY, 2001; DUTCOSK et al., 2006;
RYLAND et al., 2010). The consumption of
cereal bars has increased mainly among young
consumers. Recent research has showed that
young adults raging from 15 to 24 years old
represent 62.5% of the consumers of cereal bars
(BRITO et al., 2004).
Food industries have sought to identify and to
attend consumers’ needs, considering that this is
the only way they can maintain themselves in an
increasingly competitive market. The
determination of acceptance by the consumer is a
crucial part in a development and improvement
process of products. Affective tests require a team
82 Santos et al.
Acta Scientiarum. Technology Maringá, v. 33, n. 1, p. 81-85, 2011
composed of several participants who represent
the consumers population and/or potential
consumers. Among these most applied methods
used to measure acceptance of products is the
hedonic scale, in which consumers express their
acceptance following a pre-established scale,
which gradually varies based on terms such as like
and dislike (MORI et al., 1998; SILVA et al.,
Jackfruit (Artocarpus integrifolia), is originally
from Asia and it has acclimated well in Brazil. It is
a fruit rich in carbohydrates, complex B vitamins,
and minerals (RAHMAN et al., 1999;
JAGADEESH et al., 2007, SOUZA et al., 2009).
Jackfruit is freshly consumed, and it can be
processed to candies, sweeties, frozen pulps,
juices, among others. Its seed can be consumed
baked or used in culinary to develop several
menus. Nowadays, there are studies concerning
the use of seed meal for preparing cookies,
sweeties, and bread as an alternative source of
The shortage of low-cost products with high
nutritional value has gathered researches to seek
for alternative protein sources which attend to
matters concerning low production costs.
Due to its different flavor, jackfruit can
become an innovator ingredient of cereal bars,
which offers an exotic flavor, and an increase in
its nutritional quality. Also, it can be used for
reducing production costs due to its low cost.
Therefore, the objective of this study it to
elaborate a homemade and alternative cereal bar
of jackfruit without reducing nutritional values
comparing to those already available for
Material and methods
Jackfruit was obtained in the free market of
Itapetinga and region. They were opened and seeds
were selected. The last were washed in water in
order to remove fiber, dried at room temperature,
and ground. Further, the product was stored in
plastic recipients at room temperature. Jackfruit pulp
with 75.4% (wet basis) of moisture was dried in a
trail drier at 65°C with an air velocity of 1.5 m s-1,
for 6 hours, until a moisture content near to 20%
(wet basis), and then it was submitted to grounding.
Three formulations of cereal bars were tested, with a
variation only in relation to dehydrated jackfruit
seed meal, respectively 50:50, 60:40 and 70:30 for
formulations I, II and III. These relationships were
used to verify the influence of seed meal
concentration on product acceptance. Cereal bars
were prepared according to the formulation
presented in Table 1.
Table 1. Final formulation of jackfruit cereal bars.
Formulations (g 100 g-1)
Ingredient I II III
Sugar 25.5 g 25.5 g 25.5 g
Glucose syrup 14 g 14 g 14 g
Vegetable fat 2.5 g 2.5 g 2.5 g
Fine oat 10 g 10 g 10 g
Thick oat 10 g 10 g 10 g
Dehydrated Jackfruit 19 g 22.8 g 26.6 g
Seed meal 19 g 15.2 g 11.4 g
Elaboration of bars
The ingredients were mixed manually in a plastic
recipient for 20 minutes approximately, until
obtaining homogeneous mass. Furthermore, the
mass was put on aluminum trays covered with
aluminum paper and submitted to the oven at
110°C for 15 minutes. After cooling, bars were cut,
wrapped with flexible film and let at rest until
analyses. Cereal bars were produced in the morning
and sensorial analyses carried out in the afternoon at
the same day. The Figure 1 shows the production of
different cereal bars.
fruit Dehydration Grinding Toasting Seed meal
Dry ingredients
Glucose syrup
Figure 1. Scheme of elaboration of cereal bars.
Cereal bars with jackfruit 83
Acta Scientiarum. Technology Maringá, v. 33, n. 1, p. 81-85, 2011
Proximate analysis
Dehydrated jackfruit, seed meal and cereal bars
were submitted to physical chemical analyses for
protein determination (Kjeldahl method), fat
(Soxhlet method), ash content, and moisture
content in a oven at 105°C, as described by AOAC
(1996) and determination of pure fiber in accordance
to the method described by Silva and Queiroz (2002).
Samples of 50 g by repetition were used to analyses,
conduced in triplicate each one.
Sensory analysis
Samples of each formulation of cereal bars
were evaluated by 60 non-trained testers ranging
from 18 to 50 years old, of both sexes. Acceptance
test was conducted in individual cabins under
light bulb, at the Laboratory of Sensory Analysis
located at the Southwest Bahia State University.
Samples of cereal bars were presented to
testers under room temperature, in a three digit
code. The order of presentation was randomly
established by the design of a table of numbers.
The section was conducted presenting three
samples of cereal bars corresponding to three
formulations varying in their seed meal content
and dehydrates jackfruit in 50/50 (formulation I),
40/60 (formulation II) and 30/70 (formulation
III), monadically presented. The hedonic scale
was structured in nine points, which the
minimum grade corresponded to the term
“extremely disliked” and the highest grade
corresponded to the term “extremely liked”. The
following characteristics were evaluated by the
tester: global impression, aroma, flavor, color, and
Statistical analysis
In order to test the differences among the
formulation, the Analysis of Variance (ANOVA)
was conducted. Data obtained from the sensorial
analysis were evaluated using the Analysis of
Variance (ANOVA), comparing averages using
Duncan’s test at 10% probability, using the
statistic software SAEG v 8.1 (RIBEIRO
JUNIOR, 2001).
Results and Discussion
Characterization of the raw-material and cereal bars
The values of protein, lipids, ashes and moisture
content of the three formulations found in this work
were not different among themselves. Results of
centesimal content of elaborated cereal bars, as well
as dehydrated jackfruit and seed meal are shown in
Table 2. The formulations of cereal bars presented
in an average 4.8 and 4.6% of protein, a desirable
value if compared to values found in the market
(which average values range from 3.0 to 4.0%). Seed
meal presented a considerable protein value (4.61%)
taking into account that it is a residual.
Formulations I, II and III contain, in percentages,
proteins from FJ (seed meal) + JD (dehydrated
jackfruit) of 76.76%, 75.43 and 72.17%, in dry
bases. According to the results shown in Table 2,
one verifies that the selection of fruit and seed
meal as a protein source is adequate, because
dehydrated jackfruit and seed meal contributes to
75% of the protein content of this cereal bar, and
the rest was from the oat. Brito et al. (2004), once
formulating cereal bars, obtained higher protein
values (6.27 g 100 g-1) if compared to those
obtained in this study (4.8 and 4.6 g 100 g-1). This
may be explained by the use of oat formulation
and corn starch cookies, which probably had more
influence in the total protein content of the bar if
compared to seed meal and dehydrated jackfruit
used in the formulations of this study. Lipid
content in bars I, II and III, if compared to bars of
other authors (BRITO et al., 2004; FREITAS;
MORETTI, 2006) was high. This was probably
due to the amount of hydrogenated fat (2.5 g 100
g-1) used in these formulations. The objective of
this addition was to avoid water addition in order
to promote uniformity, due to the fact that water
could promote rehydration of jackfruit, which is
not interesting if concerning the final texture of
the bar. According to Mattos and Martins (2000),
the value found for fibers (among 4.10 and 4.60 g
100 g-1) allows to classify homemade cereal bars as
a product of moderate fiber content.
Comparing portions of the product (25 g-1) with
brands found in the market, as described in Table 3,
it may be observed that the lipid value found in this
study is close to the ones commercially used.
Regarding carbohydrate and fiber contents,
elaborated bars presented a lower carbohydrate
content and higher fiber content if compared to
other bars. This fact may be explained by the
addition of seed meal, which has high total fiber
content (24.4 g 100 g-1) and low carbohydrate
content (3.76 g 100 g-1).
84 Santos et al.
Acta Scientiarum. Technology Maringá, v. 33, n. 1, p. 81-85 2011
Table 2. Approximate centesimal content (% wet base) of jackfruit cereal bar.
Dehydrated jackfruit Seed meal Formulation I Formulation II Formulation III
Caloric value (kca l 100 g-1) 271.18 242.88 419.06 414.85 413.21
Protein (Nx6.25) 2.73±0.03 4.61±0.04 4.80±0.035 4.60±0.029 4.60±0.03
Fat 1.94±0.02 0.80±0.007 8.68±0.04 6.22±0.03 7.81±0.03
Ash 2.47±0.03 12.12±0.09 1.59±0.03 1.38±0.029 1.56±0.025
Moisture 19.83±0.09 54.31±0.10 21.02±0.09 21.40±0.08 20.26±0.10
Carbohydrate* 63.43 3.76 42.50 44.10 45.40
Fiber 9.60±0.30 24.40±0.25 4.60±0.09 4.10±0.09 4.50±0.08
*Calculated by difference.
Table 3. Centesimal content of Formulations I, II and III of
cereal bars and commercial bars (D (light) and E (traditional)).
Carbohydrate (g) 10.625 11.025 11.350 19.000 17.000
Fat (g) 2.17 1.56 1.95 1.00 4.00
Protein (g) 1.21 1.15 1.15 1.00 1.00
Fiber (g) 1.15 1.03 1.13 1.00 1.00
*Composition of labels.
Sensory analysis
The grades given by testers concerning sensorial
preference is shown in Table 4. The three
formulations presented a good sensory acceptance,
in a general standpoint. However, texture sensation
caused by the combination of the ingredients
obtained lower averages of sensory preference.
Table 4. Averages of grades given by testers for sensorial preferences
of jackfruit cereal bars.1
Formulation Aroma Color Taste Texture Global
III 6.9 a 6.9a 7.1a 6.6a 7.1a
II 6.5 a 6.6a 6.8a 6.3ab 6.8ab
I 5.9 b 6.1b 5.9b 5.7b 6.3 b
1Means, in the same column, followed by the same letter are not significantly different
(Duncan’s test, p > 0.1).
Concerning sensory characteristics: global
impression and texture, formulation II obtained
intermediary average, which did not significantly
differed (p > 0.1) from Formulations III
(30% of seed meal) and I (50% of seed meal).
Regarding color and aroma, Formulation III,
with a lower content of seed meal (30%) obtained
the best averages (6.9 and 6.9, respectively), but it
did not significantly differed (p > 0.1) from
Formulation II which contained 40% of seed meal.
Considering taste, Formulation III obtained the
highest grade, 7.1, but it did not significantly
differed (p > 0.1) from Formulation II. Formulation
1 which contains 50% of dehydrated jackfruit and
50% of seed meal presented lower preference grades
if compared to the others.
Figure 2 shows the frequency of grades for the
following characteristics: Global Impression and
Flavor, due to the relevance of these characteristics,
from the three formulation of jackfruit cereal bar. It
is possible to verify that 30% of the grades
concerning Global Impression for formulations B
and C are among 7 and 9, which indicates
“moderately liked” and “extremely liked”.
Furthermore, more than 25% of the grades
concerning flavor of the three formulations were
among this same grade interval.
Frequency (%)
Hedonic scale score
Figure 2. Distribution of grade frequencies for global impression
and taste of the three formulations of jackfruit cereal bar.
Based on the obtained results we can conclude
that the cereal bar elaborated from seed meal of
jackfruit and dehydrated jackfruit satisfactorily
attends nutritional values if compared to other in the
market. Concerning sensorial characteristics,
formulations containing 30 and 40% of seed meal of
jackfruit were preferred by testers. Regarding
nutritional value, the variation of seed meal and
dehydrated jackfruit content did not present
significant differences. However, if considering the
testers’ acceptance, the best formulation is the one
which contains 40% of seed meal and 60% of
dehydrated jackfruit, due to the use of higher
amount of seed meal. Moreover, this formulation
did not differ from formulations containing 30% of
seed meal and 60% of dehydrated jackfruit.
The authors would like to thank the Bahia
State Research Fund Agency (Fapesb) and CNPq
for their financial support.
Cereal bars with jackfruit 85
Acta Scientiarum. Technology Maringá, v. 33, n. 1, p. 81-85, 2011
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License information: This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the
Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution,
and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
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Background: Jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam) is widely cultivated in tropical and sub-tropical areas worldwide. The tree is highly productive, resilient, and requires minimal care. Jackfruit has a characteristic flavour and is highly versatile. Several studies report the importance of the tree and fruits, ranging from food and medicine to the provision of several value-added products. In spite of the many benefits the plant offers, it has not been sufficiently incorporated in the general food system, partly because of gaps in processing, distribution and knowledge about utilization methods and nutritional and nutraceutical value. Objective: A comprehensive literature search was done to highlight jackfruit's nutritional, health, and commercial benefits to promote its utilization. Methodology: The literature search was conducted using three electronic databases with no constraints on publication year. Over 200 studies on the nutritional properties of jackfruit and at least 105 articles on the use of the various parts of the jack tree for their anticarcinogenic, antimicrobial, antifungal, anti-inflammatory, and hypoglycemic effects were found. Findings: Jackfruit has vital nutrients, including phytochemicals, minerals, vitamins, carbohydrates, and proteins. The literature on utilization shows that the fruit can be processed into commercial products using minimal processing technologies, dried to extend product shelf-life, or processed into various value-added products. Conclusions: Jackfruit production and value addition are relatively under-developed despite the fruit tree’s high yield potential, high nutritional value, nutraceutical and techno-functional properties. For improved benefits from jackfruit, actors need to adopt the available technologies at different value chain nodes.
... Ряд досліджень присвячено розробці зернових батончиків на основі пророщеного зерна пшениці як основного компоненту [19][20][21][22][23] та батончиків без термічної обробки [24][25][26]. Розроблено рецептури батончиків з додаванням насіння амаранту та висушених плодів аронії (горобини чорноплідної) [27], повітряного рису [28] та джекфрукту (індійське хлібне дерево) [29]. Р. Каур зі співавторами [30] розробили рецептуру безглютенового зернового батончика, основною якого є насіння кіноа. ...
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The market for gluten-free cereal bars as food concentrates and promising food products was studied from the focus of their dietary properties and a functional purpose. The range of grain bars made up 12% of the total food concentrates market in Ukraine and only about 1% of which was devoted to gluten-free grain bars. The main component of both domestic and foreign grain bars included the various products of grain processing. The range of grain bars of domestic and foreign production was analyzed in terms of their component composition and positioning on the market, and then classified into four groups: bars enriched with vitamins; bars with added flavorings and preservatives; bars with sugar substitutes popular among domestic producers; bars with the addition of palm oil, typical for export products. The grain bars of Ukrainian producers were characterized by addition of flax, chia, amaranth, pumpkin, hemp processed products into the composition of gluten bars, but in small quantities. The addition of dried fruits and berries, such as cherries, cranberries, apricots, and grapes, was also popular among domestic manufacturers. Overwhelming majority of the domestic producers used a mixture of four types of cereal flakes as the grain base, namely: oat, wheat, barley and, corn flakes. Taking into account a need in alternative plant resources for the wholesome bars, sorghum, amaranth, flax grain processed products are excellent for the development of gluten-free products. Effect of these non-traditional raw materials (pop sorghum, pop amaranth, flax meal, walnut cake, etc.) on the quality of the grain bars was studied. The use of these ingredients contributed to the enrichment of the grain bars with essential macro-and microelements, lysine, polyphenols, lignin, and vitamins. The developed gluten-free grain bars showed the high consumer qualities; therefore, they are capable to meet the growing demand for gluten-free food products among consumers, providing to widen the range of the grain bars on the Ukrainian market.
... A number of researchers have studied the effects of different ingredients on the sensory characteristics and overall perception of snack bars [16,[25][26][27]. For example, Santos et al. [28] studied the sensory characteristics of homemade and alternative cereal bars using dehydrated jackfruit and seed meal as a fiber source. With regard to sensorial characteristics, formulations containing 30% and 40% of seed meal of jackfruit were preferred by testers. ...
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The aim of the present study was to evaluate the possibilities for using date fruit from the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia in the formulation of a novel snack bar while replacing the used honey with date paste. The technological, textural, microbiological and sensory qualities of the obtained food products were evaluated during storage for 12 days after their production. Date palm fruit in the form of date paste was used as an ingredient in the composition of the new snack bars that also included nuts and dried fruits. Five formulations were prepared: a control bar, snack bar with 40% date paste, snack bar with 50% date paste, snack bar with 60% date paste, and snack bar with 70% dates paste. The resulting date paste’s textural characteristics supported the bonding potential of the food system and gave a sweet taste to the final product. The formulations containing 50% date paste presented the highest overall acceptability and were the formulation with the best sensory characteristics. Thus, the addition of date paste in snack bars would be a good option to develop a functional product that contributes to rational nutrition principles. The obtained values in the current study confirmed the technological and functional potential of date fruit as a product that can find adequate application in the composition of foods with functional properties.
Tujuan penelitian untuk mengetahui efek perbandingan tepung garut dan buah pisang kepok terhadap nilai nutrient dan Angka Kecukupan Gizi (AKG) food bars. Perlakuan yang digunakan dalam pembuatan food bars yaitu tepung garut:pisang= 50:125 g (S1), perlakuan tepung garut:pisang= 75:100 g (S2) dan perlakuan tepung garut:pisang= 100:75 g (S3). Proses pembuatan food bars dilakukan dengan pencampuran margarin, gula dan garam hingga terbentuk foam, kemudian penambahan tepung garut, tepung terigu dan puree pisang kepok. Selanjutnya, pengulenan adonan, pencetakan dan pemanggangan 180oC dengan waktu 30 menit. Parameter yang dianalisis yaitu nilai nutrient dan persen Angka Kecukupan Gizi (AKG). Desain penelitian adalah Rancangan Acak Lengkap, analisis data menggunakan ANOVA one way dengan uji lanjut DMRT α < 0,05. Kadar air yang dihasilkan sebesar 9,66 %- 11,09 %. Kadar protein ketiga food bars sekitar 6,32-6,58 %. Kadar karbohidrat ketiga food bars sebesar 61,84 %-64,56 %. Kadar lemak produk antara 10,23-10,76 %. Nilai energi produk food bars yang dihasilkan antara 363,29 kcal/100 g-373,59 kcal/100 g. Takaran saji produk food bars per sajian adalah 60 gram. sampel S1, S2, S3 masing-masing dapat memenuhi kebutuhan energi harian sebesar 10,42; 10,14 dan 10,33 % per sajian. Food bars S1, S2 dan S3 dapat memenuhi kebutuhan protein harian masing-masing sebesar 6,33; 6,33 dan 6,67 % per sajian. Food bars S1, S2 dan S3 dapat memenuhi kebutuhan karbohidrat harian sebesar 11,92; 11,42 dan 11,82 % per sajian. Food bars S1, S2 dan S3 dapat memenuhi kebutuhan lemak harian sebesar 8,96; 9,70 dan 9,42 % per sajian. Keywords: pisang kepok, tepung garut, food bars, Angka Kecukupan Gizi
Conference Paper
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Produtos orgânicos são polêmicos quanto a sua qualidade sensorial. Neste estudo foi realizado um teste de aceitação em relação a um conjunto de atributos: cor, aroma, sabor e impressão global, no qual sessenta e seis consumidores avaliaram quatro amostras de café orgânico e uma amostra de café convencional de quatro diferentes marcas comerciais. Para a realização desse teste utilizou-se uma escala hedônica de nove pontos e os resultados obtidos foram avaliados por meio de Mapa de Preferência Interno (MDPREF). O MDPREF demonstrou que a amostra de café orgânico ORG-4 obteve maior aceitação pelos consumidores em relação aos quatro atributos avaliados, mostrando que nessa marca de café os atributos em conjunto torna-a bem mais apreciada. A marca de café orgânico ORG-1 foi menos preferida quanto aos atributos cor, sabor e impressão global. A amostra de café CON foi menos aceita quanto ao atributo aroma.
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Barras de cereais foram introduzidas no mercado há cerca de uma década como alternativa "saudável" de confeito. Concomitantemente, alimentos como a soja, ricos em vitaminas e minerais e com propriedades antioxidantes vêm recebendo grande aplicação em produtos de alegação funcional, pois previnem contra doenças cardiovasculares e crônico-degenerativas. Considerando o crescimento do segmento de barra de cereais no setor de alimentos, desenvolveu-se uma formulação de barra de cereais de alto teor protéico e vitamínico, à base de proteína de soja texturizada, gérmen de trigo e aveia, enriquecida de ácido ascórbico e acetato de -tocoferol. As matérias-primas e a formulação final da barra de cereais foram submetidas a análises para caracterização e três formulações, variando o teor de ácido ascórbico, foram avaliadas quanto à preferência sensorial e intensidade ideal de doçura e acidez. A proteína de soja texturizada utilizada apresentou elevados teores dos oligossacarídeos rafinose e estaquiose (1,92 g/100 g e 4,66 g/100 g) e de isoflavonas totais (283,49 mg/100 g) se comparados ao grão, farinha integral e isolado protéico. A formulação final da barra de cereais apresentou 15,31% de proteína e elevado teor de vitamina E (118,0 mg/100 g) e minerais como fósforo, ferro e manganês. A formulação adicionada de 1,1 g/100 g de ácido ascórbico obteve maior preferência sensorial diferindo das demais amostras (p<0,05).
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SUMMARY CHARACTERIZATION AND SENSORIAL EVALUATION OF FUNCTIONAL CEREAL BAR. Cereal bars were introduced over a decade ago as a "healthy" alternative confectionery. Concomitantly, foods as soybean, with high vitamin and mineral levels and antioxidants properties come receiving great application in functional products, because they can prevent against chronic-degenerative illnesses of the heart. Considering the growth of the segment of cereal bars in the food sector, it was developed a formulation with high protein and vitamin levels cereal bar based on textured soy protein, wheat germ and oat, enriched with acid ascorbic and acetate of α-tocoferol. The cereal bar and its ingredients had been submitted to the analyses for characterization and three formulations, varying the content of acid ascorbic; they had also been evaluated as a sensorial preference and an ideal intensity of sweetness and acidity. The textured soy protein used presented high levels of oligosaccharides raffinose and stachiose (1.92 g/100 g e 4.66 g/100 g) and of total isoflavones (283.49 mg/100 g), when compared with the grain, integral flour and isolated protein. The final formulation of the cereal bar presented 15.31% of protein, high vitamin E content (118.0 mg/100 g) and minerals such as phosphorus, iron and manganese. The 1.1 g/100 g added formulation of acid ascorbic got greater significantly sensorial preference, differing from
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Avaliação sensorial de goiabadas foi realizada por meio da análise descritiva quantitativa utilizando 9 amostras do mercado brasileiro (6 do mercado interno e 3 do externo) de 6 marcas comerciais. Goiabada é o produto resultante do processamento das partes comestíveis de goiabas sadias, desintegradas, com açúcares, com ou sem adição de água, agentes geleificantes, ajustadores de pH e de outros ingredientes e aditivos permitidos até consistência apropriada, sendo termicamente processada e acondicionada de modo a assegurar a sua perfeita conservação. Foram selecionados e treinados os julgadores, e sob orientação de um lider, estabelecidos atributos e suas definições elaborando-se um glossário. Os atributos sensoriais que descreveram a goiabada foram: sinerese, presença de bolhas, cavidades e pontos escuros na superfície e no fundo da amostra retirada da lata, brilho, cor, aparência geral, firmeza, tipo de corte, resistência ao corte, adesividade na boca, arenosidade, coesividade, aroma de goiaba, doçura, acidez e sabores de goiaba, caramelizado, estranho e remanescente e qualidade global. Os resultados da análise sensorial das amostras de goiabada analisadas possibilitaram agrupar as amostras por meio da análise discriminante passo a passo, em cinco grupos com características sensoriais distintas. As amostras CE, SF e VE constituíram três grupos distintos e diferiram significativamente (alfa = 5%) entre si e do restante. As amostras AI e AE constituíram o 4º grupo e o 5º grupo foi formado pelas amostras EI, EE, PE e CI.
Formulou-se receita basica de barra de cereal, empregando biscoito de amido de milho, acucar demerara, leite em po desnatado, flocos de arroz, aveia em flocos, xarope de glicose de milho, uva passa e damasco seco, como alternativa as barras encontradas no comercio. Para avaliar a composicao centesimal e a aceitacao desse produto caseiro foram utilizadas duas barras comerciais como parâmetro de referencia. O produto foi submetido a determinacoes de carboidratos, lipidios, proteinas, fibras e a analise sensorial. Os resultados obtidos demonstraram que a barra formulada apresentou valores bem proximos aos das industrializadas no que se refere ao aporte calorico, carboidratos e proteinas. Entretanto, foram encontrados teores de lipidios 83,0% a 95,7% mais baixos que os das barras comerciais. O teor de fibras mostrou-se 14% menor na barra caseira, sugerindo-se a substituicao do biscoito pela versao integral e insercao de cereais integrais na formulacao para incrementar o aporte de fibras. A barra formulada obteve aceitacao global superior a das barras de referencia, representando opcao para suplementacao de fibras na dieta. Concluiu-se que o produto atende as especificacoes sanitarias, nutricionais e sensoriais. ELABORATION AND GLOBAL EVALUATION OF A HOME-MADE CEREAL BAR Abstract A basic recipe of cereal bar was formulated, by employing corn starch biscuit, demerara sugar, skim powder milk, rice flakes, oat flakes, corn glucose syrup, raisin and dried apricot, as alternative to the bars available in the market. To evaluate the centesimal composition and the acceptance of this home-made product, two commercial bars were utilized as reference parameter. The product was submitted to carbohydrate, lipids, proteins and fiber determinations and to sensory analysis. The obtained results demonstrated that the formulated bar showed very near values to those found in industrialized bars as it concerns the presence of calories, carbohydrates and proteins. However, lipid contents were 83% to 95.7% lower than the commercial bars. Fiber content was 14% lower in the home-made bar, suggesting that the substitution of the biscuit by the whole version and the insertion of whole cereals in the formulation to increment the fiber content. The formulated bar obtained global acceptance superior to the reference bars, representing an option to fiber supplementation in the diet. It was concluded that the product assists the sanitary, nutritional and sensory specifications.
Chemical composition of bulbs from 24 different firm-type jackfruit clones was analyzed to study the variability. These jackfruits were selected for dessert purposes through an extensive survey in Western Ghats, part of India, presumably the centre for origin and diversity of jackfruit. A wide variation in the TSS, acidity, TSS:acid ratio, sugars, starch and carotenoid contents was observed in the bulbs of jackfruit types considered in the present investigation. The results of the study are helpful for attempting crop improvement and selection of superior desirable jackfruit genotypes for bringing to cultivation.
Study objectives were to formulate a nutritious acceptable snack bar partially replacing oats with micronized flaked lentils (MFL), and to identify the sensory attributes that contribute to consumer acceptability. Six MFL snack bar formulations exhibiting a wide range of flavor and textural characteristics were developed from a mixture designed experiment. These bars and two commercial bars were evaluated by a consumer panel (n=62) and a descriptive panel (n=11). The highest mean acceptability values for one commercial sample (6.5) and three MFL bars (6.0) were not significantly different and corresponded to ‘like slightly’ on the 9-point hedonic scale. External preference mapping determined that sweetness, grainy and lentil flavors, hardness, cohesiveness, cohesiveness of mass and moistness had the greatest influence on consumer acceptability. MFL bars contained more dietary fibre, protein and iron in addition to an approximate sevenfold increase in folate over the all oat counterpart.
Soft and firm varieties of jackfruit of three stages of maturity (7–8, 10–12, and 14–16 weeks), harvested from the central, western and eastern parts of Bangladesh, were analysed. The dry matter content of perianth and seed of the soft and firm varieties increased from 10.0 to 32.0% and 19.0 to 52.0%, respectively, while the ash content decreased from 5.7 to 2.0% and 4.9 to 1.5%, respectively, on a dry matter basis. The free sugars of jackfruit samples increased with maturity from 1.5 to 10.5% and 1.4 to 5.2% of their dry matter for the soft and firm varieties, respectively. In all cases varying proportions of glucose, fructose and sucrose were the major sugar constituents. The starch content of the perianth samples increased from 7.8 to 47.0% and from 9.0 to 50.5%, on a dry matter basis for the soft and firm varieties, respectively, whereas, that for seed increased up to 65.0 and 59.0%, respectively. Microscopic examination of the samples showed the perianth to contain thin-walled cells packed with starch granules, some organized into distinct clusters. From both the chemical and histological studies, it appeared that the starch content of both perianth and seed of soft and firm varieties of jackfruit samples gradually increased with the increase of maturity. The total dietary fibre varied from 42.0 to 55.0% in the perianth. However, that of seed changed very little. The results show that the starch and total dietary fibre contents of jackfruit are higher than those of other fruits and vegetables of Bangladesh. ©
The aim was to develop snack bars with high dietary fibre (DF) and polyphenol contents. Snack bar base was formulated without (control bar) or with fibre (inulin or apple DF bar). Snack bar filling was formulated with or without apple polyphenol extract (APE). Nutritional assessment of snack bars was based on the total DF, phenolics, protein, fat, uronic acid (UA) and moisture contents, water activity, Hunter L∗a∗b∗ colour, hardness, and phenolic composition. Results showed that snack bars with added apple DFs gave the highest amount of total DF (∼5.3% w/w). Good quantities of phenolics were also retained in the snack bars with added apple DF and APE after baking. With APE in the bar filling, the snack bars enhanced with apple DF or inulin had higher levels of extracted phenolics (2.87 and 2.22 mg catechin equivalent (CtE)/g bar) than the control bars (1.45 mg CtE/g bar). The phenolic profiles of snack bars obtained by HPLC resembled that of the APE ingredient. The Hunter L∗a∗b∗ colour and water activity values suggested that the addition of APE did not cause extra browning and the resultant snack bars would possess a good shelf life. Therefore, snack bars enhanced with apple DF and APE may be a convenient functional food, offering a good source of DF and apple polyphenols.
An experimental design for mixtures was used to develop tasty cereal bars with prebiotic properties. Inulin (I), oligofructose (OF) and gum acacia (GA) were the prebiotic ingredients added (13.5% w/w) to cereal and fruits. The bars were analyzed by QDA (quantitative descriptive analysis) and the best formulations were determined in accordance with a preference test. GA was responsible for effects on dryness appearance of cereals flakes, hardness and chewiness while OF enhanced the brightness and crunchiness. The optimized formulations (50% I + 50% OF + 0% GA and 8.46% I + 66.16% OF + 25.38% GA) showed that blends of fibres imparted, to the bars, better textural characteristics than did each fibre alone. Syrup viscosity (greatly influenced by GA concentration) had a negative correlation (r = −0.904) with the preference score. The selected formulations aimed at reduction of 18–20% caloric value while providing an average increase of 200% in total fibre.