ArticlePDF Available

Evaluation of Free Radical Scavenging and Antiulcer Potential of Methanolic Extract of Benincasa hispida Seeds

Authors:

Abstract

In the present study free radical scavenging and antiulcer potential of Benincasa hispida seeds was evaluated. The powdered seeds were extracted with methanol. The extract was evaluated for its free radical scavenging activity by DPPH method followed by antiulcer activity using pyloric ligation, water immersion stress and NSAID (indomethacin) induced gastric ulcer model (NIU) in rats. The parameters assessed were gastric volume, free acidity, total acidity, ulcer index and percentage ulcer protection. Ranitidine was used as the reference antiulcer drug. The methanolic extract showed concentration dependent DPPH radical scavenging activity. The methanolic extract of Benincasa hispida seeds (MEBH) inhibited gastric ulceration by decreasing the gastric volume, free and total acidity. The high dose (300 mg kg-1) showed significant reduction in the above parameters which was comparable to the standard drug ranitidine (p<0.05). The MEBH caused 52.7, 67.4 and 61.2% inhibition of ulcers in pyloric ligation, water immersion stress and NSAID induced ulcer models, respectively at 300 mg kg-1. Thus it can be concluded that the seeds of Benincasa hispida possess potent antiulcer activity. The antiulcer action maybe exerted through free radical scavenging mechanism.
... Total protein and free amino acids have concentrations of 216.400 and 92.549 mg/100 g fresh weight, respectively. 23 It exhibits a wide range of biological activities, such as anti-inflammatory, antipyretic, 24 neuromodulatory, 25 anti-aging, 26 immunomodulatory, hepatoprotective, antidiabetic, 27 anti-obesity, 28 antiulcer, 29 anti-oxidant, 30 angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitory, 31 diuretic, nephroprotective, 32 5α-reductase inhibitory/anti-androgenic, anti-angiogenesis 33 and antimicrobial. 34 It also inhibits the mRNA expression level of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), interleukin-8 (IL-8), and ed NF-κB activation by blocking the phosphorylation and degradation of its inhibitory protein, IκB-α in human. ...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction: Protein-derived biogenic syntheses of inorganic nanoparticles have gained immense attention because of their broad spectrum of applications. Proteins offer a reducing environment to enable the synthesis of nanoparticles and encapsulate synthesized nanopar-ticles and provide them temporal stability in addition to biocompatibility. Methods: In the present study, Benincasa hispida fruit proteins were used to synthesize silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) at 37 °C over five days of incubation. The synthesis of AgNPs was confirmed by UV-Vis spectroscopy, TEM, zeta potential, and DLS analyses. Further, these NPs depicted antibacterial and antibiofilm effects. Additionally, the anticancer activities of nanoparticles were also tested against the lung cancer cell line (A549) with respect to the normal cell line (NRK) using MTT assay. Further, the estimation of ROS generation through DCFH-DA staining along with a reduction in mitochondrial membrane potential by Mito Tracker Red CMX staining was carried out. Moreover, nuclear degradation in the AgNPs treated cells was cross-checked by DAPI staining. Results: The average size of AgNPs was detected to be 27 ±1 nm by TEM analysis, whereas surface encapsulation by protein was determined by FTIR spectroscopy. These NPs were effective against bacterial pathogens such as Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella enteric, and Staphylococcus epidermis with MICs of 148.12 µg/mL, 165.63 µg/mL, 162.77 µg/mL, and 124.88 µg/mL, respectively. Furthermore, these nanoparticles inhibit the formation of biofilms of E. coli, S. aureus, S. enteric, and S. epidermis by 71.14%, 73.89%, 66.66%, and 64.81%, respectively. Similarly, these nanoparticles were also found to inhibit (IC50 = 57.11 µM) the lung cancer cell line (A549). At the same time, they were non-toxic against NRK cells up to a concentration of 200 µM. Discussion: We successfully synthesized potentially potent antibacterial, antibiofilm and anticancer biogenic AgNPs.
... Anti-ulcerogenic activity of different extracts of B. hispida was studied in aspirin plus restraint and swimming-stress, and indomethacin plus histamine-and serotonininduced ulcers in rats and mice. The extract significantly reduced the ulcer index produced by various ulcerogens (Gill et al., 2011b;Grover et al., 2001a;Shetty et al., 2008). In another study, there was an apparent decrease in ulcer index in animals treated with the fruit extract. ...
Chapter
Full-text available
Cucurbit plants were used actively as traditional herbal remedies for various diseases. The medicinal importance of plants lies in some chemical substances or secondary metabolites that produce a specific physiological action on the human body. Secondary metabolites are non nutritive chemical constituents of plants which are restricted in distribution in the particular plant species. The scarcity of scientific reports of vegetable gourds compared to the traditional usage and folkloric beliefs has further limited us in proper inclusion of cucurbits in our diet and versatile utility. The versatile utility of gourd vegetables as folk medicine and functional food ingredient provoked a compilation of a comprehensive review of these vegetables about their traditional usage and nutritional and medicinal properties together with their phytochemicals. Understanding the nutritional potential of gourd vegetables from scientific reports may influence both the work areas and consumers in the appropriate direction. In this sense, the present chapter aims to provide compilation of references and a detailed overview to the folk medicinal uses of Cucurbita plants. Brief discussion of phytochemicals and its activities are given in the text and for further details, cited references in the text and tables can be consulted.
... The high dose (300 mg/kg bw) showed significant reduction in the above parameters which was comparable to the standard drug ranitidine (p<0.05). The methanol extract of Benincasa hispida seeds caused 52.7, 67.4 and 61.2% inhibition of ulcers in pyloric ligation, water immersion stress and indomethacin induced ulcer models, respectively at a dose of 300 mg/kg [79]. ...
Article
Full-text available
The recent pharmacological studies showed that many medicinal plants exerted a wide range of beneficial gastrointestinal effects. This review highlight the gastrointestinal effects of the medicinal plants.
... B. hispida aqueous extract dose (300 mg/kg) revealed meaningful devaluation (p<0.05) in gastric acidity which in compared to Dimethyl as main therapy. B. hispida alcoholic extract excerpt induced more than 50% inhibition in pyloric ulceration during water immersion restraint stress (WRS) and Indometacin -induced stomach ulcer (Gill et al., 2011). ...
Article
Full-text available
Benincasa hispida (Kundur), a member of Cucurbitaceae family, is one of the acclaimed crops that are grown primarily for its fruits and usually identified with its nutritional and medical possessions in particular in Asian countries. Kundur fruits has been appraised as a nutritious vegetable as it provides a good source for natural sugars, amino acids, organic acids, mineral elements and vitamins. The pharmacological studies revealed that the plant applied many pharmacological activities, inclusive of central nervous effects (anxiolytic, muscle relaxant, antidepressant, in Alzheimer's disease treatment to minimize opiates resignation signs), antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, accouterments. diuretic, nephroprotective, antidiabetic, hypolipidemic and antimicrobial effects. As affluent source of functional important bioactives and therapeutics such as triterpenes, phenolics, sterols, and glycosides. This review pointed to the many pharmacological activities of Benincasa hispida.
... Traditionally, its fruits have also been used to treat a range of disorders including dyspepsia, blood disease, jaundice, fever, urinary calculi, insanity, epilepsy, schizophrenia, and menstrual disorders [11]. A wide range of biological activities reveals its anti-addictive [12], anti-angiogenesis [13], anti-compulsive [10], anticonvulsant [14], antidiabetic [15], anti-infl ammatory [16], antimicrobial [17], antinociceptive [18], anti-obesity [19], antioxidant [20], antipyretic [21], anti-ulcer [22], Journal of Planar Chromatography 32 (2019) 6 antiurolithic [23], diuretic [24], hepatoprotective [25], immunomodulatory [26], and nephroprotective activities [27]. Phytochemical fi nding reported that its fruits are a good source of natural sugars, amino acids, organic acids, mineral elements, and vitamins [28]. ...
Article
Background: Ayurvedic medicines show great promise due to their holistic approach in the treatment of diseases. However, proper standardization is necessary for their integration into mainstream medicine. One such well-known Ayurvedic trailing herb is Benincasa hispida (Thunb.) Cogn. Its fruit contains numerous secondary metabolites, including quercetin, and is used to treat urinary calculi, blood disease, insanity, epilepsy, jaundice, dyspepsia, fever, and menstrual disorders. Objective: The current investigation was undertaken to develop and validate a rapid, sensitive, and reproducible method for quantifying quercetin in the hydroalcoholic extract of B. hispida fruit pulp (HABH). Materials and methods: The pre-coated thin-layer chromatography (TLC) aluminum plates with silica gel 60 F254 were used with solvent system comprising toluene-ethyl acetate-formic acid (5:4:0.2, V/V). Determination and quantification were performed by densitometric scanning using a deuterium lamp in the absorbance mode at 262 nm. The validation of precision, accuracy, and reproducibility of the developed high-performance thin-layer chromatographic (HPTLC) method were done as per the International Conference on Harmonization (ICH) guidelines. Results: The mobile phase used for the development of HPTLC/TLC plate yields a distinct band for quercetin (RF = 0.392). The limit of detection and limit of quantification for the method were found to be 20 and 60 ng per band, respectively. The quantified quercetin content was found to be 193.77 ± 2.86 µg in 10 mg of HABH, i.e., 1.94% w/w of HABH. Conclusion: This HPTLC method can be successfully employed for the standardization and quantitative analysis of quercetin in formulation containing B. hispida fruit pulp and it will be helpful in the quality control/assurance of such formulations.
... Further, 25 compounds were identifi ed in B. hispida fruit juice by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), including 14 aldehydes (acetaldehyde, 3-methylbutanal, 2-methylbutanal, pentanal, hexanal, (E)-2-hexenal, heptanal, nonanal, benzaldehyde, (E)-2-nonenal, (Z)-2-nonenal, (E,E)-2,6-nonadienal, (E,Z)-2,6-nonadienal, and 2-butyl-2-octenal), 4 sulfi des (dimethyl disulfi de, dimethyl trisulfi de, methanethiol, and dimethyl sulfi de), 3 monoterpene hydrocarbons (α-pinene, p-cymene, and limonene), 1 ketone (acetone), 1 alcohol (hexanol), 1 imine (methoxy-phenyl-oxime), and 1 furan (2-pentyl furan) [10]. Further, B. hispida has been reported for a wide spectrum of pharmacological activities, including anti-infl ammatory [11], antinociceptive [12], anti-pyretic [13], anticonvulsant [14], anticompulsive [4], anti-addictive [15], immunomodulatory [16], nephroprotective [17], hepatoprotective [18], antidiabetic [19], anti-obesity [20], anti-ulcer [21], anti-oxidant [22], diuretic [23], anti-urolithic [24], anti-angiogenesis [25], and anti-microbial [26] features. ...
Article
Background: The fruits of Benincasa hispida (Thunb.) Cogniaux, a ‘rasayana’ in ‘Ayurveda’, are enriched with several secondary metabolites, and rutin is one of them. Fruits are used for their anabolic, brain tonic, carminative, diuretic, memory enhancer, refrigerant, and vitalizer properties. Objective: In view of the fact that herbal medicines and/or products are facing challenges towards global acceptance due to the lack of universally accepted standardization method (s), the aim of the current investigation was to develop and validate a high-performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC)-densitometry method for the quantification of rutin in the hydroalcoholic extracts of the fruit pulp of B. hispida (HABH). Materials and methods: The separation was achieved in a solvent system consisting of ethyl acetate-formic acid-acetic acid-water at a ratio of 7.2:0.7:0.7:1.4 by volume on a TLC aluminum plate pre-coated with silica gel 60 F254. Quantifications were performed by densitometric scanning under a deuterium lamp at a wavelength of 268 nm in the absorbance mode. The precision, accuracy, and reproducibility of the HPTLC method were validated by the International Conference on Harmonization (ICH) guidelines. Results: The mobile phase employed for HPTLC/TLC resulted in good separation for rutin (RF = 0.357). The limit of detection and limit of quantification of the analysis were found to be 0.1 and 0.3 µg per band, respectively. The rutin concentration in the HABH was found to be 178.28 ± 3.62 µg in 10 mg of the extract. Conclusion: The method developed here is simple, fast, reliable, and sensitive and can be implemented in the analysis and routine quality control of B. hispida formulations containing rutin.
Article
The present study on Benincasa hispida plant shows the various type of medicinal uses according to their Phytoconstituent. There are many pharmacological activities was reported on this plant. The plant fruit mainly use for its medicinal purposes and it has good result as medicinal use. The another parts of Benincasa hispida plant are also used for medicative function. This plant is use for as anti-inflammtory property. There is various type of pharmacological of this plant are antioxidant, anticancer antidiabetic, CNS effect, anthelmintic, anticonvulsant. This sugar also presents into the pulp of Benincasa hispida. The purpose of study of this plant is to investigate the all pharmacological activities.
Article
Full-text available
The objective of the present study was to evaluate the safety of standardized 70% ethanolic extract of Benincasa hispida fruit pulp (HABH) in rodents. Chemical characterization of HABH has been done by GC-MS and dimethylsulfoxonium formyl methylide, l-(+)-ascorbic acid and 2,6-dihexadecanoate were identified as major compounds in the extract. Acute oral toxicity study of HABH was done according to the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) guideline, by ‘up and down’ method, using the limit test at 2000 mg/kg, body weight in mice and were observed up to 14 days. In sub-chronic oral toxicity study, HABH was administered to Wistar rats at doses of 1000, 200 and 40 mg/kg b. w. per day for 90 days. In acute toxicity study, there was no mortality and no behavioural signs of toxicity at the limit test dose level (2000 mg/kg b. w.). In sub-chronic oral toxicity study, there was no significant difference observed in the consumption of food and water, body weight and relative organ weights. Haematological, serum biochemical and urine analysis revealed the non-adverse effects of prolonged oral consumption of HABH. The histopathologic examination did not show any differences in vital organs. Based on our findings, HABH, at dosage levels up to 1000 mg/kg b. w., is non-toxic and safe for long term oral consumption.
Article
Background: Peptic ulcer is a deep gastrointestinal erosion disorder that involves the entire mucosal thickness and can even penetrate the muscular mucosa. Nowadays, several plants and compounds derived from it have been screened for their antiulcer activity. In the last few years, there has been an exponential growth in the field of herbal medicine. This field has gained popularity in both developing and developed countries because of their natural origin and less side effects. Objective: This review aims to provide a comprehensive summary of currently available knowledge of medicinal plants and phytoconstituents reported for their anti-ulcer properties. Methods: The worldwide accepted database like SCOPUS, PUBMED, SCIELO, NISCAIR, ScienceDirect, Springerlink, Web of Science, Wiley, SciFinder and Google Scholar were used to retrieve available published literature. Results: A comprehensive review of the present paper is an attempt to list the plants with antiulcer activity. The review narrates the dire need to explore potential chemical moieties that exert an antiulcer effect, from unexploited traditional plants. Furthermore, the present study reveals the intense requirement to exploit the exact mechanism through which either the plant extracts or their active constituents exhibit their antiulcer properties. Conclusion: This article is the compilation of the plants and its constituents reported for the treatment of peptic ulcers. The Comprehensive data will surely attract the number of investigators to initiate further research that might lead to the drugs for the treatment of ulcers. As sufficient scientific data is not available on plants, most of the herbals cannot be recommended for the treatment of diseases. This can be achieved by research on pure chemical structures derived from plants or to prepare new lead compounds with proven beneficial preclinical in vitro and in vivo effects. However, a lot remains to be done in further investigations for the better status of medicinal plants.
Article
Full-text available
The present study was designed to investigate Cucumis melo var. utilissimus seeds for their antioxidant and therapeutic potential. The antioxidant activity of methanolic extract was measured by DPPH method and hydrogen peroxide free radical scavenging activity. The methanolic extract of Cucumis melo var. utilissimus seeds (MECU) showed maximum antioxidant potential. Hence, it was further evaluated for anti-inflammatory activity by carrageenan induced rat paw edema and analgesic activity by tail immersion method and tail flick method at different concentrations, i.e., 100, 200 and 300 mg kg-1. The significant results was found at maximum dose. The results suggested that methanolic seed extract possess great therapeutic potential.
Article
Full-text available
The effect of alcoholic extract of Nigella sativa was investigated in rats to evaluate the anti-ulcer activity by using two models, i.e. pyloric ligation and aspirin-induced gastric ulcer. The parameters taken to assess anti-ulcer activity were volume of gastric secretion, free acidity, total acidity and ulcer index. The results indicate that the alcoholic extract significantly (P < 0.001) decreases the volume of gastric acid secretion, free acidity, total acidity and ulcer index with respect to control.
Article
Full-text available
The objective of the study was to investigate anti ulcer activity of petroleum ether, alcohol and aqueous extracts of stem of Tinospora malabarica (Lamk.). All the three extracts were subjected to preliminary phytochemical investigation and also for acute oral toxicity study. The preliminary phytochemical screening revealed the presence of flavonoids, carbohydrates and amino acids in aqueous extract, flavonoids, alkaloids and carbohydrates in alcoholic extract, while petroleum ether extract contains only steroids. Aqueous and alcohol extracts found to be non toxic upto a dose of 5000 mg/kg while petroleum ether extract was safe up to a dose of 2000 mg/kg after single dose administration of the extract. Present study showed that, there was significant reduction in the ulcer index with aqueous and alcoholic extract and with that of petroleum ether it was less significant, also their was a considerable reduction in the free as well as the total acidity in pylorus ligated rats. In case of stress induced ulcers there was a significant reduction in ulcer index wit all the three extracts and percentage protection of aqueous extract was nearly equivalent with that of standard.
Article
Full-text available
The present study was designed to investigate the free radical scavenging, anti-inflammatory and analgesic potential of methanolic extract of Benincasa hispida seeds (MEBH). Free radical scavenging potential of MEBH was evaluated by DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl) and hydrogen peroxide (H<SUB>2</SUB>O<SUB>2</SUB>) method. The extract showed significant free radical scavenging activity in a dose dependent manner when compared with ascorbic acid. The highest radical scavenging activity of MEBH was found to be 79.8% at concentration of 300 μg mL<SUP>-1</SUP>. The H<SUB>2</SUB>O<SUB>2</SUB> scavenging effect of MEBH was 63.7% at a concentration of 200 (μg mL<SUP>-1</SUP>). Further, the extract was studied for its anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities at the dose level of 100, 200 and 300 mg kg<SUP>-1</SUP>. Anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated using carrageenan-induced paw edema in rats. Analgesic activity was evaluated by tail immersion and tail flick methods in mice. The extract showed significant decrease in paw volume (59.7% reduction) and pain at the dose level of 300 mg kg<SUP>-1</SUP> when compared with reference drug diclofenac and morphine, respectively. The MEBH may be useful as a natural antioxidant in the treatment of inflammation and pain.
Article
Full-text available
Stannous chloride (SnCl<sub>2</sub>) is employed as a reducing agent to obtain Technetium-99m-labelled radiopharmaceuticals in nuclear medicine kits, being inject endogenously in humans. Toxic effects of. these kits were not studied, thus making it important to evaluate their impact in humans. The use of natural extracts as medicines is growing around the world. The chayotte ( Sechium edule ) is a subtropical vegetable with potent diuretic action. It is used in folk medicine due its hypotensor effect. In this study, plasmid deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) was exposed to chayotte extracts (macerated) (0.1g mL<sup>-1</sup>) in presence of stannous chloride (SnCl<sub>2</sub>). Samples of the plasmid DNA were analyzed through agarose gel electrophoresis. The results show that the chayotte extract was capable of damaging the DNA in the presence and in the absent of SnCl<sub>2</sub>.
Article
Full-text available
The study was aimed to investigate the antioxidant and anti-ulcer effect of methanolic extract of Cucumis sativum L. seeds. Extraction was done using different solvents of increasing polarity (chloroform, ethyl acetate and methanol). The antioxidant activity of all the extracts was measured by DPPH method. The methanolic extract of Cucumis sativum L. (MECS) seeds showed maximum antioxidant potential. Hence, it was further evaluated for its in vivo anti-ulcer activity by Pyloric Ligation (PL) and Water Immersion Stress (WIS) induced ulcer models in rat. In PL model gastric volume, free and total acidity of MECS were measured at 150 and 300 mg kg<SUP>-1</SUP> doses. The ulcerative index was measured in both the models at the same doses. The MECS showed maximum reduction of gastric acid volume, free and total acidity such as 41, 48 and 29% at 300 mg kg<SUP>-1</SUP> dose, respectively. The ulcerative index inhibition in PL and WIS models was found to be 52.5 and 62.7%, respectively at higher dose. The results suggested that methanolic extract of Cucumis sativum L. seeds possessed significant antiulcer potential which could be due to its antioxidant activity.
Article
In this study, we planned to evaluate the antioxidative, anti-inflammatory and analgesic potential of Citrus medica peel extract. Antioxidant activity in different solvent systems was evaluated. Ethyl acetate extract of Citrus medica peel (EtCM) showed maximum 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and hydrogen peroxide radical scavenging activity in a dose dependent manner as compared to ascorbic acid. Further, anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities of EtCM (200, 300 and 400 mg kg-1) were studied on carrageenan induced inflammatory pain in rats. Anti-inflammatory activity was assessed by measuring paw volume in rats. Analgesic activity was evaluated for its central and peripheral pharmacological actions by using hot plate, plantar, pin prick and mechanical allodynia tests in rats. EtCM (400 mg kg-1) produced significant decrease in paw volume and pain as compared to diclofenac. Therefore, the Citrus medica peel extract may be used as a future antioxidant for the treatment of inflammation and pain.
Article
The involvement of oxygen free radicals in the development of the ethanol-induced gastric mucosal damage has been investigated. We found that oral administration of superoxide dismutase reduced the incidence of ethanol-induced mucosal lesions. Reduction of superoxide dismutase activity by diethyldithiocarbamate led to a pronounced aggravation of mucosal damage. Inhibition of the chloride-bicarbonate channel by a stilbene derivative also aggravated the ethanol-induced hemorrhagic lesions. Neither glutathione peroxidase, catalase, nor ceruloplasmin were capable of inhibiting the development of mucosal damage. Compounds with scavenging properties such as thiourea, 1-phenyl-3-(2-thiazolyl)-2-thiourea, dimethyl sulfoxide, various inorganic compounds (elements of the first and second subgroups and of the sixth group of the periodic table) and sulfhydrylcontaining substances protected the gastric mucosa against ethanol-induced injury in a dose-related manner. Naturally occurring antioxidants such as -tocopherol, -carotene, and coenzyme Q10 were ineffective. The present results suggest that superoxide free radicals are involved in the development of ethanol-induced gastric mucosal lesions, probably via an interaction with cellular membranes.
Article
The aim of present study was to investigate the cardioprotective effect of Lagenaria siceraria (LS) fruit powder against the cardiotoxicity of doxorubicin (Dox) in rats. Male wistar rats (250-300 g) were randomly divided into three groups. Group 1-was control (gum acacia 2%), group 2-Dox (10 mg kg<sup>-1</sup>), group 3-Dox+LS (200 mg kg<sup>-1</sup> for 18 days). Dox (10 mg kg<sup>-1</sup> i.v.) was administered in group 2 and 3 on day 16. After anesthetizing the animals on the 18th day, electrocardiogram (ECG) was recorded and blood was investigated for creatine kinase-MB isoenzyme (CK-MB), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) while determination of superoxide dismutase (SOD), reduced glutathione (GSH), lipid peroxidation (LPO) and histopathology was carried out for heart. Group 3 animals showed decreased QT and ST intervals (p<0.01 and p<0.05, respectively) and non significant increase in heart rate as compared to group 2. Significant decrease in serum CK-MB, AST (p<0.001) and LDH (p<0.05) of group 3 animals was observed as compared to group 2. There was significant increase in the level of GSH (p<0.05) and non significant increase in SOD, whereas lipid peroxidation (p<0.01) was inhibited in group 3 as compared to group 2. Histopathological study of LS treated group showed protection against myocardial toxicity induced by doxorubicin. Acute toxicity study showed that LS was safe at 5000 mg kg<sup>-1</sup>. It is concluded that Lagenaria siceraria possessed cardioprotective effect against doxorubicin induced cardiotoxicity in rats.