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The Grasshopper: Games, Life and Utopia

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... Furthermore, in this study of creating play spaces in spaces initially allocated for other purposes, the concept of emergent play is relevant. Emergent play refers to the kind of immediate play (Pichlmair et al., 2017) that emerges and develops from a situation-often in combination with the allocation or change in use of resources into the play activity that is initially intended for utility use-to use Suits (1978) understanding. Emergent play in HCI also refers to the appropriation or change of the technology to suit the play activity, as Desai et al. (2019) point out. ...
... As such, we can say that a playground is a space constituted by minor play and/or game spaces fostering play and/or game activities fuelled by the elements present at the time. These elements can be designed for play (Petersen, 2014) as we know it from traditional playground designs, or players can allocate other available elements to fit the activities (Suits, 1978). Whether the elements are designed for play, like toys (Sicart, 2014), playground elements (Specht Petersen et al., 2018), or they are initially intended for other purposes, in play, elements shift roles and purposes as the activities progress (Suits, 1978). ...
... These elements can be designed for play (Petersen, 2014) as we know it from traditional playground designs, or players can allocate other available elements to fit the activities (Suits, 1978). Whether the elements are designed for play, like toys (Sicart, 2014), playground elements (Specht Petersen et al., 2018), or they are initially intended for other purposes, in play, elements shift roles and purposes as the activities progress (Suits, 1978). Therefore, we regard these as multi-stabilities (Ihde, 1999;Rosenberger and Verbeek, 2015). ...
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This paper presents an evaluation study of how eighth families adopted, played and experienced a movement-based game system of analog and digital technologies in their homes during a pandemic lockdown. The COVID-19 pandemic locked down many countries and grounded people in their homes with social and physical implications. A game system consisting of simple, tangible technologies with modular components was designed to meet these needs. The game system was developed for the players to set up in their homes easily and, therefore, should not depend on screens or extensive physical installations. The game system comprises simple, tangible technologies such as light and music cubes, a simple mobile robot, card game challenges, and a suite of mini-games combining the elements in a variety of playful experiences. Using the technology probes methodology, the game system was packed into a suitcase and evaluated by eight families that played the game in their homes, video-recorded their sessions, wrote a final report and were (informally) interviewed afterwards. The data set presents how the families turned their ordinary everyday spaces into interactive, pervasive playgrounds encouraging social and bodily exploration and play. Furthermore, the study shows how bodily movement and social play can be promoted through different technologies that stimulate various bodily senses and incorporate them through the different game and play structures into their everyday living environments. The findings resulted in four design implications to aid designers and researchers in future work on movement-based game systems and interactive, pervasive playground design. These design implications accommodate social and bodily activities in ordinary places otherwise not pre-allocated for play or game activities.
... The problem of living well in relation to sport has been discussed quite extensively among the philosophers of sport (Feezell 2013;Holowchak and Reid 2013;Pisk 2006;Suits 2014Suits , originally 1978. In this paper, I investigate the role of sport in a good life in the philosophical conceptions of Aristotle and Suits. ...
... Bernard Suits (1925Suits ( -2007 focused on a detailed analysis of games and game playing (Ballantyne 2019). Among the most relevant characteristics of his position are: analytic (focus on providing individually necessary and jointly sufficient conditions of the concepts in reality), formalism (emphasis on written rules and 'formal' conditions of the activity rather than on an unwritten content 5 ), and objectivism (what a good life, sport, and other concepts signify is a matter of objective discovery, not a subjective preference). ...
... In his 1973 article 'The Elements of Sport' (Suits 1973), Suits argues that the elements of sport are essentially the same as the elements of a game. 11 He offers four requirements which, if met by any given game, are sufficient to denominate that game a sport (Suits 1973, 14): ...
Article
The relation between sport and a good life presents a fruitful philosophical challenge and it has been discussed extensively within the philosophy sport literature. This paper will investigate the role of sport in a good life in the philosophical conceptions of Aristotle and Suits. Both authors paid attention to sport and its significance in the context of living well. However, their approaches differ, partly because they emerge in a different historical and cultural context. My aim is to analyse relevant texts of these two authors, presenting their major points, commonalities, and differences. The debate, to a certain extent, highlights instrumental (educational) and autotelic (intrinsic) value of sport. In order to conceptualize properly the role of sport in a good life, we need to take into account both of these aspects. The originality of this contribution can be found in presenting relevant implications of the contrasting positions of Suits and Aristotle to our thinking about modern sport. Finally, I point to the complementarity of their positions and demonstrate their impact on the broader debate concerning good sport and its role in a good life.
... The player's equilibrium is the player's bodily status quo, e.g., in balance. A way to encourage such movement sequences is to create unnecessary or arbitrarily chosen obstacles for the players to overcome -as Suits [13] and Caillois [1] have described play. Thus, the mechanics' role is to infer obstacles that reshuffle the player's equilibrium to open up for new and different movement possibilities and explore and develop movement sequences. ...
... Thus, the mechanics' role is to infer obstacles that reshuffle the player's equilibrium to open up for new and different movement possibilities and explore and develop movement sequences. Additional theoretical concepts include Suits' [13] explanation of resources allocated for play, Ihde's [4] multistabilities and Verbeek's [14] things as their "doing". ...
... Suits [13] explains how -in play -players reallocate resources that were initially intended for instrumental purposes to the play activity. Similarly, in postphenomenology, are "things" argued to be understood as what they do-rather than their name or intended use [14]. ...
... That means that playfulness can exist even in non-joyful and serious activities (cf. Huizinga, 1938Huizinga, /1980Caillois, 1958Caillois, /2001Suits, 1978;Proyer, 2017). Gaming playfulness may be qualitatively different from playing playfulness, but both are playful. ...
... Furthermore, gaming is culturally valued (Avedon and Sutton-Smith, 1971;Apostolou et al., 2014;Crist et al., 2016), is associated with physical, cognitive and social benefits (Caillois, 1958(Caillois, /2001Roberts et al., 1959;Zimmer, 1987;Kaufman et al., 2019). It includes specific mental states (Walther, 2003;McGonical, 2011), and is costly due to selfhandicapping rules (Suits, 1978). Gaming develops later than play (Winther-Lindqvist, 2019), and makes individual differences more evident (Caillois, 1958(Caillois, /2001. ...
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By conceptualizing Sexual Selection, Darwin showed a way to analyze intra-specific individual differences within an evolutionary perspective. Interestingly, Sexual Selection is often used to investigate the origins of sports, arts, humor, religion and other phenomena that, in several languages, are simply called “play.” Despite their manifested differences, these phenomena rely on shared psychological processes, including playfulness. Further, in such behaviors there is usually considerable individual variability, including sex differences, and positive relationship with mating success. However, Sexual Selection is rarely applied in the study of play, with exception to what is concerned as infant training behavior for adult sex roles. We offer an integrated grounding of playful phenomena aligning evolutionary propositions based on sexual selection, which might stimulate further exploration of playfulness within evolutionary perspective.
... Participants have a different mindset when they feel like playing a game instead of completing a task. It is the "voluntary attempt to overcome unnecessary obstacles" [108]. The mindset change could help to create a ludic and relaxing design atmosphere that increases intrinsic motivation. ...
... Many describe this mindset change as a "lusory agreement" as a contract between game designers and players [108][109][110]. It is an agreement before playing action, and thereby no game design elements, but only the facilitators can "sign" this agreement. ...
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Co-design approach is increasingly popular in many organizations that address global change and social sustainability challenges, thanks to its unique and diverse methods of engaging relevant people in design processes and decision-making. However, the social distancing led by the COVID-19 pandemic seriously problematized the traditional in-person co-design activities. A sustainable online transition is unprecedentedly pressing. By acknowledging the limitations of online co-design, i.e., lack of means for participant engagement, we argue that gamification holds great promise for online co-design. This paper presents an empirical study to investigate this potential qualitatively. Based on the data collected from three gamified online co-design implementations, we examine the benefits of gamification and how future activities should be designed and implemented from the participants’ perspectives. Based on the participants’ perceptions, we propose several recommendations for designing impactful gamification. The finding suggests that gamification can facilitate online co-design activities in an enjoyable, relaxing, structuring, and creative manner, since they are perceived and recognized by the participants. Moreover, the successful implementation of online co-design implies that great sustainability benefits can be achieved through online transition, i.e., reducing paper consumption and time spent on meetings and unproductive discussions, supporting extensive diversity and density in representation. Online can enable this by overcoming not only the geographic and time limitations but also relevant social issues.
... Games have many elements and have been notoriously difficult to define precisely (Carse 1986;Suits 2014;Nguyen 2020;Werbach and Hunter 2020). We focus here on two key features of games to make the argument that game framing of negotiation is associated with less honesty. ...
... Game rules are arbitrary and artificial in that they do not carry over outside the specific game and could easily be different. As described by Suits (2014) in his seminal philosophical treatise on the nature of games, moral rules are experienced as "ultimate rules," whereas game rules are not. This idea that game rules are not "ultimates" may be part of why games are fun. ...
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Lawyers have broad discretion in deciding how honestly to behave when negotiating. We propose that lawyers’ choices about whether to disclose information to correct misimpressions by opposing counsel are guided by their moral character and their cognitive framing of negotiation. To investigate this possibility, we surveyed 215 lawyers from across the United States, examining the degree to which honest disclosure is associated with lawyers’ moral character and their tendency to frame negotiation in game‐like terms—a construal of negotiation that we label game framing. We hypothesize that the more that lawyers view negotiation through a game frame—that is, the more they view negotiation as an adversarial context with arbitrary and artificial rules—the less honest they will be in situations in which honest disclosure is not mandated by professional rules of conduct. We further hypothesize that lawyers with higher levels of moral character will apply a game frame to negotiation to a lesser degree than will lawyers with lower levels of moral character, and that honesty when negotiating will be higher when lawyers have higher versus lower levels of moral character. Our study results support these hypotheses. This work suggests that focusing on game‐like aspects of negotiation can induce a less moral and ethical mindset. To the extent that teaching law students to “think like a lawyer” encourages them to adopt a game frame of negotiation, we can expect such training to reduce the likelihood of honest disclosure.
... Esportividade, Jogabilidade e Trapaça à luz do InterpretativismoConsiderando os cenários apresentados, a partir do formalismo, convencionalismo e interpretativismo, temos a possibilidade de avançar para além da concepção dicotômica entre o certo, que é o comportamento alinhado à esportividade, e o errado, que consiste na trapaça como forma de violar a regra e na jogabilidade como uso instrumental. As reflexões apresentadas mostram que há convenções que podem ser levadas em conta, sobretudo no que tange a uma violação tácita da regra, mas socialmente aceita, que passe a ser entendida como parte possível da linguagem do esporte, no formato de trapaça aceita legal e moralmente sob a égide de uma convenção sob a lente convencionalista, e à possibilidade de que a reinterpretação dos princípios subjacentes à regra seja avaliada como fonte legítima para a plena disputa esportiva, partindo-se da jogabilidade como atitude passível de avaliação moral, mediante o olhar interpretativista.Isso, porém, não pode ser interpretado como um atalho para a perspectiva de que toda trapaça e toda conduta de jogabilidade sejam atestadas como moralmente válidas, já que tais condutas só seriam legítimas de modo momentâneo e estariam inseridas numa lógica em que a regra seria percebida como fonte de conflitos, quando a trapaça e a jogabilidaderespectivamente, a transgressão e a subversãoassumiriam o papel de sustentação da integridade do jogo/esporte no caso em que as regras, em seu papel de impor obstáculos desnecessários ao jogo, como frisaSuits (2014), o fizessem de modo a transformar tais dificuldades em limitantes para o desenvolvimento da disputa. Em casos nos quais a regra não figura como fonte de conflito, a jogabilidade e a trapaça têm no crivo da norma um guia seguro, revelando o que denominei de transbordamento da visada éticaentendida aqui como os desejos dos jogadores e treinadoressobre o crivo moral.4. ...
... Apesar deSuits (2014) distinguir entre games (jogos), esportes (sports) e o ato de jogar (play), não adoto como perspectiva de base a separabilidade entre jogo e esporte, por entender que ambos têm como natureza o próprio ato de jogar, partindo de premissas fenomenológicas com base emFreire (2002) eReverdito e Scaglia (2007). ...
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Este estudo parte do meu mestrado que me trouxe mais apontamentos futuros do que propriamente a chegada a um ponto-final, uma vez que me deparei com uma grande novidade: treinadores de handebol de crianças e jovens entre 11 e 14 anos de idade transgridem e subvertem os regulamentos que modificam a competição — especialmente o uso obrigatório do sistema defensivo individual —, mudanças estas que visam a objetivos de aprendizagem das crianças e jovens. Tais achados levaram a presente pesquisa a avançar para o estudo dos campos éticos e morais e suas intersecções com as condutas de tensionamento das regras por parte dos treinadores. Assim, o objetivo do estudo é debater as justificativas apresentadas por treinadores e treinadoras de handebol de crianças para suas condutas transgressoras e/ou subversivas à luz da complexidade ético-moral, e, para isso, parto da dialógica e complexa ecologia da ação moral definida por um marco teórico a partir da pequena ética de Paul Ricoeur, que possui um cuidado particular na análise de casos difíceis nos quais as escolhas podem se afastar do que é considerado bom moralmente. Para isso, será a partir da relação dialógica entre o deontológico e o teleológico baseada em três níveis de articulação — o si mesmo, o outro e a comunidade — que outras três relações morais e éticas serão propostas pelo filósofo: 1) a primazia da ética sobre a moral, 2) a necessidade de que a ética passe pelo crivo das normas e 3) a legitimidade de que em situações em que a norma não seja um guia seguro para a deliberação moral, realize-se o recurso à ética como meio para ação concreta. Opto por uma abordagem qualitativa e utilizo-me das entrevistas recorrentes para obtenção de informações oriundas de treinadores que foram escolhidos intencionalmente para este estudo por serem reconhecidamente aqueles que mais promovem tensionamentos das regras modificadas do handebol. A análise dos dados deu-se pela análise temática que revelou quatro grandes temas: 1) Sentir-se confrontado em seu ofício; 2) Sentir-se confrontado em seus deveres no plano estratégico; 3) Subversão como instrumentalização da criança; 4) Transgressão como cuidado com o outro. Os resultados deste estudo apontam que as regras modificadas são reconhecidas pelos treinadores como fonte de limitação de sua atuação, especialmente no que se refere ao exercício de seu ofício concretizado pelos seus deveres estratégico-táticos na disputa. Para superar essas limitações, eles adotam predominantemente duas posturas: 1) agem pela jogabilidade, tangenciando condutas orientadas a si mesmos e levando ao uso instrumental da criança, portanto conferindo caráter imoral às suas ações e 2) agem pela trapaça, porém baseados no cuidado para com a criança e a valorização da liberdade de expressão em meio à competição, alinhando condutas de trapaça com ações pedagógicas. Concluo que embora condutas subversivas/transgressoras guardem um apelo imoral, ainda assim não é possível generalizar tais condutas como também dotadas de tensionamento ao pedagógico, evidenciando a complexidade deliberativa da ação do treinador em competições de crianças modificadas em suas regra
... As a result, games can be used as means of motivation for participation. Bernard Suits (1978) said "To play is the voluntary effort to overcome unnecessary obstacles". A part of a city's success is connected to the capacity to let people play and interact with their surroundings, a means of involving citizens in making voluntary efforts to overcome unnecessary obstacles. ...
... " A voluntary attempt to overcome unnecessary obstacles. " -J.B, Suits, 1978 As described, games and other forms of playful design can represent strong techniques for urban planning and community development. It is a well-covered application area of serious games. ...
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The first section, titled “Reflections on Play, Games And Placemaking”, develops a theoretical investigation on the topics of play, games and placemaking in the evolutionary scenario shaped by the digital revolution. Key notions and critical aspects are introduced, delineating the conceptual framework that upholds research activities, lessons learned and the new research questions posed by the project. The second section is called “The Public Play Space Open Methodology”. It systematically describes the Public Play Space experience and activities, with the objective of expounding the research method at the core of the Public Play Space Open Methodology. Conceived as an open toolbox to support participatory design strategies mediated by play and digital technologies, this section not only describes the new tools developed to implement participatory design, but also offers a critical analysis of the research process itself.
... In a world as utopian as The Grasshopper's kingdom imagined by Bernard Suits (Suits, 1978), The Monty Python comedy troupe depicted a British government with a Ministry of Silly Walks. This memorable sketch (The Monty Python, 1970) depicts an applicant trying to show and prove that his gait is as silly as to deserve public funding, and a public servant analysing his merits in a very professional way: "It's not particularly silly, is it? ...
... When referring to games that end when they fulfill an inherent purpose determined by the rules of the game (internal logic), we imply competition games. On the contrary, when games stop due to some aspect that is external to the rules of the game, such the players' decision, the atmospheric weather, snack time, etc. (external logic), we are referring to games without competition (Suits, 1978). ...
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05 Editorial: Traditional Sporting Games and Play: Enhancing Cultural Diversity, Emotional Well-Being, Interpersonal Relationships and Intelligent Decisions Pere Lavega-Burgués, Marco Antonio Coelho Bortoleto and Miguel Pic 10 Book Review: The Story of Catch: The Story of Lancashire Catch-as-Catch-Can Wrestling Kazimierz Waluch 12 Book Review: La Aventura Praxiológica. Ciencia, Acción y Educación Física Maria Pilar Founaud and Asier Oiarbide 15 Book Review: Éléments de Sociologie du Sport Bordes Pascal 17 Book Review: Recreios Collegiaes Mário Duarte Maia Rodrigues 19 Sports Teaching, Traditional Games, and Understanding in Physical Education: A Tale of Two Stories Raúl Martínez-Santos, María Pilar Founaud, Astrid Aracama and Asier Oiarbide 31 The Universals of Games and Sports Pierre Parlebas 43 The Blows and Capoeira Movements From the Caricatures of Calixto Cordeiro Paulo Coêlho Araújo and Ana Rosa Jaqueira 51 Book Review: Games and Society in Europa Bartosz Prabucki 53 Joy in Movement: Traditional Sporting Games and Emotional Experience in Elementary Physical Education Verónica Alcaraz-Muñoz, María Isabel Cifo Izquierdo, Gemma Maria Gea García, José Ignacio Alonso Roque and Juan Luis Yuste Lucas 64 Book Review: Contribution à un Lexique Commenté en Science de l’Action Motrice Zhaïra Ben Chaâbane 66 Book Review: Els jocs i els esports Tradicionals. Tradicionari. [The Traditional Games and Sports. Traditionari] Gabriel Pubill 69 Book Review: La paradoja de jugar en tríada. El juego motor en tríada Raúl Martínez-Santos 71 The Commemoration of Independence Day: Recalling Indonesian Traditional Games Mustika Fitri, Hana Astria Nur and Wulandari Putri 79 The Game of Skittles on the Northern Route of the Camino de Santiago José E. Rodríguez-Fernández, Mar Lorenzo-Moledo, Jesús García-Álvarez and Gabriela Míguez-Salina 93 Influence of Traditional Sporting Games on the Development of Creative Skills in Team Sports. The Case of Football Alexandre Oboeuf, Sylvain Hanneton, Joséphine Buffet, Corinne Fantoni and Lazhar Labiadh 105 Student Moods Before and After Body Expression and Dance Assessments. Gender Perspective Mercè Mateu, Silvia Garcías, Luciana Spadafora, Ana Andrés and Eulàlia Febrer 118 Playing Ludomotor Activities in Lleida During the Spanish Civil War: An Ethnomotor Approach Enric Ormo-Ribes, Pere Lavega-Burgués, Rosa Rodríguez-Arregi, Rafael Luchoro-Parrilla, Aaron Rillo-Albert and Miguel Pic 128 Traditional Sporting Games as Emotional Communities: The Case of Alcover and Moll’s Catalan–Valencian–Balearic Dictionary Antoni Costes, Jaume March-Llanes, Verónica Muñoz-Arroyave, Sabrine Damian-Silva, Rafael Luchoro-Parrilla, Cristòfol Salas-Santandreu, Miguel Pic and Pere Lavega-Burgués 137 Traditional Sports and Games: Intercultural Dialog, Sustainability, and Empowerment Soraia Chung Saura and Ana Cristina Zimmermann 148 The Effect of Traditional Opposition Games on University Students’ Mood States: The Score and Group Type as Key Aspects María Isabel Cifo Izquierdo, Verónica Alcaraz-Muñoz, Gemma Maria Gea-García, Juan Luis Yuste-Lucas and José Ignacio Alonso Roque 159 Traditional Games as Cultural Heritage: The Case of Canary Islands (Spain) From an Ethnomotor Perspective Rafael Luchoro-Parrilla, Pere Lavega-Burgués, Sabrine Damian-Silva, Queralt Prat, Unai Sáez de Ocáriz, Enric Ormo-Ribes and Miguel Pic 170 The Emotional States Elicited in a Human Tower Performance: Case Study Sabrine Damian-Silva, Carles Feixa, Queralt Prat, Rafael Luchoro-Parrilla, Miguel Pic, Aaron Rillo-Albert, Unai Sáez de Ocáriz, Antoni Costes and Pere Lavega-Burgués 181 New Images for Old Symbols: Meanings That Children Give to a Traditional Game Alfonso García-Monge, Henar Rodríguez-Navarro and Daniel Bores-García 191 Emotional Well-Being and Traditional Cypriot Easter Games: A Qualitative Analysis Christiana Koundourou, Markella Ioannou, Chara Stephanou, Maria Paparistodemou, Theodora Katsigari, Georgios Tsitsas and Kyriaki Sotiropoulou
... Since the formation of game studies as an academic discipline [8], there has been a lot of attention towards the definition of games and play. Such early works as Roger Caillois Man, Play and Games (1961) [9] as well as Johan Huizinga's Homo Ludens (1938) [10], or even Ludwig Wittgenstein's (1953) notion on language-games [11] have inspired the modern game scholars to take their updated accounts on the concept in what Jaakko Stenros has named as a "game definition game" [12,13,14]. ...
... Some of the most influential game definitions list features, or conditions, of what constitutes a game [10,12,15,16,17,18,19]. From these a synthesis has been presented in a popular game design book Rules of Play by Katie Salen and Eric Zimmerman: " A game is a system in which players engage in an artificial conflict, defined by rules, that results in a quantifiable outcome." ...
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In this article, we explore the concept of quantum games and define quantum games as any type of playable games that are related to or reference quantum physics through any of three proposed aspects. The rise of the quantum computers has made it possible to think about a new wave of computer games, namely quantum computer games, games on quantum computers. But at the same time, there are also various games that are exploring quantum mechanics and related topics through digital, analogue and hybrid means. In this article we go through the emerging body of quantum games, the history of quantum games and the different ways a game may be considered a quantum game. For this we propose three dimensions for analysing and defining the phenomenon of quantum games: the perceivable dimension of quantum games, the dimension of quantum technologies and the dimension of scientific purposes.
... 412-413;Collison et al., 2016;Collison et al., 2019;Collison et al., 2020). Sport in its communication of excellence, movement, the human condition, and sacrifice of energy may be what is important to the core of what it is to be human (Sartre, 1956;Caillois, 1958Caillois, /2001Roberts et al., 1958;James, 1963;Loy, 1968;Bernard, 1972;Geertz, 1972;Ingham & Loy, 1974;Morford & Clark, 1976;Guttmann, 1978;Suits, 1978;Birrell, 1981;Turner, 1982;Blanchard & Cheska, 1984;Loy & Hesketh, 1984;Hanna, 1987;Sutton-Smith, 1997;Eichberg, 1998;Wertz, 1999;Ingham, 2000;Szymanski, 2006;Barthes, 2007;Hardy & Loy, 2009;Besnier & Brownell 2012;Sansone, 1988;Sydnor, 2010Sydnor, , 2015Sydnor, , 2017. For example, the delivery of the 2020 Olympics and Paralympics games despite record numbers of Japanese citizens testing positive for COVID-19, and the outspoken disapproval by citizens that a sporting event take priority over people. ...
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This manifesto reimagines social justice in physical cultural studies by renaming, broadening, and building new characterizations of the body, dis/ability, mental health, exercise, social oppression, and sport. We problematize embedded 'myths' in exercise and sports studies scholarship for purposes of informing praxis-based research, and emancipatory practical agendas. These 'myths' include the embodied tragedy myth, the myth of bodily control, the sport for peace/development myth, the exercise is medicine myth, the healthism and exercise myth, the compulsory ablemindedness and exercise myth, and the exercise is cost-effective myth. Using intersecting and diverging theories, we propose new ways of knowing these taken for granted notions to springboard a new, socially just, emancipatory approach to research and practice.
... Este compromisso para com as regras é representado por Scaglia (2017) pela ligação entre regras e os(as) jogadores(as), e tem correspondência no trabalho de Suits (2014) com o que é denominado como "atitude lusória". Ou seja, a representação das ações do Ser do Jogo no que tange ao "esportear" é caracterizada como uma obrigação autoimposta pelo(a) próprio(a) jogador(a) que "[…] flui das decisões livres dos jogadores com base no entendimento de que a aceitação das regras é condição necessária para que o jogo exista" 10 (KOBIELA, 2018, p. 129). ...
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Resumo: Partimos da crítica à tendência utilitarista das abordagens baseadas no jogo (GBAs) com o objetivo de analisar como as dimensões éticas e morais se revelam no "ato de jogar" a partir da prática pedagógica do(a) treinador(a) dos esportes coletivos. Sustentados nos conceitos do "jogar" ético e do "esportear" moral, defendemos 1) a primazia do jogar sobre o esportear, 2) a necessidade de que os sentimentos éticos, manifestos pelo estado de jogo, passem pelo crivo da norma, representada pela atitude lusória e 3) que atitudes transgressoras e subversivas à regra sejam analisadas em função de sua fonte: amor a si ou resistência aos impasses promovidos pelas regras. Concluímos que o ato de jogar revela por si mesmo o plano ético-moral inerente ao jogo/esporte, sendo a instrumentalização do jogo com um comprometimento exclusivamente voltado à dimensão moral normativa um risco à dimensão ética inerente ao papel do(a) jogador(a). Palavras-chave: Pedagogia do Esporte. Pedagogia do Jogo. Subversão. Transgressão. Modelos de Ensino.
... More importantly, these sports involve a particular "style of life", that gives their adepts a particular and exclusive social identity [19]: they show high commitment in time and/or money, promote an hedonistic way of life, and tend to reject regulation and control, and to be critical of competitions [20]. Parkour fits perfectly with Suits' definition of game: "a voluntary attempt to overcome unnecessary obstacles" [21], and less so with Borge's understanding of sport: "an extra-ordinary, unnecessary, rulebased, competitive, skill-based physical activity" [22]. Indeed, there are no written rules in parkour apart from staying safe (hence the motto "être et durer", French for "to be and to last" borrowed from an elite regiment of the French army) and respecting each others and the environment; and until recently, one of the few things the originators agreed upon was that parkour is non competitive [23]. ...
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Parkour is a growing sport that mostly involves jumping, vaulting over obstacles, and climbing in a non-dedicated setting. The authors gathered all known relevant literature across miscellaneous academic fields in order to define parkour with regard to other sports disciplines. Parkour is a lifestyle sport, and as such provides an alternative to mainstream sports, away from strict rules, standardized settings, and necessary competitions. Traceurs (parkour adepts) consider the city as a playground and as an outlet for their creativity, but they also have a strong taste for hard and individualized challenges. They usually train on non-specific structures, at ground level. Although their social background is not clear, they are mostly young and male. Traceurs are stronger than recreational athletes, especially in eccentric exercises. However, their endurance skills may be below average. One of the core specificities of parkour is its precision constraint at landing, which turns a standing long jump into a precision jump, regulated in flight so as to prepare for landing. The running precision jump follows the same landing pattern, and its flight phase contrasts with long jump techniques. Injuries, which are not more frequent than in other sports, often occur at landing and to lower limb extremities. This risk is mitigated by targeting the landing area with the forefoot instead of letting the heel hit the ground like in gymnastics, or with rolling in order to dissipate the impact. Overall, parkour focuses on adaptability to new environments, which leads to specific techniques that have not yet been extensively addressed by the literature.
... Devine (2010) also raises the moral objection against PEDs in that sport is defined as an activity in which participants agree to adhere to the rules. Here, Devine (2010) draws upon the classic work of Suits (1978), who stated that the very essence of games and sports was that the participants would adhere to the rules. This definition helps establish what can be considered a clear distinction of what sport 'is', i.e. an activity that fundamentally places the idea of mutually agreed guidelines and typically inefficient means to complete goals, as the centrepiece. ...
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The purpose of this critical commentary is to highlight the inconsistencies evident within the discourse of Performance Enhancing Drug (PED) use and Anti-Doping violations. Of most note, the issue related to proper rehabilitation and subsequent reintegration of athletes who have failed drugs tests is reliant on a notion that when athletes return to competition, fairness will prevail. We know that PEDS, in particular steroids and exogenous hormone treatment, confer an advantage even without concurrent training (see Bhasin et.al. 1996). That their effectiveness is not in doubt is consistent with current policy. However, the question of just how advantageous it is for athletes to use them, even just the once, and whether there are any permanent advantages to doing so, is not particularly evident in contemporary discourse. This paper takes the position, using emerging scientific evidence as well as the recollections of UK strength sports administrators, that any consideration of ‘clean’ sport needs to resolve policy with the evidence that permanent advantages accrued from PED use can only be combatted by promoting a ‘natural for life’ standard.
... El experto en análisis losó co de los juegos Bernard Suits da una de nición en (Suits, 2005), la cual se complementa con lo que expone en (Salen & Zimmerman, 2006): Juego es el intento voluntario de superar obstáculos innecesarios (Suits, 2005, p. 54), [de donde se desprende que un juego debe tener los siguientes elementos para serlo:] La meta, los medios para lograr la meta, las reglas y la lusory attitude 4 . (Salen & Zimmerman, 2006, p.185). ...
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La Red Temática Conacyt de Tecnologías Digitales para la Difusión del Patrimonio Cultural (RedTDPC) se complace en presentar esta nueva colección de trabajos, producto de las investigaciones llevadas a cabo por 39 de sus miembros en los últimos tres años. La RedTDPC fue creada en 2015 por un grupo de investigadores interesados en reducir las barreras que impiden el acceso de la población mexicana a las manifestaciones de cultura material y al patrimonio cultural vivo. Dado que este problema puede resolverse aprovechando las nuevas tecnologías de la información y la comunicación, la RedTDPC adoptó la misión de investigar las condiciones técnicas, intelectuales, legales y económicas para que las tecnologías digitales puedan ayudar a profesionistas de museos, archivos y bibliotecas a mejorar el análisis, la difusión y la divulgación del patrimonio cultural. La RedTDPC ha fomentado la cooperación inter y transdisciplinaria de investigadores, estudiantes, agentes del sector público, la iniciativa privada, organizaciones no gubernamentales y asociaciones civiles. La interacción de dichos actores ha permitido influir en el diseño de mejores políticas públicas y en la adopción de buenas prácticas para el análisis y divulgación del patrimonio cultural por parte de arqueólogos, historiadores, museólogos, matemáticos, expertos en computación e ingenieros, así como de estudiantes y gestores culturales.
... The viewpoint of game research, however, appears to have a somewhat different basis in approaching the voluntary nature of the activity. Throughout the existence of game research as a field of academic inquiry, it has emphasized that player participation in game experiences is characteristically voluntary and autonomous (Huizinga, 1949;Goffman, 1959;Goffman, 1961;Suits, 1978;Caillois, 2001). The models of game motivation research typically build upon this premise and often emphasize the individual's motives for playing (e.g., Sherry et al., 2006;Yee, 2006;Vahlo and Hamari, 2019). ...
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In this explorative study, we investigated motives of autonomous learners to participate in an online course, and how these motives are related to gameplay motivations, engagement in the course experience, and learning outcomes. The guiding premise for the study has been the idea that learning and game playing carry phenomenal similarities that could be revealed by scrutinizing motives for participating in a massive open online course that does not involve any intentionally game-like features. The research was conducted by analyzing survey data (N = 705) collected from individuals who had voluntarily participated in an open online course about artificial intelligence and its societal impact. The survey included an explorative Motives for Autonomous Learning (MAL) inventory. Exploratory factor analysis suggested that the MAL inventory consisted of six dimensions out of which four were consistent with factors that earlier research has associated with motives to engage with video games. Of the identified factors, the dimension that most clearly described autonomous and playful predispositions was found to be a main precedent for both experienced gamefulness of the learning experience and positive learning outcomes. In all, the results of this study demonstrated that playfulness and autonomy were both prominent and significant factors across the whole learning process.
... Zooming in on sex, Betcher's (1987: 111) argues that "sex is the last great preserve of adult play, where even the dourest pillars of our community are permitted to whisper sweet nothings." Here, Suits' (1978) argument that the act of playing is more important than the outcome lends itself well to sex and pleasure; in terms of sex, the orgasm becomes an objective and therefore an autotelic dimension to play (Sicart, 2014). Similarly, for Frank (2013: 66), sex can be understood as an expression of love and commitment in the marriage, but as "play" with other partners, and Juffer (1998: 83) writes how sex has lost its significance as a form of reproduction or relationship and become a form of "play." ...
Article
Drawing on a study consisting of 29 multimodal accounts of orgasms, we make visible processes, emotions, and notions of playfulness that highlight the critical role of orgasms in transcending the fleeting distinction between reality and play. As sexual pleasure does not necessarily result from experiencing an orgasm, our data also reveals how playful strategies are enacted in order to mitigate ambiguity and societal norms. Instead of seeing the orgasm as a physiological or psychological change in an individual or as an epitome of “good” sex, the multimodal accounts employed in the study reveal attitudes, assumptions, and expectations related to playful pleasure.
... Game Thinking is applied in game-inspired designs, serious games, and even in games in their purest state in search of fun. Another interesting definition is the one established by Bernard Suits [5], which indicates that a game is an attempt to reach a specific state, using only the means allowed by rules that prohibit the use of more efficient means in favor of less efficient means, and where the rules are accepted because they make the activity possible. ...
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A growing number of people are increasingly using digital games with different approaches and types, regardless of the gender or age of the participants. This increase justifies the research of elements associated with this field such as playability properties, game-based systems and the relationship with the players' characteristics and preferences. These types of evaluations represent a great challenge and require a clear and complete characterization in order to apply them in a detailed and objective way, not only evaluating the game as a product, but also the experiences that players live individually and as a whole, according to the type of game-based systems, the player type and their characteristics. This paper establishes a proposal for a general framework of playability and game experiences , taking as a basis the playability characterizations of existing models, ty-pologies of game-based systems and types of players, integrating them and including elements that are not currently taken into account but that are necessary to adjust to the new needs and realities presented by games, their types and the goal that each one offers, including fun, interaction, motivation and realism.
... Бернард Сьютс, известный философ, называет игрой добровольную попытку преодолеть ненужные препятствия [1]. ...
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The article is devoted to the problem of the correlation of games and gamification as cultural and historical phenomena in the context of education. For this purpose, the authors consider games and gamification through the prism of a phenomenological approach. The idea of two modalities of activity: “Work” (the sphere of duty, coercion, and necessity) and “Play” (the sphere of desire, freedom, voluntariness), developed by the authors from the ideas of social phenomenology about lifeworld and multiple realities, forms a methodological basis the study. This allows to differentiate games from each other, from other conditional realities (art worlds and media), as well as from actual reality, and from gamification. Using the example of video (digital) games, live Action Role-Playing Games (real-life games) and Alternate Reality Games (mixed-reality games), the authors gave a general picture of the specifics and educational capabilities of games as special conditional realities. This study has shown that video games, due to their ontological closedness, form the basis for development of serious games, and Alternate Reality Games, thanks to their ontological openness, form the basis for gamification. Based on the study results, the authors substantiate the thesis that it is the difference between “Work” and “Play” that makes it possible to distinguish games from gamification: While a game is built on the opposition of these modalities (which limits the transformation of educational activity into a game: It hinders the socializing function of the school and contributes to the loss of the game of its autotelic ethos), gamification is aimed at its elimination by harmonizing the utilitarian and hedonistic elements of the learning process. This determines the more universal nature of gamification (if not reduced to the “points/badges/leaderboards” model) in education compared with game practices (especially for adult students).
... To begin with, let us give a definition of what a game is: In 1978, Bernard Suits stated that "A game is a voluntary attempt to overcome unnecessary obstacles" [135]. Since then, there have been many other attempts to define 'Game', but this definition still seems the best to me. ...
Thesis
From a very early age, the construction of our understanding of physical reality is based in a decisive way on direct and interactive experimentation, a link between perception and cognition. And since experimentation plays a fundamental role in the progressive acquisition of knowledge on scientific topics, including physics, the objective of this doctoral project is to leverage the innovative technologies of Virtual Reality (VR), numerical simulations, and the new interactive techniques associated with them to design, develop, and evaluate new methods, tools, and experiments dedicated to acquiring knowledge in the field of physics. The approach adopted combines serious games, i.e., using game mechanics for a purpose other than the game itself, with the possibilities offered by VR to experience new physical situations in the first person. By combining a didactic framework with a serious game-based approach, the aim is to design, implement and evaluate the use of interactive real-time simulation tools in VR, comparing them with traditional educational approaches. In this dissertation, beyond bibliographic research, we started by designing and implementing a sandbox as a bootstrap for several possible physical games to test whether interactions and general game organisation would prove intuitive and motivating. Then, based on ideas obtained from brainstorming sessions and individual interviews with students, we created a list of possible game features. We also investigated 2 possible visualisation tools within a very frequent task in gaming: aiming and shooting at a long-distance target. Our focus of research then shifted to more practical teaching tasks such as the question of mass perception in VR. This specific work focuses on the pseudo-haptic rendering of objects with weight within a didactic framework of learning physics, particularly when dealing with the property of mass. We sought to verify the hypothesis that pseudo-haptic techniques allow users to discriminate objects of identical aspects but different masses. We compared several conditions by modifying the so called Control-Display ratio in translation, rotation, while keeping an explicit visual metaphor, the Roberval balance, as a baseline. We then investigated how to improve student knowledge acquisition of the concept of density. One of the reasons why the topic is difficult to understand is that most students share deeply rooted delusions and misconceptions about the behaviour of physical objects. We compared the effectiveness of a serious immersive game in teaching the density concept in 2 conditions: a 2D version in an embedded web browser and a 3D immersive game in VR. We also developed a specific questionnaire to assess students' knowledge improvement. Finally, we considered the potential usefulness of using a companion for educational purposes, this time teaching the concept of gravity. We compared three different companion settings - a real teacher, a (live) video of a teacher, and a VR avatar of a teacher. The concept of gravity and free fall were introduced in three exercises: I - dropping objects in different gravity fields; II - experiment with parabolic trajectories; III - experimenting with gravitation "sandwiches". Results showed that immersive and interactive digital simulations in VR offer incomparable advantages over traditional didactic approaches, by deepening and facilitating the learning of new knowledge. Recent advances in immersive interaction technologies, coupled with realistic real-time physical simulation engines, make it possible to create a credible virtual experimental space where the learner can get involved by manipulating actual objects to observe or predict their behaviour.
... El experto en análisis losó co de los juegos Bernard Suits da una de nición en (Suits, 2005), la cual se complementa con lo que expone en (Salen & Zimmerman, 2006): Juego es el intento voluntario de superar obstáculos innecesarios (Suits, 2005, p. 54), [de donde se desprende que un juego debe tener los siguientes elementos para serlo:] La meta, los medios para lograr la meta, las reglas y la lusory attitude 4 . (Salen & Zimmerman, 2006, p.185). ...
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Este libro reúne la experiencia de 39 investigadores dedicados a desarrollar métodos, técnicas y herramientas digitales para facilitar el análisis, preservación y divulgación del patrimonio cultural. El contenido se organiza en 17 capítulos de temas muy diversos, entre los cuales se cuentan: el uso de visión por computadora para analizar la morfología tridimensional de objetos arqueológicos, la combinación de lingüística computacional con análisis espacial para identificar patrones de información en documentos históricos, la aplicación de Quimiometríapara determinar la procedencia de objetos de obsidiana, y el análisis de imágenes por transformación de re"ectancia para detectar huellas en objetos de piedra. A esos trabajos se suma el uso de la realidad virtual y aumentada en la reconstrucción de zonas arqueológicas y una discusión de los criterios de usabilidad que deben considerarse al diseñar aplicaciones digitales.
... However, for Wark, boredom has a critical capacity, as it is the starting point for understanding the game as an algorithm (2007, p.33). She uses the concept of 'trifling' to conceptualize this new relationship with the algorithm (see: Suits, 1978); the trifler 'struggles to escape boredom and produce difference' (Wark 2007, p. 40). The interactive fiction of Bandersnatch on the Netflix platform creates a game wherein the difference between playing and trifling is erased as there is no end point that can be reached. ...
Chapter
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Very few contemporary television programs provoke spirited responses quite like the dystopian series Black Mirror. This provocative program, infamous for its myriad apocalyptic portrayals of humankind's relationship with an array of electronic and digital technologies, has proven quite adept at offering insightful commentary on a number of issues contemporary society is facing. This timely collection draws on innovative and interdisciplinary theoretical frameworks to provide unique perspectives about how confrontations with such issues should be considered and understood through the contemporary post-media condition that drives technology use.
... Já no prefácio do Grasshopper, Suits oferece ao leitor a orientação do livro, distinguindo-a de um esforço sociológico ou psicológico, assim como a proposta de uma contribuição direta que o autor denomina teoria dos Jogos. Como afirma Suits (1978), sua obra orienta-se por uma análise filosófica no sentido tradicional da palavra. Seu principal objetivo é formular uma definição e seguir as implicações desta, independentemente do caminho que suas potenciais objeções ofereçam, uma vez que "[...] um dos mais assertivos (e seguramente o mais exótico dos) porta-vozes da atitude antidefinicionista, [Wittgenstein] celebrizou-se por ter distinguido a tentativa de definir os jogos como uma perfeita ilustração da futilidade de procurar definir seja o que for" (SUITS, 2017, p. 32). ...
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Parte-se do pressuposto de que o filósofo americano Bernard Suits é central para a filosofia do esporte, especialmente na literatura internacional. Sua extensa obra oferece uma teoria do Jogo original e ainda não explorada na Educação Física brasileira. Suits distingue o fenômeno Jogo (game) da experiência do jogar (play), além de propor uma definição analítica de Jogo que é aqui apresentada aos modos de um prelúdio de sua teoria. Discute-se que, do ponto de vista de uma filosofia analítica, avança-se na metafísica do Jogo, ou em uma efetiva filosofia do Jogo, quando mobilizamos a definição de Suits de jogar um Jogo (game-playing). Reconhecem-se ainda subsídios analíticos distintos da definição intencionalmente vaga de famílias de jogos da herança wittgensteiniana, influente nas concepções brasileiras. Acredita-se que tais recursos fornecem renovado material para os estudos do Jogo na filosofia do esporte e Educação Física brasileiras, nos domínios da metafísica, lógica, epistemologia e axiologia.
... What makes up a hurdle race is precisely the acceptance of such obstacles. In Suits' (1978) words, voluntary acceptance of obstacles in game playing is an expression of a ludic (playful) attitude. The internal goods logic of sport is the non-instrumental logic of play. ...
... Algunos autores clásicos como Lin y Lepper (1987) definen los videojuegos a partir de tres elementos clave: el componente tecnológico, las características específicas del propio videojuego y el soporte en el que se desarrolla. Otros autores, como Suits (1976), Kelley (1988), Levis (2005) o Salen y Zimmerman (2006), delimitan conceptualmente los videojuegos como elementos lúdicos con reglas o normas previamente diseñadas que los convierten en sistemas lógicos. No obstante, también hallamos definiciones con una dimensión más social y relacional donde hacen hincapié en la posibilidad que generan los videojuegos de crear interacciones entre las personas participantes (Frasca, 2001;Rodríguez, 2002). ...
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Los videojuegos constituyen en la actualidad una forma de entretenimiento muy extendida entre los jóvenes preadolescentes, pero también pueden convertirse en herramientas poderosas para la gamificación en las aulas y para la mejora de los procesos de enseñanza/aprendizaje. Además, facilitan el aprendizaje en diversos ámbitos del conocimiento y benefician el desarrollo de habilidades múltiples desde lo lúdico y lo creativo, pero también pueden provocar efectos negativos como adicciones, sedentarismo, disminución del rendimiento académico o problemas de sociabilidad. El objetivo del artículo de investigación es conocer los hábitos de consumo de videojuegos en la preadolescencia y sus implicaciones socioeducativas, en función del género de los participantes. La muestra está compuesta por 825 estudiantes de diversos centros educativos públicos de Andalucía (España), con edades comprendidas entre los 9 y 14 años. La investigación se desarrolla desde un enfoque metodológico cuantitativo, descriptivo, ex post facto, transversal y correlacional, utilizando el instrumento “Cuestionario sobre hábitos de consumo de los videojuegos” (López, 2012) para la recolección de información. Los resultados indican una clara diferenciación en las respuestas emitidas en función del género, indicando que los chicos se interesan más por los videojuegos, conocen un mayor número de ellos y los usan con mayor frecuencia que las chicas. Además, son ellos quienes demuestran tener una actitud más competitiva cuando los juegan.
... The play literature often appreciates this duality with different labels. Scholars may describe play in terms of open or closed, irrational or rational, playful or serious, imaginary or real, as well as arbitrary or rule-bound (Kolb and Kolb, 2010;Suits, 1978). Ludic play tends to be focused on deriving lighthearted pleasure and is characterized by "open" goals (the goal is to continue playing), non-seriousness, fantasy, and arbitrary rules. ...
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Drawing on the play and work design literatures, we conceptualize and validate an instrument to measure playful work design (PWD) – the proactive cognitive-behavioral orientation that employees engage in to incorporate play into their work activities to promote fun and challenge. Across three studies (N=1006), we developed a reliable scale with a two-dimensional factor structure. In Study 1, we utilized expert-ratings and iterative exploratory factor analyses to develop an instrument that measures (1) designing fun and (2) designing competition. Additionally, Study 1 evidences the divergent and convergent validity of the subscales as well as their distinctiveness. Specifically, PWD was indicative of proactivity as well as play, and designing fun especially correlated with ludic traits (i.e., traits focused on deriving fun; e.g., humor), whereas designing competition particularly correlated with agonistic traits (i.e., traits focused on deriving challenge; e.g., competitiveness). Study 2 cross-validated the two-factor structure, further investigated the nomological net of PWD, and revealed that PWD is distinct from job crafting. Finally, Study 3 examined the predictive and incremental validity of the PWD instrument with self- and colleague-ratings two weeks apart. Taken together, the results suggest that the instrument may advance our understanding of play initiated by employees during work.
Article
The paper aims at reflecting on the potential of digital games to convey meaning, tell stories and, most importantly, become a tool to discover and experience the actual world. Using as a case study the experience of the Urban Histories Reloaded. Creatività videoludica per azioni di cittadinanza (Urban Histories Reloaded. Digital Game Creativity for citizenship actions) project (UHR), we will discuss the role digital games can play in activating territorial processes, by favouring the engagement with the actual world as well as with playful approaches to city living. In particular, we will focus on the artist residency for game designers, game artists, and game programmers held in Padua between September and October 2020 within the frame of the project and on its main outcome, the mobile game MostaScene. MostaScene consists of a fifteen-minute mobile game set in District 5 Armistizio-Savonarola of Padua. Both its design and its overall content have intertwined with the urban space since the very beginning. Above all, we will inspect the use of digital games for city-making actions via two different paths: on the one hand, through the involvement of stakeholders (public institutions and specific groups, but also and most importantly citizens) as co-designers; on the other hand, using digital games as non-functional experiences that may encourage innovative interpretations of the urban space for player. From a theoretical perspective, this research requires us to look at digital games as both fictional worlds that involve imagination and interpretation, as well as digital worlds that are experienced as part of reality in a phenomenological sense. Once this is acknowledged, we can provide an overview of how games can tackle reality and engage with the actual world.
Article
This article provides a new analysis, appraisal and aesthetic examination of Mozart's notated melodic embellishments. Whereas previous studies of Mozartean embellishment (including those undertaken by Frederick Neumann in the 1980s and Robert Levin in the 1990s) tend to focus on the local, individual gestures that make up the composer's vocabulary, this study examines broader issues in Mozart's art of embellishment – in particular, the larger-scale characteristics of his written embellishment models, including the rate at which figuration accumulates and the structural layout of that figuration within and between individual phrases. I then explore the aesthetic resonances of melodic embellishment in Mozart's oeuvre, touching upon topics including the relationship of embellishment to a movement's affect, the relationship of embellishment to the compositional persona encoded in a work, the use of embellishment to depict improvisation in operas, and the aesthetic of digressiveness in the composer's melodies.
Thesis
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How can live-performed chamber operas be conceptualized as immersive games with interactive features? This artistic study has resulted in a system model through which degrees of immersion may be generated and analyzed from physical, social, and psychical stimuli. A differentiation of immersive modes has been made possible by the framing of opera-making as game design. The findings indicate that so-called ludo-immersive opera could be developed into operatic chamber opera play for self-reliant participants, constituting an intimate and alternate practice in which dynamic game-masters may replace supervising directors. However, this practice is entangled with the question of future training for operatic practitioners outside the mainstream opera format, and beyond both Wagnerian and Brechtian spectatorship. The shift from the traditional audience/performer relationship to a novel form of immersive interaction requires a new mind-set and training for opera practitioners, to encourage autonomy and active participation by individual visitors. Theoretically, the study connects recent innovations in opera to the aesthetic principles of the Apollonian and the Dionysian and positions ludo-immersive opera in relation the these. The principles bridge immersion, opera, and game-playing, articulated by a reinterpretation of Roger Caillois’ taxonomy of play. The issue of immersion as an artistic aim in opera is highlighted. Moreover, artists’ and visitors’ reciprocal participation in ludo-immersive opera is discussed in regard to its historical context of operatic event-making and forms of presentation. The project explores the detailed consequences of perception and performance in chamber opera with ludic and immersive features, primarily inspired by live-action role playing. The main objective has been to investigate how operatic events can be presented as immersive adventures rather than spectacles, and consequences that the integration of playing visitors in professional opera implies for artistic practice. In four operas created during the period 2016–2020, interventions and encounters between artists and visitors in musically driven situations framed by fictional settings have been staged and studied. The artistic researcher has iteratively been engaged in action as opera singer, librettist, dramaturge, and director. Data from the research cycles include field recordings from the productions and reports from the participants in the form of interviews and surveys.
Chapter
Videogames are an interesting example of objects that, at least in some cases and prima facie, have a dual nature: they are games, and they are also (better or worse) artworks—more specifically, fictional artworks. Some authors have contested this view. From a Suits-inspired perspective on games that I broadly share, Brock Rough argues that artworks cannot be games. Here I will present a Suits-inspired account of games, and a parallel account of fictional artworks, to uphold the intuitive possibility of hybrid artwork videogames against Rough’s arguments. On the account I’ll offer, both games and artworks are defined by constitutive rules (as in the Wittgensteinian language-games tradition), but there is a different functional account that explains why their defining rules are accepted or enforced. Two distinguishable sets of experiences that we value for their own sake and may fully occupy our attention play a crucial role in that teleological story, aesthetic experiences on the one hand, and lusory experiences on the other. The view allows a reply to Rough’s points by bringing forth other instances of objects that may aim to serve (and succeed fairly well in doing so) the functions of artworks, and other functions in addition—as in architecture or design. The argument will be partially abductive: a main reason to be offered here for the functionalist constitutive rules account of games and artworks will lie in the way it upholds the prima facie plausible intuitive view on (some) videogames in the face of Rough’s arguments.
Chapter
This chapter discusses the comic potential that originates in the way players of digital games take on the dual position of being at once a played self that is internal to the gameworld and a playing self that perceives this world from the outside. I first describe the comic attitude as it is defined within philosophy: as an attitude of distanced and dispassionate reflection towards an incongruity. I then show how the dual position of players during gameplay not only is characterized by incongruities, such as contradictions between the apparent seriousness and the ultimate triviality of in-game actions, but also allows players to dispassionately reflect on these incongruities. I thus argue that digital gameplay entails the inherent possibility of turning players into both a comic object and a laughing subject.
Conference Paper
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Os dispositivos móveis estão presentes no dia a dia dos nossos alunos, o que tem repercussões na forma como interagem com o outro e como aprendem. As suas potencialidades devem ser utilizadas em contexto educativo, pois podem promover novas formas de ensinar, mais motivadoras e adequadas a este novo perfil de aluno. A tecnologia pode contribuir de forma significativa para melhorar o sucesso escolar, aumentando a motivação dos alunos e contribuindo para o desenvolvimento do espírito crítico, da criatividade e da autonomia. A criação de experiências de leitura com recurso a dispositivos móveis pode contribuir para a implementação de novas práticas de promoção da leitura na escola, de que é exemplo o estudo apresentado neste artigo. Pretendeu-se verificar qual o impacto que um percurso de leitura, com recurso ao transmedia storytelling, pode ter na motivação dos alunos. Este estudo de caso foi realizado numa escola da região do Médio Tejo, na disciplina de Português, em três turmas do 7º ano de escolaridade, envolvendo 39 alunos. A obra escolhida foi Alice no País das Maravilhas, uma obra recomendada pelo Plano Nacional de Leitura. Os resultados obtidos mostram o impacto positivo que os percursos pedagógicos com recurso a transmedia storytelling têm na motivação, autonomia e melhoria das aprendizagens dos alunos.
Article
Why do we so often care about the outcomes of games when nothing is at stake? There is a paradox here, much like the paradox of fiction, which concerns why we care about the fates and threats of merely fictional beings. I argue that the paradox threatens to overturn a great deal of what philosophers have thought about caring, severing its connection to value and undermining its moral weight. I defend a solution to the paradox that draws on Kendall Walton's solution to the paradox of fiction, developing his idea that it be extended to games. The solution takes games to involve make‐believe: in particular, players and spectators make‐believe that the outcome of the game matters. I also explore how the phenomenon extends beyond games. And I explore some moral implications: in particular, my view preserves the idea that we have reason not to impede others in their pursuit of what they care about.
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This thesis is an account of Utopoly, a new utopian research method that incorporates a game. It is the result of research provoked by a question concerning the validity of using games in the field of utopian studies. My research set out to develop methods that would complement utopian literary fiction by providing more concrete rather than abstract utopian conceptualisations. Speculative forms of utopian discourse are brought into explicitly social, political and economic configurations of utopian thought. Through the Utopoly method participants can experience utopia-as-practice by co-constructing and encountering their own vision of a utopian future. Utopoly evolved through collaborative practice-based research over several years. It was collectively imagined and improvised through a series of public workshops in which Utopoly was enacted, critiqued and subsequently modified. The method incorporates an adapted Future Workshop where participants critique and analyse established political, socioeconomic, environmental situations and then engage their imagination to produce possibilities for a better society. The architecture of the board game Monopoly is then cooperatively 'hacked' to incorporate these visions as alternative features, including values, currencies and rules. Participants then play the new game to negotiate, interact with and evaluate the utopian possibilities they have created. An important realisation for the method during the research was that the creative and utopian practices that emerged during its development should be incorporated into the method itself. The method then includes various utopian processes such as: critique, improvisation, imagination, playfulness and hopeful narratives of a better future. By enacting the method, a creative event is produced where new knowledge emerges through praxis. Utopoly contributes to the imaginary reconstitution of society. This thesis concludes with a detailed set of guidelines-like those to enable a game to be played-to allow the reproduction of the method. The method developed has already been used independently by other research groups in diverse contexts. Utopoly therefore creates utopian moments and temporary utopians and is presented as a new utopian research method in the field of utopian studies and beyond.
Article
Wittgenstein opposes Socrates’ insistence that words should have an essentialist definition. Wittgenstein also stands with Euthyphro in his discussion with Socrates over whether God’s commands make an action good. While Socrates values the examined life, Wittgenstein wonders how we can stop the demand for more explanation. For this Wittgenstein may find more sympathy from Plato. Plato pays attention to the characters in his dialogues – the particulars of their circumstances, and he offers myths that supplement his arguments. In the ancient quarrel between philosophy and poetry, we can see Wittgenstein wishing to side against Socrates but with Plato – who found ways of making philosophy poetic.
Article
Squid Game, a Netflix original series about children's games turned into deathmatches, has become a phenomenal global success and has captivated the latest cultural and media scenes. This article examines the representation of games in Squid Game to argue that their unprecedented appeal to the masses derives from a paradoxical human desire for ruthless competition and moral cooperation. That is, while Squid Game presents a superb allegory of the degree to which contemporary game playing is driven by consumer capitalism, it simultaneously unfolds a moving drama in the midst of competition where unanticipated team spirit is kindled and underdogs win against all odds. Focusing on a dialectic between result-oriented competition and utopian cooperation, the article concludes that the huge popularity of Squid Game demonstrates the contemporary spectator's need for a hybrid entertainment when watching games.
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This chapter surveys games in and around texts for children, including the gamification of books. It begins by highlighting that games and children's literature have had a long history together – from their early‐days connections to John Newbery's Pretty Little Pocket‐Book and eighteenth‐ and nineteenth‐century moveable books to their twenty‐ and twenty‐first‐century assemblages via digital media and ludic practices expressed in print. The chapter then proceeds to detail ways that games have been studied, with particular attention to the work that is being done by scholars of children's literature. Finally, it focuses close attention on the range of ways games and ludic systems are manifesting in, around, and across a broad array of genres and formats of contemporary texts for children. Across these three parts, the chapter suggests, along with other recent scholarship, that children's media and the ways it has been approached offer a rich model for interdisciplinary study – including game studies. It also, and perhaps more importantly, argues that attention to games in and around texts for children brings to light the potentials of literary play and the gamification of literary texts – specifically, their potential to prompt and embody cognitive processes, and their promise for constructing a notion of the child as an agent who inhabits and affects a complex social network.
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The past decade has seen a gradual but steady increase in the planning scholars’ interest in outlining a functional place for games in planning. A wide range of games for and about urban planning is developed and tested, from data-driven games that rely on extensive modelling techniques and aim to reduce the cost and risk of real-world scenario testing, to those that seek to educate their players about the complex nature of political and social issues. Despite the increasing interest in strengthening communications between planning and game studies, the current state is an amalgam of confusion and optimism about games’ role and added value. To shed light on why such confusions emerge, the article reflects on the nature and outcomes of communications between urban planning and games studies and explores games’ historical and current conceptions in planning. By adopting concepts from the work of Holbrook on interdisciplinary communications, the article explores how game studies’ concepts are rendered useful in planning and how planning theory has dealt with untranslatability and incommensurability of concepts in the processes of establishing and sustaining communications with game studies.
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Esports contests at the highest levels frequently involve millions of dollars in prize money and spectatorship numbers in six or seven figures. Given these opportunities for financial success and public visibility, players have found ways to cheat in esports competitions. We draw on over one thousand qualitative survey responses from esports viewers to examine how spectators perceive cheating, both “cheating to win” (attempting to secure an illegitimate victory) or “cheating to lose” (profit or advancement is secured by throwing a match). We show that spectators hold complex views ranking different forms of cheating, displaying varying levels of understanding of the esports ecosystem, and conceptualising cheating as often more a matter of rule breaking than ethical transgression. We conclude that esports viewers’ perspectives are heavily informed by their own play, and the opacity of certain elements of professionalised esports, with implications for the long-term sustainability of esports as a cultural form.
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In this article, I explore the relationship between competitive sports and the phenomenon of sports fandom as a unique symbiosis that qualitatively changes the nature of sport and reveals new aspects of human play in general. I note that spectators as consumers transform sport, in addition to indirectly and directly influencing and intervening in sports practice. As a result of this versatile involvement – from the initial form of competitive, formalized and unproductive game (Lebed, 2021) – sport can evolve through four successive stages: professional sport → sports show → “meta-play” → “meta-sport ". The first of them has been sufficiently studied from two points of view, mainly: (a) control of training progress, effective coaching, and maximalised performance, and (b) management and marketing. The second form, sports show, is very rarely studied separately from the first stage (e.g., Ponomariev, 1980). Here I separate them. The third and fourth stages are proposed and studied here anew by a philosophical analysis of current and possible future developments and changes in the sports show. I analyse all these changes from a dialectical perspective and support it using the paradigm of tension between positive and negative freedom (Berlin, 1958, [1969]). From this point of view, all the mentioned transformations – from professional sport to meta-sport – are caused by changes (from synergy to tension and conflict) in the positive and negative freedom of spectators and sports organizations in a “dialectical symbiosis”. These are followed by the tensive contradiction between the principal freedom of human play and the self- and institutional restriction of freedom in the stage by stage evolving frames of game, sport, and professional sport. “Dialectical symbiosis” is considered here as the fusion of entities, as a result of which one of them, at least, is transformed into a new quality.
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One of the most pressing points in the philosophy of sport is the question of a definition of sport. Approaches towards sport vary based on a paradigm and position of a particular author. This article attempts to analyse and critically evaluates a recent definition of sport presented by Jim Parry in the context of argument that e-sports are not sports. Despite some innovations, his conclusions are in many ways traditional and build on the previous positions. His research, rooted in the conceptual analysis, starts with a stipulation that sport is paradigmatically Olympic sport. He defines it then as an ‘institutionalised, rule-governed contest of human physical skill’ i.e., identifies six necessary elements of sport: human (not animals), physical (not chess), skill (not jogging), contest (not mountaineering), rule-governed (not ‘field sports’), institutiona- lized (not hula-hooping). Our claim is that this definition, despite its methodological clarity, is not accurate and does not sufficiently represent sport outside the Olympic context. First, to say for some- thing to be a sport it is necessary to be a contest leads to a narrow concept of sport. Secondly, Parry’s account lacks the emphasis on game and play-like structures that are inherently present in sport (even in the Olympic sport), namely non-necessity, non- ordinariness, arbitrariness and gratuitousness. We try to direct the attention precisely on these structures and offer an alternative account of sport understood as a modern ‘hard core’ sport that nevertheless reaches important congruences with Parry’s defini- tion. The originality of this contribution lies in presenting the essential qualities of modern ‘hard core’ sports, which, although sometimes hidden in the modern emphasis on high level perfor- mances, competition, and results, play an important role in the question how sport ought to be played and approached.
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Rule changes in sport are relatively common. They are typically instigated in response to concerns around player safety (e.g., tackle height in rugby), game flow and entertainment (e.g., shot clock in basketball), or to facilitate talent development processes (e.g., reduced team size in junior football). The purpose of this study was to monitor the impact of a modified scoring system created by the Rugby Football Union as a vehicle to shape desired cognitive, affective and behavioural outcomes in a talent development setting. We asked players to describe their learning experiences of the scoring system preceding competition, their approach to the scoring system, and its impact on their decision-making. Key performance indicators (Total Carries, Total Points & Points Per Carry) were collected to monitor player effectiveness across three competitive games. Semi-structured interviews and psychometric scales were used to gain insight into the players learning experiences, feelings, decision making and declarative knowledge. Our findings indicated that players learning experiences affected how well-prepared players felt to perform (affective); the acquisition and use of task-specific declarative knowledge (cognitive); and the effectiveness of players carrying the ball into contact (behavioural).
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