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... ion. Gamification as a concept is a recent expression in the academic literature related to pedagogy, having been documented for the first time in 2008 (Martí-Parreño et al., 2016). Gamification can be defined as the application of conceptual elements of game design (mechanics, aesthetics and thinking) to non-game contexts and in non-game settings (Deterding et. al., 2011;Prieto-Martín et al., 2014;Serna et al., 2016). Gamification is based on one of the motivation theories born between the mid-1980s and the beginning of the new century: Self-Determination Theory (Deci et al., 1981;Deci and Ryan, 1985;Deci and Ryan, 1987). This theoretical model seeks to explain the reasons why there is an intention to co ...
... "The mere use of game mechanics, such as badges and points, should not be considered as gamification, but gamification itself should be based on elements of the game." Gamification is defined by Deterding et al. (2011) as "the use of game design elements in non-game contexts". Deterding's definition distinguishes gamification from other related concepts in two dimensions: whole versus parts and playing versus gaming ( Figure 1). ...
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The functioning of a state is a complex process that primarily depends on the macroeconomic national system. During the functioning of the state, obstacles such as corruption arise in the system, reducing the effectiveness of the state. Therefore, the purpose of this research is to analyse the effects of corruption on the effectiveness of a state, observed through the results of measurable state activity. The aim of this research is to assess the direction, form and intensity of corruption effects on indicators of state activity. In order to assess the direction, intensity and form of the impact of corruption on indicators, correlation will be used for each of the segments/indicators of state activity. Furthermore, in order to get the final result and explanations of the relationship between corruption and state activity indicators, a comparison of one developed EU country - Germany - with a country in transition- Croatia - will be made. Given the research methodology, in addition to the classical methods of analysis and synthesis, the desk research method will be used, along with correlation coefficients. In order to get the final result and explain the connection between corruption and indicators of state activity, the method of comparison will be used to reach a final conclusion. Using this methodology, the conclusion will demonstrate the role of corruption in the state activity system. Also, the research is expected to show which segments of state activity are affected more by corruption and which are affected less or unaffected, and what is the effect of the impact of corruption on the success of state activity. In particular, it is expected that this research will identify the impact of corruption on the indicators of state activity in the field of entrepreneurship, which is the backbone of a national economy. It is difficult to predict the results before calculating the correlation, but the research hypothesis can be related, with great certainty, to the more visible impact of corruption on those segments of the state activity in which a part of the state budget is located.
... ion. Gamification as a concept is a recent expression in the academic literature related to pedagogy, having been documented for the first time in 2008 (Martí-Parreño et al., 2016). Gamification can be defined as the application of conceptual elements of game design (mechanics, aesthetics and thinking) to non-game contexts and in non-game settings (Deterding et. al., 2011;Prieto-Martín et al., 2014;Serna et al., 2016). Gamification is based on one of the motivation theories born between the mid-1980s and the beginning of the new century: Self-Determination Theory (Deci et al., 1981;Deci and Ryan, 1985;Deci and Ryan, 1987). This theoretical model seeks to explain the reasons why there is an intention to co ...
... "The mere use of game mechanics, such as badges and points, should not be considered as gamification, but gamification itself should be based on elements of the game." Gamification is defined by Deterding et al. (2011) as "the use of game design elements in non-game contexts". Deterding's definition distinguishes gamification from other related concepts in two dimensions: whole versus parts and playing versus gaming ( Figure 1). ...
... ion. Gamification as a concept is a recent expression in the academic literature related to pedagogy, having been documented for the first time in 2008 (Martí-Parreño et al., 2016). Gamification can be defined as the application of conceptual elements of game design (mechanics, aesthetics and thinking) to non-game contexts and in non-game settings (Deterding et. al., 2011;Prieto-Martín et al., 2014;Serna et al., 2016). Gamification is based on one of the motivation theories born between the mid-1980s and the beginning of the new century: Self-Determination Theory (Deci et al., 1981;Deci and Ryan, 1985;Deci and Ryan, 1987). This theoretical model seeks to explain the reasons why there is an intention to co ...
... "The mere use of game mechanics, such as badges and points, should not be considered as gamification, but gamification itself should be based on elements of the game." Gamification is defined by Deterding et al. (2011) as "the use of game design elements in non-game contexts". Deterding's definition distinguishes gamification from other related concepts in two dimensions: whole versus parts and playing versus gaming ( Figure 1). ...
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Tax expense makes up a significant part of the company’s total costs, which are directly related to the company’s competitiveness on the market. Besides direct costs, tax burdens also create indirect costs because increasingly complex tax regulations demand specific and specialized knowledge as well as being familiar with them. Research of existing Croatian practice through appropriate case studies will confirm the thesis that tax planning and optimization are finding ways to reduce tax payments, and at the same time have a role in achieving tax savings through various opportunities for tax relief and other savings. The aim of the research is to show based on concrete case studies the application of the scientific approach in tax planning. The obtained results show that ignorance and misapplication of legal regulations can lead to significant expenses in the form of penalties for committing a tax offense or even a possible criminal offense. Therefore, entrepreneurs can achieve savings in paying taxes only if they correctly apply tax regulations through tax optimization and planning and at the same time, they can reduce the risk of reckless entry into the area of tax avoidance. It is, therefore, important to be well acquainted with the tax system and tax regulations, but also with the procedures and legal possibilities in the case of tax supervision, through which proper tax planning is controlled. VAT optimization is a complex process and involves the use of various methods, approaches, and strategies to achieve a useful result without ultimately looking like an attempt to avoid paying taxes. Knowledge of tax reliefs and exemptions enables efficient tax planning and facilitates the company’s management to make optimal business decisions. Tax revenues make up a significant part of state budget revenues, which makes the controlling in this area of tax planning and optimization frequent, thorough and comprehensive.
... Serious Games), care reprezintă "jocuri complete pentru scopuri non-divertisment", aplicațiile gamificate doar utilizează elemente specifice jocurilor. Deterding, Dixon, et al (2011, apud. Sailer et al., 2016 propun ca elementelor de game design să fie definite într-un mod foarte general, spunând că acestea reprezintă "totalitatea elementelor caracteristice jocurilor, mai exact care apar în multe jocuri, și care au o semnificație pentru acesta". ...
... Ultimul termen este acela de contexte sau medii non-joc. După cum am amintit și mai sus, termenul acesta este unul foarte vag, lăsând deschisă posibilele implementări ale conceptului și scenariile de aplicare (Deterding, Dixon, et al, 2011). , apud. ...
... Specifically in the latter learning context, one of these changes refers to the increasing use of gamification (defined as the use of game elements outside of a game). Concretely, gamification is mostly used to engage and motivate students in the learning process, as well as improving their experience [Deterding et al. 2011a. ...
Thesis
Several educational gamification studies investigate how to encourage students to do specific tasks or progress in learning content. However, many studies are inconclusive about how much gamifying an environment helps or hinders these processes. According to the literature, most existing gamification frameworks are structural (i.e., points, badges, and leaderboards), with few content frameworks (to guide where teachers should use game elements and concepts within the learning content). Furthermore, based on recent systematic literature reviews, no narrative framework exists (i.e., concerned with the students learning path and experience), partly because it is difficult to embed a narrative into a platform other than a game. Based on this premise, the objective of this research was to develop, test, and validate a content gamification framework based on the narrative that the students will experience as they progress in their studies. Our primary target users are teachers, instructional designers or developers who can use the framework to gamify classes or educational systems and, secondly, the students who will undergo the gamified experience. Therefore, we developed four artifacts using user experience (UX) concepts and techniques; all focused on education: (1) a specific narrative definition for gamification, (2) a gamification framework based on narrative and storytelling, (3) a new approachthe Gamification Journeyto personalize gamification strategies, and (4) finally, an application ontology in OWL that connects all concepts. To assess the effectiveness of each artifact, we conducted empirical studies, user tests and interviews with experts. The results demonstrate that it is possible to systematize the use of subjective game elements. These approaches have great potential in the educational field, regarding gamification not as a tool but as an experience, opening a new path for future research.
... ere are limited studies present previously that focuses on acquiring unambiguous requirements from the user [34][35][36]. e term 2 Computational Intelligence and Neuroscience "Gamification" was originated in digital media industry in 2008 and adopted worldwide in 2010 [37]. e term is consistently used by industry players and published in conferences and hence has gained much popularity [5,38]. ...
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Requirements elicitation is one of the most significant activities of requirements engineering (RE) process. Poorly specified requirements can lead to a failed project. Various elicitation techniques are used to elicit requirements from the users and other stakeholders, each having its own pros and cons. Lack of user engagement, less user involvement, textual nature of the requirements, time taking process are some of the major problems that make it difficult to perform elicitation via traditional techniques. Moreover, these problems further create other challenges such as ambiguity, inconsistency, and incompleteness in requirements. Currently, researchers have focused on reducing ambiguity in requirements with the help of different techniques such as natural language processing techniques, requirement templates, and formal methods; however, these techniques work on reducing ambiguity during specification or from specified requirements. One of the “young’ and exciting way of engaging users in requirements elicitation of a system is “Gamification’, which helps in user engagement into the system. We intend to discover how gamification helps in reducing ambiguity by engaging stakeholders in an interactive manner. In this review study, we have reviewed traditional techniques used to detect and reduce requirements ambiguity. On the contrary, we have also presented the significance of gamification in requirements elicitation and the popular but effective game elements used in similar systems. Furthermore, this study highlights the significance of using gamification in requirements elicitation, which is beneficial to software development team as well as the users involved in the system.
... Introduction Gamification, as defined by Deterding et al. (2011), is the use of game design elements in non-game contexts. In recent five years, there has been an increasing interest in study works on the application of gamification to education which aims to shed light on the tendencies and emerging practices in this area. ...
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In dieser Masterarbeit werden Verfahren und Frameworks zum Einsatz von Gamification-und Serious Games-Elementen für die Hochschullehre evaluiert, anhand eines ausgewählten Lehrmodul konzeptioniert, sowie prototypisch als mobile Anwendung implementiert. Es findet somit eine holistische Betrachtung der Gamifizierung eines Hochschulmodules statt. Die prototypische Implementierung er-folgt als Progressive Web App zur endgeräteunabhängigen Nutzung eines möglichst großen Personenkreises. Anhand einer anschließenden, qualitativen Online-Evaluation unter Studierenden wurden die Hypothesen überprüft, ob und welchen Einfluss Gamification-Elemente auf die Benutzererfahrung, die Lernmotivation und die Verständnisgenerierung haben, sowie welche Gamification-Elemente besonders positiv wahrgenommen wurden. Der hierfür selbst entwickelte Fragebogen wurde von N = 15 Probanden vollständig ausgefüllt. Es zeigt sich eine positive Tendenz sowohl bei dem Verständnis für die Modulinhalte, als auch beim Spaß bei der Modulbearbeitung. Indes konnte keine Steigerung der Lernmotivation beobachtet werden.
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In this paper we present the MDA framework (standing for Mechanics, Dynamics, and Aesthetics), developed and taught as part of the Game Design and Tuning Workshop at the Game Developers Conference, San Jose 2001-2004. MDA is a formal approach to understanding games – one which attempts to bridge the gap between game design and development, game criticism, and technical game research. We believe this methodology will clarify and strengthen the iterative processes of developers, scholars and researchers alike, making it easier for all parties to decompose, study and design a broad class of game designs and game artifacts.
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The Drift Table is an electronic coffee table that displays slowly moving aerial photography controlled by the distribution of weight on its surface. It was designed to investigate our ideas about how technologies for the home could support ludic activities-that is, activities motivated by curiosity, exploration, and reflection rather than externally-defined tasks. The many design choices we made, for example to block or disguise utilitarian functionality, helped to articulate our emerging understanding of ludic design. Observations of the Drift Table being used in volunteers' homes over several weeks gave greater insight into how playful exploration is practically achieved and the issues involved in designing for ludic engagement.
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Values at Play is a research project investigating how social, moral, and political values can inform the design of digital games. For example, how can designers create games that affirm, explore, and/or interrogate values like peace, justice, patriotism, and tolerance. One project activity has been the development of a curriculum introducing university students to values conscious design. We use this term to describe an approach wherein designers consider the social, political, and moral resonances of design features in a systematic way. The curriculum has been used and evaluated in leading American game design programs. Here, we discuss the results of a focus group study and analysis of student design documents. Students experienced significant challenges applying values conscious design methods. However, they often overcame these challenges using either strategies provided by the curriculum or strategies of their own devising. These strategies can serve as models for designers interested in values conscious design. Overall, students’ work was impressively innovative and reactions to the curriculum were enthusiastic.
Chapter
This chapter studies serious games, games for education and training. First, the nature of what makes a game is discussed and a distinction drawn between games and simulation. Games are considered at multiple levels. At one level, there are games which focus on developing a physical skill, such as learning to fly a plane or carry out a surgical procedure. At other levels are games which develop high-level social skills and gamification, the addition of game-like elements to add motivation. The progress in developing games for mathematics education is described, along with a general perspective on the state of evaluation of serious games.
Article
This article defins game mechanics in relation to rules and challenges. Game mechanics are methods invoked by agents for interacting with the game world. I apply this definition to a comparative analysis of the games Rez, Every Extend Extra and Shadow of the Colossus that will show the relevance of a formal definition of game mechanics.
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Products can support user groups in social interaction and/or physical play in various ways. Depend- ing on the requirements and needs of specific user groups and contexts of use, different approaches are applied to create successful designs. This special issue contains papers that describe designs for children, adults and elderly for sports, home and outdoor contexts. The papers in this issue explore how technology can contribute to enhancing user experiences in terms of social interaction and physical activities. Knowledge from very diverse research areas, such as, social psychology, persuasive technology, child development, human–robot interaction, and creativity is used as an inspiration source for the various projects.
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First, a number of previous theories of intrinsic motivation are reviewed. Then, several studies of highly motivating computer games are described. These studies focus on what makes the games fun, not on what makes them educational. Finally, with this background, a rudimentary theory of intrinsically motivating instruction is developed, based on three categories: challenge, fantasy, and curiosity.Challenge is hypothesized to depend on goals with uncertain outcomes. Several ways of making outcomes uncertain are discussed, including variable difficulty level, multiple level goals, hidden information, and randomness. Fantasy is claimed to have both cognitive and emotional advantages in designing instructional environments. A distinction is made between extrinsic fantasies that depend only weakly on the skill used in a game, and intrinsic fantasies that are intimately related to the use of the skill. Curiosity is separated into sensory and cognitive components, and it is suggested that cognitive curiosity can be aroused by making learners believe their knowledge structures are incomplete, inconsistent, or unparsimonious.