ArticlePDF Available

The content of minerals and fatty acids in buffalo milk, depending on the rank of lactation

Authors:
  • "ION IONESCU DE LA BRAD" UNIVERSITY OF AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES AND VETERINARY MEDICINE OF IASI, ROMANIA

Abstract and Figures

Buffalo breeding is important for mozzarella production, fresh cheeses, fresh and processed meat, and semen of high genetic level.The purpose of this research was to determine: quantity of milk per lactation (kg milk / total lactation); duration of lactation (days); % fat; % protein; micro and macro minerals; fatty acids. It was analyzed milk from 39 buffaloes with lactation between 1 and 3. After laboratory analysis data obtained were processed and were interpreted in accordance with the literature. The average of milk was between 1847.06 kg milk for buffaloes at 3 th lactation and 1385.55 kg for buffaloes at the first lactation. The average of the protein content had variations between 4.67 and 4.04%. Between the lots of dairy buffaloes in the experiment are significant differences (p <0.05). The content of calcium was in the highest proportion in the milk of buffaloes obtained from third lactation (1.21 g.kg-1). Between the values of three lactation are significant differences (p <0.05). In buffalo milk fatty acids with short chain carbon atoms are found in small quantity. The most important fatty acids are palmitic acid (16: 0) and oleic acid (18: 1).
Content may be subject to copyright.
Romanian Biotechnological Letters Vol. 20, No. 1, 2015
Copyright © 2015 University of Bucharest Printed in Romania. All rights reserved
ORIGINAL PAPER
Romanian Biotechnological Letters, Vol. 20, No. 1, 2015
10076
The content of minerals and fatty acids in buffalo milk,
depending on the rank of lactation
Received for publication, October 15, 2014
Accepted, December 18, 2014
LIVIA VIDU1*, SORIN CHELMU2, VASILE BĂCILĂ1, VASILE MACIUC3
1 University of Agronomic Sciences and Veterinary Medicine Bucharest, Faculty of
Animal Science, 59 Marasti Avenue, Bucharest, Romania
2 Bioterra University Bucharest , 81 Gârlei Street, Bucharest, Romania
3 Ion Ionescu de la Brad University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine of
Iaşi, Faculty Animal Science, 3 Mihail Sadoveanu Alley, Iaşi, Romania
*Corresponding author: Associate Professor Dr. Livia Vidu, University of Agronomical
Sciences and Veterinary Medicine Bucharest, Faculty of Animal Science, 59 Marasti
Avenue, Bucharest, Romania email: vidulivia2014@yahoo.com
Abstract
Buffalo breeding is important for mozzarella production, fresh cheeses, fresh and processed meat,
and semen of high genetic level.The purpose of this research was to determine: quantity of milk per
lactation (kg milk / total lactation); duration of lactation (days); % fat; % protein; micro and macro
minerals; fatty acids. It was analyzed milk from 39 buffaloes with lactation between 1 and 3. After
laboratory analysis data obtained were processed and were interpreted in accordance with the
literature. The average of milk was between 1847.06 kg milk for buffaloes at 3th lactation and 1385.55
kg for buffaloes at the first lactation. The average of the protein content had variations between 4.67
and 4.04%. Between the lots of dairy buffaloes in the experiment are significant differences (p <0.05).
The content of calcium was in the highest proportion in the milk of buffaloes obtained from third
lactation (1.21 g.kg-1). Between the values of three lactation are significant differences (p <0.05). In
buffalo milk fatty acids with short chain carbon atoms are found in small quantity. The most important
fatty acids are palmitic acid (16: 0) and oleic acid (18: 1).
Key words: buffalo, fatt acid, milk, minerals, protein
1. Introduction
The world production of milk has doubled in recent decades, and notable is that 12% of
this is provided by the buffalo. India and Pakistan produce around 60 and 30% of buffalo
milk. In both countries, buffalo milk contributes around 55 and 75% of local production
(FAOSTAT, USDA [1], [2]).
The buffalo milk production is a tradition in many parts of the world such as the
Caucasus, Asia, where the sour milk, butter and yogurt from buffalo milk are very popular. In
Italy, the industry of buffalo milk is flourishing due to the popularity mozzarella cheese.
Market demand for buffalo mozzarella cheese transforms farms in the profitable enterprises.
These can be based on techniques and technologies operating in an organized manner (XUE
& al. [3]).
In South America, in countries such as Brazil and Argentina buffalos are raised for both
milk production and for the meat, and more recently, buffalo milk and milk products that have
become very popular, and production of buffalo milk reached in countries that previously had
no tradition in this production such as Germany, Ireland, UK, and even in USA.
The content of minerals and fatty acids in buffalo milk, depending on the rank of lactation
Romanian Biotechnological Letters, Vol. 20, No. 1, 2015
10077
The taxonomic point of view, river buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) is part of the family
Bovidae, Bovinae subfamily, genus bubalis and species arni or Indian river buffalo. Animals
are classified into two distinct classes, river buffalo and swamp buffalo. The cattle presents 60
pairs of chromosomes, while river buffalo only 50 and swamp buffalo 48 pairs chromosomes.
Between the two classes buffalo may occur mating and result is fertile animals with 49 pairs
of chromosomes. But any combination of buffalo and other animals of the family Bovidae is
excluded (VELEA & al., ZICARELLI,[4], [5], [6]).
Buffalos are known as animals that are very suitable to pasture maintaining, but in terms
of feed floral palette this is broader than in cattle. Buffalos used better than cattle lower
quality of fibrous feed (straw, stalks). The buffalo unique ability to survive in difficult
conditions of shelter and food made the difference in competition between dairy species in the
area where they come. In addition, buffalos have a long productive life, a healthy buffaloes
can be exploited for 9-10 lactations.
2. Material and Methods
The study was conducted at the Institute of Research and Development for Buffalo
Breeding on a herd of 39 dairy buffaloes that completed lactation between August 2013 and
August 2014. The animals were aged between 1-3 lactation. The data of production were
obtained by performing the official control for milk production. The data on quality indicators
of milk production resulted from analyzes performed in laboratory of Animal Science Faculty
and in a private laboratory. The data were statistically analyzed and were interpreted in
accordance with the literature. All data were processed and statistically interpreted using the
multiple Student significance test.
The Institute of Research and Development for Buffalo Breeding was founded in 1981
and located in central Romania, Fagaras area in Transylvania. At present the farm of Research
Institute has 458 buffaloes, of which milk buffalos and heifers are 35%.The buffalo breeding
is done differently seasonal, the summer at the pasture and the winter in shelters. Milk
buffalos are fed with forages on own land. The land surface is 335 ha which are cultivated for
grain and pasture for grass and hay. The growth system of the buffaloes is based on the use in
buffalo rations of feed volume only during the summer, and in winter when temperatures are
very low buffaloes are given concentrates forages as supplements.
For the determination the micro and macro elements, and fatty acids composition of
buffalo milk were collected 200 ml samples from 14 buffaloes at lactation 1, 10 buffaloes at 2
lactation and 15 buffaloes at 3 lactation.
The determination of minerals content was done by atomic absorption spectrometry
method with flame (FAAS). We used laboratory reagents and equipment appropriate for the
purpose established. For tapping, dilution and storage was used glassware class A. We
followed linearity, working range, sensitivity, limit of detection, limit of quantification in
accordance with international rules [7]. The method has as principle calcining the samples at
450°C with a gradual increase of temperature, dissolving the ash in hydrochloric acid and
evaporation to dryness of the solution obtained, resolving final residue in nitric acid 1: 6 and
determination of metals by atomic absorption spectrometry with the oven graphite.
To determine the fatty acids from milk gas-chromatographic method has been used. GC
Shimadzu GC-17A equipped with a capillary column Chrompack with length of 25 m and a
diameter of 0.25 mm, stationary phase (a derivative of polyethylene glycol) is filed in the
column in the form of a thin film of 0.2 μm.
The working method consists of two steps:
LIVIA VIDU, SORIN CHELMU, VASILE BĂCILĂ, VASILE MACIUC
Romanian Biotechnological Letters, Vol. 20, No. 1, 2015
10078
- preparation of fatty acid methyl esters;
- analysis of fatty acid methyl esters by gas chromatography.
After studying chromatograms were obtained results
3. Results and discussion
We determined the following parameters:
- Quantity of milk per lactation (kg milk / total lactation);
- Duration of lactation (days);
- % Fat;
- % Protein;
- Micro and macro minerals;
- Fatty acids.
The quantity of milk: The average of quantity of milk for 39 buffaloes which ended
lactation in analyzed period had range between 1847.06 kg milk for buffaloes at 3th lactation
and 1385.55 kg for buffaloes at the first lactation. From the table 1, there is a large
heterogeneity both within lactation and between lactation. The differences between the
averages of three lactations is significant (p <0.05). The average quantity of buffaloes milk in
Research Institut for Buffalo Breeding Sercaia is higher than the value found by us in 2008 at
buffaloes in Romania, respective 1356.33 kg milk, with 1320 kg in the south, in the valley of
the Danube and 1420 kg in the North-West of Romania. Thus, Pucheanu (2000) [8]
determined an average of 1109.27 kg milk per normal lactation in buffaloes in the Fagaras
area with limits between 1047 kg at buffaloes first lactation and 1130 kg milk for multiparous.
Romanian buffalo breed has a level of milk production by 1.4 to 2 times lower compared to
other breeds worldwide. If we compare this production with the mean value recorded for the
European breeds, we observed that the values found by us were situated after Italy -2175 kg
milk and Bulgaria -1870 kg milk (PUCHEANU, BORGHESE [8], [9]).
Table 1. The dynamics of phenotypic parameters of buffalo milk depending on the lactation rank
Specification Parameter Lactation 1 Lactation 2 Lactation 3
n 14 10 15
Test of
significance
X±SX 1385,55a±120,3 1528,71b±56,66 1847,06ab±45,69 *
Max 2137 1861 2549
Quantity of
milk (kg)
Min 657,6 853,2 1428
X±SX 7,70±0,05 7,74±0,09 7,71±0,05 NS
Max 7,97 8,1 8,08
% Fat
Min 7,40 7,45 7,34
X±SX 4,19a±0,04 4,37ab±0,08 4,28b±0,05 *
Max 4,45 4,67 4,68
% Protein
Min 3,88 4,04 3,83
X±SX 234,35a±15,7 251b±24,9 296,2ab±9,37 *
Max 307 318 356
Duration of
lactation
(days) Min 137 158 225
The content of minerals and fatty acids in buffalo milk, depending on the rank of lactation
Romanian Biotechnological Letters, Vol. 20, No. 1, 2015
10079
The milk quality parameters: The fat and protein of milk are important for economic
efficiency of buffalo milk production because by them depend on processing milk yield in
different preparations. From our research we found that the highest percentage of fat was
recorded in buffaloes in lactation 2 (7.74%), with a range between 7.45 and 8.1% (Fig. 1.).
Milk buffaloes belong to the first lactation had a fat percentage of 7.70% and 7.71% for third
lactation without statistical differences between average values. Regarding the distributed
average fat content of buffalo populations in Romania, we noticed that in southern Romania
the average value was 7.65%, in the North West -7.72% and in the central area -7.9%. In
Bulgarian Murrah breed fat percentage is 7.04% at a quantity of 1800 kg milk, and in Italy it
increased from 7.09% in the period 1977-1981 to 8.31% in 2001 year (BORGHESE [9]).
Regarding the protein content we have noticed that group of animals belonging to the second
lactation achieved an average of 4.37%, with variations between 4.67 and 4.04%. Between the
three groups of dairy buffaloes in the experiment are significant differences (p <0.05). In
2008, in southern Romania there has been registered the highest percentage of protein,
respectively 4.96% and 4.52% for the buffalo population in the North-West of Romania.
Comparing with the specialty literature data, these values are lower than those found by
Pucheanu (2000) in dairy buffaloes from Şercaia area (4.69%) [8].
Figure 1. The average values of the main parameters of milk production in buffaloes studied
Duration of lactation is particularly important indicator that influences the milk
production and reproductive activity. The dairy buffaloes belonging third lactation mean
lactation duration was 296.2 days, with variation between 225-356 days. From the analysis of
mean values we observe a fluctuating trend lactation period, demonstrated by high individual
variability. Between the three groups of dairy buffaloes are significant differences (p <0.05).
Values calculated in 2008 had a similar distribution, thus at dairy buffalos in southern
Romania the average value of the duration of lactation was 275 days, and 272 days Northwest.
[5]. The average values for the period of lactation are similar to the European average, with
values of 240 days in Greece, 270 days in Italy and 278 days for the dairy buffaloes in
Bulgaria (BORGHESE [9]).
Buffalo milk minerals: The milk contains all the minerals necessary for human and
animal being of 45 and accounting for 0.7-0.8% of dry matter. Among macroelements better
LIVIA VIDU, SORIN CHELMU, VASILE BĂCILĂ, VASILE MACIUC
Romanian Biotechnological Letters, Vol. 20, No. 1, 2015
10080
represented are calcium, potassium, sodium, magnesium, and the microelements iron, zinc,
copper and phospho-calcium ratio is 1.00 / 1.25. Milk minerals are of particular importance,
consisting of the following:
- They are indispensable for consumers because they are constituents of bones and teeth,
especially calcium and phosphorus;
- Calcium play an active role in coagulation in the presence of rennet for cheese and
fermented milk products;
- Ensures need for calcium of 75% and phosphorus 63% by consuming half a liter per day
of the adult.
From Table 2 it is observed that the distribution of minerals depending on the lactation
number variable. Thus, calcium is found in the highest proportion in the milk of buffaloes
obtained from third lactation (1.21 g.kg-1). Between the values of three lactation are
significant differences (p <0.05). Previous studies conducted in different breeds indicated the
following distribution of calcium levels: Murrah -0.83 g.kg-1, Mediterranea breed 0.99 g.kg-1,
Jafarabadi -0.95 g.kg-1 and half-breed Murrah x Mediterranean -0.94 g.kg -1. It also notes
significant differences between mean values of phosphorus in milk buffaloes in first lactation
(0.67 g.kg-1), 2th lactation (0.76 g.kg-1) and 3th lactation (0.59 g. kg-1). Depending on the
season the value of phosphorus distribution at Mediterranean buffalo breed ranged between
0.63 g.kg-1 winter and 1.10 g.kg-1 summer. (PATIÑO & al., [10]).
Table 2. Variation of the mineral of buffalo milk depending on the lactation rank
Specification Parameter Lactation 1 Lactation 2 Lactation 3 t
n 14 10 15
Ca (g.kg-1) X±SX 1,10a± 0,21 0,97b± 0,32 1,21ab ±0,29 *
P (g.kg-1) X±SX 0,67a± 0,23 0,76ab ±0,16 0,59b± 0,14 *
Mg (g.kg-1) X±SX 0,06 ±0,02 0,08± 0,02 0,08± 0,02 NS
K (g.kg-1) X±SX 1,11a ±0,14 0,95b ±0,28 0,91ab± 0,28 *
Na (g.kg-1) X±SX 0,37± 0,03 0,34 ±0,08 0,31± 0,05 NS
Cu (mg.kg-1) X±SX 0,35ab± 0,09 0,32b± 0,09 0,26a± 0,12 *
Mn (mg.kg-1) X±SX 0,26 ±0,10 0,27 ±0,13 0,27± 0,12 NS
Zn (mg.kg-1) X±SX 4,04± 1,15 3,71± 1,34 3,98± 1,14 NS
Fe (mg.kg-1) X±SX 1,52a± 0,99 1,58ab ±0,42 1,37b± 0,51 *
Compared to cow's milk find that buffalo milk minerals are in higher quantity with
0.01%, is richer in calcium and phosphorus and poorer in chlorine and sodium salts (Fig. 2).
(ABD EL-SALAM & al., TALPUR & al., [11], [12]).
In the buffalo milk minerals content is high and consequently increasing the buffering
power which explains the slow development of acidity in dairy products therefore increased
calcium content reduces coagulation times. (COROIAN, [13]).
The content of minerals and fatty acids in buffalo milk, depending on the rank of lactation
Romanian Biotechnological Letters, Vol. 20, No. 1, 2015
10081
Figure 2. The representation of main mineral elements in buffaloes milk
(Ca-g.kg-1, P- g.kg-1, Fe-mg.kg-1)
Volatile fatty acids from buffalo milk. In the buffalo milk is a larger quantity of volatile
fatty acids as compared to cow's milk. The fatty acid composition of buffalo milk is
influenced by many factors such as: lactation, genotype, breed, natural environmental factors
and artificial.
The fat of buffalo milk has a melting point higher than that fat of cow's milk due the
higher proportion of saturated fatty acids (77:23 saturated: unsaturated). The phospholipids
and cholesterol are lower in buffalo milk. Instead the buffalo milk presents more resistant to
oxidation. Compared to cow's milk fat, fat buffalo milk has a higher content of butyric acid,
palmitic, stearic acid and polyunsaturated fatty acids and lower in medium chain fatty acids
C6-C12 (GANGULI, [14]).
The ration fatty acids are predominantly derived from the long chain of carbon atoms
(palmitic C16: 0, stearic C18: 0, oleic C18: 1, linolenic C18: 2, linolenic C18: 3). These fatty
acids are biohydrogen by rumen flora.
In the buffalo milk are more saturated fatty acids than the food rations, which is
explained by the proportion of different populations of microorganisms in the rumen of
buffalo. (COROIAN, MIHAYLOVA & al., [13], [15]).
Cholesterol levels (total and free) in bufalo milk fat apear to be lower than in that of cow
milk (AHMAD & al., [16]). Colostrum and mastic milk contained more cholesterol than
normal milk. Cholesterol content in fore-milk is higher than instriping; also, it is higher in
milk during the spring season (LAL & al., SOLIMAN & al., [17], [18]).
Most strongly represented fatty acids in milk for primiparous buffaloes but also for the
multiparous are palmitic acid (16: 0) and oleic acid (18: 1) 27.1% (PATIÑO & al.,
GEORGESCU & al., [19], [20]). The fatty acids with shorter carbon chains (12 to 12 carbon
atoms) are in small quantities in milk buffaloes (table 3).
LIVIA VIDU, SORIN CHELMU, VASILE BĂCILĂ, VASILE MACIUC
Romanian Biotechnological Letters, Vol. 20, No. 1, 2015
10082
Table 3. The composition of fatty acids in buffalo milk
Fatty acids Parameter Lactation 1 Lactation 2 Lactation 3
n 14 10 15
4:0 X±SX 5,15±0,12 5,21±0,11 5,14±0,11
6:0 X±SX 3,11±0,09 3,52±0,07 3,21±0,09
8:0 X±SX 1,17±0,26 1,49±0,24 1,49±0,24
10:0 X±SX 2,56±0,41 2,66±0,42 2,58±0,41
12:0 X±SX 2,95±0,09 3,21±0,08 3,14±0,09
14:0 X±SX 11,32±3,12 11,41±2,78 11,61±2,99
14:1c9 X±SX 0,33±0,02 0,41±0,02 0,67±0,03
15:0 X±SX 1,27±0,26 1,37±0,24 1,34±0,19
16:0 X±SX 25,79±4,11 27,11±4,23 27,41±4,12
16:1c9 X±SX 1,91±0,37 1,87±0,37 1,870,28
17:0 X±SX 0,80±0,09 0,81±0,09 0,80±0,09
18:0 X±SX 10,67±2,24 10,58±2,25 10,61±2,24
18:1c9 X±SX 18,60±3,11 18,77±2,29 18,64±2,28
18:1t9 X±SX 0,12±0,01 0,15±0,01 0,09±0,01
18:1t11 X±SX 0,39±+0,04 0,38±0,04 0,39±0,04
18:2t9 t 12 X±SX 0,35±0,02 0,29±0,01 0,31±0,02
18:2c9 t 11 X±SX 0,40±0,03 0,41±0,04 0,39±0,03
18:2t10c12 X±SX 0,18±0,02 0,14±0,02 0,14±0,02
18:2c9c 12 X±SX 1,70±0,21 1,72±0,20 1,69±0,19
20:4 n-6 X±SX 0,12±0,01 0,13±0,01 0,13±0,01
20:0 X±SX 0,22±0,09 0,22±0,09 0,21±0,09
SFA X±SX 75,14±5,63 76,21±6,11 76,41±7,23
MUFA X±SX 29,7±3,93 28,11±3,79 25,64±3,45
PUFA X±SX 3,57±0,12 3,71±0,16 3,72±0,16
CLA X±SX 0,35±0,05 0,38±0,06 0,38±0,06
The content of minerals and fatty acids in buffalo milk, depending on the rank of lactation
Romanian Biotechnological Letters, Vol. 20, No. 1, 2015
10083
Figure 3. Variation of palmitic an oleic acid content in the buffaloes milk
4. Conclusions
The dairy buffaloes from the Research Institute for Buffalo Breeding achieved the level
of milk production between 1847.06 kg and 1385.55 kg. The fat content was 7.70-7.74% and
the protein content was from 4.19 to 4.37%. Calcium and phosphorus content is higher than in
cow's milk and between lactations there are significant differences. Palmitic acid and oleic
acid are the most representative fatty acids in milk of buffaloes.
5. Acknowledgements
The researches carried out for the elaboration of the present paper were financed by
Romanian Program “Partnerships for Priority Domains”, project PN-II-PT-PCCA-2013-4-0933
“Research on conversion potential of conventional buffalo dairy farms into bio-milk farms, by
establishing a model and code of good practice” (BIOBUFFALO), Contract no. 169/2014.
References
[1] FAOSTAT: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, .http://faostat. fao.org, 2013.
[2] USDA (United States Department of Agriculture): Milk for manufacturing purposes and its
production and processing: recommended requirements. http://www.ams.usda.gov, 2011.
[3] XUE H., FRANK L. L., LANWEI ZHANG and M.R. GUO: Chemical composition of water buffalo
milk composition of water buffalo milk and its low-fat symbiotic yougurt developement, Functional
Foods in Health and Disease 2 (4):86-106, 2012.
[4] VELEA, C., MARGINEAN, G.: Actuality and perspective in raising buffalos, Agrotehnica Publishing
House, Bucharest, 2006.
[5] ZICARELLI, L.: Reproductive seasonality in buffalo, Bubalus bubalis, 4, Suppl:29-52, 1997.
[6] ZICARELLI, L.: Buffalo milk: its properties, dairy yield and mozzarella production. Vet. Res.
Communications 28:127-135, 2008.
[7] VALIDATION OF ANALITICAL PROCEDURES, 1995.
[8] PUCHEANU, C.: Research on knowledge of morphological, physiological and productive parameters
at buffaloes, depending on various factors of influence, PhD thesis, University of Agricultural
Sciences and Veterinary Medicine Bucharest, 2000.
[9] BORGHESE, A: Buffalo production and research, FAO, Rome, 2005
[10] PATINO, E.M., D.O. POCHON, E. L. FAISAL, J.F. CEDRES, F.I. MENDEZ, C.G. STEFANI, G.
CRUDELI : Influence of breed, year season and lactation stage on the buffalo milk mineral content,
Italian journal of animal sicence, proceedings of the 8th World Buffalo Congress, Caserta, october
19-22, 2007.
LIVIA VIDU, SORIN CHELMU, VASILE BĂCILĂ, VASILE MACIUC
Romanian Biotechnological Letters, Vol. 20, No. 1, 2015
10084
[11] ABD EL-SALAM M.H., S. EL-SHIBINY: A comprehensive review on the composition and
properties of buffalo milk, INRA and Springer Science, 2011.
[12] TALPUR, F. N., M. I.BHANGER, A. A. KHOOHARO AND M .G.ZUHRA: Seasonal variation in
fatty acid composition of milk from ruminants reared under the traditional feeding system of Sindh,
Pakistan. Livestock Sci. 118:166-172, 2008.
[13] COROIAN, A.: Buffalo breeding for milk production, Bioflux Publishing House, Cluj-Napoca,
2009.
[14] GANGULI, N.C.: Buffalo as a candidate for milk production. Federation Internationale De Laiterie –
International Dairy Federation Bulletin 137, 1997.
[15] MIHAYLOVA, G., PEEVA, T.: Trans fatty acids and conjugated linoleic acid in the buffalo milk,
Italian journal of animal sicence, proceedings of the 8th World Buffalo Congress, Caserta, october
19-22, 2007.
[16] AHMAD S., F.M. ANJUM, N. HUMA, A. SAMEEN, T. ZAHOOR: Composition and physico-
chemicl characteristics of buffalo milk with particular emphasis on lipids, proteins, minerals,
enzymes and vitamins, The Journal of Animal and Plant Sciences, 23 (1Suppl.): 62-74, 2013.
[17] LAL D., M.N.K.: Effect of lactation number on the polyunsaturated fatty acids and oxidation
stability of milk fats, Indian Journal of Dairy Scince 225-229, 1984.
[18] SOLIMAN, M. A. A. A. MOHAMED. A. E. A. HAGRASS AND S.A. EL-SHABRAWY: Fatty
acid composition of buffalo milk fat. Egyp. J. Dairy Sci. 7: 177-182, 1979.
[19] PATIÑO, E. M., M. A. JUDIS, C. S. GUANZIROLI, D. O.POCHON, J. F. CEDRES AND M. M.
DOVAL: Determination of milk fatty acids in buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) from Corientes,
Argentina. Revista Veterinaria. 19:28-32, 2008.
[20] GEORGESCU, GH., VIDU, L.: The monograph buffalos in Romania and worldwide, Ceres
Publishing House, Bucharest, 2008.
... For buffaloes, as for other species, SCC is an indicator used in monitoring the health of the mammary gland but also for identifying mastitis, and it is estimated that it shouldn't exceed the limit of 400,000 Cell/mL milk (20). Mastitis in buffaloes is characterized by an increased pH and electrical conductivity of the milk associated with elevated levels of minerals (sodium, potassium, phosphorus, calcium, magnesium, zinc, iron) and enzymes (lactate dehydrogenase, aspartate aminotransferase and alkaline phosphatase), by a decrease the fat, protein, lactose and NDM content of the milk (12,27). ...
... BM Editores, derechos reservados En los cuadros 1 y 2 se muestra la variación entre 2011 y 2020 en las concentraciones de los componentes. Esto se puede explicar debido a que existen múltiples factores que pueden influenciar la composición de la leche, como el medio ambiente, la forma de crianza, la genética, (Han et al., 2012), 2013 (Gürler et al., 2013), 2014 (Lima et al., 2014;Pignata et al., 2014), 2015 (Hamad, 2015;Vidu et al., 2015). ...
... Brazil (Gagliostro et al., 2015), the beneficial FAs in milk from pasture in present study are generally lower, while compared to the buffaloes of the Mediterranean type in Romania (Vidu et al., 2015) they are better. ...
... mg / kg and iron (Fe) at 1.37-1.58 mg / g [4]. Buffalo milk contains vitamine A at 340 IU / m, vitamine B1 (thiamine) at 0.2-0.5 µg / ml, vitamine B2 (riboflavin) at 1.59 µg / ml, vitamin B6 (pyridoxine) at 3.25 µg / ml, vitamine B2 (riboflavin) at 1.59 µg / ml, vitamin B6 (pyridoxine) at 3.25 µg / ml, vitamine C (ascorbic acid) at 6.72 mg / 100 g, vitamine E (tocopherol) at 334.2 µg / ml [5]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Generally yogurt drinks are made from cow’s milk, whereas buffalo milk has a higher nutrition value than cow’s milk. The objective of this study was to produce yoghurt drinks from buffalo milk and determine proximate composition and sensory quality of the product based on starter concentration and fermentation time. The experiment was carried out using a completely randomized design of factorial patterns consisting two factors, i.e. starter concentration (3, 5 and 10%) and fermentation time (8 and 12 hours). The results of proximate analysis obtained showed starter concentration had significant effect on moisture, fat, protein and carbohydrate contents. While fermentation time had significant effect on fat and protein contents. The sensory evaluation result showed significant differences among the yoghurt drink samples. Sample F (10% starter concentration and 12 hours fermentation time) had the highest scoore in sensory atributes.
... These two organic constituents of the milk, as main nutrients relevant for human consumers, have been found in a ratio of 1.24 parts Fat : 1 part Proteins, common for cow milk. In Romania, apart from dairy cows, there are also bred on small areas other species of large ruminants producing milk, such as buffalos, whose milk is richer both in proteins and lipids but the ratio we spoke above is far unbalanced, favoring the lipids content (1.77 parts Fat : 1 part Proteins) (VIDUet al. 2015 [34]). It would be interested to investigate the full quality traits of the milk issued from this species, focusing on hygiene level, hence there are small farms rearing both dairy cows and buffaloes. ...
Article
Full-text available
Raw cow milk quality and safety traits have been surveyed on samples collected from 67,703 dairy cows (breeds Friesian, Simmental, Brown and Pinzgau). Fat and proteins levels were higher during cold months than in summer (p < 0.001). The bacterial count (BC) indicated better milk hygiene in autumn and winter vs. warm seasons (p < 0.001). Annual mean reached 70.38±0.37 germs/ml x 10^3 (below the EU limit, 100 germs/ml x 10^3). The somatic cells count (SCC) followed the same trend, the annual level of 281.55±1.15 cells/ml x 10^3 was within the admitted range of 400 cells/ml x 10^3 (results confirmed by the enzymatic reductase tests: 1st class-Good quality milk). No antibiotics were detected. More germs were detected in cubicle accommodation system (bound cows; 75.83±0.48 germs/ml x 10^3) compared to the straw yard farms (unbound cows; 42.51±0.24 germs/ml x 10^3 (p < 0.001), as well as higher amount of somatic cells (308.74±1.52 vs. 172.65±1.06 cells/ml x 10^3). The milk complied with the safety standards. The state of facts could be improved in the surveyed territory, especially in small and medium sized farms, through the observation of good hygiene and management practices prior, during milking and along the dairy logistic chain.
Article
Full-text available
Background: Water buffalos are the second most widely available milk source in countries around the world. While typical average milk compositions are readily available, information on seasonal variation in chemical composition of buffalo milk is limited -especially in the Northeastern region of the United States. Data collected in this study can be useful for the manufacture of a wide variety of specialty dairy products such as symbiotic buffalo milk yogurt. To analyze functionality, symbiotic low fat buffalo milk yogurt prototypes (plain and blueberry) were developed using a commercial starter containing probiotics. Methods: During a one-year cycle, physicochemical and mineral contents of buffalo milk were analyzed. Prototype yogurts were manufactured commercially and samples of the yogurt prototypes were analyzed for physicochemical and microbiological properties and for the survivability of probiotics during ten weeks of storage.Results: Average contents of total solids, fat, lactose, crude protein, ash, specific gravity, and conjugated linoleic acid in the milk ranged from 16.39-18.48%, 6.57-7.97%, 4.49-4.73%, 4.59-5.37%, 0.91-0.92%, 1.0317-1.0380%, and 4.4-7.6 mg/g fat, respectively. The average mineral contents of calcium, phosphorous, potassium, magnesium, sodium, and zinc in the milk were 1798.89, 1216.76, 843.72, 337.20 and 7.48 mg/kg, respectively, and remained steady throughout the year. The symbiotic low fat buffalo milk yogurts evaluated in this study contained higher amounts of protein, carbohydrates, and calcium than similar yogurts manufactured with cows’ milk. During refrigerated storage, the probiotic Lactobacillus acidophilus was viable (>1×106 CFU/g) for the first two weeks, while Bifidobacterium spp. and Lactobacillus casei remained viable during the entire ten weeks. Reducing the acidity and enhancing the flavor of the yogurts could improve the overall acceptability.Conclusion: The results indicated that the low fat buffalo milk yogurt are a rich source of nutrients and are nutritionally preferable to cows’ milk yogurts. The shelf life analysis indicated it to be a good vehicle for developing symbiotic yogurt.Keywords: Buffalo milk, conjugated linoleic acid, symbiotic yogurt, probiotic survivability, physicochemical properties, acceptability
Article
Full-text available
The objective of this study was to determine the values of saturated and unsaturated milk fatty acids, especially conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) and omega 3 and omega 6 acids, in buffaloes from Corrientes (Argentina). Sixteen multicalving buffaloes Murrah and Murrah x Mediterranean, were used, distributed in 2 groups of 8 animals each (4 Murrah and 4 half-breed). The first one was fed ad libitum with natural pastures and a daily supplement of grinding corn, 2 kg for animal. The trial last for 35 days. Milk samples from all studied buffaloes were obtained in days 1 and 35 (32 samples). For the diet of natural pasture with or without supplementation, the saturated fatty acids were 56.91 and 57.10%, while unsaturated were 43.68 and 42.89%, respectively; from these, 37.24 and 36.92% corresponded to monounsaturated and 5.84 and 5.97% to polyunsaturated fatty acids, respectively. Among saturated fatty acids, C16:0 predominated, and C18:1 among unsaturated. The C14:0 acid revealed significant differences according to sampling time and diet (p<0.05), being higher in supplemented animals. The CLA level was 10.29 mg/g of fat milk in not supplemented buffaloes. A positive correlation between CLA and vaccenic acid in fat milk (r = 0.87) was verified. The relationship between omega 6 and 3 fatty acids was 2.07/at the end of the assay. Reference values for milk fatty acids of buffaloes were established. It is expected that these data will assume importance when comparing to those obtained by means of other dietary strategies, with the purpose of increasing the content of CLA and omega 3 in the milk of buffaloes.
Article
Full-text available
The businesses community of different sectors affected by current energy crisis in Pakistan tends towards dairy business. They are highly interested by the information on milk composition particularly of buffalo milk due to its major contribution in national’s milk production i.e. 63% according to the FAO’s published data of 2010. It is necessary to know for maximum value addition in dairy food chain as the nutrients not only determine the dietary value of milk for human consumption but also help to define market strategies for various classes of consumers like growing children, nursing mothers, young persons involved in hard jobs or elderly people. Buffaloes are most important sources of milk for human consumption in several parts of the world including Pakistan. It is characterized by higher solids contents for being richer source of lipids, protein, lactose and minerals. Buffalo milk has long been valued by its important chemical composition determining nutritive properties and suitability in the manufacture of traditional as well as industrial dairy products. Recently buffalo milk’s constituents, their nutritional importance and bioactive properties have received much attention. In this paper, the composition and physico-chemical properties of major constituents of buffalo milk with particular emphasis on lipids, protein, minerals, enzymes and vitamins have been presented. The concentration and partition of major elements between different phases of buffalo milk are also given. The enzymic profiles as well as the nutrient molecules have been presented for the said milk which determines its suitability for various processes and end products. The available technologies need some modifications even from milking machines to industrial processing. It is a golden opportunity for the investors to come into buffalo milk business to get advantage from the government initiatives in the current period. In this way, we will be able to improve the genetic potential of buffaloes in getting more milk of higher quality and experimenting diversity of products particularly cheeses and other fermented dairy products for the local market and export by better exploiting the uniqueness of buffalo milk.
Article
Full-text available
This study was conducted to determine the milk mineral composition of buffalo raised in Corrientes, Argentina, as well as to investigate variations attributed to breed, lactation period and time of the year. Milk samples (n = 105) were collected from 25 Murrah, Mediterranean, Jafarabadi and half-breed Murrah x Mediterranean buffaloes of second and fifth lactation. Animals were located in a dairy farm area with subtropical wet climate with 1.690 mm annual rains and annual mean temperature of 22°C. Mean records were: Ca (1.12 ± 0.40 g.kg-1), P (0.99 ± 0.32 g.kg-1), Mg (0.08± 0.02 g.kg-1), K (0.92 ± 0.25 g.kg-1), Na (0.35 ± 0.11 g.kg-1), Cu (0.35 ± 0.16 mg.kg-1), Mn (0.27 ± 0.10 mg.kg-1), Zn (4.10 ± 1.40 mg.kg-1) y Fe (1.61 ± 0.61 mg.kg-1). These parameters did not reveal significant differences attributable to breed, except for Mg. The time of the year affected the composition of the minerals, except for the Mg and Zn. The nursing stages affect the Ca, P, K and Cu concentrations. From the results obtained, it can be concluded that the mineral content in the milk of buffaloes, it is considerably influenced by regional factors.
Article
The businesses community of different sectors affected by current energy crisis in Pakistan tends towards dairy business. They are highly interested by the information on milk composition particularly of buffalo milk due to its major contribution in national's milk production i.e. 63% according to the FAO's published data of 2010. It is necessary to know for maximum value addition in dairy food chain as the nutrients not only determine the dietary value of milk for human consumption but also help to define market strategies for various classes of consumers like growing children, nursing mothers, young persons involved in hard jobs or elderly people. Buffaloes are most important sources of milk for human consumption in several parts of the world including Pakistan. It is characterized by higher solids contents for being richer source of lipids, protein, lactose and minerals. Buffalo milk has long been valued by its important chemical composition determining nutritive properties and suitability in the manufacture of traditional as well as industrial dairy products. Recently buffalo milk's constituents, their nutritional importance and bioactive properties have received much attention. In this paper, the composition and physico-chemical properties of major constituents of buffalo milk with particular emphasis on lipids, protein, minerals, enzymes and vitamins have been presented. The concentration and partition of major elements between different phases of buffalo milk are also given. The enzymic profiles as well as the nutrient molecules have been presented for the said milk which determines its suitability for various processes and end products. The available technologies need some modifications even from milking machines to industrial processing. It is a golden opportunity for the investors to come into buffalo milk business to get advantage from the government initiatives in the current period. In this way, we will be able to improve the genetic potential of buffaloes in getting more milk of higher quality and experimenting diversity of products particularly cheeses and other fermented dairy products for the local market and export by better exploiting the uniqueness of buffalo milk.
Article
The objective of this work was to study changes in the fatty acid (FA) profile of ruminants' milk (buffalo, cow, goat and ewe) throughout the year, raised under the conventional feeding system of Sindh, Pakistan. Milk samples were collected during the four periods of the year; in winter (Dec–Feb), spring (Mar–Apr), summer (May–Sep) and autumn season (Oct–Nov). Animals were fed on seasonal forages except in winter and late spring when shortage of green forage occurs and ruminants were fed crops byproduct and residues (wheat straw, cotton seed cake, rice husk) along with available green fodder. Overall the concentration of short chain FAs (
Article
The aim of this review is to update the knowledge regarding the composition and properties of buffalo milk (BM). Buffalo milk has higher levels of fat, lactose, protein, ash and Ca, and vitamins A and C and lower levels of vitamin E riboflavin and cholesterol; an absence of carotene; and the presence of the blue-green pigment (biliverdin) as well as a bioactive pentasaccharide and gangliosides not present in cow milk (CM). The fat globules of BM are larger but are less stable and contained less membrane materials than that of CM. Buffalo milk fat has slightly higher levels of saturated fatty acids and has quantitative differences in the distribution of triglycerides and physical properties in comparison to CM. The casein micelles of BM are larger and richer in minerals and can be disrupted by alkali at higher pH values than that of CM. The primary structures of all BM proteins have been established. High homologies have been found between the proteins of BM and CM, but BM α s1- casein and α s2-casein have lower levels of phosphorylation. The activities of several enzymes in BM are presented and discussed. The viscosity and curd tension of BM are higher; rennet coagulation is faster, and heat stability is lower than that of CM. The available published data gives a better understanding of BM, but more studies are required on some aspects to give a clearer picture on the detailed composition and properties of BM.