Article

E-Government Portal Characteristics and Individual Appeal: An Examination of E-Government and Citizen Acceptance in the Context of Local Administration Portals

Authors:
  • DB Bahn, Frankfurt am Main, Germany
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Abstract

E-government applications have become an important interface between citizens and public administration. However, quantitative research on e-government usage shows a tendency toward generic research models and in part lacks statistical rigor. Especially mediating conditions are often not taken into account appropriately. This contribution addresses this gap and provides a conceptually extended model of technology acceptance in the context of online city portals. The proposed model is tested with a large sample (n = 1,273) using structural equation modeling. Ease of use, usefulness, and privacy were found to be determinants of e-government portal acceptance, which in turn determines continuance intention of e-government portals. Furthermore, Internet competence and need for personal interaction were found to be direct determinants of continuance intention on the level of individual user appeal. The findings are discussed in terms of theory, and implications for public managers of online city portals are derived.

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... A positive relationship between perceived ease of use and adoption behavior is well documented in the literature (Hung, Tang, Chang, & Ke, 2009;Ozkan & Kanat, 2011;Wirtz, Piehler, & Daiser, 2015). Perceived information quality and perceived functional benefit are key factors that lead users to adopt ICT-based government services. ...
... These two concepts imply that people who believe new technology will provide useful information and help them complete tasks efficiently tend to accept the technology and make use of it (Shareef et al., 2011). Perceptions of usefulness, regarding information quality and task completion, have been reported to play a considerable role in the adoption of information technologies (Oliveira, Faria, Thomas, & Popovič, 2014;Ozkan & Kanat, 2011;Wirtz et al., 2015). Another important aspect of ICT-based services that encourages adoption behavior is the security of a system. ...
... Social media competency is a prerequisite condition for seeking risk information from these sources (Cheng & Mitomo, 2017;Lallmahomed, Lallmahomed, & Lallmahomed, 2017;Wirtz et al., 2015). By adopting the conceptualization of the internet's self-efficacy established by Eastin and LaRose (2000), this study defines social media competency as the degree to which a person is confident in his or her ability to perform tasks on social media required to meet given communication goals. ...
Article
The sustainability of public health practices requires collaboration between the government and its citizens. On the government's side, social media can provide a conduit for communicating health risk information in an effective and timely fashion, while also engaging citizens in informed decision-making. On the citizen's side, information communication technology (ICT)-based practices cannot function unless citizens recognize and act on their responsibility to actively engage with government social media platforms. Despite an increasing interest in understanding the adoption of ICT practices and e-government services for health risk communication, there remains a crucial need for a comprehensive framework to explain which factors determine citizen use of digital government resources. The purpose of this study is to investigate how to increase government accountability for motivating citizens to engage in ICT-based health risk communication, thereby attaining sustainable public health practices through collaborative governance. By integrating trust and health risk information into the e-government adoption model (GAM), this research examines factors that influence citizens' likelihood of using government social media resources. Survey data from 700 Korean citizens were analyzed using structural equation modeling. The results indicated that individuals with higher social media competency are more likely to (a) seek risk information through social media and (b) perceive the government's social media sites as easy to use. Consistent with the GAM, intentions to use the government's social media sites for information and interactions appear to increase as citizens perceive more value in using them regarding information quality, ease of use, functional benefit, and security. Furthermore, perceived trust in the government's social media resources appears to function as a mediator of this process. Initial trust in the government is an important determinant of perceptions of its digital resources. Citizens who trust the government tend to evaluate new initiatives positively and are more likely to accept and make use of them. The results of this study can inform policy design and implementation by elucidating the mechanisms that determine citizens' adoption and usage of digital government services. Theoretically, this work expands the GAM to include health risk communication and adds empirical evidence to the small yet growing body of knowledge of e-government initiatives. These findings also highlight the importance of public trust in the government, as this encourages citizens to seek health risk information and assistance from the government. Overall, the data and model generated in this investigation represent an important step toward the successful and sustainable modernization of public services.
... Most importantly, it refines not only how profit-oriented entities like businesses operate but also how governments deliver services to people. Electronic government, or e-government, is briefly defined as the application of technology in public service deliverance, particularly web-based systems, for various purposes such as providing information, conducting transactions and making decisions (Wirtz et al., 2015). The implementation of e-government generally aims to increase accountability and efficiency in government-stakeholder interactions. ...
... Following the suit, research on e-government has advanced mostly on the identification of key determinants to the effectiveness (Seel and Thomas, 2007;Yang and Rho, 2007). However, studies remain fragmented in examining either the supply side factors such as easy of navigation and web privacy (Wirtz et al., 2015), or the demand side factors such as awareness of public services and trust (Mensah and Adams, 2020). Although these studies have contributed much to the literature, there is still lack of understanding on the effects within a specific economic-social issue, that is information literacy. ...
... Alike many other affairs, public service also could not escape the need for digitalisation. Prior research has offered few definitions for e-government, whereas in short, it refers to a transformation of existing government services into a digital mostly web-based platform (Wirtz et al., 2015). Thus, e-government could range from the simplest web page of displaying information to the most complex transactions such as pay taxes or even online voting. ...
... There is limited insight in the literature regarding how responsiveness relates to the government's use of social networking sites, but Lim, Kim, and Lee (2013) and Wirtz, Piehler, and Daiser (2015) provide some initial support for the effect of 'interaction' (measured as responsiveness to queries) on perceived usefulness and confirmation for government desktop web sites. The theoretical thread that concerns responsiveness and its effects has its root in the service quality literature, where responsiveness is part of service quality defined as a 'willingness to help customers and provide prompt service' (Parasuraman, Zeithaml, and Berry 1988, 23). ...
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E-government on social media has received much attention lately. Despite a recent call for further research into social interaction and communication aspects of e-government on social media, there is still limited empirical evidence regarding why individuals participate in the social aspect of e-government services and how that relates to their expectations and satisfactions. The present work addresses this gap by extending the Expectation-Confirmation Theory (ECT) to study communication and social interactions in government Facebook groups. The results show that communication quality and responsiveness are two key elements that contribute to the perceived level of usefulness. These two variables together with social interaction had a statistically significant effect on the overall confirmation of expectations. Perceived usefulness and satisfaction predict continuance use intention of e-government social networking services with satisfaction influencing such intention more than perceived usefulness. Further multi-group analyses show that generational difference and usage frequency moderates the relationships of the extended model. Managerial implications are provided.
... At this point, the TAM is a valuable framework, especially for explaining the intention to use innovative information technologies (Martins et al., 2014). While the theory of reasoned action generally depicts an explanatory model for rational human action, the TAM aims at explaining particular behaviour for the initial use of innovative technical systems in the working environment (Wirtz et al., 2015). In this context, the study adopts the concept of intention to use, which is widely used within the field of information technology acceptance (Venkatesh et al., 2003). ...
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Mobile government services have significantly gained importance for practitioners and researchers. However, there is a lack of empirical investigation into the diffusion of mobile government among users. Based on the technology acceptance model and related literature, we derived a structural model providing the central antecedents of citizens’ usage intention of mobile government services and its effect on word-of-mouth intention. Findings from a sample of 161 German public administration students largely supported the model. Only the anticipated effect of perceived interactivity on intention to use was not supported. Points for practitioners The study provides a comprehensive model of mobile government applications’ success. Professionals who develop mobile government services should focus on usefulness, usability and a high level of service coverage, as well as privacy and security aspects, to increase citizens’ intention to use the respective service. Interactivity has not been found to be a significant factor for citizens’ intention to use mobile government services. The study also suggests that citizens will recommend the services to others if they intend to use it in the first place.
... Tarhini et al.User adoption of online banking[14].E-governmentLu et al.Acceptance of government-sponsored information systems[15].MpinganjiraUse of the tax e-filing system[16]. Wirtz et al.Citizen acceptance of local administration portals[17]. ...
... Theory of Reasoned Action (Tang et al. 2009), (Wirtz et al. 2015)* Technology Acceptance Model (Carter 2007), (Horst et al. 2007), (Lee and Lei 2007), (Colesca and Dobrica 2008)*, (Lean et al. 2009), (Wangpipatwong et al. 2008)*, (Tang et al. 2009 (Fakhoury 2014), (Shemi et al. 2014) ...
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Despite the maturity that e-Government implementation has reached, it is still reported that usage of eGovernment services is less than satisfactory. If e-Government systems are not used by its intended users, expected benefits will not be achieved. Thus, engaging citizens on using e-Government services is a challenge being faced by public administrations around the world. A literature review was conducted in order to identify theoretical perspectives underlying the research on e-Government usage (by citizens) and determine research needs. The findings show that general IT acceptance theories are widely used for both, initial and continued usage of e-Government services, even though specific models have been proposed. Regarding the three elements related to system usage (user, system and task), the findings suggest paying more attention to the task that citizens have to perform.
... Beliefs incorporate two internal and influential factorsperceived ease of use and perceived usefulnesswhich, in turn, explain personal attitudes and behavioral intentions to use a system. Evidence from the IS literature shows TAM as one of the most cited theoretical IS success models across multiple types of users and in relation to various technological innovations (King and He, 2006;Venkatesh et al., 2003;Wirtz et al., 2015;Wu and Wang, 2006). ...
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... This dimension evaluates the information provided to citizens through the portal (Kohlborn, 2014;Welch, Hinnant, & Moon, 2005;Wirtz, Piehler, & Daiser, 2015). Examples of information include news or announcements about events, statistical information about government agencies, multimedia information, information organization (logic, flow, indicators, site map, accessibility functions), open data, filters to updated information about events, services by season as well as services available to citizens. ...
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... Earlier examples of studies have focused on more general questions such as public involvement [37], e-participation [38] and e-government [39]. More recently-conducted studies focus on more specialized issues, such as technology acceptance [40]; local government transparency (Portugal) [27]; different determinants of adaptation (Turkey) [41], (Norway) [42]; information quality [43]; e-government evaluation models (Greece) [44,45] and use of social media, for example, Italy and Spain [46], South Aftrica [47,48], and Western European municipalities [49]. ...
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... A government policy aimed at ease of use, utility and privacy that are key factors in accepting the e-government portal can be the key to re-establishing e-government. (Wirtz et al., 2015). ...
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... In this perspective, there are several areas of study. As well as being within the scope of public administration, Davis's (1986) technology acceptance model explains the acceptance or use of information systems (Ozkan & Kanat, 2011;Sipior et al., 2011;Wang & Lo, 2013;Wirtz, Piehler, & Daiser, 2015) and according to this model, the perceived utility is understood as 'as the degree to which an individual believes that using a particular system would increase their job performance. Whereas ease of use is perceived as 'the degree to which an individual believes that using a particular system would be free of a physical and mental effort'. ...
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Chapter
This chapter examines three issues emerging in the fields of e-government service delivery and e-commerce — the need for and a potential structure for performance measures, the heightened need for security awareness around e-government and e-commerce, and the need for e-government web design centered around usability. Beginning these discussions are some basic definitions, a review of the current literature on e-government and a discussion of the stages of e-government development. The chapter concludes with a discussion of a future research agenda in e-service delivery and e-commerce. Electronic government, or e-government, can be defined as the “use of technology, particularly web-based Internet applications, to enhance the access to and delivery of government information and service to citizens, business partners, employees, other agencies, and government entities” (McClure, 2000). As will be discussed later, e-commerce applications are a subset of e-government applications, and can be easily defined as “Business transactions conducted by electronic means other than conventional telephone service, e.g., facsimile or electronic mail (e-mail)” (National Telecommunications and Information Administration, 2002).
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This article intends to explore the critical traits of citizens in terms of public e-service usage based on the perspective of self-service technologies (SSTs) as well as the perception towards the e-service quality. A well-designed survey was conducted in Tokyo, a leading e-city, to understand the profile of the user. The result shows that user's traits in terms of "perceived risk" and "need for interaction with public servant" have significant impact on the perception of e-service quality. Towards the end, this article will give several meaningful contributions and practicable suggestions academically and managerially to the policy makers, as well as government CIOs.
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During the past years, the realization of e-government-driven benefits was at the center of attention at various public administrations. The paper presented here outlines a process-driven approach for the evaluation of technology-driven performance impacts based on reference measures. From the German perspective, existing concepts of performance evaluation were concretized for the case scenario of German plan approval procedures.
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American grassroots governments have rushed to join the e-government revolution. Although there is a growing body of e-government literature, little of it is empirical. Using data from two nationwide surveys, we conduct a longitudinal examination of local government adoption of e-government, Web site sophistication, the perceived impacts of e-government, and barriers to the adoption and sophistication of e-government. We also discuss correlates of e-government adoption and sophistication with selected institutional factors. We find that e-government adoption at the grassroots is progressing rapidly (if measured solely by deployment of Web sites). However, the movement toward integrated and transactional e-government is progressing much more slowly. Continuing research, particularly longitudinal study, is needed to monitor the evolution of e-government among U.S. local governments, especially to keep pace with the practice and to ascertain the actual impacts of e-government.
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Technology adoption is well defined in e-business. The environment within which leaders must act in government is significantly different that that navigated by business leaders. The differences in these environments plays a significant role in the diffusion of technology in e-government settings. This paper explores modifications to technology adoption models to account for the changes in environment. Issues such as information security play a significant role in new technology adoptions such as egovernment. The inclusion of moderating variable to account for the environmental effects is done to extend adoption model applicability to the e-government sector.
Conference Paper
This chapter examines three issues emerging in the fields of e-government service delivery and e-commerce -- the need for and a potential structure for performance measures, the heightened need for security awareness around e-government and e-commerce, and the need for e-government web design centered around usability. Beginning these discussions are some basic definitions, a review of the current literature on e-government and a discussion of the stages of e-government development. The chapter concludes with a discussion of a future research agenda in e-service delivery and e-commerce.Electronic government, or e-government, can be defined as the "use of technology, particularly web-based Internet applications, to enhance the access to and delivery of government information and service to citizens, business partners, employees, other agencies, and government entities" (McClure, 2000). As will be discussed later, e-commerce applications are a subset of e-government applications, and can be easily defined as "Business transactions conducted by electronic means other than conventional telephone service, e.g., facsimile or electronic mail (e-mail)" (National Telecommunications and Information Administration, 2002).
Conference Paper
The trust of citizens in their governments has gradually eroded. One response by several North American governments has been to introduce e-government, or Web-mediated citizen-to-government interaction. This paper tests the extent to which online initiatives have succeeded in increasing trust and external political efficacy in voters. An Internet-based survey of 182 Canadian voters shows that using the Internet to transact with government has a significantly positive impact on trust and external political efficacy. Interestingly, though the quality of the interaction is important, it is secondary to internal political efficacy in determining trust levels, and not significant in determining levels of external political efficacy (or perceived government responsiveness). For policy-makers, this suggests e-government efforts might be better-aimed at citizens with high pre-extant levels of trust, rather than in developing better Web sites. For researchers, this paper introduces political efficacy as an important determinant of trust as it pertains to e-government.
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Social media has opened up unprecedented new possibilities of engaging the public in government work. In response to the Open Government Directive, U.S. federal agencies developed their open government plan and launched numerous social media-based public engagement initiatives. However, we find that many of these initiatives do not deliver the intended outcomes due to various organizational, technological, and financial challenges. We propose an Open Government Maturity Model based on our field studies with U.S. federal healthcare administration agencies. This model is specifically developed to assess and guide open government initiatives which focus on transparent, interactive, participatory, collaborative public engagement that are largely enabled by emerging technologies such as social media. The model consists of five maturity levels: initial conditions (Level 1), data transparency (Level 2), open participation (Level 3), open collaboration (Level 4), and ubiquitous engagement (Level 5). We argue that there is a logical sequence for increasing social media-based public engagement and agencies should focus on achieving one maturity level at a time. The Open Government Maturity Model helps government agencies implement their open government initiatives effectively by building organizational and technological capabilities in an orderly manner. We discuss challenges and best practices for each maturity level and conclude by presenting recommendations.
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Based on IS Continuance Model, IS Success Model, and the studies of e-government portal service quality, this paper constructs an adoption model of e-government portals from individual users' perspective. Structural equation modeling technique is used to identify factors that influencing users' continuance intention to e-government portals. The results show that: (1) user satisfaction and perceived usefulness are the important antecedents of user continuance intention; (2) the four dimensions of service quality influence user continuance intention via user satisfaction or perceived useful.
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The e-Government phenomenon has become more important with the ever increasing number of implementations worldwide. A model explaining the e-Government adoption and the related measurement instrument – a survey – had been developed and validated in this study. In a post Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) approach, theory of planned behavior (TPB) was extended to fit the requirements of e-Government context. The adoption of student loans service of the higher education student loans and accommodation association of Turkey (KYK) was investigated to obtain data for empirical validation. The instrument was administered to over four-hundred students and partial least squares path modeling was employed to analyze the data. The results indicate that the model was an improvement over TAM in terms of predictive power. The constructs trust, perceived behavioral control and attitudes successfully explained the intention to use an e-Government service. The findings presented in this study provide useful insights for researchers and policy makers when dealing with e-Government services.
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Learning is critical to both economic prosperity and social cohesion. E-government learning, which refers to the government's use of web-based technologies to facilitate learning about subjects that are useful to citizens, is relatively new, relevant, and potentially cost-effective. This work proposes and verifies that the technology acceptance model (TAM) can explain and predict usage of e-government learning. The TAM examines how perceived ease of use and perceived usefulness and their antecedents influence intention and usage of a system. This study identifies antecedents that account for individual differences, thereby enhancing the explanatory power of the built model. A survey is used to collect data from users of an e-government learning website in Taiwan. Structural equation modeling is employed to examine the fit of the data to the model. From a theoretical point of view, this research extends the TAM to e-government learning and identifies the perceived e-government learning value and perceived enjoyment as antecedents of usage of e-government learning. This study also provides directions for future research and approaches to promote e-government learning.
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This article suggests that e-government and e-governance initiatives can potentially have major organisational impacts through three major mechanisms: improved decision-making, more intensive and productive use of data bases, and better communications. These mechanisms impact on both the internal organisation of public agencies, their configuration of networks and partnerships. E-enablement therefore makes obsolete many existing organisational structures and processes and offers the prospect of transformation in both service delivery and public governance arrangements. However, the organisational changes which can be effected through the e-revolution are only just beginning to become evident. While it seems likely that existing organisational configurations in the public sector will not be sustainable, the most appropriate ways forward will only be uncovered through much experimentation within e-government and e-governance programmes. In the nature of experimentation, many of these initiatives will turn out to be unproductive or cost-ineffective - but that is perhaps the necessary price to pay for the level of public sector transformation which now appears to be in prospect.
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The multifaceted challenges of contemporary governance demand a complex account of the ways in which those who are subject to laws and policies should participate in making them. This article develops a framework for understanding the range of institutional possibilities for public participation. Mechanisms of participation vary along three important dimensions: who participates, how participants communicate with one another and make decisions together, and how discussions are linked with policy or public action. These three dimensions constitute a space in which any particular mechanism of participation can be located. Different regions of this institutional design space are more and less suited to addressing important problems of democratic governance such as legitimacy, justice, and effective administration.
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Dramatic developments in information technology are transforming society, challenging our nation's many governments to keep pace. As e-governance grows in popularity, Web pages could well become the new face of government. But how are citizens responding? We suggest that government Web sites may provide a new vehicle for citizen-initiated contacts with government, and, drawing from the literature on those traditional contacts, we propose a number of hypotheses on citizen interaction with government via the Web. To test those hypotheses, we examine data from a survey concerning how Georgians are contacting government via the Web. We find that citizen visits to governmental Web sites are increasingly common, and as such appear to have become a major new form of the traditional citizen-initiated contact. To date, however, most of these Web contacts have been made only to obtain information, thus lacking the interactive quality crucial to other citizen-initiated contacts. As an encouraging finding for government, visitors to governmental Web sites appear to be mostly pleased with their experiences, rating those sites as at least comparable in quality to other Web sites. A discouraging finding, however, is that the demographics of these visitors suggest cause for concern, since the digital divide is even more pronounced among government Web site visitors than among Internet users in general. In the concluding section, we discuss the implications of the findings for government and for future research.
Article
The importance of information kiosk development and implementation in the context of E-Government policies has been discussed in previous research. While many governments are today making considerable investments to implement information kiosks, previous research suggests that citizens may not use information kiosks in spite of their availability. However, the successful implementation of information kiosks depends significantly on whether or not citizens are willing to adopt the new information technology (IT). Therefore, based on the Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTAUT), this study investigates the determinants of use behavior regarding information kiosks and the moderating effects of age and gender differences on the relationships between the determinants and behavioral intention/use behavior. Data collected from 244 respondents in Taiwan were tested against the research model using structural equation modeling techniques. The results partially support the applicability of the UTAUT in the context of information kiosks. The findings of this research provide several prominent implications for the research and practice of information kiosk development and implementation.
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Self-service technologies (SSTs) are increasingly changing the way customers interact with firms to create service outcomes. Given that the emphasis in the academic literature has focused almost exclusively on the interpersonal dynamics of service encounters, there is much to be learned about customer interactions with technology-based self-service delivery options. In this research, the authors describe the results of a critical incident study based on more than 800 incidents involving SSTs solicited from customers through a Web-based survey. The authors categorize these incidents to discern the sources of satisfaction and dissatisfaction with SSTs, The authors present a discussion of the resulting critical incident categories and their relationship to customer attributions, complaining behavior, word of mouth, and repeat purchase intentions, which is followed by implications for managers and researchers.
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As elected officials and citizens demand accountability and results from e-government programs, it is important to assess whether e-government has fulfilled its promises and to outline the challenges lying ahead. Based on the literature, government reports, and other secondary data, this article evaluates the impact of e-government on service accessibility, efficiency, economy, effectiveness, and other end-outcomes. It reveals that although some e-government programs have demonstrated efficiency and economy gains, many are still struggling to make a business case. Effectiveness and other end-outcomes are even more difficult to achieve. This paper also examines the national characteristics that affect different countries' e-government developments and the managerial challenges that public managers face. Political and social rights are considered important for further promoting e-government. Resource, top leadership support, strategic planning, and collaboration, among others, are emphasized for e-government success.
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A framework for hypothesis testing and power analysis in the assessment of fit of covariance structure models is presented. We emphasize the value of confidence intervals for fit indices, and we stress the relationship of confidence intervals to a framework for hypothesis testing. The approach allows for testing null hypotheses of not-good fit, reversing the role of the null hypothesis in conventional tests of model fit, so that a significant result provides strong support for good fit. The approach also allows for direct estimation of power, where effect size is defined in terms of a null and alternative value of the root-mean-square error of approximation fit index proposed by J. H. Steiger and J. M. Lind (1980). It is also feasible to determine minimum sample size required to achieve a given level of power for any test of fit in this framework. Computer programs and examples are provided for power analyses and calculation of minimum sample sizes. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
This study reviews the literature on e-service quality (e-SQ), with an emphasis on the methodological issues involved in developing measurement scales and issues related to the dimensionality of the e-SQ construct. We selected numerous studies on e-SQ from well-known databases and subjected them to a thorough content analysis. The review shows that dimensions of e-service quality tend to be contingent on the service industry. Despite the common dimensions often used in evaluating e-SQ, regardless of the type of service on the internet (‘reliability/fulfilment’, ‘responsiveness’, ‘web design’, ‘ease of use/usability’, ‘privacy/security’, and ‘information quality/benefit’), other dimensions are specific to e-service contexts. The study also identifies several conceptual and methodological limitations associated with developing e-SQ measurement such as the lack of a rigorous validation process, the problematic sample size and composition, the focus on functional aspects, and the use of a data-driven approach. This is the first study to undertake an extensive literature review of research on the development of e-SQ scales. The findings should be valuable to academics and practitioners alike.
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An ongoing requirement in the 21st century is that marketers must understand the impact of the network economy on buyer behavior. Although new models will certainly be developed, it seems reasonable that existing models of buyer behavior will still apply. This study uses structural-equations modeling to test if three popular models of behavioral intent—the theory of reasoned action, the theory of planned behavior, and the technology acceptance model—work in a network context. It recommends the technology-acceptance model as superior to the others in the current network context, and also shows how to check and account for the presence of common method bias in a single source instrument. © 2002 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Article
This chapter includes the following topics: Rationale for a Joint Concern about Costs and ErrorsUse of Cost and Error Models in Sample DesignCriticisms of Cost-Error Modeling to Guide Survey DecisionsNonlinear Cost Models Often Apply to Practical Survey AdministrationSurvey Cost Models are Inherently DiscontinuousCost Models Often Have Stochastic FeaturesDomains of Applicability of Cost Models Must be SpecifiedSimulation Studies Might Best be Suited to Design DecisionsIs Time Money?Summary: Cost Models and Survey Errors
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This study explores the key success factors of the electronic tendering system (ETS) in Taiwan through the behavioral perspectives of the end users. Based on the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB), the study proposes an integrated model for the empirical examination of the users' intention and behavior for using the ETS. The results show that users' overall satisfaction, specifically explained by perceived usefulness and information accuracy of the ETS, most significantly affect their intention to adopt the ETS. In addition, increasing the relevant knowledge and skill of the users effectively enhance their intention and the actual usage as well. Comparatively, influences from the users' coworkers and supervisors exercise less significant impact on the adoption if the ETS.