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Assessing the Impact of Wash Water Temperature, Detergent Type and Laundering Platform on Basic Clothing Attributes

Authors:

Abstract

The objective of the consumer laundry research study was to determine the impact of wash water temperature, detergent type and laundering platform on basic clothing attributes. To determine the effects of top and front loading washing machines, cold and warm water wash temperatures and detergent types on home laundered garments by assessing color change, dimensional stability, pilling, moisture content and residual moisture content and stain removal. Testing was conducted on consumer loads of denim, towels, khakis, polos, and mixed consumer loads. Each load type was subjected to thirty wash and dry cycles. Evaluations of the loads were conducted prior to testing (when applicable to test method), as well as after one, five, ten, fifteen, and thirty wash and dry cycles.
Assessing the Impact of Wash Water Temperature, Detergent Type and
Laundering Platform on Basic Clothing Attributes
Elizabeth P. Easter, PhD; Cinnamon, Meredith & Baker, Erin; University of Kentucky,
Lexington, KY 40406
Abstract
The objective of the consumer laundry research study was to determine the impact of wash water
temperature, detergent type and laundering platform on basic clothing attributes. To determine
the effects of top and front loading washing machines, cold and warm water wash temperatures
and detergent types on home laundered garments by assessing color change, dimensional
stability, pilling, moisture content and residual moisture content and stain removal. Testing was
conducted on consumer loads of denim, towels, khakis, polos, and mixed consumer loads. Each
load type was subjected to thirty wash and dry cycles. Evaluations of the loads were conducted
prior to testing (when applicable to test method), as well as after one, five, ten, fifteen, and thirty
wash and dry cycles.
Key Terms
Laundry Platform, Detergent, Wash Temperature, Clothing Attributes
Introduction
Purpose of the Research
The purpose of the laundry study was to determine the impact of wash water temperature,
detergent type and laundry platform on basic clothing attributes. Life cycle assessments of
clothing and textile products highlight the potential for reduced environmental impact of HE
washer and doing the laundry in cold water.1 Care labels are designed with specific laundering
instructions that are meant to produce the least amount of harm to the clothing to allow for best
clothing performance. Before recommendations on how to launder cotton with minimal
environmental impact are made there is a need to evaluate the impact of these recommendations
to ensure that performance and wear life are not greatly degraded.
Objectives of the Research
The objectives of the laundry study were to evaluate the effects of cold versus warm water
washing, to evaluate the effects of detergent types, and to determine the effects of top and front
loading washers and matching dryers on home laundered garments. The effects of cold versus
warm water washing temperature were evaluated by measuring dimensional stability,
colorfastness to laundry, and stain removal. The detergent types included regular formulations
for the top load washer and high efficiency for the front load washer. A standard control liquid
detergent was used on both the front and top load washers as a control. In order to determine the
effects of top and front loading washers and matching dryers, towel absorbency, pilling
propensity, stain removal, remaining moisture content, and residual moisture content were
examined.
Properties Evaluated
The properties of abrasion resistance, colorfastness to laundry, color transfer, dimensional
change, residual moisture, remaining moisture, smoothness retention, soil release, and towel
absorbency were assessed for most clothes loads. Soil release and color transfer were not
performed on the towel or jeans loads. Towel absorbency testing was performed on the towel
loads only.
Review of Literature
Laundering Platform
Traditionally, laundering platforms are found in two basic designs. Vertical axis, or top loading
washers, have a central agitator and currently make up 75-85 percent of all washers sold in the
United States.2 Most vertical axis machines suspend the clothes in a tub of water for washing and
rinsing, a process which typically requires at least 40 gallons of water per load. Horizontal axis,
or front loading washers, tumble clothing through a small bath of water using between 20 and 60
percent less water than a conventional top loading machine.2 The majority of U.S. appliance
manufacturers now offer high-efficiency (HE) machines in both horizontal and vertical axis
designs. These high-efficiency machines require less water intake and have a reduced
environmental impact by saving water and saving energy.
In order to accelerate the HE washer market, the Department of Energy conducted a field
evaluation of HE washers.2 The hypothesis - that a changeover from conventional, vertical axis
washers to the high-efficiency, horizontal axis designs would decrease the water and energy
consumption - was substantiated. 2 In 2007, the Clothes Care Research Center™ (CCRC)
conducted a study to investigate how the new Department of Energy requirements for reduced
water and energy consumption would affect consumer satisfaction regarding the laundry
process.2 The CCRC found that reducing the water usage does not affect the appearance factors
of color retention, pilling and smoothness, regardless of fiber content.2 However, the reduced
water usage did increase the potential for color transfer between garments in the load. This was
measured by adding white fabrics to a typical dark load.2
Wash Water Temperature
According to the report, Energy Efficient Laundry Process, approximately 50 percent of all
energy consumed during the laundry process comes from heating the water.3 One way to reduce
energy usage is to lower the water temperature. Historically, in order to obtain sanitation and
cleaning of clothing during the laundering process, hot water temperatures of at least 160°F were
used. In the early 1990s, household water heaters were manufactured with a preset of 120°F.5
This reduction in hot water temperature resulted in a significant energy and monetary savings for
consumers.2 Studies have also shown that consumers do less than ten percent of all clothes loads
in hot water.2 Consumers want to use cold water in order to save money and energy or due to the
recommendations on their clothing labels.4
Results of a study examining the effect of lowering the temperature of wash water from 90°F to
70°F shows that the reduction in water temperature does not affect color retention, pilling, and
soil redeposition.6 The most significant impact of this reduction in temperature was on stain
release in which warm water washing was more effective. If the temperature of the wash was
lowered an additional 10°F, color retention, smoothness, and stain release were adversely
affected.6
Detergent Type
Consumers can find a broad array of detergent brands claiming special qualities in every
supermarket and shop.7 Laundry detergents generally come in two forms: powders (including
tablets) or liquids.7 In 1990 liquid laundry detergents were a fast growing market segment and
soon consumed 50% of the market share.7 Consumers found that liquids were easier to use and
dissolved better into consumer wash water.
Cold water detergents were reintroduced to the U.S. detergent market in 2005. These detergents,
designed to work efficiently in cold water, also provide savings to consumers by reducing energy
costs.8 It is estimated that the average consumer can save $63 a year by switching to cold water
versus warm water in their laundry.4 Switching to cold water provides monetary savings as well
as energy savings.
A study completed by Bruce Cameron at the University of Wyoming found that there is no
apparent advantage to using cold water detergents.7 Considering all detergent types tested, the
cold water detergent gave slightly higher whiteness indices than the regular detergent with no
bleach.7 The cold water detergents over all were no better at whitening than either detergents
without bleach or detergents containing nonchlorine bleach in cold water.7 Cold water detergents
are predicted to yield improved results if the textiles are not heavily soiled or if a prewash
treatment is used. This study was not designed to answer this question.7 In fact; textiles washed
in cold water may come out “dirtier” than before due to redeposition of live microbes.4 Most
soils will dissolve more readily the higher the temperature, therefore, textiles are going to clean
better with increasing temperature.7 Cameron states that further research in evaluating laundering
in cold water needs to be conducted.7
Methodology
Experimental Methodology
For this study, five consumer load types were evaluated including towel loads, jean loads, khaki
loads, polo loads, and mixed consumer loads. There were two washer platforms evaluated: front
and top loading washers with matching dryers. Two water temperatures were evaluated: warm
water (90°F) and cold water (60°F). Four types of widely available high end commercial
detergent was used including regular liquid (top loading washer), coldwater liquid (top loading
washer with cold water cycle), high efficiency liquid (front loading washer), and high efficiency
coldwater liquid (front loading washer with cold water cycle). A standard liquid detergent was
used as a control for every cycle set up.
Experimental Configuration
Eight total load configurations were tested for each of the five consumer load types for a total of
40 load variations. The replications of warm water and cold water washes were repeated on both
front and top load washers. For each warm and cold wash, the corresponding liquid detergent
was used as well as the standard control detergent. This was repeated for both the top and front
loading washer platforms. The eight load configurations can be seen in the figure below.
Fig. 1 Experimental Load Configuration
Washer and Dryer Conditions
Each load type was subjected to the series of wash and dry cycles for a total of 1200 cycles
throughout the entire consumer laundry study. Each load was evaluated for the performance
properties after one, five, ten, fifteen, and thirty wash cycles. The following cycle conditions
were used for the top and front loading matching washer and dryer pairs.
Front
Load
Wash Cycles
Dry Cycles
Load
Type
Load
Weight
(lb)
Cycle
Time
(min)
Wash Cycle
Wash
Temp.
Soil
Level
Detergent/
Cold
load* (g)
Dry
Cycle
(min)
Dry
Cycle
Dry
Temp.
Sensor
Dry Level
Towels
8
60
Colors/Normal
Warm/Tap
Cold
Normal
55±1
43
Cotton
High
More Dry
Jeans
8
60
Colors/Normal
Warm/Tap
Cold
Normal
55±1
40
Cotton
High
Dry
Khakis
8
54
Wrinkle Free
Warm/Tap
Cold
Normal
55±1
53
Wrinkle
Free
Medium
More Dry
Knit
Golf
Shirts
8
54
Active Wear
Warm/Tap
Cold
Normal
55±1
57
Active
Wear
Medium
Dry
Mixed
10
60
Colors/Normal
Warm/Tap
Cold
Normal
75±1
51
Mixed
High
Dry
Fig. 2 Front Load Washer and Dryer Condition
Top Load
Wash Cycles
Dry Cycles
Load Type
Load
Weight
(lb)
Wash
Cycle
Wash
Temp.
Load
Size
Soil
Level
Detergent
per
Warm
load (g)
Dry Cycle
Dry Temp.
Towels
8
Cotton
Warm/Tap
Cold
Large
Medium
65±1
Cotton Optimum
Dry
High
Jeans
8
Cotton
Warm/Tap
Cold
Large
Medium
65±1
Cotton Optimum
Dry
High
Khakis
8
Easy
Care
Warm/Tap
Cold
Large
Medium
65±1
Easy Care Less
Dry
Medium
Knit Golf
Shirts
8
Easy
Care
Warm/Tap
Cold
Large
Medium
65±1
Easy Care Less
Dry
Medium
Mixed
10
Cotton
Warm/Tap
Cold
Extra
Large
Medium
80±1
Cotton Optimum
Dry
High
Fig. 3 Top Load Washer and Dryer Conditions
Load Compositions
Each load type included products of mixed fiber contents except for the towel loads which were
made up of 100% cotton bath towels. The jean loads consisted of 100% cotton jeans and
cotton/polyester blended jeans. The khaki loads were cotton/polyester blended khakis,
cotton/spandex blended khakis, and wool/polyester blended khakis. The knit golf shirt or polo
loads included 100% cotton polos, cotton/spandex blend polos, 100% polyester polos, and
cotton/polyester blend polos. The mixed consumer load consisted of dress shirt blends, athletic t-
shirt blends, athletic nylon shorts, khakis, and knit golf shirts. The detailed load compositions
are shown in the chart below.
Load
Item
Fiber Content
#/Load
Jeans
Store Retailer Men's 100% Cotton Jeans
100% Cotton
3
Jeans
Catalog Brand Women's Jeans
52% Baumwolle (Cotton)/48% Polyester
3
Khakis
Catalog Brand Women's Cotton Pants
97% Cotton/3% Spandex
3
Khakis
Store Retailer Men's Polyester/Wool Pants
60% Polyester/40% Worsted Wool
3
Khakis
Store Retailer Cotton/Polyester Pants
54% Cotton/36% Polyester
3
Knit Golf Shirts
Catalog Brand Men's 100% Cotton Polo
100% Pima Cotton
4
Knit Golf Shirts
Catalog Brand Women's Cotton/Spandex Polo
97% Cotton/3% Spandex
4
Knit Golf Shirts
Store Retailer Polyester Mesh Polo
100% Polyester
4
Knit Golf Shirts
Store Retailer Cotton/Polyester Polo
60% Cotton/40% Polyester
3
Towels
Store Retailer 100% Cotton bath Towel
100% Cotton
9
Mixed Load
Store Retailer Oxford Cotton/Polyester Dress Shirt
65% Cotton/35% Polyester
2
Mixed Load
Store Retailer 100% Cotton Dress Shirt
100% Cotton Broadcloth
2
Mixed Load
Store Retailer Cotton/Poly Dress Shirt
55% Cotton/45% Polyester
2
Mixed Load
Store Retailer Kids 100% Nylon Short
100% Nylon
2
Mixed Load
Store Retailer Polyester Blend Shirt
95% Polyester/5% Elastane
2
Mixed Load
Store Retailer Cotton/Poly Blend T-Shirt
60% Cotton/40% Polyester
4
Mixed Load
Store Retailer Men's Polyester/Wool Pants
Same as Above
1
Mixed Load
Store Retailer Cotton/Polyester Pants
Same as Above
1
Mixed Load
Catalog Brand Women's Cotton/Spandex Polo
Same as Above
2
Mixed Load
Store Retailer Cotton/Polyester Polo
Same as Above
2
Fig. 4 Load Compositions
Results
The results will present and discuss the findings based on clothing attributes that impact
appearance, comfort and/or durability and serviceability. The results of conducting a statistical
analysis will highlight the significant findings of the study.
Pilling Propensity
The results of evaluating pilling propensity showed that cold water wash temperature resulted in
the lowest degree of pilling for the mixed loads, khaki loads, and towel loads. Jeans and polo
loads exhibited the lowest degree of pilling in the warm water loads. The table below gives the
load type and the corresponding load configurations (laundering platform, water temperature,
and detergent type) in which the lowest degree of pilling was exhibited. This configuration was
not necessarily used in conjunction with one another (i.e., Coldwater liquid detergent with a
warm water temperature cycle). Pilling is scored on a rated scale from 1 to 5 with 5 meaning no
pilling and 1 meaning severe pilling.
Table I. Pilling Propensity
Load Type
Pilling Score
Washer
Water Temp.
Detergent
Towels
5
Front
Cold
HE Coldwater
Jeans
5
Front & Top
Warm
Regular & HE Liquid
Khakis
5
Front
Cold
Coldwater Liquid
Polos
5
Top
Warm
Coldwater Liquid
Mixed
4.5
Front
Cold
Standard Control
Colorfastness to Laundry
The colorfastness to laundry testing showed that top load washer and warm water loads had the
greatest degree of colorfastness for the mixed, khaki, and towel loads. Jeans loads exhibited the
greatest degree of colorfastness in the front load washer and cold water loads. The table below
gives the load type and corresponding load configuration in which the greatest degree of
colorfastness was exhibited. This configuration was not necessarily used in conjunction with one
another. Colorfastness is rated on a scale from 1 to 5 with 5 meaning no change in color and 1
meaning severe change in color.
Table II. Colorfastness to Laundry
Load Type
Colorfastness
Washer
Water Temp.
Detergent
Towels
3.33
Top
Warm
Coldwater Liquid
Jeans
2.67
Front
Cold
Coldwater Liquid
Khakis
4.83
Top
Warm
Coldwater Liquid
Polos
5
Front & Top
Cold
Coldwater Liquid
Mixed
4
Top
Warm
Standard Control
Color Transfer
Color transfer testing showed that front load washer and cold water loads had the lowest degree
of color transfer for the polo and khaki loads. Mixed loads exhibited the lowest degree of color
transfer in the top load washer and warm water loads. The table below gives the load type and
corresponding load configuration in which the lowest degree of color transfer was exhibited.
This configuration was not necessarily used in conjunction with one another. Color transfer is
rated on a scale from 1 to 5 with 5 meaning no color transfer and 1 meaning severe color
transfer.
Table III. Color Transfer
Load Type
Color
Transfer
Washer
Water Temp.
Detergent
Khakis
5
Front
Cold
HE & HE Coldwater Liquid
Polos
5
Front
Cold
HE Coldwater Liquid
Mixed
5
Top
Warm
Coldwater Liquid & HE Liquid
Dimensional Change
Dimensional change testing showed that HE Coldwater detergent had the lowest dimensional
change for the towel, jeans, khakis, and mixed loads. Polo loads exhibited the lowest
dimensional change in the HE liquid detergent loads. Cold water loads exhibited the lowest
dimensional change for all load types. Dimensional change was measured at each wash cycle
interval and is calculated as a percentage of shrinkage or growth. The higher the dimensional
change value, the more shrinkage or growth occurred. The table below gives the load type and
corresponding load configuration in which the lowest dimensional change occurred. This
configuration was not necessarily used in conjunction with one another.
Table IV. Dimensional Change
Load Type
% Change
Washer
Water Temp.
Detergent
Towels
-6.9%
Front
Cold
HE Coldwater Liquid
Jeans
-1.86%
Front
Cold
HE Coldwater Liquid
Khakis
-0.16%
Top
Cold
HE Coldwater Liquid
Polos
-1.35%
Top
Cold & Warm
HE Liquid
Mixed
-0.66%
Front
Cold
HE Coldwater Liquid
Residual and Remaining Moisture Content
The findings from residual and remaining moisture content showed that for all load types, the
most common interaction occurred between water temperature and detergent type. The table
below gives the load type and corresponding load interactions for moisture content. This
configuration was not necessarily used in conjunction with one another.
Table V. Moisture Content
Load Type
Interactions
Washer
Water Temperature
Detergent Type
Towels
X
X
Jeans
X
X
Khakis
X
X
X
Polos
X
X
Mixed
X
X
Smoothness Retention
Smoothness retention testing showed that cold water loads exhibited the greatest degree of
smoothness retention for all load types. Smoothness retention is rated on a scale of 1 to 5 with 5
meaning no wrinkles and 1 meaning severe wrinkles. The table below gives the load type and
corresponding load configuration in which the greatest degree of smoothness retention occurred.
This configuration was not necessarily used in conjunction with one another.
Table VI. Smoothness Retention
Load Type
Smoothness
Washer
Water Temp.
Detergent
Jeans
4
Top
Warm
Coldwater Liquid
Khakis
4
Front
Cold
HE Coldwater Liquid
Polos
5
Front
Cold
HE Liquid
Mixed
3.63
Top
Cold
HE Coldwater Liquid
Soil Release
Soil release findings show that front washer and warm water loads have the greatest degree of
soil release for polo, khaki, and mixed loads. Slight interaction occurred between water
temperature and detergent type for polo loads. Soil release is rated on a scale from 1 to 5 with 5
meaning complete stain removal and 1 meaning no stain removal. The table below gives the load
type and corresponding load configuration in which the greatest degree of soil release occurred.
This configuration was not necessarily used in conjunction with one another.
Table VII. Soil Release
Load Type
Soil Release
Washer
Water Temp.
Detergent
Khakis
4.4
Front
Warm
HE Liquid
Polos
5
Front
Warm
HE Liquid
Mixed
5
Front
Warm
Regular Liquid
Towel Absorbency
Towel absorbency testing found that top load washer, cold water, and Coldwater liquid detergent
loads had the greatest degree of towel absorbency. The HE Coldwater detergent load had the
lowest degree of towel absorbency. Towel absorbency measures the remaining water not
absorbed by the towel in ml. An average is given for the front and back side of the towel. The
table below gives the corresponding load configuration in which the greatest degree of towel
absorbency occurred. This configuration was not necessarily used in conjunction with one
another.
Table VIII. Towel Absorbency
Load Type
Absorbency
Washer
Water Temp.
Detergent
Towels
5.83
Top
Cold
Coldwater Liquid
Conclusions
Based on the results of this study, the following conclusions were established. In examining
pilling propensity, cold water loads exhibit the least amount of pilling for khaki pants, towels,
and mixed consumer loads. Washing platform, water wash temperature, and detergent type all
interact to influence the degree of pilling. The vertical axis, top load washing machine has the
greatest degree of colorfastness for all load types except jeans. The HE Coldwater liquid
detergent has the greatest colorfastness regardless of laundry platform or water temperature for
all loads except the mixed consumer loads.
Color Transfer is influenced by washing platform, water wash temperature, and detergent type
for all load types. Front load washer and cold water loads exhibit the least amount of color
transfer for the polo and khaki loads. The mixed consumer loads exhibit the lowest degree of
color transfer in the top load washer and warm water loads. HE Coldwater loads exhibit the least
amount of dimensional change for all load types except polos. For remaining and residual
moisture content, water temperature and detergent type are the most common influential
interaction for all load types.
Cold water and HE Coldwater detergent loads exhibit the greatest smoothness retention.
Garments exhibit greater soil release when washed in regular liquid detergent or HE liquid
detergent, not coldwater detergents. The greatest towel absorbency occurs in cold water loads
and with the use of coldwater detergent.
Acknowledgements
The authors would like to acknowledge Cotton Incorporated for their support, funding, and
commitment to this study.
References
1. Cotton Incorporated, The Life Cycle Inventory & Life Cycle Assessment of Cotton Fiber
& Fabric. The Cotton Foundation. 2011, pp1-4.
http://cottontoday.cottoninc.com/sustainability-about/LCI-LCA-Handout/LCI-LCA-
Handout.pdf
2. Easter, E., Environmental Impact of Laundry, Future Fashion White Papers, 2007, pp94-
104.
3. Richter, T. Energy Efficient Laundry Process, Final Project Report for the Department of
Energy, November 1, 2011-December 31.
4. Petkewich, R., Cold-water Laundry Detergent is a Hot Idea, Environmental Science &
Technology Online News. September 21, 2005.
5. Cotterill, G., et. al., Clothes Care Labels-Recommended Temperatures for Wash Cycle.
6. Easter, E. & Ankenman, B. Impact of Low Energy/Low Water on Clothes Care. Book of
Papers: 2006 International Conference & Exhibition.
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Family and Consumer Sciences Research Journal, Vol. 36, No. 2, December 2007,
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8. McCoy, M., Soaps and Detergents: Specialty chemical makers seek business both with
cleaning product innovators and the companies that follow them, Chemical and
Engineering News, Vol. 77, No. 5, 2006, pp13-19.
Author
Elizabeth Easter, 318 Erikson Hall, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40504, USA; phone
+1 859 257 7777; fax +1 859 257 1275; eeaster@uky.edu
... As the literature suggests [45][46][47], color transfer is influenced by washing machine type (horizontal or vertical axis), water temperature, and detergent type. Reducing water usage increases the potential for color transfer [45]. ...
... As the literature suggests [45][46][47], color transfer is influenced by washing machine type (horizontal or vertical axis), water temperature, and detergent type. Reducing water usage increases the potential for color transfer [45]. Also, heat, moisture, alkali, and oxidizing bleach result in hydrolysis of the dye-fiber bond causing dye desorption during washing and rinsing. ...
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This article focuses on developing a methodology which can be used to estimate the concentration of dyestuff released from textiles during domestic laundering, so that further studies involving decolorization of the wastewater from domestic washing machine can be conducted in an attempt to develop eco-friendly domestic washing processes. Due to the complexity of the problem, an approach was adopted so that, as an initial step, synthetic red and blue reactive dye solutions were prepared as representative wastewater solutions using Reactive Red 195 and Reactive Blue 19 dyestuffs for the estimation of dye concentration. This was followed by an experimental work consisting of washing tests involving the calculation of dye concentration in the wastewater obtained from domestic washing machine as well as tergotometer as a machine simulator. For this part of the work, dyed cotton plain jersey fabric samples were used to obtain wastewater solutions. All the dye solutions and the wastewater samples were measured with VIS spectrophotometer, and the maximum absorbance values were obtained at relevant wavelengths. Although the characteristics of absorbance spectra of synthetic and wastewater solutions were very different, the maximum absorbance values of both solutions overlapped at relevant wavelengths. The concentration of the dyestuff was calculated from the absorbance values measured at 540 and 592 nm for the red and blue, respectively. The statistical analysis of the data suggested that tergotometer can be used as a domestic washing machine simulator. Moreover, the regression analysis done for the dyestuff concentration under discussion revealed that the most significant factor was the washing step (main wash or rinsing) (89.5%) followed by color (red or blue) (3.4%) and washing device (washing machine or tergotometer) (1.5%).
... (Easter et al 2013) Influence of the washing process on physical properties of clothes ...
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The e fectiveness (ability to whiten) of six consumer laundry detergents, three powders and three liquids, was tested using a standard procedure. Assessment of each detergent's ability to clean (ability to remove stain, thus whiten) a standard soiled cloth in six di ferent cold water samples was evaluated. Two of the detergents, one powder and one liquid, are new laundry products designed to function in cold water. Results were based on a standardized procedure using launder-ometer treatment and reflectance colorimeter testing. Although no one detergent was very e fective in whitening, the di ferences in the detergents were significant when compared to the original standard soiled cloth. In addition, when laundering this particular standard soiled cloth (carbon black/olive oil) in cold water, neither of the new cold water detergents were better at cleaning (whitening) the samples than the detergents without bleach or the bleach-containing detergents, and in fact, the powdered detergent with bleach performed the best in each of the tests in this study. The liquid detergent with bleach was best in comparison to other liquid detergents in only half of the tests performed.
The Life Cycle Inventory & Life Cycle Assessment of Cotton Fiber & Fabric. The Cotton Foundation
  • Cotton Incorporated
Cotton Incorporated, The Life Cycle Inventory & Life Cycle Assessment of Cotton Fiber & Fabric. The Cotton Foundation. 2011, pp1-4. http://cottontoday.cottoninc.com/sustainability-about/LCI-LCA-Handout/LCI-LCA-Handout.pdf
Environmental Impact of Laundry, Future Fashion White Papers
  • E Easter
Easter, E., Environmental Impact of Laundry, Future Fashion White Papers, 2007, pp94-104.
Energy Efficient Laundry Process, Final Project Report for the Department of Energy
  • T Richter
Richter, T. Energy Efficient Laundry Process, Final Project Report for the Department of Energy, November 1, 2011-December 31.
Cold-water Laundry Detergent is a Hot Idea, Environmental Science & Technology Online News
  • R Petkewich
Petkewich, R., Cold-water Laundry Detergent is a Hot Idea, Environmental Science & Technology Online News. September 21, 2005.
Clothes Care Labels-Recommended Temperatures for Wash Cycle
  • G Cotterill
Cotterill, G., et. al., Clothes Care Labels-Recommended Temperatures for Wash Cycle.
Impact of Low Energy/Low Water on Clothes Care
  • E Easter
  • B Ankenman
Easter, E. & Ankenman, B. Impact of Low Energy/Low Water on Clothes Care. Book of Papers: 2006 International Conference & Exhibition.
Soaps and Detergents: Specialty chemical makers seek business both with cleaning product innovators and the companies that follow them
  • M Mccoy
McCoy, M., Soaps and Detergents: Specialty chemical makers seek business both with cleaning product innovators and the companies that follow them, Chemical and Engineering News, Vol. 77, No. 5, 2006, pp13-19.