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The Potency of Guava Psidium Guajava (L.) Leaves as a Functional Immunostimulatory Ingredient


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The potential of natural substances to improve the immune system has long been the subject of investigation. The purpose of this research was to study Guava (Psidium guajava L.) leaf extract as a functional ingredient for immunostimulant. The study used water and ethanol as solvents to obtain optimum active compounds of the extracts. The result showed that the higher the content of phenol total was found in the extract, the higher the stimulation index value was obtained for both solvents. However, the stimulation index value was not only influenced by antioxidant activity. The reason was that the type of active compound in Guava leaf extract responsible for immunostimulatory activity was probably not only polyphenolic antioxidant.
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Procedia Chemistry 14 ( 2015 ) 301 307
1876-6196 © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license
Peer-review under responsibility of the Scientifi c Committee of HK-ICONS 2014
doi: 10.1016/j.proche.2015.03.042
Available online at
2nd Humboldt Kolleg in conjunction with International Conference on Natural Sciences,
The Potency of Guava Psidium guajava (L.) Leaves as a Functional
Immunostimulatory Ingredient
Noer Lailya*, Retno Windya Kusumaningtyasa, Iim Sukartia,
Maria Rosari Devi Kartika Rinia
aCenter for Bioindustrial Technology ,The Agency for The Assessment and Application of Technolgy (BPPT),
Komplek Perkantoran Puspiptek Gedung no 611 LAPTIAB 1, Serpong 15314, Indonesia
The potential of natural substances to improve the immune system has long been the subject of investigation. The purpose of
this research was to study Guava (Psidium guajava L.) leaf extract as a functional ingredient for immunostimulant. The study
used water and ethanol as solvents to obtain optimum active compounds of the extracts. The result showed that the higher the
content of phenol total was found in the extract, the higher the stimulation index value was obtained for both solvents. However,
the stimulation index value was not only influenced by antioxidant activity. The reason was that the type of active compound in
Guava leaf extract responsible for immunostimulatory activity was probably not only polyphenolic antioxidant.
© 2015 N. Laily, R.W. Kusumaningtyas, I. Sukarti, M.R.D.K. Rini. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Peer-review under responsibility of the Scientific Committee of HK-ICONS 2014.
Keywords: Antioxidant; functional ingredient; immunostimulant; phenol total; Psidium guajava (L.) extract
*Corresponding author. Tel: +62 21 7560 729; fax: +62 21 756 0694; cell phone: +62 81 2803 0931
E-mail address:
GAE Gallic Acid Equivalents, is an expression of total phenol content (mg · g1)
SI Stimulation Index, is average optical density of treatment (with stimulation) / average
optical density without stimulation (medium only), [%]
RSA Radical Scavenging Activity, [mg BHA equivalent · g1]
rpm revolutions per minute, 1 hertz is equal to 60 rpm
© 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license
Peer-review under responsibility of the Scientifi c Committee of HK-ICONS 2014
302 Noer Laily et al. / Procedia Chemistry 14 ( 2015 ) 301 – 307
1. Introduction
Guava (Psidium guajava L.) has been used traditionally in the treatment of various diseases. In Indonesia, Guava
leaf is commonly used to treat diarrhea, gastroenteritis and other digestive complaints, while the Guava fruit has
been used to increase platelets in patients with dengue fever. Many studies have been done to scientifically prove
efficacy in the treatment of guava leaf. Among them were the benefits of guava leaf as a remedy antiarthritison
animal testing using hydro alcoholic extract1.
Another study proved that the flavonoids content in extract of guava leaves acts as an antibacterial activity, while
the antidiarrheal properties of guava leaf extract caused by quercetin content. Quercetin is one of the most abundant
flavonoids found in guava leaf. It is able to relax intestinal smooth muscle and inhibit bowel contractions2. Extract of
Guava leaves showed anti proliferative activity in vitro tests using leukemia cells. Its activity was 4.37 times more
than the activity of vincristine2. Moreover, water extract of guava leaves was described to be effective against a
number of microbial strains and anti-rotavirus activity3. Genotoxic studied of the P.guajava leaf has been done by
Ofodile et al.4. Genotoxicity and mutagenicity testing were an important part of the hazard assessment of chemicals
for regulatory purposes5. The water extract of Guava was effective in inactivating the mutagenicity of direct acting
The ability of guava leaf extract on the treatment of various diseases has been proven scientifically, but the
mechanism hasn’t been fully explained. In general, biological properties of guava have been already associated with
its polyphenolic compounds, such as protocatechuic, ferulic, ascorbic, gallic and caffeic acids and quercetin6.
Polyphenols are secondary metabolites of plants. In the last decade, there has been much interest in the potential
health benefits of dietary plant polyphenol as antioxidant7. The polyphenol compounds in the extract of guava fruits
and leaves can act as an immunostimulant that may lead to an increase in the immune system. Increasing the body's
immune system can keep the body from various infectious diseases. A well-functioning immune system is crucial
for staying healthy. Therefore, the potential of natural substances to strengthen the immune system has long been the
subject of investigation8. There were many synthetic and natural preparations claiming to be immunostimulants.
They seemed to represent useful alternative to vaccination and chemotherapy in the control of disease.
Immunostimulants from natural substances could enhance the specific immune respone9.
The presence of active compounds in food plants or herbs that are beneficial to health can be used as a source of
functional ingredients. Functional ingredient is a bioactive compounds present as natural constituents or as
fortification in food having the potential to provide health benefits beyond the basic nutritional value of the
product10. Some natural substance that can act as an immunostimulant was polysaccharides11, peptides12, oligo-
nucleotide13, and antioxidant14.
The modulation of immune response by using medicinal plant products as a possible therapeutic measure has
become a subject of active scientific investigation. This study aim was to determine the potential of guava leaf as an
immunostimulant. In addition we would also determine a group of active compounds that play a role in immune
2. Material and methods
2.1. Materials
Dried mashed of guava (P.guajava) leaves, Folin-Ciocalteau’s reagent, and gallic acids (Sigma-Aldrich, St.
Louis, MO, USA) as standard, ethanol absolute, Na2CO3, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), Ficol-Hypaque
solution form Sigma, Roswell Park Memorial Institute medium (RPMI)-1640, concovalin A (Con A) (Sigma),
lipopolysaccharides (LPS) (Sigma), penicillin-streptomycin, 3-(4,5-dimethyl thiazole-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl
tetrazoliumbromide(MTT) (Sigma), tryphan blue, EDTA-Na2H2 · 2H2O, phosphate buffer saline (PBS), Tris-HCl
buffer, 3-tetra-butyl-4-hydroxyanisole (BHA).
Noer Laily et al. / Procedia Chemistry 14 ( 2015 ) 301 – 307 303
2.2. Preparation of the extract
2.2.1 Water extracts
1 g dried mashed of Guava leaves was extracted with 50 mL of boiling water 100 °C for (5, 10, 15 and 20) min.
The obtained Guava leaf extract was filtered using a vacuum pump with filter paper (Whatman No. 1) and
evaporated using rotary evaporator to obtain the final extract volume of 10 mL.
2.2.2 Ethanol extracts
1 g dried mashed of Guava leaf was extracted with 100 mL of 96 % ethanol and shaked at room temperature
with periodical mixing (240 rpm) for (1, 6, 12 and 24) h, and then obtained Guava leaf extract was filtered using a
vacuum pump with filter paper (Whatman No. 1). The residual matter on the filter paper was added with another
ethanol solvent and the extraction was repeated three times. All extracts were collected and mixed into one bigger
glass, and were evaporated under reduce pressure using rotary evaporator at around 50 °C to 55 °C until the solvent
had evaporated (9 mL). The evaporated extract was added with aqueous 96 % ethanol until 10 mL. The supernatant
as the ethanol extract solution was used in this study
2.3. Determination of phenol total content
The phenolic total content was determined by the method of Singleton and Rossi15, by using gallic acids as a
2.3.1 Preparation of reagents.
Gallic acid standard solution (5 mg · mL1) : 0.25 g of gallic acid was added with 5 mL of 96 % ethanol and
distilled water to a volume of 50 mL.
20 % Na2CO3 solution : 5 g Na2CO3 was added with 20 mL of distilled water, and heated to boiling. Let stand for
24 h, filtered and diluted with distilled water to 25 mL
2.3.2 Preparation of the calibration curve of gallic acid with Folin-Ciocalteu reagent
Stock solution was prepared by dissolving 5 mg of gallic acid in 1 mL of distilled water. (300, 400, 500, 600, and
700) mg · L1 gallic acids standard solutions were prepared by diluting stock solution step by step with distilled
water (6 mL, 8 mL, 10 mL, 12 mL, 1 mL of stock solution was diluted with distilled water to a volume of 100 mL).
Assay: 0.0395 mL of each standard was added with distilled water up the volume to 0.5 mL and dissolved with
2.5 mL of Folin-Ciocalteu’s reagent (diluted in water 1 : 10) was placed in tubes and, after 8 min, 7.5 mL of sodium
carbonate (20 %) were added. The tubes were kept away from the light and, after two h, the absorbance was read in
a spectrophotometer (Hitachi, Japan) at 765 nm. The total phenolic content was expressed as mg/g gallic acid
equivalents (GAE).
2.3.3 Determination of total phenolic content
Determination of total phenol content was done based on the reaction between phenol compounds with
phosphomolybudate-phosphotungstate reagent (Folin-Ciocalteu solution) and will give a yellow color, and the
addition of an alkali will produce a blue color.
A volume of 0.5 mL of the extract and 2.5 mL of Folin-Ciocalteu’s reagent (diluted in water 1 : 10) was placed
in tubes and, after eight min, 7.5 mL of sodium carbonate (20 %) was added. The tubes were kept away from the
light and, after 2 h, the absorbance was read in a spectrophotometer (Hitachi, Japan) at 765 nm. The total phenolic
content was expressed as mg · g1 of GAE.
304 Noer Laily et al. / Procedia Chemistry 14 ( 2015 ) 301 – 307
2.4. Measurement of DPPH radical scavenging activity (RSA)s
2.4.1 Preparation of reagents
0.2 mM DPPH solution: Dissolved 19.7 mg of DPPH in 250 mL of absolute ethanol. Freshly prepare every time
before use.
100 mMTris-HCl buffer: Dissolved 12.1 g of Tris in 800 mL of distilled water and adjusted the pH to 7.4 with
HCl, then fill up a volume to 1 000 mL
BHA standards: 5 mM stock solution was prepared by dissolving 90 mg of BHA in 100 mL absolute ethanol.
Standard solutions (50 μM to 500 μM) were prepared by diluting stock solution with ethanol.
2.4.2 Assay
The scavenging activity of Guava leaf extracts on the DPPH radical were determined by a spectrophotometer
assay based on procedure described by Yamaghuci16.
The Guava leaf extract solution or BHA (0.2 mL) was mixed with 0.8 mL of 100 mMTris-HCl buffer. Add 0.2
mM DPPH ethanolic solution (1 mL), the mixture was vortex for 1 min and then left to stand at room temperature
for 20 min in the dark, and its absorbance was red at 517 nm. The ability to scavenge the DPPH radical was
calculated as BHA equivalent from the standard correlation obtained from BHA standards. Alternatively, the
activity is revealed as percentage according to the following formula given by Yamaguchi. The content of
antioxidant was expressed as mg BHA equivalent/g.
% RSA which was calculated as a percentage of DPPH discoloration, A is absorbance of control and B is
absorbance of sample.
2.5. Immunostimulatory test
Immunostimulatory activity was tested in vitro using lymphocyte proliferation test by assay17.
2.5.1 Lymphocyte isolation
Human lymphocyte was isolated from peripheral blood by centrifugation based on Ficol-Hypaque differential
density. First centrifugation at 514 g for 10 min was aimed to separate cellular components. Red blood cells which
were heavier would be at the bottom while blood lymphocytes would be concentrated at the top of the solutions.
Buffy coat layer which mainly composed of human lymphocyte would be located in between those layers was taken
carefully and dissolved into 3 mL of RPMI basic media. The next step was separating the lymphocyte suspension in
basic media by following the suspension slowly on top of the Ficol-Hypaque solution to form two layers.
Centrifugation was done at 1 430 g for 30 min to get granulocyte and red blood cells in the bottom while
lymphocyte, monocyte and platelets on the top. The top layer was washed 2 times with basic media and centrifuged
at 228 g for 30 min to get the lymphocyte on the precipitate. Lymphocyte cells were counted by trypan blue method
and dissolved into RPMI media to get 106 cells · mL1.
2.5.2 Lymphocyte proliferation response analysis with MTT assay
80 μL lymphocyte suspension cells (106 cells · mL1) grown on RPMI were dispensed into micro wells. Into
each well, 20 μL pomegranate extract with various concentrations were added. Final concentration for each extract
A - B
% RSA = ----------- x 100%
Noer Laily et al. / Procedia Chemistry 14 ( 2015 ) 301 – 307 305
was 0.1 μg . mL1, 0.25 μg . mL1, and 0.5 μg . mL1. As control, RPMI 1 640 media without extract was used.
Incubation was done for 72 h at CO2 incubator. Following incubation, the cells were treated with MTT and were
incubated further for 4 h. Lymphocyte proliferation activity was expressed as % Stimulation Index (% SI).
Measurement was done using ELISA reader.
Where SI is stimulation index, T is optical density of treatment (with stimulation) and C is optical density of control
(without stimulation, medium only), [%]
3. Results and discussion
Extraction is influenced by the type of solvent, temperature and time. Solvents often used for extraction of
phenolic compounds are methanol, ethanol, acetone, water, ethyl acetate, propanol and combinations of these
solvents. However, there is no suitable solvent used for isolation of the whole phenolic components. In this research,
the extraction process had been done by using water and 96 % ethanol. The result of different extraction times and
solvents used on optimization of extraction can be seen in Figure 1 (a) and (b). In water solvent, the highest phenol
total content occurred in the extraction time 20 min. While extraction used ethanol solvent, the highest phenol total
content was achieved at extraction time 6 h. In both conditions, the phenol total content of water and ethanol extract
were not significantly different, 101.93 and 101.20, respectively. However, parameters measured in this study could
not explain why the polyphenolic compounds in the water and ethanol extracts were similar.
The time required to extract the active compounds depend on the amount of active compounds to be extracted
and the solvent used. The more active compounds content, the extraction time required would be longer. The
optimum time required to extract polyphenolic compounds from guava leaves with ethanol was 6 h. In the
subsequent extraction time, the amounts of polyphenolic compounds were relatively stable or decrease. Decreased
levels of phenol content in the extraction of 12 h and 24 h (Fig. 1a), may be caused by the destruction of
polyphenolic compounds due to prolonged contact with solvents.
Deny et al.6 found that the phenolic total content of ethanol extract from Guava pomace was (3.40 ± 0.09) mg
GAE · g 1. In this study, the extraction time used was 30 min by ethanol solvent. While other researchers used 75 %
acetone as a solvent for 24 h extraction time at room temperature produced phenolic content of Guava extract was
44.05 mg GAE · g1 18. Such difference between the values of phenol total obtained showed that the values of phenol
total produced depend on the type of solvent, extraction time and part of the plant used. In this study we used Guava
SI = ---------- ×100 %
306 Noer Laily et al. / Procedia Chemistry 14 ( 2015 ) 301 – 307
leaf, while other studies used waste Guava6 and Guava fruit18. Guava fruit had high levels of polyphenolic
compounds such as myricetin and apigenin, ellagic acid, and anthocyanins16. While Guava leaf contained
polyphenolic compounds such as isoflavonoids, gallic acid, catechin, epicathechin, rutin, naringenin, kaempferol19.
The measurement result of antioxidant content in ethanol and water extracts showed difference. Antioxidant
content of ethanol extract was higher than water extract (Table 1). Water is a common solvent used in the extraction
process, but ethanol has a greater polarity than water, so it can dissolve more polar compounds contained in the
sample than water solvent. Kim et al.20 mentioned that the extraction efficiency of the bio-active ingredients was
correlated with the solvent polarity.
Table 1. Comparison of stimulation index, antioxidant and phenol total contents in water and ethanol extracts
Water extract
Ethanol extract
Phenol total content (mg GAE · g1)
Antioxidant content (mg BHA eqv · g1)
Stimulation Index (%)
1 567
1 539
The level of antioxidant in the leaf extract was higher than that in fruit extract (1.426 mg · g1 and 0.722 mg · g1
in white and pink pulp18. While the level of antioxidant in the steam bark extract was 1.12 mg · g1 21. Barbalhoet
et al.19 have reported the presence of higher amounts of phenolic compounds with antioxidant activity in the leaf of
white (P.guajava var. pyrifera L.) and red guava (P.guajava var. pomifera L.) when compared with other vegetable
There were no linier correlation between radical scavenging activity and phenolic content (Table 1). This result
was in contrast to Asha et al.22 which had found that phenolic compounds mainly responsible factor for the high
antioxidant activity in Guava, a strong positive correlation was found between antioxidant activity and phenolic
compounds. Asha et al.22 used Guava fruit, while in this study we used Guava leaf. Joseph and Priya2 mentioned that
there were differences in the active compounds in the Guava leaf and fruit.
Many researchers have been demonstrating the presence of a wide variety of bioactive compounds in the leaf of
P.guajava that are capable of showing beneficial effects on human health. Extract of Guava leaves has analgesic,
anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, hepato protective and antioxidant activities. These effects are probably due to the
presence of polyphenolic compounds19.
The potential extract of Guava leaves as an immunostimulatory agent had been measured in this study. The
immunostimulatory activity was expressed as % Stimulation Index (% SI). The result of immunostimulatory activity
of the water and ethanol extract showed on Table 1. There were no differences in percent of stimulation index of the
water and ethanol extract. These values had correlation to the phenol content in these extracts, but not with the
antioxidant content. Immunostimulatory activity of the extract was influenced by the type of active compounds. The
active compounds in guava leaf extract that contributes to the immunostimulatory activity were probably not only
polyphenolic antioxidant.
Guava leaf had high contents of polyphenolic compounds and antioxidant, and high activity of immunostimulant
(Table 1). Compared with LPS as a comparison sample, the percent of stimulation index of water and ethanol
extracts were 12.7 times and 12.5 times, respectively. While for Con A as a comparison sample, the percent of
stimulation index of water and ethanol extracts were 5.4 times and 5.3 times, respectively. These indicated that
guava leaf was excellent source of active compounds for immunostimulatory functional ingredient additives.
4. Conclusion
Guava leaf has great potential to be developed as functional ingredients. Firstly, they are widely available, with a
guaranteed supply. Secondly, guava leaf naturally occurring compounds, and their extraction is relatively cost
effective. Lastly, they contained high level of antioxidant, phenolic compound and biological activities as
immunostimulatory agents.
Based on the measurements results of phenol total content, antioxidant and immunostimulant activity, the active
compounds of the guava leaf expected to have immunostimulatory activity were probably not only polyphenolic
Noer Laily et al. / Procedia Chemistry 14 ( 2015 ) 301 – 307 307
antioxidant compounds. Further research is needed to determine the active compounds that act as
immunostimulatory agents from extract of guava leaves.
This work is supported through PPKP program, funded by the Ministry of Research and Technology, Indonesia
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... Pharmacological studies have demonstrated that P. guajava extracts possess antimutagenic, lipid-lowering, analgesic, antihyperglycemic effect, anti-inflammatory (Vasconcelos et al., 2017), adaptogenic, antidiabetics (Khan et al., 2013, Zhu et al., 2020, anticestodal, antidiarrheal (Koriem et al., 2019), anti-angiogenesis, hepatoprotective (Vijayakumar et al., 2020), antioxidant (Laily et al., 2015, Flores et al., 2015, anticancer (Lin and Lin, 2020), antimicrobial , cardioprotective, spermatoprotective, antihypertensive, antiparasitic, and anticough activities (Gutie´rrez et al., 2008, Ravi and Divyashree, 2014 Fig. 1. The pharmacological activities exhibited by P. guajava may be attributed to the numerous bioactive compounds present in the plant. ...
... Asian countries have adopted the use of guava leaves to develop traditional medicines for the treatment of diabetes . Indonesians use guava leaves, pulp, and seeds for treating respiratory and gastrointestinal disorders, as well as for increasing blood platelets in dengue fever patients (Laily et al., 2015). Also, guava leaves have been used therapeutically due to their antiamoebic, antispasmodic, antidiarrhoeal antiinflammatory, antihypertension, antiobesity, and antidiabetic properties Yen, 2007, Hirudkar et al., 2020). ...
... Scientific studies have reported the antioxidant activities of P. guajava (Laily et al., 2015, Flores et al., 2015Ashraf et al., 2016). Tan et al., (2020) investigated the antioxidative properties of extracts derived from red and white P. guajava fruits through different drying processes. ...
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... Some investigators also report that the antioxidants present in plant extracts might trigger erythropoiesis and the possible mechanism for erythropoiesis is a reduction in the oxidant-induced haemolysis rate due to the abundance of antioxidants in plant extracts (Maduinyi, 1983). The availability of active phenolic and antioxidant components in the leaves in both ethanol and aqueous extracts promotes its immunostimulatory ability on guava leaves (Laily et al., 2015) with the principal ingredients of the crude ethanol P. guajava leaf extract primarily being flavonoids and triterpene derivatives (Nhu et al., 2020). ...
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Effects of guava (Psidium guajava L.) and bhumi amla (Phyllanthus amarus Chum et Thonn) on haematology and thermal stress mitigation of striped catfish (Pangasianodon hypophthalmus) were investigated. In a 42-day trial, fish were administered 4 diets as control (without extract), 0.2% P. guajava (Pg0.2), 0.5% P. amarus (Pa0.5), and a mixture of Pg0.2 and Pa0.5 (Mix). Fish were then subjected to temperatures of 27°C, 31°C, and 35°C for another 42 days. Haematological parameters were highest at 35°C, but these parameters were not significantly different from values recorded at 31°C on day 14 post-temperature challenge. The Pg0.2 diet modified red blood cells, haematocrit, and haemoglobin (p<0.05). The lowest glucose concentration was recorded in Pg0.2 (57.4±1.34 mg/100 mL) and Mix (58.9±1.87 mg/100 mL) groups after 14 days of thermal exposure. Glucose concentration surged on the third-day post-temperature challenge, then declined, and was maintained at 35°C until the end of the experiment which was not significant if compared to those at 27°C. Pg0.2 and Mix diets significantly reduced lipid peroxidation and enhanced catalase in gill and liver after 42 days. In the case average water temperature in the Mekong Delta remains below 35°C, the feeding diets for P. hypophthalmus administered Pg0.2 or...
... The Psidium guajava L. tree (Figure 1), a member of the Myrtaceae family, is a particularly distinctive and longestablished plant that is cultivated for both its nutritional and therapeutic benefits. Guava is a tropical fruit conditions as well as to boost platelets in dengue fever patients [3]. The antispasmodic, cough sedative, antiinflammatory, anti-diarrheic, anti-hypertension, antiobesity, and antidiabetic effects of GLs (Guava leaves) are also commonly utilized [4]. ...
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Traditional medicines cure cancer, inflammation, and other illnesses using the leaves of Psidium guajava L. (Myrtaceae). The hypoglycemic, antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and anticancer effects of guava are well established. Triterpenoids, sesquiterpenes, and flavonoids were investigated in this study as possible targets of guava leaf components. The goal of the current review is to raise awareness among the general public about this substance's enormous potential for both preventing and treating a number of prevalent ailments.
... Existen alimentos como la guayaba (Psidium guajava) que tiene propiedades curativas y alimenticias. Esta fruta se cultiva en países tropicales y subtropicales (Dakappa, 2011;Laily, 2014;Rojas, 2016). Tiene gran aceptación por su buen sabor, propiedades nutrimentales, medicinales y gran valor comercial. ...
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La guayaba (Psidium guajava) se puede caracterizar por su diversidad genética y sus cualidades morfológicas, fisicoquímicas y biológicas, las cuales dependen de factores exógenos como: cultivo agronómico, época de cosecha y madurez. Caracterizada por su contenido de carbohidratos (13.2%), grasas (0.53%), proteínas (0.88%) y gran contenido de humedad (84.9%). Es importante caracterizar la guayaba ‘media china’ cultivada en el municipio de Juárez, Michoacán, con el objetivo de mejorar características morfológicas, fisicoquímicas, biológicas, nutritivas y variables estadísticas en control de calidad para correlacionarlas a la posibilidad de industrializarla y comercio internacional. Para tal fin, se utilizó la metodología sistémica de los ‘diagramas de bloques de confiabilidad’ que incluyó muestreo aleatorio de la guayaba para estudio, en el que se determina: peso, diámetros longitudinal, transversal, pulpa, espesor y pH. Se obtuvieron; media aritmética, varianza y desviación estándar, variables para graficar y comparar con normas establecidas para comercio nacional e internacional. Como resultado se encontró que, la guayaba procedente del municipio de Juárez, Michoacán, presentó los mejores resultados en su caracterización. La guayaba cultivada en la huerta del municipio de Calvillo en el estado de Aguascalientes presentó resultados menores, se observó que fue superada la calidad por la fruta de Juárez Michoacán. Las características en tamaño, apariencia visual, contenido de semilla del fruto, observadas en las muestras compiten con las de las variedades comerciales. El análisis de esta investigación infiere las siguientes conclusiones: el sistema productivo del cultivo en el estado de Michoacán y Aguascalientes, están en condiciones de ofertar guayaba de buena calidad para su comercialización nacional e internacional, debido a las buenas prácticas agrícolas aplicadas y su registro al Servicio Nacional de Sanidad Inocuidad y Calidad Agroalimentaria de la Dirección General de Sanidad Vegetal de la Secretaría de Agricultura y Desarrollo Rural.
Essential oils extracted from Psidium guajava L. (Guava) are considered effective with a wide range of bioac-tivities. However, there is only a little scientific evidence for comparative studies on Indian Guava cultivars. The present research is aimed to determine the variation in chemical composition and biological efficiencies of essential oils extracted from the cultivars, Surka chitti, Allahabad safeda, Karela, and Lucknow-49. Essential oil from the leaves was extracted by hydro-distillation and chemical characterization was performed through GCÀMS/GC-FID. The essential oils were screened for in vitro biological assays like antidiabetic, tyrosinase inhibitory, anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, and antioxidant activities. Totally 64 chemical constituents were isolated from guava cultivars with (E)-b-ocimene (more than 40% in all cultivars), (E)-caryophyllene and epi-globulol (11.3% in Lucknow-49), caryophyllene oxide (9.7% in Allahabad safeda), epi-a-muurolol (9.3% in Surka chitti), globulol (7.3% in Surka chitti), and muurola-4,10(14)-dien-1-b-ol (4.7% in Surka chitti) as notable compounds. Lucknow-49 cultivar showed a good enzyme inhibition effect against the enzymes a-amy-lase (IC 50 of 220.93 §0.81 mg/mL) and a-glucosidase (221.02 §0.38 mg/mL). Karela cultivar expressed a potent tyrosinase inhibition effect (133.45 §0.97 mg/mL) and Lucknow-49 exhibited strong anti-inflamma-tory activity (41.04 §1.06 mg/mL) compared to the standard diclofenac (128.03 §0.6 mg/mL). Likewise, Surka chitti (223.95 §0.25 mg/mL in ABTS and 177.06 §0.53 mg/mL in DPPH assays) and Lucknow-49 (236.51 § 0.55 mg/mL) showed notable antioxidant activity. Computational docking study suggests that the major compounds of guava cultivars potentially lead to enzyme inhibition with good docking scores. This binding interaction might be due to their HÀ ÀH and p-H interaction. The report highlights the variation in pharmacological properties and is helpful for identification of elite guava cultivars to boost the commercial potential of this crop as valuable bioactive extracts.
Psidium guajava is an essential food crop and medicinal plant that is commonly used in foods and folk medicines around the world and is available in tropical and subtropical countries. It contains important phytoconstituents such as tannins, triterpenes, flavonoid: quercetin, pentacyclic triterpenoid: guajanoic acid, saponins, carotenoids, lectins, leucocyanidin, ellagic acid, amritoside, betasitosterol, uvaol, oleanolic acid and ursolic acid. This analysis is an attempt to compile all the information published on its ethanobotanical, phytochemical and pharmacological activities, considering the immense medicinal significance of the plant. In view of the immense medicinal importance of the plant, this study is an effort to compile all the knowledge reported on its ethanobotanical, phytochemical and pharmacological activities. Many pharmacological studies have demonstrated the ability of this plant to exhibit antioxidant, hepatoprotective, anti-allergy, antimicrobial, antigenotoxic, antiplasmodial, cytotoxic, antispasmodic, cardioactive, anticough, antidiabetic, antiinflamatory and antinociceptive activities, supporting its traditional uses. Suggesting a wide range of clinical applications for the treatment of infantile rotaviral enteritis, diarrhoea and diabetes.
Guava leaves (Psidium guajava) are popularly known due to their effects antidiabetic, antihypertensive, anti-inflammatory, antidiarrheal, and functional properties. Processes for the concentration of these extracts are necessary since their pharmacological effects are dose-dependent. In this work, guava leaves aqueous extract (GE) concentration was carried out in nanofiltration (NF) equipment. Process performance was evaluated in terms of permeate flux, flux decline modeling, and extract quality (compounds characterization, total phenolic content and antioxidant activity). NF allowed an increase in phenolic compounds next to 20-times, retention coefficients of total phenolic compounds (99%) and enhanced antioxidant capacity (an increase of 4 and 9-fold for ABTS and DPPH, respectively) compared to the initial GE. Forty-two phenolic compounds were identified, being catechin (594.56 mg.mL⁻¹) and vescalagin (295.39 mg.mL⁻¹) the main compounds. All phenolics presented a significant increase (p < 0.05) after the concentration suggesting that NF is efficient for the recovery and concentration of bioactive compounds and poses as an alternative to obtain functional products and improve added value in agro-industrial residues.
Guava is native to the American tropical. The anme guava most is drived from the Haitian name Guajaba. Plant for hundreds of years has been used to decorate health and for medicinal purposes. Psidium guajava (Family Myrtaceae ) has an extensive wealth of medicinal value. Guava due to its anti‑inflammatory action can inhibit iNOS, COX‑2, NF‑kβ it could be a valuable agent in treating periodontal disease. Quercetin is the main constituent present in guava and has shown excellent against some periodontal pathogens. This review paper explains the pharmacological use of guava leaves in the treatment of Periodontitis. Keywords: Psidium guajava, Periodontitis, Quercetin, Antibacterial, Pharmacological use.
s: Shampoo is a hair care product used for the removal of dirt, oil, dandruff and other air pollutant. It is cosmetic preparation. It is antioxidant shampoo is helpful in increasing the blood circulation and thus help I hair growth as well as in the other treatment of hair diseases. The antioxidant property of plant and different herbs can be utilized in hair fall conditions. The main objective of this study was to eliminate harmful synthetic ingredient and stop the hair fall from shampoo formulation and substitute them with safe natural ingredients. All the ingredients used to formulate shampoo are safe and physiochemical evaluation showed ideal result. The aim of this study is to develop an herbal hair growth promoting shampoo using Piper Betel and Psidium Guajava leaves extract. The results of this study suggested that herbalshampoo formulation of leaves extract is good for the hair growth and control the other hair diseased.
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This paper aimed to study the antioxidant properties of two Nigerian plants Psidium guajava (guava) Myrtaceae and Aloe vera Liliaceae plants which have a broad application in phytomedicine. The plants were assessed by quantifying their individual chemical contents and their 1:1 (mass/mass) homogenous combination (guava+A. vera) simultaneously. The non-antioxidant phytochemical quantified included total alkaloids. There was a significant difference in the total alkaloids content (measure on dry weight basis, mg/g) in the analysed plant materials in the order of guava (111.13±0.45)>guava+A. guava (65.99±0.37)>A. vera (22.86±0.15). The antioxidant properties measured were the levels of total phenol, tannin, total flavonoid, total saponin, vitamin C, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging ability and trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC). P. guajava recorded significantly higher (p<0.05) antioxidant phytochemicals contents than A. vera except for vitamin C where it recorded significantly lower (p<0.05) value. There was no significant difference (p>0.05) in the vitamin C contents of A. vera and the combined plant materials, guava+A. vera. Guava had also significantly higher (p<0.05) DPPH scavenging ability (0.056 mg/ml), and TEAC (12.51±0.40 mM/gdw) than A. vera. The combined plant materials guava+ A. vera showed synergistic properties in the DPPH free radical scavenging ability (0.15 mg/ml) and antagonistic activity in the TEAC (4.58±0.17 mM/gdw). This study suggests that while guava may be a better antioxidant than A. vera when used separately, the combined plant materials produces synergistic antioxidant interaction, which could be used to enhance their medicinal applications.
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Background: The guava, Psidium guajava is one of the most gregarious of fruit trees, of the Myrtaceae family. The leaf of P. guajava is a common herb used in the treatment of diarrhea in Nigeria and this has generated special interest in the suspected antimicrobial and genotoxic effects of the leaf. However the mode of action of the leaf extracts has not been reported, hence the genotoxicity study. Materials and Methods: Antimicrobial activity of the aqueous and ethanolic extracts of the leaves of Psidium guajava on Aspergillus fumigatus, Candida albicans, Salmonella spp., and Staphylococcus aureus were investigated using agar-well method and also subjected to phytochemical screening and Gas chromatography-Mass spectroscopy analysis. General toxicity and genotoxic effects of the aqueous leaf extracts (0.01 g/mL, 0.03 g/mL, 0.06 g/mL and 0.08 g/mL) of P. guajava on Allium cepa root tips were also investigated using aceto-orcein squash technique. Results: Results showed that both aqueous and ethanolic extracts of guava leaf inhibited the growth of the bacteria and fungi tested. The ethanolic extract showed stronger inhibition than the aqueous extract against the organisms. A total of forty one compounds were identified in guava leaves using GC-MS analysis and these substances were found to be essential oils. The cytological effects at low concentration included mainly c-mitosis, vagrant chromosomes, chromosome bridges, and binucleate cells with EC50 of 0.02 g/mL. Conclusion: The antimicrobial activity of the essential oils from the extracts of leaves of P. guajava could be partly due to alterations associated with the cell division as deduced from the results.
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Guava pomace is an example of the processing waste generated after the manufacturing process from the juice industry that could be a source of bioactives. Thus, the present investigation was carried out in order to evaluate the anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive potential and determinate the main phenolic compounds of a guava pomace extract (GPE). The anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated by carrageenan, dextran, serotonin, histamine-induced paw edema and neutrophils migration in the peritoneal cavity models. Acetic acid-induced abdominal writhing and formalin test were performed to investigate the antinociceptive effects. In addition, the content of total phenolic and of individual phenolic compounds was determined by GC/MS. GPE showed anti-inflammatory activity by carrageenan, dextran, serotonin, histamine-induced paw edema and neutrophils migration in the peritoneal cavity models (p < 0.05). GPE also demonstrated antinociceptive activity by acetic acid-induced abdominal writhing and formalin test (p < 0.05). The total phenolic value was 3.40 +/- 0.09 mg GAE/g and epicatechin, quercetin, myricetin, isovanilic and gallic acids were identified by GC/MS analysis. The presence of bioactive phenolic compounds as well as important effects demonstrated in animal models suggest that guava pomace could be an interesting source of anti-inflammatory and analgesic substances.
The objective of the study was to investigate the anti arthritic activity of the hydroalcoholic extract of the leaf of Psidium guyava linn against complete Freund's adjuvant induced arthritis in laboratory rats. Arthritis was induced in male wistar rats by administration of complete Freund's adjuvant in the sub plantar region of the hind paw. Diclofenac sodium (4 mg/kg/day p.o was used as the standard drug.The hydroalcoholic extract of Psidium guyava(HEPG) was administered at the following doses 50, 100, 200mg/kg/day p.o. The following parameters were measured: change in paw volume, body weight, diameter of the tibiotarsal joint and total leukocyte count in the blood. The results demonstrate that hydroalcoholic extract of Psidium guyava linn. at a dose of 200 mg/kg/day p.o showed significant anti arthritic activity.
This experiment was conducted to evaluate the lmmunostimulatory and growth promoting effects of four different herbal medicinal plants on non-specific immune response and resistance to Aeromonas hydrophila challenge of common carp, C. carpio. The ethanol extract of 11 plants were screened for their antimicrobial activity against A. hydrophila, a bacterial pathogen. Of these, 4 plant extracts, Ocimum basilicum, Cinnamomum zeylanicum, Juglans regia and Mentha piperita were selected and mixed thoroughly in equal proportion. The mixed extract was incorporated with the artificial feeds at concentration of 0.0 (A), 250 (B), 500 (C), 750 (D), 1000 (E) and 1250 (F) mg kg-1 of dry diet and fed to healthy fish. After 45 days of feeding, a challenge trial was conducted by injection of A. hydrophila for 10 days. Every 15 days and also at 10th day post-challenge, immunological, biochemical and haematological parameters of fish were studied. Results indicated that fish fed with herbal immunostimulants diets showed enhanced bactericidal activity, serum lysozyme, respiratory burst activity, WBC, RBC, haemoglobin, total serum protein, albumin and globulin compared to the control group (p<0.05). As the value of herbal extracts was increased in diets, the plasma glucose level decreased. The mortality was recorded up to 10 days post-challenge. All experimental groups showed higher survival rate compared to control (p<0.05). The survival percentage was found highest (91.42%) in the group E and lowest (48.58%) in control group. It can be conducted that the plant extracts we used in this study can act as immunostimulants, enhance the non-specific immunity and increase disease resistance of common carp, C. carpio to A. hydrophila infection.
A method of designing solvents for the optimal extraction of bio-active ingredients from natural resources was developed using an alcohol–water binary solvent. The target bio-active ingredient of polyphenols, anti-oxidation and anti-tyrosinase ingredients exhibited different dependency of extraction efficiency on the alcohol species (methanol, ethanol, n-propanol and i-propanol) and composition of binary solvent. Using the solubility parameter, the extraction efficiency of the bio-active ingredients was correlated with the solvent polarity. As a result, the optimal solvent polarities for the extraction of polyphenols, anti-oxidation and anti-tyrosinase ingredients were predicted as 38.5, 37.33, and 33.0 [MPa1/2], respectively. These predictions also agreed well with the optimal solvent conditions of the water–alcohol mixtures depending on the alcohol species and composition. Plus, the correlation was confirmed with model solvents designed using other solvent species, including acetone and ethylene glycol.