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How to place European Research Universities in the global rankings? Policies and strategies of University International Excellence in France and Spain

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How to place European Research Universities in the global rankings? Policies and strategies of University International Excellence in France and Spain

Abstract

Although global rankings do not classify national university systems, the majority of countries are reformulating their HE policies to improve the ranking position of their best universities. Accordingly, this paper studies the case of France and Spain through the analysis of their respective national policies for the promotion of university international excellence (state-level response to global rankings). In particular, we discuss two initiatives of university collaboration (institutional-level response to global rankings) aimed to create synergies and increase the international visibility of the participant institutions: the new branded university Paris Sciences et Lettres (PSL) and the Campus of International Excellence of the Universidad Autónoma de Madrid and the Spanish Research Council (CEI UAM+CSIC). In both case studies the participant institutions keep their autonomy and legal personality, a difficult alliance formula to administrate. Nevertheless, they are good practices that reflect a wide state-run strategy for the modernization of both national university systems. Available at: http://scholarpublishing.org/index.php/ASSRJ/article/view/486
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Table%1:%Typologies%of%Interinstitutional%Collaboration%in%Higher%Education%and%Research%
Characteristics
of the
collaboration
Type of collaboration
Collaboration
Alliance
Merger
Range
Short-range
Medium-range
Long-range
Governance
Limited to the thematic
area(s) of the
collaboration
Limited to the thematic area(s) of the
collaboration (the partners retain their
independence and their own legal entity)
A new institution responsible for the
management and monitoring of the alliance
may be established (e.g. foundation,
association)
Common
governance for
the merged
institutions
Casani,! F.,! et! al.! (2014).)How! to! place! European!Research! Universities! in! the! global! rankings?! Policies! and! strategies! of! University! International!
Excellence!in!France!and!Spain.!Advances)in)Social)Sciences)Research)Journal,)1(5),!183V197!
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Budget
Small budget mainly
consisting of:
- Government subsidies
- Profits of the activity in
which the partners
collaborate
Small budget mainly consisting of:
- Government subsidies
- Profits of the activity in which the
partners collaborate
- Contributions of the members of the
alliance (from small percentages to
significant percentages of the budget of
each member)
Common budget
for the merged
institutions
Life span
Short and usually
coupled to obtaining
external funding
Indeterminate
Indeterminate
Thematic area
Teaching or R&D
activities established
beforehand and clearly
defined
Areas in which the partners are
complementary, such as: education, R&D,
transfer of knowledge, facilities or citation
policy
All areas of
activity of the
merged
institutions
Source: De la Torre, Perez-Esparrells, Casani [18].
METHODOLOGY%
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!
Table%2:%Projects%selected%in%the%IDEX%programme%
Name
Initials
Location area
Idex París-Saclay
IPS
Île-de-France
Université Sorbonne Paris Cité
USPC
Île-de-France
Paris Sciences et Lettres*
PSL*
Île-de-France
Sorbonne Université
SUPER
Île-de-France
Aix-Marseille University Idex
A*MIDEX
Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur
Université de Toulouse
UNITI
Midi-Pyrénées
Université de Strasbourg
UNISTRA
Alsace
Idex Bordeaux
IDEX BORDEAUX
Aquitaine
Source: authors’ elaboration based on Ministère de l’Èducation Nationale de l’Enseignement
Supérieur et de la Recherche and l'Agence Nationale de la Recherche.
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The%University%Excellence%Programme%in%Spain%
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!
Table%3:%Projects%selected%in%the%CEI%programme.%Calls%2009,%2010%and%2010.%CEI%hallmark1%
Casani,! F.,! et! al.! (2014).)How! to! place! European!Research! Universities! in! the! global! rankings?! Policies! and! strategies! of! University! International!
Excellence!in!France!and!Spain.!Advances)in)Social)Sciences)Research)Journal,)1(5),!183V197!
!
!
!
URL:%"##$%&&'()'*+)*,-&./).0123&455,6).7)038%
.9/!
CEI 2009
CEI 2010
CEI 2011
Barcelona Knowledge Campus.
Andalucía TECH.
Horizonte 2015. Donde talento y
progreso se unen. Universidad de
Navarra
Campus Moncloa: La energía de
la diversidad.
Campus ENERGÍA UPC: Energía
para la Excelencia.
CAMPUSHABITAT5U
Campus Carlos III.
CAMPUS IBERUS: Campus de
Excelencia Internacional del Valle del
Ebro.
Campus Vida
UAB CEI: Apuesta por el
Conocimiento y la Innovación.
Campus UPF ! Icària Internacional.
Campus de Excelencia
Internacional UAM-CSIC.
CEI Montegancedo I2Tech.
EUSKAMPUS. Una Universidad, un
País, un Campus.
Health Universitat de Barcelona
Campus (HUBc).
VLC / Campus- Valencia, Campus de
Excelencia Internacional.
Source: author’s elaboration based on Secretaría General de Universidades, Spanish'Ministry'of'Education'
[25]
Note'1:'CEIR'are'not'included.'
%
CASE%STUDIES%
The%strategy%of%Université%ParisMDauphine%within%the%IDEXMPSL%
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Casani,! F.,! et! al.! (2014).)How! to! place! European!Research! Universities! in! the! global! rankings?! Policies! and! strategies! of! University! International!
Excellence!in!France!and!Spain.!Advances)in)Social)Sciences)Research)Journal,)1(5),!183V197!
!
!
!
URL:%http://dx.doi.org/10.14738/assrj.15.486%
192!
The%strategy%of%Universidad%Autónoma%de%Madrid%within%the%CEI%UAM+CSIC%
The! Universidad! Autónoma! de! Madrid! (UAM),! founded! in! 1968! is! one! of! the! top! Spanish!
universities,! being! always! ranked! among! the! 125! best! universities! in! Europe,! the! 250! best!
universities!in!the! world,! and!the!50!best!universities!in!the!rankings!of!institutions! under! 50!
years! all! over! the! world.! The! UAM! proposed! to! the! Spanish! Research! Council! (CSIC)! to!
establish!the!alliance!Campus!de!Excelencia!Internacional!UAM+CSIC.!The!CEI!UAM+CSIC!was!
one! of! the! five! projects! awarded! with! the! official! hallmark! of! the! Campus! of! International!
Excellence!(CEI)!Programme!in!2009!and!so!far! has! received! about! €! 27! million,! most! of! it! as!
loans!and!the!rest!of!it!as!subventions.!
!
The! mission! of! the! CEI! UAM+CSIC! is! to! enhance! the! teaching,! research! and! transference! of!
knowledge!outputs!of!both!institutions.!With!this!strategy,!the!UAM!has!taken!advantage!of!the!
opportunity!offered! by!the! CEI! programme! to! universities! and! has! defined! its! already! tacitly!
existing! strategic! areas,! restructured! its! organization! and! strengthened! its! longHestablished!
collaboration!with!the!CSIC.!Thanks!to!this!alliance,!the!UAM!expects!not!only!to!compete!in!its!
strategic!fields!for!a!relevant!position!in!the!global!rankings,!but!also!to!increase!its!interaction!
with!the!local!environment!to!lead!the!cultural,!economic!and!social!development.!Through!an!
aggregation! of! the! size! and! performance! of! both! institutions,! this! partnership! is! expected! to!
improve!the! joint!visibility! of!the! partners,!particularly! regarding!the! impact!of! the!scientific!
publications!of!the!CEI! UAM+CSIC,! which! may!result!in!a!noticeable!rise!in!global!rankings.!In!
fact,!as! shown!in! Table! 4,!the! UAM!alone! is! the! fourth! scientific!producer! in! Spain,! but! when!
added!the!CSIC! outputs!generated!in!the!university!campuses,!their!joint!scientific! production!
would!be!the!highest!one.!
!
Table%4:%Scientific%production%of%Spanish%Universities%
Year
University
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
Total
CEI UAM+CSIC
1,916
1,777
2,007
2,100
2,295
2,406
2,587
2,762
2,849
20,699
Universidad de
Barcelona (UB)
1,605
1,611
1,814
1,879
2,104
2,330
2,567
2,757
2,733
19,400
Universidad
Complutense de Madrid
(UCM)
1,498
1,535
1,735
1,735
1,886
2,068
2,369
2,422
2,490
17,738
Universidad Autónoma
de Barcelona (UAB)
949
999
1,189
1,373
1,511
1,848
1,903
2,085
2,132
13,989
Universidad Autónoma
de Madrid (UAM)
939
912
1,014
1,094
1,231
1,296
1,416
1,533
1,522
10,957
Source: De Filippo, Casani, Sanz-Casado [26]
!
The! CEI! UAM+CSIC! integrates:! all! faculties,! schools! and! research! institutes! of! the! University;!
five! joint! research! institutes! belonging! to! UAM! and! CSIC;! and! five! research! institutes! of! the!
CSIC!located!in!the!university!campus!of!the!UAM.!Consequently,!the!CEI!UAM+CSIC!consists!of!
the!34,000!students! and! 2,500!researchers!of!the! UAM! added!to!the!2,500! researchers! of!the!
CSIC! working! in! the! university! campus! of! the! UAM.! Even! more,! Table! 5! shows! that! the!
productivity! of! the! CEI! UAM+CSIC! would! be! peer! to! some! of! the! most! prestigious! European!
Universities,! since! the! alliance! between! a! research! centre! and! a! university! increases! their!
research! inputs! (researchers! and! facilities)! and! outputs,! leads! to! synergies! in! graduate!
teaching,!but!keep!a!constant!number!of!students.!!
!
!
!
!
5,-678!9))2(!:8!+(;<=>7?!
Copyright!@!+,'*(AB!C,/!+'*(&'(!%&#!D#2'%A*,&8!E&*A(#!F*&G#,H%
7IJ!
Table%5:%Productivity%of%CEI%UAM+CSIC%vs.%European%Universities%
University
Teaching and
research staff 2009
Scientific Production
2002-2009
Productivity
Univ. Pierre & Marie
Curie
3,000
27,360
9,12
UAM+CSIC
2,012
17,850
8,87
Univ. de Munich
3,576
30,702
8,59
Univ. de Cambridge
5,826
45,319
7,78
Univ. de Copenhagen
4,406
21,617
4,91
Source: De Filippo, Casani, Sanz-Casado [26]
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Casani,! F.,! et! al.! (2014).)How! to! place! European!Research! Universities! in! the! global! rankings?! Policies! and! strategies! of! University! International!
Excellence!in!France!and!Spain.!Advances)in)Social)Sciences)Research)Journal,)1(5),!183V197!
!
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REFERENCES)
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... In turn, throughout the three calls the CEI developed into a much more comprehensive initiative than initially envisaged. The 32 awarded projects finally included almost all universities and research centers, as well as 74% of the companies participating in the Spanish exchange index IBEXH35, plus a large number of business associations, hospitals and public institutions (Casani et al., 2014). Aggregations implied systemic collaboration between selected centers, institutes and facilities from two or more universities within the same region or across different regions, between universities and national or regional research bodies as well as public/private aggregations . ...
... Internal re-organization of departments and faculties have occurred in some universities thanks to the CEI initiative. On the other side, the governance of universities has not been affected by the CEI initiative (Casani et al., 2014). The CEIs' governance rely on their own bodies or on the universities governance structure. ...
... This is a size-independent indicator; source: Scimago ranking (4) source: Eumida dataset and Eter dataset In sum, the reform did not meet the ambitious goals that were originally set. Nevertheless it has produced some meaningful results with a relatively small investment, although the obligation to refund the loans may burden universities' budgets in the coming years (Casani et al., 2014). The reform has been generally accepted by various stakeholders, although the new conservative government (2012) has been rather skeptical on the initiative and showed the intention to abandon it. ...
... In turn, throughout the three calls the CEI developed into a much more comprehensive initiative than initially envisaged. The 32 awarded projects finally included almost all universities and research centers, as well as 74% of the companies participating in the Spanish exchange index IBEXH35, plus a large number of business associations, hospitals and public institutions (Casani et al., 2014). Aggregations implied systemic collaboration between selected centers, institutes and facilities from two or more universities within the same region or across different regions, between universities and national or regional research bodies as well as public/private aggregations . ...
... At that point, regions were not allowed to subscribe to new agreements, so that no funds were allocated for the 2011 call. 5 In turn, financial constraints affected the policy implementation and its overall impact (Casani et al., 2014). Moreover, in the same period when the CEI initiative was designed and launched, Spanish universities were involved in the adoption of the Bologna Process guidelines for the organization of curricula. ...
... Internal re-organization of departments and faculties have occurred in some universities thanks to the CEI initiative. On the other side, the governance of universities has not been affected by the CEI initiative (Casani et al., 2014). The CEIs' governance rely on their own bodies or on the universities governance structure. ...
Chapter
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This chapter analyses the Campus de Excelencia Internacional initiative – CEI, International Campus of Excellence – in Spain. The initiative was part of the broader Estrategia Universidad 2015 – EU2015 – (Ministerio de Educacion, 2008, 2009) and was officially launched in July 2009. The CEI initiative was strongly influenced by policy initiatives conceived in Europe in the same period, while at the same time expected to address problems central to the Spanish context. The Spanish higher education system is among the largest in Europe, with 1.9 million students and 150 thousands academic staff (including tenured and junior staff; Oecd, 2013). In recent years, resources invested in higher education grew from 0.96 % of in 2002 up to 1.35 % in 2008, while decreased after the economic crisis down to 1.23 % of GDP in 2012 (Eurostat database). Spanish universities had been regulated by the central authorities at the Ministry of Education until 1983, when the University Reform Act transformed them into autonomous bodies which transferred the direct responsibility over universities to the autonomous regions, although the devolution process was fully completed only in 1997 (Mora et al., 2000).
... However, the projects consisted of knowledge hubs, so the selected projects also gathered "74% of the companies participating in the Spanish exchange index IBEX-35, as well as, among others, business associations, hospitals or public institutions for regional and municipal development. The specialisation fields of the awarded projects usually corresponded to the strategies of the regional programmes for economic development" (Casani et al., 2014). Grants and loans were delivered only to universities, which were the core of each knowledge hub (project) selected and were responsible for the CEI funding management. ...
... It encouraged Spanish universities to think strategically and to decide what type of universities they wanted to be. Also, it led to further university-society interactions and set the first steps for interdisciplinary, inter-institutional and (inter)national networking (Casani et al., 2014). In other words, the CEI programme did lead to positive outcomes, although they were not the expected ones, going beyond the NPM objectives and introducing a more public value perspective, despite the beginning of the economic and financial crisis. ...
... At system level, several deliberate steps have been taken in some European countries to restructure HE and research systems in order to support and create 'World-Class' or flagship universities (e.g. International Excellence Programmes such as in Germany, France, Spain, Finland, Norway or Denmark) -see Casani et al. (2014b). Likewise, after the eruption of the global rankings in 2003 many European university leaders have implemented strategies to improve their international visibility and to attract the necessary top talent and resources to compete in the global marketplace (Estermann & Pruvot, 2011;Rauhvargers, 2013) at university level. ...
... The rapid consolidation of global rankings has triggered collaborations, alliances and mergers (CAMs) among universities in Europe in the last decade, in order to improve their position in the global rankings (Casani et al., 2014b). Despite the fact there is no evidence on the causal relationship between these two phenomenon and there may be additional pressures encouraging such CAMs, there is no doubt that ranking performance was one of the aims of many policies fostering them (e.g. ...
Chapter
In recent years, the higher education (HE) sector has undergone a drastic transformation due to the globalisation of knowledge. World university rankings have supported this process and have fostered the consolidation of the global market of HE (Salmi, 2009; Altbach & Salmi, 2011). These global rankings (mainly, the Academic Ranking of World Universities (ARWU), the Times Higher Education World University Rankings (THE), and the Quacquarelli Symonds World University Rankings (QS)) seem to take into account a wide spectrum of variables to rank universities.
... La comunidad científica lleva tiempo analizando las fuentes y evolución de la heterogeneidad de las IES, un área de investigación especialmente candente en la última década tras la aparición en escena de cuatro factores sobre los cuales dicha heterogeneidad tiene especial impacto: el surgimiento de los rankings globales (y su consecuente estudio y crítica -un ejemplo del debate al que han dado lugar los rankings puede consultarse en Harvey, 2008), la creciente actitud estratégica de las universidades (Casani et al., 2014), el mayor protagonismo de las agencias de evaluación universitaria y la implantación del Espacio Europeo de la Educación Superior (Declaración de Bolonia, 1999) y el Espacio Europeo de Investigación (Proceso de Liubliana, 2008). En el caso de los rankings globales y las agencias de evaluación, la dificultad añadida por la heterogeneidad de las universidades radica en la no comparabilidad de las unidades sometidas a evaluación (Stella y Woodhouse, 2006). ...
Chapter
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Las universidades españolas han sido consideradas como universidades homogéneas, con características y estructuras productivas similares, reconociéndose diferencias jurídicas únicamente entre las instituciones públicas y privadas. Aunque todas las universidades comparten legalmente las mismas misiones y el Sistema Universitario Español (SUE) es aparentemente homogéneo, en la práctica se pueden identificar directamente distintos perfiles de universidades en función de diferentes criterios: entre otros, su tamaño, antigüedad o áreas de conocimiento. En esta comunicación se establecen a través de un análisis estadístico multivariante distintos grupos de universidades en función de su estructura productiva a partir de una base de datos creada a tal efecto con 48 universidades públicas y 26 privadas que recoge variables descriptivas y de producción de docencia, de investigación y de transferencia de conocimiento, siendo la inclusión de este último grupo de variables una de las principales innovaciones del estudio. Tras el análisis clúster se han establecido cinco grupos de universidades en función de la estructura de producción respecto a cada una de las tres misiones: el primer grupo compuesto por las universidades más intensivas en docencia, un segundo grupo con aquellas que realizan mayor transferencia, un tercer grupo de universidades más equilibradas entre las tres actividades, un cuarto grupo con las más intensivas en investigación y un último grupo compuesto por las dos grandes universidades a distancia. El posterior análisis discriminante ha permitido identificar algunas de las principales diferencias entre dichos grupos, siendo la variable con un mayor poder discriminante el número de artículos publicados. Además, los resultados de este análisis muestran como los grupos primero y quinto, y primero y tercero se diferencian principalmente en su producción de educación, y no en su producción de investigación o de transferencia de conocimiento.
... In Spain, no performance-based hierarchy could be established as a preliminary step to building an elite class of universities able to compete globally. The reason lies in the small sums invested in the programme and the decision to distribute them among all the participants, rather than funnelling the scarce resources available to a smaller number of participants better prepared for international competition (Casani et al., 2014). In addition, the need to repay the loans could place the universities at financial risk in the medium term, preventing them from investing in the development of their research capabilities in the future. ...
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En épocas muy recientes, la filantropía y el concepto de “captación de fondos” o fundraising se está convirtiendo en un tema de gran interés para las universidades públicas europeas en general, y las españolas en particular, debido a la contracción de la financiación de origen público provocada por la crisis económica y al agotamiento de las fuentes de financiación privada tradicionales, como los ingresos por matrículas universitarias y la disminución de los ingresos por otras vías: convenios, contratos de investigación, publicidad, publicaciones, merchandising, etc. Ante este nuevo reto, el desarrollo de nuevas fuentes de financiación privada complementarias para su actividad docente, investigadora e innovadora ha pasado a un primer plano en la universidad pública española, especialmente la parte anecdótica de los recursos de carácter filantrópico, y muchas instituciones públicas están poniendo en marcha actuaciones encaminadas a la “captación de fondos filantrópicos” o fundraising como parte de la estrategia de la universidad. En este contexto, el objetivo de la comunicación es doble. En primer lugar, se muestra la creciente atención por la filantropía universitaria en Europa y se resumen las directrices que recogen los dos informes que impulsan el fundraising universitario en el Reino Unido y como sus recomendaciones se pueden trasladar al panorama español. En segundo lugar, se analiza, por un lado, para el caso de España, quien lidera el proceso dentro de la propia universidad (los cambios que se han producido muy recientemente en las estructuras de gestión que se responsabilizan de la filantropía y la captación de fondos en algunas universidades) y, por otro, las iniciativas piloto de proyectos “compartidos” con el entorno empresarial, institucional y social y el uso novedosos del micromecenazgo.
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Este trabajo muestra las potencialidades de la cooperación entre universidades y centros de investigación ubicados dentro de su campus y ámbito de influencia para mejorar la visibilidad internacional. Se presenta el caso del CEI UAM+CSIC analizando su actividad investigadora basada en datos de producción, productividad e impacto en relación con las principales universidades españolas y europeas. Los resultados muestran como la agregación institucional mejora la producción y productividad, aunque lograr una posición destacada en impacto y visibilidad internacional sigue siendo uno de los desafíos a alcanzar por las instituciones españolas.
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For middle-income and developing countries as well as some industrial nations a major challenge for building and sustaining successful research universities is determining the mechanisms that allow those universities to participate effectively in the global knowledge network on an equal basis with the top academic institutions in the world. These research universities provide advanced education for the academic profession, policy makers, and public and private sector professionals involved in the complex, globalized economies of the 21st century. In addition to their contribution to economic development, these universities play a key societal role by serving as cultural institutions, centers for social commentary and criticism, and intellectual hubs. The positive contribution of tertiary education is increasingly recognized as not limited to middle-income and advanced countries, because it applies equally to low-income economies. Tertiary education can help these countries to become more globally competitive by developing a skilled, productive, and flexible labor force and by creating, applying, and spreading new ideas and technologies. A recent study on how to accelerate economic growth in Sub-Saharan Africa spells out the crucial contribution of tertiary education in supporting this endeavor (World Bank 2008). It observes that the key for success in a globalized world increasingly lies in how effectively a country can assimilate available knowledge and build comparative advantages in areas with higher growth prospects and how it can use technology to address the most pressing environmental challenges. The main chapters of this book are nine case studies that illustrate what it takes to establish and sustain research universities and help validate the analytical model outlined above, including the paths to building research excellence.
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La educación superior está inmersa en un proceso de transformación a nivel mundial y se está configurando un mercado global en el que los principales competidores son las buenas universidades que ocupan las primeras posiciones en los rankings globales. En algunos países europeos comparativamente peor posicionados en dichas clasificaciones, como Alemania y Francia, se han puesto en marcha políticas públicas que pretenden impulsar las transformaciones y mejorar la posición internacional de sus principales universidades a través de más financiación y mayor masa crítica. Algunas universidades de estos países han reaccionado a estas políticas con estrategias de colaboraciones, alianzas que están suponiendo, en el caso europeo, una importante transformación de las instituciones de educación superior alemanas y francesas, de su gobernanza y de la organización del propio sistema de educación superior a nivel nacional. En España, a imagen y semejanza de estos países se lanzó en 2009 el programa “Campus de Excelencia Internacional” (CEI) con el objetivo de impulsar la transformación de la universidad española a través de procesos de agregación con otras instituciones y entidades de su entorno y/o a través de incrementar la financiación y la calidad investigadora. La estrategia desarrollada por las universidades para su participación en este programa no ha conducido a procesos de fusión como en otros países europeos y se ha centrado en la colaboración entre universidades sobre proyectos concretos para mejorar la eficiencia y conseguir una mayor visibilidad internacional. En esta comunicación, se analizan los resultados a nivel estatal y autonómico que se derivan de las distintas convocatorias del CEI y se revisan dos casos de estudio de la primera convocatoria, que se podría considerar representativos de los extremos, en un lado el CEI UAM+CSIC que plantea una alianza entre dos instituciones y en el otro la Universidad Carlos III de Madrid que presentó un proyecto “en solitario”. Aunque todavía es pronto para analizar las consecuencias que estas estrategias han tenido sobre sus respectivas instituciones, se concluye con una valoración positiva sobre el impacto de la política educativa del programa CEI en lo que va de quinquenio en el entorno de la Comunidad de Madrid.
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The world-wide popularity of university rankings has spurred the debate about the quality and performance of higher education systems and has had a considerable impact on global society in light of the internationalisation of higher education. While useful for policy makers, such rankings also furnish information on an institution’s “prestige”, which may in turn contribute to more effective resource capture (students, funding, projects). Certain university profiles and missions may prevent many universities from climbing to higher positions, however. One important question in this regard is: how many of a country’s universities can stand at the top of international rankings? The present article attempts to answer this question on the grounds of a study of the Spanish higher education system, and more specifically of an institutional alliance consisting of four high quality universities. A series of research activity indicators drawn from the IUNE Observatory are used to compare this alliance to leading Spanish and international universities and explore whether their visibility and consequently their position in international rankings would be enhanced if they were able to appear under a joint identity. This prospective study also addresses a series of strategies that the Spanish higher education system might implement to successfully rise to the challenges posed by future scenarios.
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This paper presents an overview of government policies for funding higher education in 11 Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) countries. In particular, it describes the mechanisms for funding the university sector and the extent to which the grants to universities are oriented on performance. Are universities funded on the basis of what they produce in terms of graduates and research outputs? And what is the share of public funding supplied through research councils? Although in recent decades the attention paid to issues of efficiency, effectiveness and quality has increased, there are only few governments that explicitly link universities' resources to universities' results in the areas of teaching and research. This is illustrated by means of a graph. A number of tentative reasons for the popularity of enrollments-based funding approaches are presented in the final section of the paper.
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There are many important questions to ask about the widespread push toward world-class status for universities around the world. Why is 'world-class' the standard to which a nation should aspire to build at least a subset of its tertiary education system? Might many countries be better served by developing the most locally relevant system possible, without concern for its relative merits in a global comparison? Is the definition of "world-class" synonymous with "elite Western" and therefore inherently biased against the cultural traditions of tertiary education in non-Western countries? Are only research universities world-class, or can other types of tertiary education institutions (such as teaching universities, polytechnics, community colleges, and open universities) also aspire to be among the best of their kind in an international perspective? To answer these questions, the report starts by constructing an operational definition of a world-class university. It then outlines and analyzes possible strategies and pathways for establishing such universities and identifies the multiple challenges, costs, and risks associated with these approaches. It concludes by examining the implications of this drive for world-class institutions on the tertiary education efforts of the World Bank, offering options and alternative perspectives on how nations can develop the most effective and relevant tertiary education system to meet their specific needs.
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This paper gives an overview of the study “Financially Sustainable Universities II: European Universities Diversifying Income Sources” led by the European University Association between 2008 and 2011. It describes how European universities are currently financed, and looks into the sector’s expectations for future evolutions. It also analyses the many different barriers currently preventing universities from pursuing additional income streams and the possible drivers for stimulating income diversification. To address different funding challenges, including often declining public investment, universities need to proactively design their own strategies. Future financial sustainability depends not only on reliable, sufficient public funding, but also on the autonomy and support necessary to successfully explore complementary funding options.
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Ranking systems such as The Times Higher Education’s World University Rankings and Shanghai Jiao Tong University’s Academic Rankings of World Universities simultaneously mark global status and stimulate global academic competition. As international ranking systems have become more prominent, researchers have begun to examine whether global rankings are creating increased inequality within and between universities. Using a panel Tobit regression analysis, this study assesses the extent to which markers of inter-institutional stratification and organizational segmentation predict global status among US research universities as measured by position in ARWU. Findings indicate some support that both inter-institutional stratification and organizational segmentation predict global status.