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Introduction: chia (Salvia hispanica L.) has an elevated concentration of dietary fiber, it has been used to weight loss and enhance blood glucose and lipid profile. However, data in human are still scarce or do not exist, according to the analyzed variable. Aim: to evaluate the effect of chia supplementation in body composition, lipid profile and blood glucose in overweight or obese individuals. Methods: men and women were randomly allocated in groups that ingested 35g of chia flour/day (CHIA; n=19; 48.8±1.8 years) or placebo (PLA; n=7; 51.4±3.1 years) for 12 weeks. Body composition and food intake were evaluated in each four weeks. Lipid profile and blood glucose were measured in the beginning and in the end of the study. Results: Chia induced significant intragroup reduction in body weight (-1.1±0.4kg; p. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.
Nutr Hosp. 2015;31(3):1176-1182
S.V.R. 318
Original / Alimentos funcionales
Chia induces clinically discrete weight loss and improves lipid profile only
in altered previous values
Luciana Tavares Toscano1,3, Lydiane Tavares Toscano1,3, Renata Leite Tavares3, Cássia Surama Oliveira
da Silva3 and Alexandre Sérgio Silva2,3
1Departament of Nutrition, Center of Health Sciences, Federal University of Paraíba, João Pessoa, PB, Brazil.
2Departament of Physical Education, Center of Health Sciences, Federal University of Paraíba, João Pessoa, PB, Brazil.
3Research Laboratory of Applied Physical Training to Performance and Health (LETFADS), Federal University of Paraíba,
João Pessoa, PB, Brazil.
Introduction: chia (Salvia hispanica L.) has an elevated
concentration of dietary fiber, it has been used to weight
loss and enhance blood glucose and lipid profile. Howe-
ver, data in human are still scarce or do not exist, accor-
ding to the analyzed variable.
Aim: to evaluate the effect of chia supplementation
in body composition, lipid profile and blood glucose in
overweight or obese individuals.
Methods: men and women were randomly allocated in
groups that ingested 35g of chia flour/day (CHIA; n=19;
48.8±1.8 years) or placebo (PLA; n=7; 51.4±3.1 years) for
12 weeks. Body composition and food intake were eva-
luated in each four weeks. Lipid profile and blood glu-
cose were measured in the beginning and in the end of
the study.
Results: Chia induced significant intragroup reduc-
tion in body weight (-1.1±0.4kg; p<0.05), with a greater
reduction among obese than overweighed individuals
(-1.6±0.4kg; p<0.00), but without difference when com-
pared to PLA. Waist circumference reduced 1.9±0.6 cm
in CHIA group (p <0.05), but only intragroup. It was
observed a reduction in total cholesterol (p=0.04) and
VLDL-c (p=0.03), and an increase in HDL-c (p=0.01) but
only in the groups that ingested chia flour and presented
abnormal initial values. Triglycerides, blood glucose and
LDL-C showed no changes for either group.
Conclusion: consumption of chia for 12 weeks promo-
tes significant but discrete reduction in weight and waist
circumference, and enhances lipid profile dependent of
initial values.
(Nutr Hosp. 2015;31:1176-1182)
Key words: Chia. Weight loss. Body composition. Cho-
Introducción: Debido al alto contenido de fibra dieté-
tica, la chía (Salvia hispánica L.) han sido propuesta para
la pérdida de peso y mejora del perfil lipídico y glucémi-
co. Pero los datos en humanos son escasos o inexistentes,
en función de la variable analizada.
Objetivo: Evaluar el efecto de la suplementación con
harina de chía en la composición corporal, perfil lipídico
y glucémico de individuos con sobrepeso y obesidad.
Métodos: hombres y mujeres fueron asignados aleato-
riamente en grupos que consumieron 35 g / día de chía
(CHIA; n = 19; 48.8 ± 1.8 años) o placebo (PLA; n = 7;
51.4 ± 3.1 años) durante 12 semanas. La composición
corporal y el consumo de alimentos fueron evaluados la
cada cuatro semanas de intervención. Perfil lipídico y los
niveles de glucosa se midieron al principio y al final del
Resultados: La chía promovió reducción significativa
en el peso corporal (-1.1kg; p <0.05) con la mayor reduc-
ción entre los obesos (-1.9kg; p <0.00), mientras que el
grupo PLA tenía ningún cambio. Circunferencia de la
cintura disminuyó en 1,9 cm en el grupo CHIA (p <0.05),
pero sólo intragrupo. Fue observada una disminución en
el colesterol total (p = 0.04) y VLDL-c (P = 0.03) y el au-
mento de los niveles de HDL-c (p = 0.01), pero sólo en el
grupo que consumió la chía y tenía valores anormales al
inicio del estudio. Los niveles de triglicéridos, glucosa y
LDL-c no mostraron cambios en ninguno de los grupos.
Conclusión: El consumo de chía durante 12 semanas
reduce el peso corporal y la circunferencia de la cintura
de manera significativa, pero clínicamente discreto. Chía
promueve la mejora del perfil lipídico, pero estos efectos
son dependientes de los valores iniciales de los grupos.
(Nutr Hosp. 2015;31:1176-1182)
Palabras clave: Chía. Pérdida de peso. Composición cor-
poral. Colesterol.
Correspondence: Alexandre Sérgio Silva.
Rua Silvino Lopes,
410 /apto 804 – Tambaú – João Pessoa, PB.
CEP 58039-190.
Recibido: 17-X-2014.
Aceptado: 14-XII-2014.
025_8242 Chia induces clinically discrete weight loss and improves lipid profile only in altered previous values.indd 1176 17/02/15 10:28
Nutr Hosp. 2015;31(3):1176-1182Chia induces clinically discrete weight loss
and improves lipid profile only in altered
previous values
ANOVA: Analysis of variance
BMI: Body mass index
TC: Total cholesterol
HDL: High density lipoprotein
LDL: Low density lipoprotein
TG: Triglycerides
WHO: World Health Organization
VLDL: Very low density lipoprotein
WC: Waist circumference
An important population behavior is a strong ten-
dency to use foods, nutritional supplements or diets
that have reporting of weight loss1,2. Often, studies
show a discrete weight loss or only in abdominal re-
gion, however the information that becomes popular
relates only to weight loss without the details of the
magnitude. Indeed, a review of literature showed the
presence of diverse nutritional supplements with a po-
tential property of weight loss, but none showed reduc-
tion bigger than 2 kg3.
It is well known that dietary fiber may promote wei-
ght loss, enhance in lipid profile and blood glucose
and reduce blood pressure4-6. These fibers can lead to
weight loss by delaying gastric emptying and increa-
sing secretion of intestinal hormones which promote
satiety7. Chia (Salvia hispanica L.) is a source of die-
tary fiber that has been investigated in recent years.
Studies show that eating chia seeds can reduce systolic
blood pressure, postprandial blood glucose and in-
flammation, and increases α-linolenic acid and plasma
concentrations of eicosapentaenoic acid8-10.
These results seem to have popularized the chia.
However, perhaps for its rich fiber content, it was
spread one concept not shown in previous studies, that
chia could have slimming capacity. In fact, the unique
study that tested this property was the one performed
by Nieman et al.11, who found no effect of chia in slim-
ming overweight or obese men and women. In other
studies in which the properties of chia were tested for
blood pressure, lipid or glucose profile, inflammation
and oxidative stress, the variable body weight or waist
circumference was treated as a secondary variable. Sti-
ll, only one study showed that chia promoted reduction
of waist circumference12.
Therefore, chia has been popularly and commercially
proposed to weight loss without scientific basis to su-
pport this possibility. Moreover, few studies appear in-
sufficient to determine the impact of chia in weight loss.
In this sense, the present study was conducted to
evaluate the effect of chia flour (Salvia hispanica L.)
supplementation for 12 weeks on body composition
in middle-aged men and women with overweight and
obesity grade I. Additionally, the effect of chia on lipid
profile and blood glucose was evaluated.
Individuals of both sexes were recruited to parti-
cipate in a randomized, double-blind placebo contro-
lled experimental study. Were considered as inclusion
criteria: age between 35 and 65 years, BMI between
25 and 35 kg / m², sedentary, do not have the habit
of consuming chia (Salvia hispanica L.) or food su-
pplements containing active substances present in that
food (dietary fiber and α-linolenic acid) and not use
drugs or supplements aiming weight loss. It would be
excluded from the study volunteers who, throughout
the study, begun to make use of weight loss drugs or
nutritional supplements, altered their eating and phy-
sical activity habits as well did not use the amount of
product supplied.
The project was submitted to the Ethics Committee
on Human Research of the Lauro Wanderley Universi-
ty Hospital of the Federal University of Paraíba, being
approved under protocol No. 206 338/13. All partici-
pants were informed about the research and asked to
sign the Instrument of Consent as required by Reso-
lution 196/96 of the National Health Council, which
regulates the ethical aspects of researchs involving
The study started with 29 volunteers who were ran-
domized ( for groups CHIA and
PLA. Three subjects did not complete the study, so that
the groups ended up with the following configuration:
(CHIA n = 19) and (PLA, n = 7).
Study design
Volunteers were initially submitted to anthropometric
measurements (weight, body fat, height, and waist cir-
cumference), food intake evaluation and blood samples
for analysis of plasma glucose (fasting plasma gluco-
se) and lipid profile (total cholesterol, HDL-c, LDL-c,
VLDL-c and triglycerides). Then the groups started the
supplementation protocols lasting 12 weeks. In every
four weeks, it was conducted a nutritional evaluation
through anthropometric measurements and dietary in-
take. Forty-eight hours after the intervention period, vo-
lunteers were tested for the same initial variables.
Anthropometric evaluation
For determination of body weight and fat percenta-
ge, it was used a digital balance (Tanita, BF-683W, Rio
de Janeiro, Brazil) with an accuracy of 0.1 kg and 150
kg capacity and 0.1% to fat percentage. Height was
measured using a portable stadiometer (Sanny, São
Paulo, Brazil) with measurement scale in 0.1cm. The
values of body weight and height were used to calcu-
late the Body Mass Index (BMI, kg/m2) according to
025_8242 Chia induces clinically discrete weight loss and improves lipid profile only in altered previous values.indd 1177 17/02/15 10:28
1178 Nutr Hosp. 2015;31(3):1176-1182 Luciana Tavares Toscano et al.
World Health Organization (WHO)13. Waist circumfe-
rence was measured with inelastic and flexible anthro-
pometric tape (Sanny, SN-4010, São Paulo, Brazil).
For purposes of analysis of possible changes in body
composition with consumption of chia, it was adopted
the subdivision of CHIA group in overweight or obese,
according to BMI values obtained13.
Food intake evaluation
The eating habits were assessed using 24-hour die-
tary recall, applied before of the study to define exclu-
sion criteria and during and after the supplementation
period in order to verify changes in the habitual food
intake of volunteers. Two of these were representative
of weekday and one weekend day. The application of
food recalls and the dietary nutrient analysis were per-
formed by a nutritionist using Avanutri software ver-
sion 4.0 (Avanutri, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil). After fist
nutritional evaluation, the volunteers were instructed
not to change their diets during the study.
In association with food recalls, issues regarding
to potential gastrointestinal symptoms (constipation,
diarrhea, heartburn, flatulence and nausea), allergy or
intolerance attributed to the consumption of chia or
placebo were added.
Supplementation protocols
CHIA group consumed 35 g of chia flour/day for 12
weeks, added to water, yogurt, vitamins, fruit or jui-
ces, since the volunteers were already accustomed to
these foods. PLA group consumed the same amount of
toasted wheat bran Cacalia, Rio Grande do Sul, Bra-
zil, following the procedure adopted by Vuksan et al.8
in a previous study. The volunteers were instructed to
avoid products provided as meal replacements, but as
a complement to the usual food intake and it could be
eaten at any time of day, in the main meals or snacks.
The delivery of the products occurred every four
weeks of intervention. These were packaged in indi-
vidual containers of similar appearance, in the quan-
tity of the daily consumption. Volunteers were asked
to return the packages monthly, so they could receive
new products in order to ensure consumption control.
All volunteers were instructed to retain the product in
a cool dry place, and not subject them to any heating
process. To encourage faithfulness in the consumption
of the product supplied, the researchers sent messages
by cell phone daily, for all who have accepted this pro-
Chia flour used in the study contained the following
nutritional composition in 35 grams of product: ener-
gy (154.3 kcal), carbohydrate (3.8 g), protein (10.8 g),
total fat (10.1 g), omega 3 (3.8 g), omega 6 (1.4 g),
omega 9 (0.7 g) and dietary fiber (14.7 g) according to
the manufacturer. The wheat flour used as a placebo,
presented in 35 grams: energy (112 kcal), carbohydra-
tes (10.5 g), proteins (5.6 g) and dietary fiber (14.0 g).
This product is considered a neutral lipid, due to the
absence of total, saturated, unsaturated and trans fat
and cholesterol in its chemical composition.
Biochemical analysis
Blood samples (10 mL) were collected after 12
hours of fasting, for the analysis of markers of lipid
and glucose profile at the beginning and in the end of
the study. The total cholesterol (TC), high density lipo-
protein (HDL-C), triglycerides (TG) and fasting glu-
cose were measured using commercial kits (Labtest,
Minas Gerais, Brazil) in automatic analyzer LabMax
240 premium. The amounts of low density lipoprotein
cholesterol (LDL-C) and very low density lipoprotein
(VLDL-C) were estimated using the equation Frie-
dewald14 [LDL-C = (TC - HDL-C) - (TG / 5)].
To assess possible changes in biochemical parame-
ters after consumption of chia, we adopted the proce-
dure of subdividing the CHIA group in normality or
alteration in baseline biochemical variables, as recom-
mended by the V Brazilian Guidelines on Dyslipide-
mia and Prevention of Aterosclerose15.
Statistical analysis
Data are presented as mean and standard error of the
mean. The normality and homogeneity of data were
evaluated by the Shapiro-Wilk and Levene. ANOVA
for repeated measures was used in the analysis of die-
tary intake and anthropometry, in each four-week in-
tervention. For comparison between CHIA and PLA
groups it was used one-way ANOVA and Tukey post
hoc. Biochemical parameters were analyzed by paired
and independent t test. The analysis were performed in
GraphPad Instat 3.0 software (San Diego, CA, USA),
adopting a statistical significance of p<0.05 for all test.
Groups showed similarities for all variables at base-
line. They were middle-aged adults (48.8 ± 2 and 51.4
± 3 years for CHIA and PLA groups, respectively) with
no significant difference between them. Volunteers
from both groups were overweight or obese, showed
high waist circumference, hyperlipidemia and slight-
ly increased blood glucose at baseline, but without a
diagnosis of diabetes. The pre intervention values after
chia group divided by normal and abnormal values of
BMI, blood glucose and lipid profile are presented in
table I and II.
Groups showed normal consumption of carbohydra-
tes, proteins and lipids at baseline. The average daily
intake of calories, macronutrients, and dietary fiber
025_8242 Chia induces clinically discrete weight loss and improves lipid profile only in altered previous values.indd 1178 17/02/15 10:28
Nutr Hosp. 2015;31(3):1176-1182Chia induces clinically discrete weight loss
and improves lipid profile only in altered
previous values
Table I
Anthropometric data of CHIA and PLA groups at
baseline and every four weeks of study
(n=19) Overweight
(n=8) Obesity
(n=11) (n=7)
Weight (kg)
Baseline 83.6±2 77.8±3 88.7±2 79.6±7
Week 4 83.0±2 77.8±3 87.6±2 79.3±7
Week 8 83.3±2 77.8±3 88.2±2 80.0±7
Week 12 82.5±2* 77.4±3 87.1±2*** 79.4±7
BMI (kg/m²)
Baseline 31.5±1 28.2±0 34.1±1 32.0±3
Week 4 31.3±1 28.2±0 33.8±1 32.0±3
Week 8 31.4±1 28.2±0 34.0±1 32.2±3
Week 12 31.2±1 28.1±0 33.7±1 32.0±3
Fat (%)
Baseline 34.5±2 30.8±3 36.5±3 34.2±3
Week 4 34.9±2 31.9±3 36.6±3 36.6±3
Week 8 34.6±2 32.1±3** 36.1±3 34.6±3
Week 12 35.6±2 32.0±3 37.9±2* 36.7±3
WC (cm)
Baseline 98.6±2 92.9±3 103.2±1 99.3±6
Week 4 97.0±2* 91.3±3 101.7±1 99.7±6
Week 8 97.4±2 91.1±3 102.4±1 98.2±6
Week 12 96.7±2* 90.9±3 101.4±1 98.1±6
BMI = body mass index; WC = waist circumference. Data are
expressed as mean ± standard error. *p <0.05; ** P = 0.03; *** p
<0.00; differences from baseline; ANOVA for repeated measures.
Table II
Biochemical parameters evaluated at baseline
and after 12 weeks of study
CHIA PLA (n=7)
Baseline Week 12 Baseline Week 12
Blood glucose
General (n=19)
112.1±7 114.7±5 105.8±7 104.0±6
Normal (n=6)
93.0±1 98.5±2
120.9±9 122.3±7
TC (mg/dL)
General (n=19)
239.2±18 219.8±11 240.1±15 229.0±14
Normal (n=6)
167.7±4 187.7±17
272.3±20 234.6±12*
HDLc (mg/dL)
General (n=19)
40.9±3 41.8±2 40.8±4 39.8±3
Normal (n=6)
51.1±2 44.1±4
31.8±3 39.8±2**
LDLc (mg/dL)
General (n=19)
163.2±17 147.8±11 134.1±14 132.1±9
Normal (n=6)
66.3±26 98.3±17
171.8±18 153.0±12
VLDLc (mg/dL)
General (n=19)
41.3±8 33.9±5 42.3±8 48.1±8
Normal (n=6)
22.8±2 32.5±8
81.5±14 36.8±4***
TG (mg/dL)
General (n=19)
214.1±40 151.8±22 215.0±34 259.0±38
Normal (n=6)
89.8±8 95.7±11
352.3±56 214.3±35
TC = total cholesterol; HDLc = high density lipoprotein; LDLc =
low density lipoprotein; VLDLc = very low density lipoprotein; TG
= triglycerides. Data are expressed as mean ± standard error. *p =
0.04; **p = 0.01; ***p = 0:03, difference from baseline; paired t test.
during the intervention period showed no significant
differences from baseline (table III). However, it was
observed that CHIA group exhibited increased protein
intake on the fourth week compared to PLA.
Body weight significantly decreased in CHIA group
after 12 weeks of intervention compared to baseline
(table I) with a reduction of 1.1±0.4 kg. However,
when this group was subdivided into subjects with
overweight and obesity, it was noted that the decrease
in body weight was observed only in the obese sub-
group (1.6±0.4 kg), whereas overweight group showed
only 0.4±0.2 kg reduction. We could also observe that
the statistical difference occurred only in intragroup
analysis, so that the weight at the end of the interven-
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1180 Nutr Hosp. 2015;31(3):1176-1182 Luciana Tavares Toscano et al.
tion did not differ between CHIA and PLA groups.
Since it was not possible to subdivide the PLA group
in overweight and obesity, this analysis was conducted
only among groups CHIA (without subdivision) versus
PLA. Despite the reduction in body weight in CHIA
group, there was no reduction in the percentage of fat
in this group. On the contrary, CHIA group showed
an increase in body fat when this group was divided
into subgroups of overweight and obesity. BMI did not
change in either group.
Waist circumference significantly decreased in the
fourth and 12th weeks of study in volunteers who con-
sumed chia (1.9±0.6 cm), without this phenomenon
has been noted when the analysis was performed in
subgroups of overweight and obesity. Despite the re-
duction observed, CHIA group did not finish the inter-
vention with lower waist circumference compared to
the PLA group.
Biochemical parameters did not change in groups
CHIA and PLA. However, when subdividing CHIA
group for normal or altered serum concentration, there
was a reduction in total cholesterol (13.8%) and VLDL-C
(54.8%) and an increase in HDL-c (25%) in the subgroup
of volunteers who consumed chia and had abnormal va-
lues at baseline. Triglycerides, glucose and LDL-c exhi-
bited no changes in any of the groups (table II).
The present study demonstrated that 12 weeks of
supplementation with 35 g of chia flour/day caused a
significant reduction in body weight and waist circum-
ference, but this reduction was observed only in the
intragroup analysis and clinically discrete. Furthermo-
re, the supplementation was able to enhance the serum
concentration of TC, VLDL-C and HDL-C, but only
when considered volunteers who presented abnormal
values at baseline for these variables.
Dietary fiber may improve satiety, decrease calo-
ric intake and promote weight loss4,16. Chia flour and
placebo used in the study contain similar amounts of
dietary fiber. However, the fibers present in chia have
high viscosity leading to gel formation in gastrointes-
tinal tract17 that may confer to this food an additive
effect on satiety, as demonstrated by Vuksan et al9,
while placebo does not have this property of viscosity.
The high content of omega-3 present in chia can help
to reduce obesity by suppressing appetite, improving
lipid oxidation and energy expenditure and reducing
fat deposition, although these effects are only clearly
evident in studies with animals18.
Despite these likely slimming possibility, few clini-
cal studies have shown that intake of dietary fiber has
a positive effect on weight control5. When specifically
chia was studied it was only demonstrated increased
satiety9 despite this seed contain about 30% fibers19.
Meanwhile, the ability of chia to promote bodyweight
reduction had only been investigated in three studies,
at least to our knowledge.
Our findings demonstrate reduction in body weight
with consumption of chia, which was not observed in
previous studies that evaluated body composition after
consumption of that food. Nieman et al.11 demonstra-
ted that the ingestion of 50 g of chia seed/day, for 12
weeks, was not able to reduce the body weight in obe-
se or overweight subjects. Vuksan et al.8 demonstrated
that ingestion of 37g of chia seeds/day for 12 weeks
did not alter body weight in type 2 diabetic subjects
with overweight. In this study, participants were ins-
tructed to consume a diet according to the nutritional
recommendations of the Canadian Diabetes Associa-
tion, which includes the daily intake of 25 to 35 g of
dietary fiber. However, even with the adoption of a
standard diet, and amounts of chia and period of use
similar to our study, no body weight changes were ob-
served in these individuals. Likewise, Nieman et al. 20
found that 25 g of chia seeds/day, for 10 weeks had no
Table III
Average daily intake of energy, macronutrients and dietary fiber of the volunteers
CHIA (n=19) PLA (n=7)
Baseline Week 4 Week 12 Baseline Week 4 Week 12
Energy (kcal) 1669.6±126 1739.8±112 1624.1±88 1742.0±155 1624.0±164 1677.1±143
Carbohydrate (g) 219.5±18 225.9±18 209.0±13 261.6±22 214.9±28 215.1±22
Protein (g) 74.5±6 92.9±6#89.0±8 62.7±8 56.8±6 75.5±10
Fat (g) 47.1±5 56.9±6 43.6±5 42.5±7 46.1±6 51.8±7
Fibers (g) 14.3±2 15.2±2 16.2±1 13.5±3 14.2±1 14.5±2
Data are expressed as mean ± standard error. # Difference from the placebo group, p <0.05; one way ANOVA test.
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Nutr Hosp. 2015;31(3):1176-1182Chia induces clinically discrete weight loss
and improves lipid profile only in altered
previous values
effect on body composition in overweight women, but
the period of use of chia was lower than ours.
It is noteworthy that the present study followed the
possible changes in body weight every four weeks of
intervention, which was not adopted in previous stu-
dies. However, the difference in body weight did not
appear until the end of the 12 weeks of supplementa-
tion with flour chia. Despite these findings, Egras et
al.21 stated that data are still limited to suggest the use
of chia seeds in weight loss, although considered safe
in short term. Our study had the longest intervention,
along with Vuksan et al.8 and Nieman et al.11 who also
supplemented for 12 weeks. Considering the weight
reduction only in our study, and that this phenomenon
was only observed at 12 weeks, still with a clinically
discrete magnitude, there is still a need to investigate
whether protocols with longer periods of supplemen-
tation promote more weight loss.
Waist circumference in CHIA group reduced in the
fourth week of supplementation, as well as in the end
of the intervention. Although previous studies with
consumption of chia isolated had not analyzed this pa-
rameter, Guevara-Cruz et al.12 corroborate our findings
by showing reduction in waist circumference (95.7 ±
8.6 vs 93.0 ± 8.9cm, p <0.0001) after consumption
standard diet containing chia seeds, soy, nopal and oats
by individuals with metabolic syndrome. However,
this result was probably due to calorie reduction in the
habitual diet (-500kcal), since the placebo group also
showed decreased waist circumference (95.2 ± 9.0 vs
92.1 ± 9.0cm, p <0.0001). The decrease in waist cir-
cumference observed in our study was more discrete
in relation to these data, but this phenomenon is easily
explained by the fact that this previous study linked
the consumption of chia with other grains and with a
reduction in caloric intake, which alone can already
promote waist circumference reduction, as actually
occurred in control.
Previous studies using animal models showed robust
results of consumption of chia in lipid profile. Reduc-
tion in visceral adiposity, prevention of dyslipidemia,
hypertriglyceridemia normalization22; improvement
in adipose tissue and lipid metabolism dysfunction23;
lipid redistribution24; decrease in serum triglycerides
and increased HDL-C were observed in rats25. Howe-
ver, data in humans are more inconsistent.
Biochemical parameters evaluated in this study
showed change only when subdividing the group
CHIA as normal or modified basal serum values to
total cholesterol and VLDL-c and increasing serum
concentrations of HDL-c. Serum triglyceride levels
showed no differences, as opposed to the result found
by Guevara-Cruz et al.12 that demonstrated lowering
serum triglycerides (-284.0 mg / dL) with the use of
standard diet containing chia seeds and other grains,
for two months in individuals with metabolic syndro-
me. However, this effect cannot be attributed solely to
chia, since other grains have been consumed in combi-
nation. The absence of alterations in subjects with pre-
viously normal values corroborates Vuksan et al.8 and
Nieman et al.11, who also found no changes in serum
lipids in subjects similar to those considered normal in
our study initial conditions.
As for blood glucose, our findings do not suggest
changes in any of the groups. Unlike, Vuksan et al.9
demonstrated a reduction of postprandial blood glucose
by consuming different amounts of chia (7, 15 and 24
g), in healthy subjects. Moreover, our data corroborate
Vuksan et al.8, Nieman et al.11 and Nieman et al.20 who
found no differences in concentrations of fasting gluco-
se in diabetics and overweight and obese individuals.
The small sample size of the PLA group made it
impossible the formation of subgroups for assessment
of body composition and biochemical parameters, as
adopted for CHIA group, constituting the main limita-
tion that we can see for this study. Thus, comparisons
between groups could only be carried out between
the groups PLA and CHIA without division into sub-
groups. Considering that the effects observed in this
study were only noted at 12 weeks, our data point out
the need of further studies with longer duration inter-
vention, and sample size that allows the stratification
of subjects according to body weight and biochemical
profile in both experimental and placebo groups.
Taken together, our data show that consumption of
35 g of chia flour for 12 weeks can reduce body weight
and waist circumference significantly, but clinically
discrete in overweight or obese individuals. It promo-
tes improvement in lipid profile with more clinically
relevant magnitude, but these effects of chia consump-
tion are dependent on the initial values of groups for
body composition as for the lipid profile.
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025_8242 Chia induces clinically discrete weight loss and improves lipid profile only in altered previous values.indd 1182 17/02/15 10:28
... After title and abstract screenings, 42 full-text citations were evaluated. Out of these, 10 3,18-26 RCTs meeting the eligibility criteria were included in the systematic review and 6 18,19,[21][22][23][24] provided data for the meta-analysis (Fig. 1). ...
... Three studies included only women, 20,21,23 and seven studies 3,18,19,22,[24][25][26] both men and women; in all cases, except one, 19 the participants were not healthy. In this study, 19 the participants had diseases such as metabolic syndrome, diabetes mellitus type two, and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. ...
... TC. Six studies 18,19,[21][22][23][24] with 376 individuals provided estimates for the relationship between consumption of chia seeds and TC. No significant difference between the consumption of chia seeds and placebo was observed on the pooled analysis and the results were very inconsistent (MD = −2.98, ...
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Chia (Salvia hispanica L.) is an annual herbaceous plant, originally from southern Mexico and northern Guatemala - nowadays grown all over the world. In recent years, there has been an increase in demand for plant foods with health-promoting properties, and chia is a main actor in this process due to its high nutritional and functional value and its chemical composition rich in PUFAs, mainly ω-3, as well as protein, dietary fiber, and bioactive compounds. Chia has been explored in different research models for health and the prevention of human diseases. Evidence has suggested potential for improving insulin resistance, disordered lipid profiles, glucose tolerance and even adiposity. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of consumption of chia seeds on the lipid profile, triglycerides, and serum ω-3 fatty acids in adults. This systematic review included all randomized controlled trials (parallel or crossover design) published up to August 2020 in the main databases Medline, Embase, Scopus, Web of Science, and Scielo. Two independent authors selected and extracted data from those articles. After the selection process, 10 clinical trials were included. Forest plots and summary tables were constructed to present data and sensitivity subgroup analyses were performed for some of the outcomes. The results showed that chia consumption suggests a protective effect on the lipid profile, decreasing TC (MD = -2.98, 95% CI = [-9.98; 4.02]), TG (MD = -14.09 mg dL-1, 95% CI = [-33.46; 5.28]), and LDL (MD = 2.07 mg dL-1; 95% CI = [-5.05; 9.19]) and increasing HDL (MD = -2.92 mg dL-1, 95% CI = [-5.91; 0.06]). Regarding serum fatty acids, chia reduced FFA and SFA and increased PUFAs, ALA, EPA, and LA. It has also reduced DHA while not changing DPA. The intake of chia appears to have a neutral or beneficial effect on some markers of the lipid and fatty acid profile.
... Consistent with in vivo studies, Vuksan et al. and Toscano et al. observed weight loss and reduced waist circumference in obese subjects supplemented with Chia-Salba, which positively correlated with increased adiponectin levels, but the exact mechanism is yet to be elucidated [110,111]. In contrast, Nieman et al. revealed that the daily intake of Chia seed did not induce changes in the bodyweight of obese participants [112]. ...
Adipose tissue is instrumental in maintaining metabolic homeostasis by regulating energy storage in the form of triglycerides. In the case of over-nutrition, adipocytes favorably regulate lipogenesis over lipolysis and accumulate excess triglycerides, resulting in increased adipose tissue mass. An abnormal increase in hypertrophic adipocytes is associated with chronic complications such as insulin resistance, obesity, diabetes, atherosclerosis and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Experimental studies indicate the occurrence of oxidative stress in the pathogenesis of obesity. A common underlying link between increasing adipose tissue mass and oxidative stress is the Nuclear Factor Erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), Keap1-Nrf2-ARE signaling, which plays an indispensable role in metabolic homeostasis by regulating oxidative and inflammatory responses. Additionally, Nrf2 also activates CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein α, (C/EBP-α), C/EBP - β and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) the crucial pro-adipogenic factors that promote de novo adipogenesis. Hence, at the forefront of research is the quest for prospecting novel compounds to modulate Nrf2 activity in the context of adipogenesis and obesity. This review summarizes the molecular mechanism behind the activation of the Keap1-Nrf2-ARE signaling network and the role of Nrf2 activators in adipocyte pathophysiology.
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Abstract Phytochemicals present in detox juices and probiotics have demonstrated protective effects on cardiovascular risk factors. The consumption of these products alone modulate metabolic mechanisms and biomarkers. However, the effects of the combination of detox juice and probiotics have not yet been evaluated on atherogenic parameters. A randomized controlled study was carried out with 40 healthy volunteers (20 men and 20 women), aged between 18 and 50 years old. The volunteers ingested 200mL of juice for 30 days. Before and after supplementation, the anthropometric and lipid profiles and plasma concentrations of TBARS, Myeloperoxidase, Glutathione, Protein and non-protein Thiols and Vitamin C were analyzed. A reduction in LDL-c (p=0.05), triglycerides (p=0.05) and a significant increase in HDL-c (p=0.002) was observed. There was a significant decrease in the concentrations of TBARS (p=0.01), myeloperoxidases (p=0.02) and a significant increase in the Vitamin C and GSH (p=0.01). There wasn`t improvement in anthropometric parameters and total cholesterol. The findings highlight that supplementation with probiotic detox juice improves the lipid and antioxidant profile, suggesting a possible positive effect in reducing the risk of cardiovascular disease in healthy volunteers. Nevertheless, more robust researches with a prolonged treatment period should be conducted.
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According to the new classification, periodontitis is defined as a chronic multifactorial inflammatory disease associated with dysbiotic biofilms and characterized by progressive destruction of the tooth‐supporting apparatus. This definition, based on the current scientific evidence, clearly indicates and emphasizes, beside the microbial component dental biofilm, the importance of the inflammatory reaction in the progressive destruction of periodontal tissues. The idea to modulate this inflammatory reaction in order to decrease or even cease the progressive destruction was, therefore, a logical consequence. Attempts to achieve this goal involve various kinds of anti‐inflammatory drugs or medications. However, there is also an increasing effort in using food supplements or so‐called natural food ingredients to modulate patients’ immune responses and maybe even improve the healing of periodontal tissues. The aim of this chapter of Periodontology 2000 is to review the evidence of various food supplements and ingredients regarding their possible effects on periodontal inflammation and wound healing. This review may help researchers and clinicians to evaluate the current evidence and to stimulate further research in this area.
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The essential fatty acid alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) is present in high amounts in oils such as flaxseed, soy, hemp, rapeseed, chia, and perilla, while stearidonic acid is abundant in echium oil. ALA is metabolized to eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) by desaturases and elongases in humans. The conversion of ALA to EPA and DHA is limited, and these long-chain n−3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are mainly provided from dietary sources (fish and seafood). This review provides an overview of studies that explored the effects of dietary supplementation with ALA in obesity and related diseases. The obesity-associated changes of desaturase and elongase activities are summarized, as they could influence the metabolic conversion of ALA. Generally, supplementation with ALA or ALA-rich oils leads to an increase in EPA levels and has no effect on DHA or omega-3 index. According to the literature data, stearidonic acid could enhance conversion of ALA to long-chain n−3 PUFA in obesity. Recent studies confirm that EPA and DHA intake should be considered as a primary dietary treatment strategy for improving the omega-3 index in obesity and related diseases.
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Hidden hunger is a lack of micronutrients, i.e., essential minerals and vitamins, which is not fulfilled by diet. Though these essential micro‐nutrients are required in small quantities, they are essential for the growth and development of body (Jones et al,2019). About two billion people (25.9 % of total world’s population) are affected by micronutrient deficiencies, or hidden hunger (FAO, 2020).
Seeds play important roles in human nutrition and health since ancient time. The term “specialty” has recently been applied to seeds to describe high‐value and/or uncommon food products. Since then, numerous studies have been conducted to identify various classes of bioactive compounds, including polyphenols in specialty seeds. This review discusses nutrients, fat‐soluble bioactives, polyphenols/bioactives, antioxidant activity, bioavailability, health benefits, and safety/toxicology of commonly consumed eight specialty seeds, namely, black cumin, chia, hemp, flax, perilla, pumpkin, quinoa, and sesame. Scientific results from the existing literature published over the last decade have been compiled and discussed. These specialty seeds, having numerous fat‐soluble bioactives and polyphenols, together with their corresponding antioxidant activities, have increasingly been consumed. Hence, these specialty seeds can be considered as a valuable source of dietary supplements and functional foods due to their health‐promoting bioactive components, polyphenols, and corresponding antioxidant activities. The phytochemicals from these specialty seeds demonstrate bioavailability in humans with promising health benefits. Additional long‐term and well‐design human intervention trials are required to ascertain the health‐promoting properties of these specialty seeds.
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The objective was to evaluate the mechanisms of digested total proteins (DTP), albumin, glutelin, and pure peptides from chia seed (Salvia hispanica L.) to prevent adipogenesis and its associated inflammation in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Preadipocytes (3T3-L1) were treated during differentiation with either DTP or digested albumin or glutelin (1 mg/mL) or pure peptides NSPGPHDVALDQ and RMVLPEYELLYE (100 µM). Differentiated adipocytes also received DTP, digested albumin or glutelin (1 mg/mL), before (prevention) or after (inhibition) induced inflammation by addition of conditioned medium (CM) from inflamed macrophages. All treatments prevented adipogenesis, reducing more than 50% the expression of PPARγ and to a lesser extent lipoprotein lipase (LPL), fatty acid synthase (FAS), sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1 (SREBP1), lipase activity and triglycerides. Inflammation induced by CM was reduced mainly during prevention, while DTP decreased expression of NF-κB (−48.4%), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) (−46.2%) and COX-2 (−64.5%), p < 0.05. Secretions of nitric oxide, PGE2 and TNFα were reduced by all treatments, p < 0.05. DTP reduced expressions of iNOS (−52.1%) and COX-2 (−66.4%). Furthermore, digested samples and pure peptides prevented adipogenesis by modulating PPARγ and additionally, preventing and even inhibiting inflammation in adipocytes by inhibition of PPARγ and NF-κB expression. These results highlight the effectiveness of digested total proteins and peptides from chia seed against adipogenesis complications in vitro.
The role of soluble fibres on hypoglycemic and hypocholesterolemic effects has been widely documented, but the effect on glucose and cholesterol binding capacity of soluble fibre extracted from chia seed mucilage has not been studied until now. In the present research, dynamic gastrointestinal model simgi® combined with absorption static techniques have been used to explore the effect of chia seed mucilage at 0.75 and 0.95% w/w on the bioaccessibility of glucose, dietary lipids and cholesterol along the gastrointestinal tract. Glucose bioaccessibility was reduced when 0.95% of chia mucilage was present in sugar food models. The total reduction of glucose bioaccessibility reached a maximum of 66.7% while glucose dialysis retardation index presented its maximum of 50.7% at the end of small intestine digestion. in vitro studies with lipid food models, showed that the presence of both, 0.75 and 0.95% of chia seed mucilage caused substantial reductions on the bioaccessibility of free fatty acids (16.8 and 56%) and cholesterol (18.2 and 37.2% respectively), as well as bile salts (4.8 and 64.6%), revealing a clear dependence on fibre concentration. These innovative results highlight the potential functionality of the soluble fibre extracted from chia seeds to improve lipid and glycemic profiles and suggest the dietary health benefits of this new soluble fibre source as an ingredient in functional foods designed to reduce the risk of certain non-communicable diseases.
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Background: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a public health problem lacking an approved pharmacological treatment. Omega-3 fatty acids have shown to reverse NAFLD. Chia is a seed rich in α-linolenic acid (ALA), antioxidants, and fiber; therefore, it could be useful to treat NAFLD. Methods: In a single arm experimental design study, the effect of 25 g/day of milled chia was assessed in 25 patients with NAFLD. After two weeks of dietary stabilization (basal condition) and eight weeks of a chia-supplemented isocaloric diet, liver:spleen attenuation index and visceral abdominal fat (VAF) were measured by computed tomography. Lipids, lipoproteins, free fatty acids (FFA), and ALA plasma concentrations were also determined. Results: Dietary chia supplementation induced an increase in plasma ALA concentration (75%) and dietary fiber (55%) consumption. After chia supplementation, VAF (9%), body weight (1.4%), total cholesterol (2.5%), non-high density lipoprotein cholesterol (3.2%), and circulating FFA (8%) decreased. Furthermore, NAFLD regressed in 52% of the treated patients (P < 0.05 for all). Conclusions: The results of the present study show that 25 g/day of milled chia ameliorates NAFLD. Chia is an accessible vegetal source of omega-3 fatty acids, antioxidants, and fiber, which could have the potential to prevent metabolic abnormalities in NAFLD patients. Considering that there is no pharmacological treatment approved for NAFLD, the findings of the present study suggest that a chia-supplemented diet could be an innovative alternative to control this disease. RETROSPECTIVELY REGISTERED:
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Commercially available dietary products advertised to promote weight loss are an underresearched but heavily purchased commodity in the United States. Despite only limited evidence, interest in dietary supplements continues to increase. This work uniquely summarizes the current evidence evaluating the efficacy of several over-the-counter thermogenic products for their effects on resting energy expenditure. Currently, there is some evidence suggesting dietary products containing select ingredients can increase energy expenditure in healthy young people immediately following consumption (within 6 hours). It is unclear if supplement-induced increases in metabolic rate provide additional benefit beyond that provided by dietary constituents that contain similar ingredients. It is also unclear if dietary supplements are effective for weight loss in humans.
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OBJECTIVE/SETTING: This study assessed the effectiveness of milled and whole chia seed in altering disease risk factors in overweight, postmenopausal women using a metabolomics approach. Subjects were randomized to chia seed (whole or milled) and placebo (poppy seed) groups, and under double-blinded procedures ingested 25 g chia seed or placebo supplements each day for 10 weeks. Subjects included 62 overweight (body-mass index 25 kg/m(2) and higher), nondiseased, nonsmoking, postmenopausal women, ages 49-75 years, with analysis based on the 56 subjects who completed all phases of the study. Pre- and poststudy measures included body mass and composition, blood pressure and augmentation index, serum lipid profile, inflammation markers from fasting blood samples, plasma fatty acids, and metabolic profiling using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry with multivariate statistical methods including principal component analysis and partial least-square discriminant analysis (PLS-DA). Plasma α-linolenic acid (N=ALA) increased 58% (interaction effect, p=0.002) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) 39% (p=0.016) in the milled chia seed group (N=14) compared to nonsignificant changes in the whole chia seed (N=16) and placebo (N=26) groups. Pre-to-post measures of body composition, inflammation, blood pressure, augmentation index, and lipoproteins did not differ between chia seed (whole or milled) and placebo groups (all interaction effects, p>0.05). Global metabolic difference scores for each group calculated through PLS-DA models were nonsignificant (Q(2)Y<0.40), and fold-changes for 28 targeted metabolites associated with inflammation and disease risk factors did not differ between groups. Ingestion of 25 g/day milled chia seed compared to whole chia seed or placebo for 10 weeks by overweight women increased plasma ALA and EPA, but had no influence on inflammation or disease risk factors using both traditional and metabolomics-based measures.
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Ten postmenopausal women (age 55.6 ± 0.8 years, BMI 24.6 ± 1.1 kg/m²) ingested 25 g/day milled chia seed during a 7-week period, with six plasma samples collected for measurement of α-linolenic acid (ALA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosapentaenoic acid (DPA), and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). Subjects operated as their own controls with overnight fasted blood samples taken at baseline (average of two samples), and then after 1, 2, 3, 5, and 7 weeks supplementation. Plasma ALA increased significantly after one week supplementation and was 138 % above baseline levels by the end of the study (overall time effect, P < 0.001). EPA increased 30 % above baseline (overall time effect, P = 0.019) and was correlated across time with ALA (r = 0.84, P = 0.02). No significant change in plasma DPA levels was measured (overall time effect, P = 0.067). Plasma DHA decreased slightly by the end of the study (overall time effect, P = 0.030) and was not correlated with change in ALA. In conclusion, ingestion of 25 g/day milled chia seeds for seven weeks by postmenopausal women resulted in significant increases in plasma ALA and EPA but not DPA and DHA.
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Dietary fiber and whole grains contain a unique blend of bioactive components including resistant starches, vitamins, minerals, phytochemicals and antioxidants. As a result, research regarding their potential health benefits has received considerable attention in the last several decades. Epidemiological and clinical studies demonstrate that intake of dietary fiber and whole grain is inversely related to obesity, type two diabetes, cancer and cardiovascular disease (CVD). Defining dietary fiber is a divergent process and is dependent on both nutrition and analytical concepts. The most common and accepted definition is based on nutritional physiology. Generally speaking, dietary fiber is the edible parts of plants, or similar carbohydrates, that are resistant to digestion and absorption in the small intestine. Dietary fiber can be separated into many different fractions. Recent research has begun to isolate these components and determine if increasing their levels in a diet is beneficial to human health. These fractions include arabinoxylan, inulin, pectin, bran, cellulose, β-glucan and resistant starch. The study of these components may give us a better understanding of how and why dietary fiber may decrease the risk for certain diseases. The mechanisms behind the reported effects of dietary fiber on metabolic health are not well established. It is speculated to be a result of changes in intestinal viscosity, nutrient absorption, rate of passage, production of short chain fatty acids and production of gut hormones. Given the inconsistencies reported between studies this review will examine the most up to date data concerning dietary fiber and its effects on metabolic health.
Obesity in America continues to be a major public health concern. Emerging scientific evidence suggests that a diet rich in high-quality protein is a beneficial dietary strategy to prevent and/or treat obesity. This paper provides a brief synopsis of the latest research regarding the effects of higher protein diets to improve body weight management and energy intake regulation. Specific focus on the effects of increased dietary protein on appetite control, satiety, and food cravings are also explored.
This work reports the effect of dietary Salba (chia) seed rich in n-3 α-linolenic acid on the morphological and metabolic aspects involved in adipose tissue dysfunction and the mechanisms underlying the impaired glucose and lipid metabolism in the skeletal muscle of rats fed a sucrose-rich diet (SRD). Rats were fed a SRD for 3 months. Thereafter, half the rats continued with SRD while in the other half, corn oil (CO) was replaced by chia seed for 3 months (SRD+chia). In control group, corn starch replaced sucrose. The replacement of CO by chia seed in the SRD reduced adipocyte hypertrophy, cell volume and size distribution, improved lipogenic enzyme activities, lipolysis and the anti-lipolytic action of insulin. In the skeletal muscle lipid storage, glucose phosphorylation and oxidation were normalized. Chia seed reversed the impaired insulin stimulated glycogen synthase activity, glycogen, glucose-6-phosphate and GLUT-4 protein levels as well as insulin resistance and dyslipidemia.
Physical properties of Salvia hispanica L. seeds were investigated and their application was also discussed. Physical properties were assessed for white and dark seed separately, except for the angle of repose and static coefficient of friction, which were determined for the seed mixture. The mean moisture content was 7.0% (dry basis). The average for the three characteristic dimensions, length, width and thickness was 2.11, 1.32 and 0.81 mm for dark seeds and 2.15, 1.40 and 0.83 mm for white seeds, respectively. The bulk density, true density and the porosity were between 0.667 and 0.722 g cm−3, 0.931 and 1.075 g cm−3, and 22.9 and 35.9%, respectively. The equivalent diameter ranged from 1.32 to 1.39 mm. The volume of single grain and sphericity ranged between 1.19 and 1.42 mm3, and 62.2 and 66.0%, respectively. The geometric mean diameter ranged between 1.31 and 1.36 mm for dark and white chia seeds, respectively. This parameter could be used for the theoretical determination of seed volume and sphericity. One thousand seed mass averaged 1.323 g for dark seeds, and 1.301 g for white seed. The angle of repose varied between 16° and 18° whereas the value of static coefficient of friction was 0.28 on galvanized sheet and 0.31 on mild steel sheet.
Weight-loss supplements typically fall into 1 of 4 categories depending on their hypothesized mechanism of action: products that block the absorption of fat or carbohydrate, stimulants that increase thermogenesis, products that change metabolism and improve body composition, and products that suppress appetite or give a sense of fullness. Each category is reviewed, and an overview of the current science related to their effectiveness is presented. While some weight-loss supplements produce modest effects (<2 kg weight loss), many have either no or few randomized clinical trials examining their effectiveness. A number of factors confound research results associated with the efficacy of weight-loss supplements, such as small sample sizes, short intervention periods, little or no follow-up, and whether the supplement is given in combination with an energy-restricted diet or increased exercise expenditure. There is no strong research evidence indicating that a specific supplement will produce significant weight loss (>2 kg), especially in the long term. Some foods or supplements such as green tea, fiber, and calcium supplements or dairy products may complement a healthy lifestyle to produce small weight losses or prevent weight gain over time. Weight-loss supplements containing metabolic stimulants (e.g., caffeine, ephedra, synephrine) are most likely to produce adverse side effects and should be avoided.