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Abstract

Wireless networks traffic has experienced a considerable growth in recent years. Likewise, it is to be expected that billions of objects will be connected to the Internet in years to come, many of them wirelessly. Such increase in a number of wireless connections and the inevitability of wireless communications in proximity of users highlight the healthcare concern on electromagnetic field (EMF) exposure. Thus, the intelligent monitoring systems, such as the Serbian Electromagnetic Field Monitoring Network-SEMONT-have been required to be developed and utilized for continuous and real-time EMF monitoring, as well as for the assessment of the potential in situ daily exposure of population. This paper presents the results of the SEMONT initial campaign of continuous monitoring of the high-frequency electric field strength over the campus of the University of Novi Sad, as an open area environment. Several locations, most frequently visited by the student population in their everyday activities, have been monitored during the rush hour in order to determine the fluctuation of daily exposure on this, usually considered, highly sensitive area. The results of monitoring suggest that potential exposure is far below the allowable limit, regarding reference levels prescribed by the Serbian legislation for the general population.

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... Generally, regarding university campuses, a lack of continuous measurements and investigation of EMF exposure on long-term basis can be noticed. Therefore, during 2012, the initial broadband EMF monitoring campaign was carried out over the campus of the University of Novi Sad − UNS (Djuric et al. 2015). The campaign was based on the continuous measurement approach, performing long-term monitoring over the campus' open area. ...
... The goal of the 2018 campaign was to establish a systematic EMF investigation over such highly sensitive area, as well as to perform comparative analyses of EMF levels. During the 2018 campaign, the measurements were made at the same locations, applying the same measuring protocol, developed in the SEMONT system, and applied in the initial 2012 campaign (Djuric et al. 2015). ...
... When the 2012 campaign was performed, two base stations (marked with BS1 and BS2 in Fig. 1) were installed on the edge of the campus (Djuric et al. 2015). These were threesector base stations providing GSM 900 and GSM 1800 communication services, installed on the rooftops of two apartment buildings. ...
Article
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Following an increasing number of artificial electromagnetic field (EMF) sources in human surrounding, a number of research studies have been devoted to the issue of environmental EMF pollution. A particular attention has been attributed to the highly sensitive EMF zones, where people can stay for a longer period of time, which, among others, includes university campuses. Thus, the modern approach of long-term EMF monitoring has been established, carrying out cumulative field strength measurements at locations that are most visited by student population and university staff. The goal was to establish periodic and systematic EMF investigation over such highly sensitive areas, through a standardized procedure for EMF monitoring. In this paper, details about two EMF monitoring campaigns over the University of Novi Sad campus were presented, performing comparative analysis of their results. The obtained results revealed the increase (up to four times) of the cumulative field strength values, as well as the general population exposure, at specific locations. Between these two campaigns, the emergence of the new base station, as well as numerous Wi-Fi networks, was noticed in the campus. Consequently, the highest field strength values were acquired at two locations, most directly exposed to the main beams of base station’s antennas, although all obtained values were at least five times lower than the minimal reference levels prescribed by the Serbian legislation. Even though such results are acceptable, the future monitoring campaigns should be planned, particularly since the installation of new EMF sources are expected in the campus of the University of Novi Sad.
... For the first time, in this case study, the long-term measurements were performed in vicinity of "NS7 -South Telep" outdoor power substation, in the city of Novi Sad. Furthermore, the exposure assessment to the low-frequency magnetic field was conducted using newly proposed boundary exposure approach [7], [8], concerning the Serbian prescribed reference levels [9], [10]. ...
... This section considers the concept and some features of the SEMONT monitoring network, while a number of additional details can be found in previously published papers [4], [8]. ...
... In case of the SEMONT's broadband monitoring, the exposure assessment was performed using global exposure ratio (GER) [15] and boundary assessment approach [7], [8]. In the monitoring frequency band of the field probe, the minimal and maximal reference levels were used to determine the range where real exposure can be positioned, as shown in Fig. 3. Regarding the low-frequency magnetic field strength monitoring and the frequency range of Narda EFA 300 instrument, from 5 Hz to 32 kHz, the GER boundaries were calculated as: ...
... For the first time, in this case study, the long-term measurements were performed in vicinity of "NS7 -South Telep" outdoor power substation, in the city of Novi Sad. Furthermore, the exposure assessment to the low-frequency magnetic field was conducted using newly proposed boundary exposure approach [7], [8], concerning the Serbian prescribed reference levels [9], [10]. ...
... This section considers the concept and some features of the SEMONT monitoring network, while a number of additional details can be found in previously published papers [4], [8]. ...
... In case of the SEMONT's broadband monitoring, the exposure assessment was performed using global exposure ratio (GER) [15] and boundary assessment approach [7], [8]. In the monitoring frequency band of the field probe, the minimal and maximal reference levels were used to determine the range where real exposure can be positioned, as shown in Fig. 3. Regarding the low-frequency magnetic field strength monitoring and the frequency range of Narda EFA 300 instrument, from 5 Hz to 32 kHz, the GER boundaries were calculated as: ...
Conference Paper
The most known sources of the low-frequency electromagnetic field (EMF) can be found in electric power systems. Those systems and their power distribution parts have become the backbone of economic, technological and overall development of human society, intensely in modern-days. The actual humanity highly depends on the reliable power supply and thus a number of power distribution substations have been established, even in densely populated residential parts of the cities. The presence of such a power substation increases the public concerns on dangerous health effects, considering the exposure to EMF in the vicinity of substations. Thus, the comprehensive and detailed monitoring was demanded, along with the exposure assessment to EMF radiation. The continuous broadband monitoring method of the Serbian Electromagnetic Field Monitoring Network - SEMONT has been considered in this paper, in a case study of the power substation “NS7 - South Telep”, located in the city of Novi Sad, the Republic of Serbia. The exposure assessment, based on daily boundaries, has been employed, showing that acquired results emerge to be far below the Serbian prescribed reference levels.
... EMF exposure levels for the city of Alcalá de Henares (Spain) over a 10-year period using a broadband isotropic probe in the range from 100 kHz to 3 GHz were measured (Sanchez-Montero et al. 2017). Continuous and real-time EMF monitoring of the highfrequency electric field strength over the campus of the University of Novi Sad (Serbia) at several locations, most frequently visited by the student population in their everyday activities, was measured (Djuric et al. 2015). The RF-EMF exposure induced by LTE MC and SC networks, while considering radio emissions from both base stations and user equipment in two different urban cities (in France and the Netherlands), was characterized (Mazloum et al. 2019). ...
Article
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In this study, radiofrequency electromagnetic field (RF-EMF) measurements were carried out between 2016 and 2018 in one the largest provinces of Turkey; measurement results are compared with the limit values determined by International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) and Turkey’s Information and Communication Technologies Authority (ICTA). In the first stage of a three-phase evaluation, short-term RF-EMF measurements were conducted in 500 locations over a 2-year period. In the second stage, short-term RF-EMF measurement results were analyzed to determine selected locations for long-term RF-EMF measurements to be carried out, including variation of RF-EMF during the day. In the last stage, band selective measurements were taken and the main sources of RF-EMF in the environment were determined. Overall, RF-EMF values do not exceed the limits determined by ICNIRP and ICTA, and they are below levels that threaten public health. In the short-term RF-EMF measurements, RF-EMF levels doubled after fourth generation (4G) systems were introduced. In the long-term RF-EMF measurements, RF-EMF values in the day are 35.4% more than at night. The total measured RF-EMF within the city center is 99.3% base station sourced. Among the six main RF-EMF sources, the devices operating in UMTS2100 band have the most contribution to total RF-EMF of medium with 31.2%. Additionally, we found short-term average electric field strength data are best described by the “exponential distribution,” while long-term RF-EMF measurement data is best described by the “Burr distribution.”
... In the literature, several works focused on the use and description of peculiar and specific measurement systems, and experimental protocols can be found, as shown in Table 1. In Reference [9,10], the authors proposed an innovative monitoring system based on a wireless sensor network (WSN) able to keep under constant control the overall and cumulative EM field in the area of interest. The purpose of the system called SEMONT (Serbian ElectroMagnetic field MOnitoring Network) was the development of a useful tool for national and local agencies of Serbia for environmental protection, especially to keep under control electromagnetic pollution and to asses real-time exposure of the population. ...
Article
Full-text available
The knowledge of the electromagnetic field levels generated by radio base stations present in an urban environment is a relevant aspect for propagations and coverage issues, as well as for the compliance to national regulations. Despite the growing interest in the novel fifth generation (5G) technology, several aspects related to the investigation of the urban propagation of the Global System of Mobile Communication (GSM), third generation (3G), and fourth generation (4G) mobile systems in peculiar non-rural environments may be improved. To account for irregular geometries and to deal with the propagation in hilly towns, in this work we present an enhanced version of the COST231-Walfisch-Ikegami model, whose parameters have been modified to evaluate the path loss at distances greater than 20 meters from the radio base station. This work addressed the problem of providing an effective, reliable, and quantitative model for the estimation of electromagnetic field levels in built-up areas. In addition, we also developed and tested a pre-industrial software prototype whose aim is to make the estimated electromagnetic field levels available to the key players in the telecom industry, the local authorities, and the general population. We validated the proposed model with a measurement campaign in the small urban and irregular built-up areas of Dorgali (Nuoro), Cala Gonone (Nuoro), and Lunamatrona (Cagliari) in Sardinia (Italy).
... 2016b; Birks et al., 2018;Bolte et al., 2016;Calvente et al., 2015;Djuric et al., 2015;Gallastegi et al., 2018;Gonzalez-Rubio et al., 2016;Gryz and Karpowicz, 2015;Hardell et al., 2016;Hardell et al., 2017;Hedendahl et al., 2017;Kottou et al., 2015;Martens et al., 2015;Martens et al., 2016;Roser et al., 2017;Rowley and Joyner, 2016;Sagar et al., 2016;Sagar et al., 2018a;Sánchez-Montero et al., 2017;Thielens et al., 2015;Thielens et al., 2016;Valič et al., 2015;van Wel et al., 2017avan Wel et al., , 2017b were included in the review (Fig. 1). Table 1 shows the characteristics of included papers between 2015 and 2018. ...
Article
Communication technologies are rapidly changing and this may affect public exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF). This systematic review of literature aims to update a previous review on public everyday RF-EMF exposure in Europe, which covered publications until 2015. From 144 eligible records identified by means of a systematic search in PubMed, Embase and Web of Knowledge databases, published between May 2015 and 1 July 2018, 26 records met the inclusion criteria. We extracted quantitative data on public exposure in different indoors, outdoors and transport environments. The data was descriptively analyzed with respect to the exposure patterns between different types of environments. Mean RF-EMF exposure in homes, schools and offices were between 0.04 and 0.76 V/m. Mean outdoor exposure values ranged from 0.07 to 1.27 V/m with downlink signals from mobile phone base stations being the most relevant contributor. RF-EMF levels tended to increase with increasing urbanity. Levels in public transport (bus, train and tram) and cars were between 0.14 and 0.69 V/m. The highest levels, up to 1.97 V/m, were measured in public transport stations with downlink as the most relevant contributor. In line with previous studies, RF-EMF exposure levels were highest in the transportation systems followed by outdoor and private indoor environments. This review does not indicate a noticeable increase in everyday RF-EMF exposure since 2012 despite increasing use of wireless communication devices.
... This relates to the continual need of the population exposure level monitoring together with analyzing and evaluating of measured values. Studies published in recent years focused on different scopes: outdoor or indoor EMF exposure level measurement and assessment [1][2][3], comparing outdoor EMF exposure level measurements in several countries [4], long-term EMF exposure monitoring and EMF exposure assessment [5][6][7][8], personal EMF exposure assessment focused on band, time, location and activity variability [9][10][11]. ...
Conference Paper
Evaluation and analysis of the broadband monitoring measurements bring knowledge about the spatial and temporal trends of the population exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (EMF). This study analyses the dataset of EMF monitoring measurements in 70 locations of Slovakia and aims to detect the EMF sources, which determine the temporal trend of population exposure to radiofrequency EMF. We propose a data analysis approach to find a pattern of the similar radiofrequency bands in all measurement locations. Results showed that the population exposure variability over time is generally determined by the GSM 900 and UMTS 2100 services in Slovakia. Measurement data did not confirm the significant contribution of the wireless internet communication services to the temporal trend of population exposure in Slovakia and did not indicate any big discrepancies between different urban areas.
... Another project related to EMF assessment and monitoring was the Serbian electromagnetic field monitoring network (SEMONT) project that has been deployed and used for real-time EMF exposure assessment. The results of monitoring suggested that potential exposure is far below the recommended limit set by the Serbian legislation for the general population [52]. Their framework has then been used to measure the exposure caused by GSM when the variations in traffic conditions are taken into account [53]. ...
Article
Full-text available
The accurate measurement of electromagnetic exposure and its application is expected to become more and more important in future wireless communication systems, given the explosion in both the number of wireless devices and equipments radiating electromagnetic-fields(EMF)and the growing concerns in the general public linked to it. Indeed, the next generation of wireless systems aims at providing a higher data rate,better quality of service(QoS), and lower latency to users by increasing the number of access points,i.e.densification, which in turn will increase EMF exposure. Similarly, the multiplication of future connected devices,e.g. internet of things(IoT)devices, will also contribute to an increase in EMF exposure. This paper provides a detailed survey relating to the potential health hazards linked with EMF exposure and the different metrics that are currently used for evaluating,limiting and mitigating the effects of this type of exposure on the general public. This paper also reviews the possible impacts of new wireless technologies on EMF exposure and proposes some novel research directions for updating the EMF exposure evaluation framework and addressing these impacts in future wireless communication systems. For instance, the impact of mmWave or massive-MIMO/beamforming on EMF exposure has yet to be fully understood and included in the exposure evaluation framework.
... The results from the measurements and modeling showed that the E field values at all selected locations were below 5 kV/m specified by International Commission on Non-ionizing radiation protection (ICNIRP) and H field values did not exceed ∼28 μT (280 mG), which were within the allowable limits based on the ICNIRP and the European Communities EMF recommendations. Djuric et al. (2015) have monitored the high frequency electric field strength over the campus of University at Novi Sad during the rush period between 10 a.m. to 2 p.m. The results of their continuous monitoring period suggest that the electric field levels do not represent threat on human health. ...
Article
Full-text available
The surrounding outdoor environment for new development has a big effect on the indoor quality of life. The main aim of this work was to determine the suitability of the area for building new schools with reference to electromagnetic field (EMF) effects. The specific objective of this study was to detect the safe distance from the EMF posed by the high-tension overhead power lines in the vicinity of the specified area. The measurements were taken for both the electric and magnetic fields in different months in order to detect the highest EMF levels during the peak power load season. EMDEX II with E-probe and EMDEX II with Linda were used for the measurements. These instruments were all calibrated by ENERTECH Company in USA. The EMF associated with high tension transmission lines that surrounded the proposed site has to be below 0.2 μT (Italian EMF regulations are the most suitable regulations for the establishment of schools in Kuwait). The safety clearance distance from the existing 300-kV high-tension power line has been assigned as 200 m and from other existing 132-kV high-tension power line was 50 m. The proposed site with its predefined boundaries has a magnetic field below the Italian EMF regulations for the establishment of new schools.
... Although the topic of electromagnetic field exposure has been investigated both in terms of uncertainty contribution related to the measurement chain (see for example [14]) and with extended statistical analysis of measurement data over a given area [15][16][17][18]. ...
Article
The paper presents the experimental characterization of the maximum electromagnetic field generated by the GSM system measured by two methodologies, with the aim to provide a critical approach to the procedure indicated in the standards for exposure assessment. Results show that maximum exposure is unexpectedly variable over time and that the relative error between the two methodologies depends on the measurement conditions. Based on the experimental evidence, the standard assessment procedure may turn out to underestimate the peak exposure, thus leading to a less conservative estimate of the peak exposure than it is sough for.
Chapter
Given the explosion in both the number of wireless devices and equipment radiating electromagnetic fields ( EMF ) and the growing public concern about it, accurate measurement of electromagnetic exposure and its application are expected to become increasingly important in future wireless communication systems. Indeed, the next generation of wireless networks seeks to provide customers with faster data rates, better quality of service ( QoS ), and reduced latency by increasing the number of access point s ( AP s), i.e. densification, which will increase EMF exposure. Similarly, the proliferation of future linked gadgets, such as the Internet of things ( IoT ) devices, may increase EMF exposure. This chapter provides a detailed assessment of existing methods for measuring EMF exposure in various circumstances, such as during data transmission uplink/downlink, and provides details on the metrics that are most typically used for evaluating EMF exposure in wireless communication. It also determines which metrics are most suited for reducing exposure.
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This paper presents an evaluation of the WiFi exposure levels inside the university in the 2.4 GHz frequency band. The selected environment is the typical scenario where WiFi exposure concerns have increased in the last years, since a Wireless Local Area Network is deployed close to the users. Measurements of 1 h and 24 h duration were performed to assess the temporal and spatial variability of the signal. Two instruments were employed, a spectrum analyzer appropriate configured for recording accurate and realistic samples and an exposimeter. A detailed description of the equipment, the measurement procedure and data analysis is provided in order to allow the reproducibility of these types of measurements. Finally, a comparison of the WiFi levels obtained by other authors is presented, concluding that all these methods are useful for determining WiFi exposure distribution, but if more accurate results are required, professional equipment appropriately configured should be used.
Conference Paper
The Serbian Electromagnetic Field Monitoring Network — SEMONT has started with test monitoring of electromagnetic field (EMF) in a closed room. In this paper, the case study of the high-frequency electric field strength monitoring is presented, utilizing Narda AMB 8057/03 monitoring station. The monitoring procedure has been simultaneously performed in frequency ranges of 100 kHz–7 GHz, GSM 900, GSM 1800 and UMTS 2100, in a closed room of largest amphitheater of the Faculty of Technical Science, University of Novi Sad. The monitoring was conducted during real daily conditions and student's presence inside of the amphitheater, showing that the high-frequency electric field strength values are far below the Serbian's prescribed reference levels.
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The expected technological development, mostly found in the communication domain, will accordingly increase the number of artificial electromagnetic field (EMF) sources, as well as corresponding EMF exposure in the environment. Thus, EMF monitoring has been required worldwide and some innovative monitoring systems are being developed. Some of them are intended to simultaneously perform long-term monitoring and exposure assessment, as well as to timely inform the public on present EMF levels. The Serbian Electromagnetic Field Monitoring Network – SEMONT is one of such systems which has been activated recently. Considering the diversity of the existing EMF sources, as well as the opinion of the public that base stations generally contribute to the increased EMF level, the SEMONT system was designed to perform monitoring of the high-frequency electric field strength in four bands. First, in a wideband, from 100 kHz to 3 GHz, it observes the field strength from all local sources, and then in three sub-ranges of GSM 900, GSM 1800 and UMTS 2100, using the modern quad-band Narda AMB 8057/03 sensor station. In this paper, the SEMONT’s database support for the quad-band sensor utilization, as well as the results of initial in situ monitoring, have been presented. Regarding the test location, the acquired field strength results in all bands appear to be far below the Serbian prescribed reference levels.
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There is a high demand for monitoring the electromagnetic fields (EMFs) generated by communication systems and other radiofrequency (RF) technologies, in order to assess compliance with existing legislation and prescribed reference levels. The broadband EMF monitoring systems unquestionably represent one of the major innovations in this area, continuously measuring the total EMF from all surrounding sources and performing a real-time dissemination of the assessment results to the public. In this study, we analyze exposure data from 8 broadband EMF monitoring systems operating in 7 countries, which totalize over 400 active stations. The results of the analysis suggest that the exposure levels to RF-EMFs are quite similar between countries, and generally well below the reference levels defined by the national legislations.
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The boundary approach for the assessment of daily exposure to electromagnetic fields (EMF) has been recently proposed for the continuous and broadband EMF monitoring of the Serbian Electromagnetic Field Monitoring Network – SEMONT. This approach is based on the determination of the daily upper and lower exposure boundaries, combining data of the continuous in situ EMF monitoring in a broadband frequency range and the minimal and maximal prescribed reference levels. The real exposure is positioned between these boundaries. In this paper, the enhancement of the boundary approach is presented. By adjusting the existing boundaries and reducing the difference between them, the precision of the daily exposure assessment in the SEMONT system has been improved. The frequency selective measurement has been used to determine the frequencies on which EMF sources radiate over a particular area and in situ location. Consequently, the new minimal and maximal reference levels can be selected; these are suitable for a particular in situ location and should be used for the calculation of exposure boundaries on that location. A simple in situ test measurement of the high-frequency electric field strength was performed, in order to verify the proposed adaptive boundary approach. The analysis shows that this approach attained reduction in boundaries difference of 36.25%, regarding the Serbian legislation, resulting with the increased precision of the daily exposure assessment for the broadband EMF monitoring.
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The Serbian electromagnetic field monitoring network - SEMONT, has recently started taking initial broadband continuous measurements of electromagnetic (EM) field in surrounding environment. The SEMONT system is designed to perform daily observations of EM field sources present in the area covered by sensors network. The measurement results are collected and stored into a centralized database of EM field register and will be used to timely inform the public on real-time level of EM field and to determine the potential exposure of the general population, in accordance to the Serbian legislation and ICNIRP recommendations. An approach for the assessment of daily exposure limits, regarding the high-frequency electric field, is considered in this paper as a solution for the EM field broadband monitoring system - SEMONT.
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The inevitable increase of artificial electromagnetic (EM) field sources in surroundings has initiated the development of some modern systems for EM pollution observation. This paper presents a concept of the Serbian electromagnetic field monitoring network - SEMONT, which has been designed as an information network for automated, remote and continuous broadband EM monitoring in the environment. The SEMONT network provides the real-time information on the existing levels of the in-situ EM field strength and performs assessment of daily limits of a global exposure of general population, regarding Serbian legislation and ICNIRP recommendations. Having in mind increased risk of possible unhealthy effects of long-term exposure, the Ministry of Education and Science of the Republic of Serbia recognized the importance of the SEMONT system and has supported its development within the framework of the technological development of the Republic of Serbia.
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Electromagnetic (EM) fields are hardly noticeable and usually unknown for the general population. This unawareness and imperceptibility can generate distrust among the public, resulting in increased concerns on exposure to the EM radiation. The solution to these problems lies in the EM emission control, taking measurements and having a proper results presentation and communication with the public. Measurements turn the EM emissions into something objective and if presented to the public in an understandable format, they can help in diminishing unawareness and helplessness about the phenomenon of the EM field. As a support for the efforts to timely inform the public about real-time and overall level of EM field in the environment, our research team has started the development of the Serbian electromagnetic field monitoring network - SEMONT, intended for remote, continuous and intelligent, 24/365, broadband monitoring of EM fields. This paper considers the work in progress related to the development and testing of the SEMONT network and its Internet portal for the presentation of measurement results and the exposure assessment of general population.
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Average levels of exposure to radiofrequency (RF) electromagnetic fields (EMFs) of the general public in Europe are difficult to summarize, as exposure levels have been reported differently in those studies in which they have been measured, and a large proportion of reported measurements were very low, sometimes falling below detection limits of the equipment used. The goal of this paper is to present an overview of the scientific literature on RF EMF exposure in Europe and to characterize exposure within the European population. A comparative analysis of the results of spot or long-term RF EMF measurements in the EU indicated that mean electric field strengths were between 0.08 V/m and 1.8 V/m. The overwhelming majority of measured mean electric field strengths were <1 V/m. It is estimated that <1% were above 6 V/m and <0.1% were above 20 V/m. No exposure levels exceeding European Council recommendations were identified in these surveys. Most population exposures from signals of radio and television broadcast towers were observed to be weak because these transmitters are usually far away from exposed individuals and are spatially sparsely distributed. On the other hand, the contribution made to RF exposure from wireless telecommunications technology is continuously increasing and its contribution was above 60% of the total exposure. According to the European exposure assessment studies identified, three population exposure categories (intermittent variable partial body exposure, intermittent variable low-level whole-body (WB) exposure and continuous low-level WB exposure) were recognized by the authors as informative for possible future risk assessment.Journal of Exposure Science and Environmental Epidemiology advance online publication, 14 August 2013; doi:10.1038/jes.2013.40.
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Human exposure to background radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF) has been increasing with the introduction of new technologies. There is a definite need for the quantification of RF-EMF exposure but a robust exposure assessment is not yet possible, mainly due to the lack of a fast and efficient measurement procedure. In this article, a new procedure is proposed for accurately mapping the exposure to base station radiation in an outdoor environment based on surrogate modeling and sequential design, an entirely new approach in the domain of dosimetry for human RF exposure. We tested our procedure in an urban area of about 0.04 km(2) for Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM) technology at 900 MHz (GSM900) using a personal exposimeter. Fifty measurement locations were sufficient to obtain a coarse street exposure map, locating regions of high and low exposure; 70 measurement locations were sufficient to characterize the electric field distribution in the area and build an accurate predictive interpolation model. Hence, accurate GSM900 downlink outdoor exposure maps (for use in, e.g., governmental risk communication and epidemiological studies) are developed by combining the proven efficiency of sequential design with the speed of exposimeter measurements and their ease of handling. Bioelectromagnetics. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Article
The development of EMF monitoring and control systems unquestionably represents one of the major innovations in the range of methodologies for evaluating, through measurement, the so-called environmental electromagnetic pollution. The interest recently shown by ARPA and municipal and provincial councils for setting up electromagnetic field monitoring and control systems has created significant developments in the field under examination. This paper attempts to provide a complete overview of the technical possibilities provided by electromagnetic field monitoring and control systems in the environment and their possible applications. Equipment currently available and under development is described, as well as the most significant work-in-progress in this sector. In the near future, several monitoring systems will be proposed and set up by municipalities and provinces, or directly by telecommunications companies. For this reason, it is more than ever necessary that agreement be reached at a national level to define a unified methodological and operating approach to enable monitoring data from different sources to be compared.
Article
This paper reports the results of an exposure level survey of radiofrequency electromagnetic energy originating from mobile telephone base station antennas. Measurements of CDMA800, GSM900, GSM1800, and 3G(UMTS) signals were performed at distances ranging over 50 to 500 m from 60 base stations in five Australian cities. The exposure levels from these mobile telecommunications base stations were found to be well below the general public exposure limits of the ICNIRP guidelines and the Australian radiofrequency standard (ARPANSA RPS3). The highest recorded level from a single base station was 7.8 x 10(-3) W/m(2), which translates to 0.2% of the general public exposure limit.
Conference Paper
A fully automated monitoring system performing measurements of the RF electric field strength in several sites is presented. The system consists of the remote stations and the central control unit. The remote monitoring stations are geographically distributed and the data collection is achieved via the GSM network. The development of software tools eliminates any human intervention. The measured electric field is compared to the reference levels defined in the Greek standards (2000) and the results are presented to the public on a regular basis using the "Hermes" web site (Ref.2). The measured electric field values from the remote stations are significantly below the reference levels.
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Djuric, N., Kljajic, D., Kasas-Lazetic, K., & Prsa, M. (2013b). Test implementation of the Serbian monitoring network SEMONT, Acta Electrotehnica, Special Issue, Proceedings of the 5th International Conference on modern Power Systems MPS 2013, Cluj-Napoca, Romania, vol. 54, no. 5, 167-170.
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Narda safety test solutions GmbH, EF 0691 Electric Field User’s Guide, Narda
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