Conference PaperPDF Available

Abstract

Building Automation Systems (BAS) are crucial to monitor and control buildings, ranging from small homes to critical infrastructure, such as airports or military facilities. A major problem in this context is the security of BAS communication protocols and devices. The building automation and control networking protocol (BACnet) is integrated into products by more than 800 vendors worldwide. However, BACnet devices are vulnerable to attacks. We present a novel solution for the two most important BACnet layers, i.e. those independent from the data link layer technology, namely the network and the application layer. We provide the first implementation and evaluation of traffic normalization for BAS traffic. Our proof of concept code is based on the open source Snort normalizer.
The final publication is available at link.springer.com.
DOI: 10.1007/978-3-319-18467-8 41
Securing BACnet’s Pitfalls
Jaspreet Kaur, Jernej Tonejc, Steffen Wendzel, and Michael Meier
Fraunhofer FKIE, Bonn, Germany
{jaspreet.kaur, jernej.tonejc, steffen.wendzel,
michael.meier}@fkie.fraunhofer.de
Abstract. Building Automation Systems (BAS) are crucial for moni-
toring and controlling buildings, ranging from small homes to critical
infrastructure, such as airports or military facilities. A major concern in
this context is the security of BAS communication protocols and devices.
The building automation and control networking protocol (BACnet) is
integrated into products of more than 800 vendors worldwide. However,
BACnet devices are vulnerable to attacks. We present a novel solution
for the two most important BACnet layers, i.e. those independent of the
data link layer technology, namely the network and the application layer.
We provide the first implementation and evaluation of traffic normaliza-
tion for BAS traffic. Our proof of concept code is based on the open
source software Snort.
Keywords: BACnet, network, security, attack, intrusion detection, traf-
fic normalization, building automation, Snort
1 Introduction
BACnet (Building Automation and Control Networking Protocol) is an open data
communication protocol developed by ASHRAE (American Society of Heating,
Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Engineers), standardized by ISO 16484-5 [1]
and used for building automation systems (BAS). In general, BAS are integrated
in and capable of controlling and monitoring buildings. Moreover, BAS form
networks which can be interconnected with other buildings and the Internet (e.g.,
for remote monitoring purposes). In order to support interoperability, BACnet
can use different lower level network protocols to perform its functions [2]. In
addition to BACnet, the European Installation Bus (EIB)/Konnex (KNX), and
the Local Operating Network (LON) are the most common BAS protocols used in
practice. The main goals of BAS are to improve the energy efficiency of buildings,
to increase the comfort and safety of the people living or working in a building,
and to decrease a building’s operational costs.
Because of the immense growth of BAS, especially BACnet, the need for
secure interconnection between BAS devices is increasing. Currently, there are
neither intrusion detection nor intrusion prevention systems which are capable
of detecting or preventing various network and application layer based attacks
on BACnet devices. Although security features for BAS protocols are specified
2 Kaur et al.
in their standards and have improved over time, they are, as highlighted in dis-
cussions with our industry partners, usually neither integrated in devices nor
used in practice. Due to the Internet connectivity of BACnet systems and the
fact that BACnet devices can be found using the SHODAN search engine (cf.
www.shodanhq.com), remote attacks on BACnet devices can also be performed.
Such attacks can, for instance, compromise smoke detectors or other critical BAS
equipment. According to [3], there were more than 100,000 Internet-connected
smart devices (including media players, smart televisions and at least one re-
frigerator) interconnected to a network of computers, which were able to send
750,000 spam emails between December 23, 2013 and January 6, 2014. In addi-
tion, the so-called smart building botnets could extend the capabilities of today’s
botnets by taking advantage of a building’s physical capabilities (sensors and
actuators) [4].
In this paper, we show how to prevent the exploitation of vulnerabilities at
the BACnet network and application layers. In particular, devices which interact
with humans have to be both secure and safe; otherwise they can threaten and
compromise human life. We improve network and application reliability and se-
curity with traffic normalizers (also known as protocol scrubbers [5] from TCP/IP
networks). In TCP/IP networks, traffic normalization is capable of preventing
various attacks on TCP/IP stack implementations [7]. So far, there is no BAS
protocol for which traffic normalization has been applied. The building automa-
tion devices usually remain in buildings for decades, possess limited processing
power and insecure firmware, and often cannot cope with malformed or malicious
packets, hence there is an increased need for such normalizers.
We analyze the BACnet network and the application layer with its poten-
tial vulnerabilities and its potential non-compliant behavior, with the goal of
ensuring that BACnet devices receive correctly formed messages. In addition,
we study the well-known attacks from TCP/IP and adapt them to the corre-
sponding BACnet network and application layer, in order to design effective
countermeasures. Based on the discovered vulnerabilities, we present the first
implementation of traffic normalization for building automation systems in the
form of a Snort [6] extension. Additionally, our normalization rules provide a
means to counter fuzzing attacks and protect BACnet devices which are are not
usually updated because patching is a challenging task for BAS. We design our
system to normalize traffic between BAS subnets (e.g., between different floors
of a building or between separate buildings). Our normalizer implementation
ensures that the transferred packets reach the receiver well-formed according to
the protocol standard, without protocol vulnerabilities. The Snort extension is
implemented in a way that gives us an opportunity to either limit or prevent the
initiated intrusions mentioned in this paper.
The rest of the paper is structured as follows. We summarize the related
work in the area of BACnet security in Sect. 2. In order to make our method
of protecting vulnerabilities in the BACnet network and application layer un-
derstandable, we provide a short overview on the relevant parts of the BACnet
protocol in Sect. 3. Section 4 lists several vulnerabilities that were found by look-
Securing BACnet’s Pitfalls 3
ing at the specifications of the standard, together with the adaptations of the
TCP/IP attacks. Our normalization rules are presented in Sect. 5. The overview
of the testing environment is presented in Sect. 6. In Sect. 7, we evaluate and
summarize our results and discuss future work.
2 Related Work
Earlier installations of BAS were designed to work as isolated standalone systems
with minimal security features. As the BAS functionality requirements increased,
interconnectivity, interoperability, and especially Internet access for BAS became
significant features. However, the interconnectivity of BAS enables remote at-
tacks. Attacks on BAS can focus on gaining physical access to a building [8] (e.g.,
by exploiting window or door actuators), on gaining access to an organizational
intranet [9], on terrorist attacks [8] (e.g., turning off fire alarms before a fire is
placed), on monitoring inhabitants [10], or on disabling a building’s function-
ality via denial-of-service (DoS) attacks [11].
ˇ
Celeda et al. [12] and Szl´osarczyk
et al. [13] showed that different types of DoS attacks exist for BAS. As pointed
out by Bowers [14], BACnet devices are not robust enough to deal with abnormal
traffic, since protocol implementations are vulnerable to malformed packets and
various forms of attacks. The BACnet Attack Framework (BAF) [14] introduces
attack techniques, namely attacks on the BACnet routing, network mapping,
DoS and spoofing. The existing work provides a good estimate of the current
attack surface for BAS networks.
In terms of defense against (some of) the attacks mentioned above, the BAC-
net Firewall Router (BFR) [15] is the first approach integrating simple firewall
functionality in BACnet. BFR is an open source project that implements filters
for BACnet messages and is capable of performing NAT, software-side network
switching, and routing. However, the BFR does not possess any normalization
capabilities. In comparison to the previous work, we present the first traffic nor-
malization for BAS capable of
countering typical attacks known from TCP/IP networks,
ensuring compliance, and
increasing robustness against vulnerability tests and fuzzing attacks.
3 Structure of BACnet NPDU and APDU
BACnet’s purpose is to handle a number of application areas such as lighting,
fire alarms, and heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC) in a cost
effective, interoperable, and reliable manner [16]. BACnet defines four layers
(physical, data link, network, and application layer), similar to the particular
functions of the OSI layers (shown in Fig. 1) and is designed to adapt to different
data link and physical layer technologies to achieve data link layer-independent
communication. BACnet network layer messages can be encapsulated in UDP
(referred to as BACnet/IP), the BACnet-specific protocol MS/TP (RS485) or
4 Kaur et al.
LonTalk ZigBee. The BACnet model differs from the OSI layer model in that the
BACnet application layer is additionally responsible for performing and handling
the message segmentation and reassembly, a feature usually accomplished by the
transport layer.
OSI Layer BACnet Stack Protocol
Application BACnet Application Layer
Network BACnet Network Layer
Data Link
BACnet/IP over
ISO 8802-2 LLC
MS/TP
LONTalk
PTP BVLL BZLL
Physical Ethernet ARCNET RS485 RS232 UDP/IP ZigBee
Fig. 1. BACnet OSI Layers, from [1].
Our work focuses on the network and application layers. Therefore, we need
to introduce the addressing scheme and the structure of the BACnet Network
Protocol Data Unit (NPDU) and the Application Protocol Data Unit (APDU).
Each BACnet device has a medium access control (MAC) address which is
combined with the BACnet (sub)net number to form the network level address.
An essential feature in BACnet is broadcasting. Due to the nature of BACnet
topology, three types of broadcasts are supported: local, global, and remote.
NPCI
Octets Description
1 Version
1 NPCI Control Octet (CO)
2 Destination Network (DNET)
1 Destination Address Length (DLEN)
Variable Destination Address (DADR)
2 Source Network (SNET)
1 Source Address Length (SLEN)
Variable Source Address (SADR)
1 Hop Count
NSDU Variable
Network Layer Message or
Application Layer Protocol
Data Unit (APDU)
Bit Description
7 Indication
6 Reserved
5 Dest. Specifier
4 Reserved
3 Source Specifier
2 Expecting Reply
1
Priority
0
Fig. 2. BACnet NPDU format (left) and NPCI control octet (right). In NPCI control
octet, Bit 7 indicates whether the NSDU contains a network layer message (bit is set)
or an APDU (bit is unset). Based on [1].
Securing BACnet’s Pitfalls 5
3.1 Network Layer
Even if the BACnet network layer is embedded into various data link layer
protocols, the NPDU structure remains unchanged. We will focus on BACnet/IP,
i.e. BACnet encapsulated in UDP sent over IPv4 [1], for which we define our
normalization rules. The structure of the BACnet NPDU is shown in Fig. 2.
3.2 Application Layer
An application program which uses the BACnet protocol interacts with a BAC-
net peer device. The purpose of the interaction itself is mainly to invoke device-
specific behavior, e.g. switching on/off a lighting device or ringing an alarm bell
of an alarm device. To realize application-specific behavior, so-called objects are
specified for functional behavior and services are specified for the interaction
with the devices. The application layer then defines all required objects and
services for a device’s interaction with an application program. Notice that the
application itself is independent of the application layer and is outside the scope
of the BACnet ISO standard. In particular, the standard does not specify the
Application Programming Interface (API).
For normalization, the relevant part of the APDU is the first region, called
the Application Protocol Control Information (APCI), which is always present
and whose length varies from 2 to 6 bytes depending on the PDU type. An
example of a Confirmed Request PDU is shown in Fig. 3.
0 3 4 7
PDU Type SF MF SA 0
0
max response
seg. accepted
max APDU length
accepted
Invoke ID
Sequence Number
Proposed Window Size
Service Choice
· · ·
Fig. 3. BACnet APCI for Confirmed Request PDU (PDU Type = 0). From [1, p. 538].
4 Exploiting the BACnet Network and Application Layer
We base our normalization rules and the need for traffic normalization by looking
at the potential security deficits in BACnet. We group our attacks on BACnet/IP
into two main categories: attacks adapted from TCP/IP, and attacks specific to
6 Kaur et al.
BACnet. Each category represents the possible vulnerabilities allowing the ex-
ploitation of BACnet devices by taking advantage of primitive vulnerabilities in
the network or application layer. We give a brief overview of the general attacker
model. In this model, the attacker is outside the BACnet network with a goal
to exploit a BACnet device. He is sending packets remotely to a BACnet device
(e.g. fire alarm, HVAC or a simple door) through a BACnet Broadcast Man-
agement Device (BBMD), which forwards all the packets to the corresponding
device. This scenario can be considered as the standard approach to attack BAC-
net environments remotely as BBMDs are always present to handle broadcasts
between BACnet devices. The model is graphically depicted in Fig. 4 left.
BBMD
Fire
Alarm
Internet
HVAC Door
Sensors and Actuators
Attacker
BACnet over IP
BBMD
Light
Internet
Sensors and Actuators
Attacker
PDU-Type: Conf.Service Req
SADR = 00:2A:15:00:3C:F3
Elevator
Attacker
controlling a
lighting switch
SADR = 00:2A:15:00:3C:F3
Fig. 4. General Attacker model (left) and an attack through a controlled BACnet
device (right).
4.1 Attacks adapted from TCP/IP
Covert Channels. As shown in [10], BACnet allows for creating network covert
channels, i.e. the policy-breaking communication channels capable of transferring
data in a stealthy manner which can enable hidden command and control com-
munication for botnets. Disguised as BACnet traffic, malware could use BAC-
net covert channels to hide illegitimate or confidential data within unobtrusive
Internet-based traffic.
Many hiding techniques for network covert channels are based on the idea of
embedding hidden information in the unused NPDU and APDU fields. In the
case of BACnet, all reserved bits can serve the purpose of embedding hidden
information. Moreover, the use of particular BACnet message types and timing
variations between BACnet messages can signal hidden information [10].
Abnormal behavior leading to botnets in BAS. Referring to the example
of a refrigerator sending spam mails (cf. Sect. 1), we extended our research to
Securing BACnet’s Pitfalls 7
examine the compromised BACnet devices, including BBMDs. Our concern is
to provide security measures for the BACnet protocol against the abnormal
behavior.
ˇ
Celeda et al. [12] introduced two examples of attacks that can serve as
a backdoor for an attacker in a BACnet network. The WriteProperty attack can
cause a BBMD or a BACnet device to switch on/off, resulting in an opportunity
for an attacker gaining access to the restricted BACnet network. In general,
the WriteProperty attack and disabling of network connection are possible by
changing values in BACnet’s object properties, respectively misusing BACnet
services, i.e. in application layer [12].
In addition, after successfully attacking a BACnet device, an attacker has an
opportunity to use the device’s communication channel within the subnet. One
of the possible examples of such a scenario is shown in Fig. 4 right. We assume
the attacker has determined the details of both BACnet devices in the subnet
with the help of probing. If he takes over the lighting device, as shown in Fig. 4
right, then he gains the ability to transfer any kind of message he wants.
For instance, he can send a packet with an APDU containing a BACnet-
Confirmed-Request to the elevator device in which the service-related data in-
dicates the elevator should stop immediately. Because the lighting device is in
the subnet, it is trusted whenever authenticity checks are performed, hence the
attacker is able to bypass this security mechanism. The elevator accepts the
request, sends a BACnet-Simple-ACK, and stops immediately.
4.2 Attacks specific to BACnet/IP
Standard Non-conformance. We start by simply listing the vulnerabilities
which are tolerated by the standard. We distinguish the following terms, related
to the packets: compliant traffic fulfill the requirements given by the standard
and non-compliant traffic contain packets that do not conform to the standard,
e.g. malformed packets. Malicious packets are defined as packets designed to
exploit a threat. Malicious packets can either be compliant or not. We present
the following two examples to illustrate:
1. Network Mapping: An attacker is able to map the network with standard-
compliant messages like Who-is requests. Additionally, he is able to send
NPDUs containing application-specific APDU messages to probe the net-
work. The messages with reachable destination addresses are always for-
warded by the BBMD to the corresponding BACnet devices [17]. If a device
understands the service-related data contained in the payload, it gives a valid
response, otherwise the device returns an error. On getting a response, the
attacker knows which kind of devices can be addressed, e.g. fire alarm, HVAC
or a door. As all BACnet devices send responses, he is additionally able to
infer where (i.e. in which subnet) a device is located since the requests and
responses contain the destination and source addresses.
2. Flooding Attack: In this case, we consider the malformed packets, i.e. each
packet must possess at least one incorrect bit, according to the standard,
either in NPDU or APDU. Since BACnet devices do not drop the packets
8 Kaur et al.
but instead try to accept and process any request, the incorrectly set bits in
NPCI and APCI pose a threat to them.
Thus, an attacker can break a device by sending a flood of identical or
different packets, making the number of packets received by the device far
higher than normal. As a consequence, this can cause a denial-of-service, or
force unintentional behavior by the device.
Vulnerable protocol design. By analyzing the protocol structure of BACnet
and behavior of devices during communication procedure of certain messages,
we categorize the following attacks.
1. Smurf Attack: In BACnet, if an attacker is able to modify the source (SADR
and SNET) at the network layer, he will be able to spoof the address of
broadcast requests and can cause a denial-of-service for selected BACnet
devices. A smurf attack on BACnet is feasible as many BACnet devices
are either old (BAS hardware is seldom altered over decades) or possess
substantially lower processing capabilities than today’s desktop computers
and smart phones.
2. Router Advertisement Flooding: A similar attack is possible if an attacker is
able to spoof a target device’s source address and source network (SADR and
SNET) to send a Who-is-Router-to-Network message (requesting a router
advertisement for a given network). The result is that the target will receive
router advertisements from all the routers in the local network. If the attacker
repeats this procedure and sends too many repeated messages, the target
is likely to receive more responses in a time window than it can normally
handle, causing a denial-of-service.
3. Traffic Redirection: An attacker can spoof I-Am-Router-to-Network [12] or
Router-Available-to-Network messages, i.e. messages indicating the avail-
ability of a router, with the goal to redirect selected traffic over itself to gain
confidential monitoring data (e.g., presence sensor data of a given room to
plan a physical break-in [18]).
4. Re-Routing DoS, Type 1 : To cause a message flood on a router R or a BBMD,
an attacker can broadcast spoofed I-Am-Router-To-Network messages to the
network using the source address of R. Therefore, all possible destination
network addresses can be used as a parameter for the router advertisement.
This attack forces R to handle all responses to the I-Am-Router-To-Network
message and, moreover, forces R to handle all remote traffic.
5. Re-Routing DoS, Type 2 : If the target device of the Type 1 attack is not a
router, an attacker can redirect all the traffic for remote networks to a de-
vice incapable of forwarding messages, thus, isolating the communication of
a subnet. The scenario is similar to the one where the victim’s address can be
spoofed in a Router-Available-to-Network message. It is important to men-
tion that broadcast floods in BACnet networks can also be caused by devices
which are not configured properly. At least three examples from practice are
known [13]: i) the wrong setup of layer two switches that can lead to loops;
Securing BACnet’s Pitfalls 9
ii) the use of multiple broadcasting BBMDs in a chain without a broadcast-
limiting router device in the chain; iii) the combination of BACnet/Ethernet
ISO 8802-3 and BACnet/IP routers within the same infrastructure config-
ured to use the same UDP port (leads to permanent broadcast exchanges
between the two layers).
5 A Snort-Based BACnet Normalizer
We implemented a Snort-based normalizer extension capable of normalizing
BACnet/IP traffic based on a configuration file. Supporting BACnet/IP allows
extending our work to non-IP-based data link-layer protocols used by BACnet.
The Snort extension includes countermeasures for each discussed attack vec-
tors. The rules serve to remove ambiguities within the traffic in order to achieve
compliant traffic.
5.1 Standard conformity
Ensuring robustness for the protocol stacks of BACnet devices is essential as
firmware is seldom updated. Therefore, malformed packets violating the rules
of the BACnet standard must be modified or discarded to achieve specificity.
We list countermeasures in the form of normalization rules for the variants of
malformed packets which succeed in compromising a BACnet device or the whole
network, as mentioned in Sect. 4. The rules are split into five categories: NPCI
field, BACnet non-security message types, BACnet security message types, APCI
field, and the handling of BACnet priority messages.
NPCI field. Being an ever present component of a BACnet NPDU, the NPCI
field including the NPCI control octet (CO) can always be normalized. Reasons
to DROP messages:
1. Protocol Version Number != 0x01
2. DNET = 0, or SNET = 0, or SNET = 0xFFFF
3. Multicasts and local broadcasts with DNET=0xFFFFFFFFFFFF using ISO 8802-
3, DNET=0x00 using ARCNET or LonTalk, DNET=0xFF using MS/TP
4. Bit 3 of CO is 1 and SLEN = 0
5. Unicast message with DNET = 0xFFFF
Reasons to MODIFY messages:
1. Set DLEN = 0 and DADR=0 if the message is a remote broadcast
2. Set bits 6 and 4 of CO to 0
BACnet Non-Security Message Types. As explained in Sect. 3, bit 7 of the
NPCI control octet indicates whether a BACnet message represents a network
layer message or an APDU. Table 1 shows the possible network layer message
types. We determined the following normalization rules for non-security network
layer message types. We DROP the message, if the message type is any of the
following:
10 Kaur et al.
Table 1. BACnet Network Layer Message Types. Security message types are marked
with
.
Type Description Type Description
0x00 Who-Is-Router-To-Network 0x0B
Security-Payload
0x01 I-Am-Router-To-Network 0x0C
Security-Response
0x02 I-Could-Be-Router-To-Network 0x0D
Request-Key-Update
0x03 Reject-Message-To-Network 0x0E
Update-Key-Set
0x04 Router-Busy-To-Network 0x0F
Update-Distribution-Key
0x05 Router-Available-To-Network 0x10
Request-Master-Key
0x06 Initialize-Routing-Table 0x11
Set-Master-Key
0x07 Initialize-Routing-Table-Ack 0x12 What-Is-Network-Number
0x08 Establish-Connection-To-Network 0x13 Network-Number-Is
0x09 Disconnect-Connection-To-Network 0x14-0x7F Reserved for use by ASHRAE
0x0A
Challenge-Request 0x80-0xFF Available for vendor proprietary messages
1. 0x02, 0x03, 0x08 or 0x13, and 4 or more bytes follow the type field
2. 0x01, 0x04 or 0x05, and an odd number of bytes follows the type field
3. 0x06 or 0x07, and more than 4× NUMBER OF PORTS +
Sum of all PORT INFO LENGTHs bytes follow the type field
4. 0x00 or 0x09, and more than 2 bytes follow after message type field
5. 0x00: Limit the number of messages to m per second
6. 0x01 and the message is not transmitted with a broadcast MAC
7. 0x12 and the message is not transmitted with a local address, or if Hop-Count > 0,
or if SADR is the same during n minutes
8. 0x13 and SNET/SADR or DNET/DADR is set or the message is sent to a local
unicast address
Parameters m and n are configurable and depend on the particular hardware
used (for example, in collaboration with industry partners we determined m =
180 as a reasonable value).
BACnet Security Message Types. We define rules for security messages as
stated in [17]. Error messages in each case should always be sent signed-trusted.
We DROP the message, if the message type is any of the following:
1. 0x0A, 0x0E, 0x0F or 0x11, and the message is broadcast
2. 0x0A and more than 9 bytes follow the type field
3. 0x0B and more payload is transferred than specified
4. 0x0C and
(a) the RESPONSE CODE (RC) is 0x06 and the length ` of
RESPONSE SPECIFIC PARAMETERS is > 4, or
(b) RC=0x07 and ` > 2, or
(c) RC=0x0E and ` is even and the first byte is not 0x00, or
(d) RC=0x0F and ` > 2, or
(e) RC=0x15 and ` > 1, or
(f) RC=0x16 and ` > 3, or
(g) RC=0x17 and ` > 2, or
(h) RC=0x18 and ` > 1
5. 0x0D and more than 19 bytes follow the type field
6. 0x0E and more than 21 bytes + bytes of keys follow the type field
Securing BACnet’s Pitfalls 11
7. 0x0F and more than 1 byte + bytes of keys follow the type field
We MODIFY the messages as follows:
1. Set bit 2 of CO to 1 if the type is 0x0A, 0x0D, 0x0E, 0x0F or 0x11
2. Set bit 2 of CO to 0 if the type is 0x0C or 0x10
APCI field. Whenever bit 7 of the NPCI control octet is 0, the content of
the NSDU is an APDU, in which case the APCI field is present and can thus
be normalized. Therefore, we implemented additional normalization rules. We
MODIFY the messages as follows (cf. Fig. 3):
1. Set the first bit in PDU Type to 0
2. Set bits 7 and 8 of APCI to 0 if PDU Type is 0
3. Set bits 4 7 of APCI to 0 if PDU Type is 1, 2, 5 or 6
4. Set bits 6 and 7 of APCI to 0 if PDU Type is 3
5. Set bits 4 and 5 of APCI to 0 if PDU Type is 4
6. Set bits 4 6 of APCI to 0 if PDU Type is 7
Handling of BACnet Priority Messages. BACnet allows assigning each
message a priority [1, pp. 68]. The priority is indicated by bits 1 and 0 within
the NPCI control octet (11=Life Safety, 10=Critical Equip, 01=Urgent, 00=Nor-
mal). The highest possible priority of a packet is the life safety message and can
be handled in a prioritized way by the receiving devices. However, in practice
this feature is rarely used. We aim to introduce normalization for packets of all
priority levels if they are not well-formed according to the ISO standard [1]. Nev-
ertheless, we must take into account that not all malformed packets are caused
by an attacker, and that dropping a life safety message can result in significant
side-effects if the message is not delivered but contains life-essential informa-
tion. Therefore, we require that life safety messages must be modified (in order
to match compliant NPDUs according to the standard as closely as possible)
and always forwarded, and should never be dropped. We are aware of the fact
that an attacker could explicitly take advantage of such a rule. In order to miti-
gate such attacks, one could require that BACnet messages sent with life-safety
priority MUST always have a trusted level, i.e. they must be either encrypted or
physically secured according to [17], so that the receiving device is aware of the
sending device. Life safety messages not encoded this way would be dropped.
This approach, however, requires the support in the devices, which is not always
possible.
5.2 Prevention of Network Covert Channels
The covert storage channels that an attacker could embed in the reserved bits
of the BACnet NPDU and APDU are disabled, as the normalizer clears these
bits. It is important to mention that other covert channels (especially timing
channels) cannot be eliminated with this approach and that many additional
hiding techniques for network covert channels are available. To counter additional
covert channels, extensions for caching packets before forwarding them would be
required, in order to limit the capacity of covert timing channels.
12 Kaur et al.
5.3 Closing Protocol Security Flaws
Unconstrained broadcasting in BACnet networks is a problem and allows for a
wide spectrum of attacks, as outlined in Sect. 4. In order to prevent flooding and
spoofing attacks, the appropriate limits for broadcast messages per time interval
must be defined. These limits depend on the particular BACnet devices and
are thus vendor-specific. In one empirical study, performed in co-operation with
a vendor of BACnet products, we measured that most tested BACnet devices
cannot process more than 180 messages per second.
6 BACnet Testbed
Our test environment is implemented using the open source BACnet stack (avail-
able at http://bacnet.sourceforge.net) and the virtual machines, each rep-
resenting multiple BACnet devices (see Fig. 5).
Linux VM 1
(Sender )
Fuzzer +
BACnet Stack
non-compliant
BACnet
test traffic
Linux VM 2
(Normalizer )
Snort-BACnet
compliant
BACnet
test traffic
Linux VM 3
(Receiver )
Wireshark +
BACnet Stack
Fig. 5. BACnet testbed for evaluating the Snort extension [13].
We setup the testing environment using three virtual machines (VMs). VM
1 represents the attacker who sends non-compliant BACnet traffic using the
fuzzer. The messages are first examined by the normalizer (VM 2) before they
are forwarded to the virtual BACnet device (VM 3). The destination host VM
3 monitors the received packets using Wireshark.
The fuzzer is implemented using the Scapy packet manipulation tool [19]. It
sends invalid and malformed packets to our test system in order to measure the
behavior and the performance of the test system. The fuzzer follows the rules
related to the structure of the messages as described in the ISO standard. To
simulate the denial-of-service scenarios we implemented the packet sending in
C, thus achieving very high packet send rates (upwards of 800,000 packets per
second).
The normalizer is created as an extension of the existing Snort [6] code with
our normalization rules for BACnet messages. Our extension is able to recognize
BACnet messages which are sent through UDP over IPv4. Each byte of the
NPDU and APDU can be analyzed in order to decide whether to forward, drop
or modify each packet according to a predefined rule set.
Securing BACnet’s Pitfalls 13
7 Evaluation and Future Work
The purpose of implementing the testbed is to verify the correctness and the
performance of the Snort-based normalizer by testing the prevention of attacks
(described in Sect. 4). To achieve this, we divided the BACnet/IP packets into
two sets, for each normalization rule (rules described in Sect. 5). The first set
contained non-compliant and malformed packets and the second set contained
compliant and legitimate packets. We created at least one malformed packet
for each normalization rule individually. Each set was further subdivided into
various subsets of different message types. We created different unit and generic
test cases to examine the behavior of packets from both sets.
As per the test environment setup, the messages were sent from VM 1 to
VM 3. For generic testing, we transmitted the messages using a fuzzer which
has the capability to send thousands of messages of a particular message type
at a time. This helps to evaluate the performance of the system in handling
flooding of messages. We tested scenarios with between 10,000 and 100,000 mes-
sages. By using Wireshark on the destination VM (VM 3), we observed that
the non-compliant messages were either dropped/blocked or modified correctly,
and compliant messages were transmitted to the destination without any in-
terruptions, so that all the received packets were handled as stated in Sect. 5.
We carried out this scenario (as stress-testing) to measure performance of the
destination, VM 3 the virtual machine representing the attacked BACnet
with and without a preceding normalizer. We flooded the device with a various
numbers of malformed packets. Without the normalizer, the target device was
unable to cope with the traffic. When the normalizer was enabled, none of the
malformed packets reached the device. During the test, the CPU load on the
normalizer VM (VM 2) was below 65% at all times.
For unit testing, we created 48 non-compliant test messages for different
message types. Each packet was created to test the normalization rules laid
down in Sect. 5. We also created 45 compliant test messages. These test messages
were sent individually to test the behavior of the normalizer VM 2. Our tests
showed that the normalizer was clearly able to differentiate between compliant
and non-compliant traffic and performed necessary actions whenever required
before forwarding packets to the destination VM 3.
Our future work will focus on the problem of detecting abnormal behavior
of infected or exploited BACnet devices.
ˇ
Celeda et al. [12] introduced a network
flow-based detection tool and provided a theoretical comparison to determine
anomalies in BACnet control flows using their network monitor tool. The au-
thors were able to record key information in order to detect a flood. Prevention
techniques, however, were not implemented in the tool. We plan to expand our
Snort normalizer extension to include detection and prevention of abnormal
traffic. By analyzing data collected from actual BACnet networks we will de-
velop application-specific rules and create a state machine that can distinguish
abnormal states from compliant ones. Furthermore, we plan to expand the nor-
malizer to handle segmentation-based attacks by performing packet reassembly
and caching within the normalizer.
14 Kaur et al.
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