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Bullying affects more than feelings: The long-term implications of victimization on academic motivation in higher education


Abstract and Figures

Bullying has become a prominent topic within education due to recent media headlines in the United States and abroad. The impact of these occurrences ripples beyond the bully and victim to include administrators, parents, and fellow students. While previous research has concluded bullying behaviors decrease as a child progresses in school, more recent studies found bullying can continue into college. The current project investigated differences between perceptions of bullying in high school and college along with how college students’ experiences with bullying impacted several constructs related to academic success (i.e., basic psychological needs, academic motivation, perceived social support, and perceived stress). Participants (N = 130, 68 male) completed a Perceptions of Bullying Questionnaire, Basic Psychological Needs Scale (BPNS), Academic Motivation Scale, Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support, Perceived Stress Scale, and a demographic data form. The results indicate participants who described themselves as either current or past bullying victims had significantly lower academic motivation than respondents who did not. In addition, current victims of bullying scored significantly lower on two of the three constructs in the BPNS: autonomy and competence. These findings suggest students are susceptible to bullying after high school, and the effects can negatively impact college life, academic motivation, and educational outcomes. In addition, past victimization can cause academic difficulties for college students, even after the harassment has ceased.
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Social Psychology of Education
An International Journal
ISSN 1381-2890
Volume 18
Number 1
Soc Psychol Educ (2015) 18:185-200
DOI 10.1007/s11218-014-9287-1
Bullying affects more than feelings: the
long-term implications of victimization on
academic motivation in higher education
Adena Young-Jones, Sophie Fursa,
Jacqueline S.Byrket & James S.Sly
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Soc Psychol Educ (2015) 18:185–200
DOI 10.1007/s11218-014-9287-1
Bullying affects more than feelings: the long-term
implications of victimization on academic motivation
in higher education
Adena Young-Jones · Sophie Fursa ·
Jacqueline S. Byrket · James S. Sly
Received: 22 January 2014 / Accepted: 20 October 2014 / Published online: 11 December 2014
© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2014
Abstract Bullying has become a prominent topic within education due to recent
media headlines in the United States and abroad. The impact of these occurrences
ripples beyond the bully and victim to include administrators, parents, and fellow stu-
dents. While previous research has concluded bullying behaviors decrease as a child
progresses in school, more recent studies found bullying can continue into college. The
current project investigated differences between perceptions of bullying in high school
and college along with how college students’ experiences with bullying impacted sev-
eral constructs related to academic success (i.e., basic psychological needs, academic
motivation, perceived social support, and perceived stress). Participants (N = 130,
68 male) completed a Perceptions of Bullying Questionnaire, Basic Psychological
Needs Scale (BPNS), Academic Motivation Scale, Multidimensional Scale of Per-
ceived Social Support, Perceived Stress Scale, and a demographic data form. The
results indicate participants who described themselves as either current or past bully-
ing victims had significantly lower academic motivation than respondents who did not.
In addition, current victims of bullying scored significantly lower on two of the three
Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s11218-014-9287-1)
contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
A. Young-Jones (
) · S. Fursa · J. S. Byrket · J. S. Sly
Psychology Department, Missouri State University, 901 South National Avenue, Springfield,
MO 65897, USA
S. Fursa
J. S. Byrket
J. S. Sly
Author's personal copy
186 A. Young-Jones et al.
constructs in the BPNS: autonomy and competence. These findings suggest students
are susceptible to bullying after high school, and the effects can negatively impact
college life, academic motivation, and educational outcomes. In addition, past victim-
ization can cause academic difficulties for college students, even after the harassment
has ceased.
Keywords Bullying · Higher education · Academic motivation · Basic psychological
needs · Basic needs
1 Introduction
Bullying is a prominent social and educational issue impacting students, families, and
schools around the world. When bullying acts are carried out on school grounds, expo-
sure to violence can result in students experiencing lower self-esteem, achievement,
and/or motivation in the classroom; academic achievement can also decline from low
social support or high stress while victimization is occurring. This leads researchers
to the following question: can current/previous bullying negatively impact academic
motivation at the collegiate level? Furthermore, this question needs to be addressed
globally as bullying practices are comparable across countries, and the trend may be
an international phenomenon. The present study sought to examine different factors
between students who occupied the role of bullying perpetrator or victim and how this
potentially impedes their success at a university.
Bullying behaviors differ f rom playful teasing, because the victim is a continuous
target and has few means in which to defend him/herself (Olweus 1993). School bullies
are classified based on the harassment method they employ. Three types referred to
consistently in the literature are physical, verbal, and relational bullies (Beale 2001).
Physical bullies primarily inflict violence on their victims by s hoving, punching, or
kicking. Verbal bullies utilize name-calling, personal threats, and other crude verbal
remarks to harass victims. Relational bullies use a slightly more sophisticated method.
They purposefully make individuals feel isolated; this could occur by outright exclu-
sion of the person from a group or by spreading false rumors. A more recent form of
bullying, labeled cyber-bullying, has become more frequent with advances in technol-
ogy (see Tokunaga 2010 for r eview). Cyber-bullying consists of all harassment that
takes place on an electronic device and encompasses sending vulgar text messages
and emails as well as posting derogatory comments on social media sites (Beale and
Hall 2007).
Though bullying methods may differ, 8 % of students report inflicting harm on
others more than twice in a given school week (Nansel et al. 2001). In this national
assessment on the scope of bullying, approximately 30 % of students admitted to
assuming either the role of bully, victim, or both. More recently, participants from
75 elementary schools, 20 middle schools, and 14 high schools in t he United States
reported that more than 40 % of s tudents play a bullying role (i.e., bully, victim, or
both) at least twice a month (Bradshaw et al. 2007). Likewise, they found more than
49 % of participants claimed to be victims and over 30 % reported bullying another
peer in the past month. With such substantial percentages of school-aged children
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Bullying damages more than feelings 187
engaging in these practices, understanding all aspects of bullying, both in and outside
the United States, is of the utmost importance.
Bullying has been cited as a widespread problem in education, affecting students
around the world (Hilton et al. 2010; Karatzias et al. 2002; Molcho et al. 2009; Nansel
et al. 2004). Yet, the research on international bullying is inconsistent. As addressed in
Borntrager et al. (2009), the majority of studies evaluating international samples have
been done in seclusion, each exercising their own definition of bullying and process
for assessing it. This has made comparing results across countries complicated as the
observable differences may be due to experimental methodology rather than variances
in bullying behaviors. Nevertheless, the few examinations utilizing a consistent pro-
cedure revealed that the prevalence of bullying varies by country (Molcho et al. 2009;
Nansel et al. 2004). In particular, Swedish children report significantly less bullying
than children from North America and other European countries. This may be due to
a national law in Sweden protecting schoolchildren from violence (Due et al. 2005).
Despite bullying rates differing from country to country, some international sim-
ilarities exist in bullying outcomes. Nansel et al. (2004) states that an association
between bullying involvement and lower psychosocial adjustment appeared in each
of the 25 countries they surveyed. Similarly noted in Molcho et al. (2009), most coun-
tries have experienced a decrease in bullying over time. Even though the amount of
decline differed for each participating country, the international community should be
encouraged since efforts to reduce bullying have been effective. Finally, cross-national
comparisons have reliably found that boys initiate bullying behaviors more often than
girls (Borntrager et al. 2009; Rigby and Slee 1991; Wolke et al. 2001).
Researchers have consistently found males are most often the victims and instigators
of school violence within the United States (Nansel et al. 2001; Seals and Young
2003). In addition, earlier works reveal males use physical forms of bullying most
often, whereas females resort to relational forms more frequently (Beale 2001; Nansel
et al. 2001). The few investigations centered on university students found that these
characteristics differ slightly in college (Chapell et al. 2004, 2006). In Chapell et al.
(2004), males bully more often than females, but in a follow-up study (2006), these
researchers asserted that both physical and verbal bullying forms are more prevalent in
males. No other gender differences appeared in their results. Furthermore, Chapell et
al. (2004) established that bullying is present on college campuses. Surprisingly, 60 %
of participants had witnessed some form of student-to-student bullying on campus
grounds with over 40 % of participants reporting they had witnessed a university
employee bully an enrolled student. This finding debunks the commonly held myth
that bullying is solely a childhood problem.
Not only does bullying occur in higher education, but the same students who are
victimized in college often suffered in elementary and high school as well (Adams
and Lawrence 2011; Chapell et al. 2006). This suggests that past victimization is
a risk factor for future victimization and the ‘bullying victim’ role remains stable
throughout time. Students who faced harassment all through their early schooling
may carry negative baggage from the experience into the collegiate environment.
Therefore, universities should inform professors, student affairs workers, residential
assistants, and others who work closely with students t hat bullying can occur on
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188 A. Young-Jones et al.
campus, and individuals who have experienced victimization in the past may need
extra encouragement and support.
Of the bullying studies utilizing college participants, most evaluate the long-term
effects previous victims carry into adulthood. For instance, researchers have examined
how self-esteem, psychological wellbeing, and stress levels differ between bullying
victims and their peers. The results show both self-esteem and psychological wellbeing
are significantly lower in past victims whereas stress levels are significantly higher
(Newman et al. 2005; Scafer et al. 2004; Sesar et al. 2012). Specifically, symptoms
of trauma, depression, and anxiety can remain long after harassment has concluded
(Sesar et al. 2012). Studies are still needed to determine whether the same impact is
present in college students who are currently experiencing maltreatment as opposed to
students who have experienced only past victimization. Moreover, research is needed
to relate these long-term effects to collegiate academic success.
Minimal research is available examining the academic consequences of bullying in
the college environment. To our knowledge, all cross-national studies have assessed
bullying i n a school-aged population; none have assessed students in higher education.
These studies report contradictory results in regard to academic achievement. Nansel
et al. (2001) asserted that bullies themselves had significantly lower school perfor-
mance scores. Yet, Woods and Wolke (2004) found bullies, specifically those who
execute relational forms of harassment, had significantly higher achievement scores.
Woods and Wolke also claimed that only victims of relational bullying had signif-
icantly lower academic scores, but other studies indicated victims in general score
lower academically (Glew et al. 2005; Schwartz et al. 2005). Additional research is
necessary to assess whether academic differences between past and current bullying
participants appear within the college population.
In higher education, the extent to which a student is motivated to learn is an impor-
tant component of academic success. Self-Determination Theory (SDT) emphasizes
the value of autonomy, relatedness, and competence in enhancing academic motiva-
tion (Deci and Ryan 1985, 2002). Referred to as the “basic psychological needs,
these three constructs are essential for maintaining overall psychological wellness. In
the classroom, SDT suggests that all three basic needs must be supported in order for
students to reach their highest academic potential (Deci and Ryan 2000; Fortier et al.
1995; Grolnick et al. 1991). The basic psychological needs have yet to be evaluated
in regard to bullying roles.
Alongside motivation, decreased levels of perceived stress and perceived social
support can negatively impact academic success (Bachrach and Read 2012; Cutrona
et al. 1994; Newman et al. 2005; Sharma 2013). Newman et al. (2005) researched
the extent to which victims of bullying felt stressed and isolated compared to peers.
Their results found victims experienced differing levels of stress in college based
on perceived social support. Students who faced constant victimization through their
younger schools years had lower stress levels if they perceived support from others
(i.e., family, friends, or a significant other). Effects of perceived social support and
perceived stress have not been evaluated in college students currently dealing with
The present study aimed to identify whether college students’ experiences with
bullying impacted several constructs related to academic success. The researchers were
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Bullying damages more than feelings 189
Table 1 Demographic characteristics of participants by sex
Demographic item Male (n = 68) Female (n = 62) Total (N = 130)
n % n % N %
Year in school
First-time freshman 33 49 41 66 74 57
Other freshman 2 3 2 2
Sophomore 21 31 18 29 39 30
Junior 8 12 3 5 11 8
Senior 4 6 4 3
European Americans 5 84 53 49 110 85
African American 3 4 5 3 8 6
Hispanic 2 3 1 31 3 2
Other 6 9 3 12 9 7
particularly interested in evaluating differences between bullying victims, perpetrators,
and non-participants in the basic psychological needs, academic motivation, perceived
social support, and perceived stress. Both past and current participation in bullying
was recorded to see if significant differences would appear between both past and
current victims and non-victims. The relationship between being a bullying victim and
academic motivation was of most interest as little research has gauged the academic
consequences of bullying i n higher education.
2 Methods
2.1 Participants
Participants were undergraduate students from a public, Midwestern university (N =
130, 68 male). The majority were in their first two years of college (freshman 59 %,
sophomore 30 %) and were primarily European Americans (85 %). Results from this
study cannot be considered truly universal due to the limited ethnic diversity of the
sampled population. Nevertheless, results still yield factors that should be of concern
to collegiate institutions. For a complete demographic analysis split by sex for this
sample see Table 1.
2.2 Materials
The following surveys were administered to participants: Perceptions of Bullying
Questionnaire (PBQ), Basic Psychological Needs Scale (BPNS; Deci and Ryan 1985),
Academic Motivation Scale (AMS; Vallerand et al. 1992), Multidimensional Scale of
Perceived Social Support (MSPSS; Zimet et al. 1988), an adapted version of the
Perceived Stress Scale (PSS; Cohen et al. 1983), and a demographic data form.
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190 A. Young-Jones et al.
The Perceptions of Bullying Questionnaire (PBQ) was created by the researchers
based on a review of similar studies. The PBQ contained five subsections. The first
subsection contained questions regarding bullying at the university and was entitled
“Bullying at University” (BU). This subsection asked the participants to rate a series
of statements using a Likert type scale from 1 (Strongly disagree)to7(Strongly agree)
such as Bullying is a problem at this university.” The second and third subsections
focused on current bullying experiences (i.e., verbal harassment, social exclusion,
physical violence, and cyber-bullying). The second subsection, titled Current Bully-
ing Victimization (CBV) asked students to record the frequency in which they had
been victimized while attending the university. The third subsection, titled Current
Bully (CB), had participants report the frequency in which they had executed cer-
tain forms of harassment while attending the university. The final two subsections
concentrated on students’ past bullying experiences (i.e., verbal harassment, social
exclusion, physical violence, and cyber-bullying). The fourth subsection was entitled
Past Bullying Victim (PBV) and asked students to record the frequency in which they
had been victimized prior to attending the university. The fifth subsection called Past
Bully (PB) had students report the frequency in which they had executed certain forms
of harassment prior to attending the university. Including questions on both past and
current victimization and persecution was needed to assess how those roles relate to
the following constructs.
The Basic Psychological Needs Scale has been used in several studies (Ilardi et
al. 1993) and is comprised of 21 items assessing the three basic psychological needs
(autonomy, competence, and relatedness) proposed by Deci and Ryan (1985). Exam-
ples of items includes I feel like I am free to decide for myself how to live my life
(autonomy), Often, I do not feel very competent (competence), and I really like the
people I interact with (relatedness).
The Academic Motivation Scale (AMS; Vallerand et al. 1992) is a 27-item English
translated version of the French scale Echelle de Motivation en Education (EME;
Vallerand et al. 1989). The AMS measures academic motivation (on a continuum from
amotivation to intrinsic motivation) by asking participants to indicate what extent
a series of statements corresponds to why he/she goes to college. Participants are
to use a Likert type scale from 1 (Does not correspond at all)to7(Corresponds
exactly). Examples of items on the AMS include Because I experience pleasure and
satisfaction while learning new things (intrinsic motivation) and Honestly, I don’t
know; I really feel that I am wasting my time in school (amotivation). The AMS has
shown to be reliable and valid (Vallerand et al. 1992) as well as possessing concurrent
and construct validity (Vallerand et al. 1993).
The Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support (MSPSS; Zimet et al.
1988) is a 12-item scale that measures the level of perceived social support of the
participant within three subscales (family, friends, significant other). Participants are
asked to rate how they feel about each of the items on the scale using a Likert type
scale from 1 (Very strongly disagree)to7(Very strongly agree). Examples of items on
the MSPSS include My family really tries to help me (family), I can count on my
friends when things go wrong (friends), and There is a special person who is around
when I am in need ( significant other). The MSPSS has been shown to have internal
reliability, factorial validity, and subscale validity (Zimet et al. 1990).
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Bullying damages more than feelings 191
The current study utilized a 10-item adapted version of the Perceived Stress Scale
(PSS; Cohen et al. 1983). The PSS asks participants to use a Likert type scale from 0
(Never)to4(Very often) to note how often he/she felt or thought a certain way during
the last month. An example of an item on the PSS is In the last month, how often
have you felt nervous and “stressed”?”. The PSS has shown to be a reliable and valid
measure of perceived stress (Cohen et al. 1983).
2.3 Procedure
Based on approval from the Institutional Review Board, participants were recruited
through the school’s Introductory Psychology class. As part of the course requirements,
students had to complete six credit hours of research participation. Students were able
to use this survey to fill one credit hour of the research participation requisite. Interested
participants were able to sign up through the SONA system, a human subject pool
management software. As individuals elected to be involved, they were emailed a link
to read and accept the informed consent. After doing so, they could continue on to the
survey. Researchers supervised the entire data collection process online.
3 Results
Within the first subsection of the PBQ, titled Bullying at University (BU; Cronbach’s
α = 0.84; Cronbach 1951), a summation score was used with higher scores indicating
greater perceptions of bullying as a problem at this university. Examining the scores
for this subsection of the PBQ (M = 2.65, SD = 0.73), it appears participants did
not believe bullying was a problem at the university.
The CBV subsection of the PBQ first asked participants to answer the question I
have been a victim of bullying on one or more occasion, and only 12.3 % answered
“yes” to this question. These findings are consonant with results of the BU subsec-
tion discussed above. However, more interestingly, the six follow-up questions asked
the participants about specific bullying behaviors told a different story. For example,
31.5 % of participants answered “yes” to the question My peers called me mean
names, made fun of, or teased me.” Overall, 49.2 % of participants answered “yes”
to at least one of the seven questions asking about current bullying victimization.
See Online Resource 1 for descriptive statistics regarding the Perceptions of Bullying
Questionnaire (PBQ).
The CB subsection consisted of a revised version of the same six questions found
in the CBV subsection. For example, in the CBV subsection one of the questions
read, My peers hit, kicked, or pushed me the parallel question in the CB subsection
was rephrased to read, I hit, kicked, or pushed one of my peers (emphasis added).
Overall, 48.5 % of participants answered “yes” to at least one of these questions in the
CB subsection (see Online Resource 1).
Results from the PBV subsection revealed 73.8 % of the participants answered
“yes” to at least one of the seven questions asking about past bullying victimization.
Also, results from the PB subsection showed 62.3 % of participants answered “yes”
to at least one of the six questions asking about past bullying (see Online Resource 1).
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192 A. Young-Jones et al.
Table 2 Comparison results of current bullying victims to non-victims on Academic Motivation Relative
Autonomy Index (RAI) and Basic Psychological Need Satisfaction scales
Variable Current bullying victim
(n = 64)
Non-victim (n = 66) t(128) p Cohen’s
M(SD) 95 % CI M(SD) 95 % CI
Index (RAI)
3.25 (2.83) [−3.96, 2.55]−1.23 (2.06) [−1.73, 0.72]−4.68 <.001 0.82
Basic psychological needs
Autonomy 4.92 (0.82) [4.72, 5.13] 5.28 (0.70) [5.11, 5.45] 2.68 .01 0.48
Competence 5.04 (1.07) [4.77, 5.30] 5.71 (1.05) [5.46, 5.97] 3.64 <.001 0.64
Relatedness 5.69 (0.93) [5.45, 5.92] 5.97 (0.81) [5.77, 6.17] 1.88 .06 0.32
As expected, many of the participants answered “yes” to more than one question
on each of the above-mentioned four subscales of the PBQ. To obtain a more accurate
percentage of participants that could be identified as a current bullying victim or
past bullying victim, we created two new dichotomous variables to indicate whether a
participant had answered “yes” to any of the questions in that specific subsection of the
PBQ. The results of creating these new variables indicated 49.2 % of the participants
could be identified as current bullying victims and 73.8 % could be identified as past
bullying victims. Comparing current bullying victims (49.2 %) to past bullying victims
(73.8 %), it appears bullying victimization does indeed decrease during the college
years; specifically, in our sample of participants, there was a 33 % decrease in the
bullying victimization from high school to college.
To examine gender differences we split the data by gender. We first compared males
who self-reported as current bullying victims (51.5 %) to males who self-reported as
past bullying victims (73.5 %). In our sample of male participants, there was a 30 %
decrease in male bullying victimization from high school to college. Similarly, we
found female bullying appears to decrease in college. We compared females who
self-reported as current bullying victims (46.8 %) to past bullying victims (74.2 %).
In our sample of female participants, there was a 37 % decrease in female bullying
victimization from high school to college. Moreover, out of the 130 total participants,
60 (46.2 %) were both past bullying victims and are also current bullying victims. Of
the current bullying victims, only four were not previous bullying victims.
A series of independent t-tests, comparing current bullying victims to those who
were non-victims, examined the effects of current bullying victimization on college
students (see Table 2). Specifically, mean scores for Academic Motivation Relative
Autonomy Index (RAI; Connell and Ryan 1985, 1986); basic psychological needs
(i.e., autonomy, competence, relatedness); social support (i.e., family, f riends, sig-
nificant other); and perceived stress were compared. Results of the t-tests indicate
students who are current bullying victims have significantly lower academic motiva-
tion (M =−3.25, SD = 2.83) than students who are not current bullying victims
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Bullying damages more than feelings 193
(M =−1.23, SD = 2.06), t (128) =−4.68, p <.001, d = 0.82; significantly
lower autonomy (M = 4.92, SD = 0.82) than students who are not current bullying
victims (M = 5.28, SD = 0.70), t(128) =−2.68, p = .01, d = 0.48; significantly
lower competence (M = 5.04, SD = 1.07) than students who are not current bul-
lying victims (M = 5.71, SD
= 1.05), t (128) =−3.64, p <.001, d = 0.64. All
other comparisons were non-significant ( ps >.05; see Table 2 for full results).
Additional independent t-tests compared past bullying victims with non-victims
to examine the effect of previous victimization on current students. As above, mean
scores for Academic Motivation RAI; basic psychological needs; social support; and
perceived stress were compared. Results of these t-tests indicated non-significant dif-
ferences in all constructs ( ps >.05) except academic motivation, where past bullying
victims (n = 96) scored significantly lower (M =−2.66, SD = 2.73) than stu-
dents who are not current bullying victims (n = 34, M =−0.99, SD = 2.04),
t(128) =−3.27, p = .001, d = 0
To examine more closely the different forms of current bullying and its effects
on academic motivation, we ran a series of independent t-tests comparing Academic
Motivation RAI scores for current bullying victims to non-victims for each of the six
questions in the CBV subsection of the Perceptions of Bullying Questionnaire. The
results for the question My peers called me mean names, made fun of, or teased
me indicate students (n = 41) who are current victims of verbal bullying have
significantly lower academic motivation (M =−3.63, SD = 2.69) than students
(n = 77) who are not current victims of verbal bullying (M =−1.52, SD = 2.33),
t(116) =−4.44, p <.001, d = 0.82. Similar results were discovered for the
question My peers hit, kicked, or pushed me indicating students (n = 8) that are
current victims of physical bullying have significantly lower academic motivation
(M =−4.22, SD = 3.09) than students (n = 122) who are not current victims of
physical bullying (M
=−2.09, SD = 2.59), t(128) =−2.22, p = .03, d = 0.39.
Caution should be exercised in interpreting results of these t-tests due to the unequal
and small sample sizes used. Results for other forms of bullying (exclusion from
peers, t (125) = 1.30, p = .20; gossip, t(121) =−1.43, p = .16; stolen or damaged
property, t(124) = 1.58, p = .12; cyber-bullying, t(125) = 0.18, p = .85) had no
effect on academic motivation RAI scores.
Finally, a binary logistic regression analysis was conducted to determine if any of
the independent variables (AMS RAI score, BPNS-Autonomy, BPNS-Competence,
BPNS-Relatedness, Social Support-Family, Social Support-Friends, Social Support-
Significant Other, Perceived Stress) are predictors of bullying victimization. Using
the Backward: LR Method we found that only two of the eight independent variables
were predictors of bullying victimization (AMS RAI score and BPNS-Competence).
The regression results revealed a moderate model fit for the two predictor variables
of AMS RAI score and BPNS-Competence (2 Log Likelihood = 151.14, Cox and
Snell R
= 0.20, Nagelkerke R
= 0.27). The model was statistically reliable in
predicting bullying victimization [χ
(2) = 29.05, p <.001] and correctly classified
72.3 % of the cases based on these two predictor variables. Wald statistics implied
that both AMS RAI score (Wald = 13.92, p <.001) and BPNS-Competence
(Wald = 8.04, p = .01) significantly predicted bullying victimization. Odds ratios
for both predictor variables were below 1 suggesting that as either of these variables
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194 A. Young-Jones et al.
Table 3 Logistic regression coefficients predicting bullying victimization from the Academic Motivation
Relative Autonomy Index (RAI) and basic psychological needs
B SE Wald df p Odds ratio
95 % CI for Exp(B)
Lower Upper
AMS RAI 0.31 0.08 13.92 1 <.001 0.74 0.63 0.87
BPNS-Competence 0.53 0.19 8.04 1 .01 0.59 0.41 0.85
Constant 2.14 1.04 4.24 1 .04 8.51
increases by 1 the odds of being a bullying victim decreases by the given odds ratio.
Results of the logistic regression showed that a 1-point increase in AMS RAI reduced
the odds of bullying victimization classification by 0.74; likewise, a 1-point increase in
BPNS-Competence reduced the odds of bullying victimization classification by 0.59.
See Table 3 for logistic regression coefficients.
4 Discussion
Similar to previous research, our results demonstrate bullying behaviors do continue
after high school (Adams and Lawrence 2011; Chapell et al. 2004, 2006). However, as
reflected in previous findings (Nansel et al. 2001), bullying decreases as children move
through school; likewise, we found the prevalence of victimization does decrease in
higher education. Specifically, a 33 % decrease in self-reported victimization appeared
in our sample. Female participants had a slightly greater decline (37 %) compared to
males (30 %) in the transition between high school and college. Although a decrease
does appear, our results suggest that the same individuals face victimization throughout
their schooling. Only four of the current bullying victims had not dealt with harassment
in the past. This denotes that past victimization is an indicator of future victimization.
Additionally, academic motivation and BPNS-Competence scores are two predictors
of student victimization as demonstrated in our log regression results. Conversely, the
regression indicates bullying victimization could reduce student academic motivation
and BPNS-Competence scores (this is also revealed by the prior t-tests that were ran,
see Table 1). Since low levels of academic motivation and competence can lead students
to become targets of bullying, educators and administrations can positively influence
by providing supplemental assistance that can prevent victimization. Awareness of the
predictors and consequences of school violence should drive educators, parents, and
students to both reevaluate the seriousness of this issue and work to prevent future
Overall, participants in this study did not feel bullying was a significant problem
at the university. When explicitly asked about experiences with bullying, only 12 %
of participants claimed to have ever been a victim. Yet, 49 % claimed to be victims
of individual acts considered by the researchers to demonstrate bullying behavior
(e.g., verbal harassment, physical violence, peer exclusion, property damage, cyber-
bullying). Several explanations could clarify this discrepancy. First, students may
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Bullying damages more than feelings 195
have an overly harsh perception of bullying. With the media attributing teen suicides
and school shootings to bullying, individuals may not feel the harassment they have
experienced to be in a similar realm. Another possible explanation is the adoption of
an overly lax view of bullying when entering college. Myths about college hazing and
harassment such as “everyone does it” or “it is just part of being a freshman” circle
around campuses, and students may accept these as reality. Finally, confusion could
exist as to what constitutes bullying since an operational definition of the construct
was not provided. Future research should assess whether this discrepancy occurs when
a definition is provided at the start of the survey.
In reviewing each item for the CBV subsection, the trend above was reaffirmed
regarding interactions with bully behaviors. Six questions asked to specify experi-
ence with individual bullying acts (e.g., verbal harassment, physical violence, peer
exclusion, property damage, cyber-bullying). Close to half (49.2 %) of participants
claimed they had been a victim of one or more of these acts while attending a uni-
versity. Likewise, almost half of participants (48.5 %) asserted they had inflicted one
or more of these bullying acts on a fellow student. Therefore, we believe bullying to
be a considerable issue at the college level even though students may not perceive it
to be.
Additional responses reflect a similar divergence. When participants were asked to
report the frequency in which they had experienced each of the six individual bullying
acts prior to attending the university, the majority (73.8 %) reported being victimized
by one or more individual bullying acts. This indicates that most participants had
suffered from some form of victimization in the past. A substantial percentage of
students (62.3 %) also reported inflicting one or more of the bullying acts on a fellow
student in the past, which suggests most participants have experience with exerting
Previous research on bullying within the college population has noted the lasting
effects bullying can have on a victim. Past studies have found differences in self-
esteem, psychological adjustment, and anxiety between college students who had been
victims of bullying and those who had not (Newman et al. 2005; Scafer et al. 2004;
Sesar et al. 2012). Our study found, in particular, that a disparity exists in autonomy and
competence, two of Self-Determination Theory’s (SDT) basic psychological needs.
Autonomy and competence were both significantly lower for students classified as
current bullying victims. The third basic need, relatedness, was found to be marginally
lower. SDT contends psychological well-being and optimal motivation are not feasible
unless all three constructs are satisfied (Deci and Ryan 2000; Fortier et al. 1995;
Grolnick et al. 1991).
The impact of bullying on academics exhibited in our findings should be worrisome
to school administrators and officials. Previous investigations have found a relationship
between being a victim and low achievement scores on standardized tests; however,
the majority of this research has been conducted with school age children (Glew et al.
2005; Nansel et al. 2001; Schwartz et al. 2005; Woods and Wolke 2004). Prior to the
study, little research has explored academic consequences of bullying on the college
student. In our examination, both previous and current victims had significantly lower
academic motivation than their peers. Further investigation found current victims of
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196 A. Young-Jones et al.
physical bullying (e.g., hitting, kicking, pushing) or verbal bullying (e.g., name-calling,
teasing) had significantly lower academic motivation than their peers.
Both Self-Determination Theory’s basic psychological needs and academic motiva-
tion are vital for a student to perform at his/her highest educational capacity (Ryan and
Deci 2000b). While direct measures of academic success (i.e., grade-point average)
were not included in this evaluation, the predictive power of academic motivation
has been established in previous literature. The reduced motivation experienced by
victims may lead them to struggle with the transition into all aspects of college life,
specifically with the increased academic rigor required in college-level work (Ryan
and Deci 2000a). These students may find it difficult to live next to peers in the dorms
or maintain a full course load. Low academic motivation could potentially lead to
poor academic performance or the decision to drop-out, both of which are concerns
for academic institutions.
5 Future research
The participants for this study were undergraduate students enrolled in the univer-
sity’s Introductory Psychology course. Since students were primarily in their first two
years of college, they were coping with the transition from high school and college
when the survey was completed. The Introductory course fulfills one of the univer-
sity’s general education requirements, so students from all majors, not just health and
human services are enrolled. Introductory students were a sufficient sample to gauge
the general college population; however, specific populations on campus may be at
greater risk for victimization. For example, previous research has shown that lesbian,
gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) students face many forms of harassment from
verbal insults and threats to physical and sexual assault (Pilkington and D’Augelli
1995). Additionally, a bullying scandal within the Miami Dolphins has brought ath-
letic bullying to the public’s attention. Special groups within the college environment
(i.e., ethnic minorities, students with disabilities, etc.) may encounter more harassment
than the general college population. In an upcoming phase of this study, these specific
college populations will be surveyed and compared to the general population in terms
of basic psychological needs, academic motivation, perceived stress, and perceived
social support.
It is important to note the present study focuses on the personal and academic
implications of college bullying and not college hazing. Although both hazing and
bullying involve similar acts of aggression, they are not interchangeable terms. Hazing
specifically refers to harassment inflicted on new or potential group members, which
precedes full membership into an organization (Hoover and Pollard 2000; Ostivik and
Rudmin 2001). This differs from bullying, particularly, as hazing implies harassment
will cease upon acceptance into the organization. Victims of bullying are not as lucky;
they continue to be targeted throughout their educational career (Ostivik and Rudmin
2001). Students who report being hazed do identify similar negative symptoms as
those who are bullied including symptoms of depression, low self-esteem, and physical
injury (Hoover and Pollard; Scafer et al. 2004; Sesar et al. 2012). However, additional
research is needed to determine if victims of hazing experience negativity to the same
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Bullying damages more than feelings 197
extent as victims of bullying. Research is also needed to discern whether victims
of hazing face similar academic consequences as victims of bullying. Along with
investigations in the United States, violence impacts schoolchildren around the world.
Rigby and Smith (2011) reviewed 27 different investigations in several countries.
Their findings indicate the overall prevalence of bullying is decreasing in school age
children; yet, it is much more common than parents and school administrators would
like it to be. Results of the present study suggest an extension of the international
review should include collegians as well. Such studies should assess whether the same
bullying trends and academic consequences appear at international institutions and
are not exclusive to the United States.
6 Limitations
One drawback to this study was the use of retrospective self-reports, meaning par-
ticipants had to report on events that occurred in their past. Retrospective methods
can be problematic because participant’s memory for past events can be inaccurately
influenced or primed by certain words or questions. In general, it can be difficult for
individuals to discern accurate frequencies of past events. Even though using past rec-
ollection is not perfect, it is the best measure for evaluating past bullying incidences;
hence, it is the most common method to assess past bullying experiences (Adams and
Lawrence 2011; Chapell et al. 2006; Newman et al. 2005; Scafer et al. 2004; Sesar et
al. 2012). Chapell et al. (2006), which used an approach similar to this study, noted that
if the majority of participants are college freshman and sophomores their recollections
of high school events should still be relatively clear.
Another limitation of this study was the absence of an operational definition of
bullying. Some retrospective bullying studies use the Retrospective Bullying Ques-
tionnaire developed by Scafer et al. (2004), which begins with the presentation of a
definition (Scafer et al. 2004). However, other studies found significant results without
the use of a standard definition, such as Adams and Lawrence (2011) or with an inten-
tionally vague definition like Newman et al. (2005). To avoid priming, we refrained
from inserting a definition and instead allowed students to use their personal percep-
tions while answering. It may have been the lack of a consistent definition that caused
the disagreement in our results where several participants claimed they were victims
of specific bullying act but did not assert they were victims of bullying in general.
7 Conclusion
Follow-up research should continue to assess bullying in higher education. Most
importantly, subsequent investigations need to examine the discrepancy that appeared
in students’ assertion to general bullying victimization and specific bullying victim-
ization. The incongruence may be a result of society’s grave coverage of bullying
and the effects of victimization. Students may downplay their own experiences in an
effort to avoid cognitive dissonance. Additional research should assess bullying and
collegiate achievement by comparing the GPA and class attendance records of bul-
lies, victims, and non-participants. This will solidify the link between victimization,
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198 A. Young-Jones et al.
academic motivation, and subsequent academic outcomes. Also, research focusing
on prevention practices to eliminate bullying will require a review of previous vic-
timization. Our results suggest students who have been victimized before attending
a university experience some of the same struggles as current victims. A successful
intervention model will address the problems s tudents bring to the university as well
as what they are currently facing.
Children and teenagers are not the sole victims of bullying and harassment. Several
studies support the claim that bullying occurs into higher education and adulthood
(Adams and Lawrence 2011; Chapell et al. 2004, 2006; Newman et al. 2005; Scafer
et al. 2004; Sesar et al. 2012) and even within the workplace (Hall and Lewis 2014;
Namie 2003). It has significant effects on victims’ daily and academic functioning
as well as their overall psychological wellbeing (Sesar et al.; Adams and Lawrence).
Our evaluation placed an emphasis specifically on the college student population and
campus setting. It further underlined the importance this issue carries for university
staff, faculty, and administration. Past research suggests high school teachers and staff
underestimate the severity of bullying occurring in their midst (Bradshaw et al. 2007).
We must consider the possibility that university professionals misjudge the extent
of collegiate bullying. Thus, universities should acknowledge bullying as a relevant
concern. In order to make effective campus policies, university leaders must be aware
of the issues young adults are facing; our evaluation provides a clearer understanding
of the harassment present within their own community. This new perspective should
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Adena Young-Jones is an Associate Professor in the Psychology Department at Missouri State Univer-
sity in Springfield, Missouri. She graduated with a Ph.D. in Educational Psychology from Texas A&M
University-Commerce in May 2008 and upon graduation was employed at Missouri State University. Her
research interests include diversity issues and academic motivation, with an emphasis in the combined
impact on student achievement, retention, and success.
Sophie Fursa is currently pursuing her Ph.D. in School Psychology at Central Michigan University
after completing her undergraduate work at Missouri State University in May 2014. She is interested in
researching methods to create favorable learning environments and improve academic and behavioral out-
comes in the classroom.
Jacqueline S. Byrket is a graduate student at Missouri State University in the Experimental Psychology
Program. She has been a student researcher in the Educational Psychology Laboratory since 2011, and
her research interests include reducing undergraduate stress and anxiety to improve the overall academic
experience, enhance student success, and increase university retention.
James S. Sly is a Per-Course Instructor at Missouri State University. He completed his Master’s of Exper-
imental Psychology in 2014 and teaches the Introductory Psychology hybrid class. His research inter-
ests include academic motivation, classroom learning, instructional design/technology, and online/blended
classroom implementation.
Author's personal copy
... bullying and lower grades (Román and Murillo, 2011;Sinkkonen et al., 2014;Droppert et al., 2019;Pörhölä et al., 2019). The results showed that undergraduates with a pass average mark are more likely to engage in a type of indirect violence such as cyberbullying (Kowalski and Limber, 2013;Young-Jones et al., 2015;Martínez-Ramón et al., 2019). The research carried out by Kowalski and Limber (2013) states that people who perform poorly academically tend to show behavior based on physical or virtual bullying toward those who perform better academically. ...
... Furthermore, the research carried out by Martínez-Ramón et al. (2019) states that the act of bullying within the university environment is undergoing a process of evolution, as it is moving from physical violence to covert violence, which is based on isolating and underestimating the victim. This type of academic bullying leads to a reduction in basic academic skills, producing a reduction in academic motivation levels and giving rise to an increase in anxiety levels (Young-Jones et al., 2015). SEM for undergraduates with an a outstanding average mark. ...
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Higher education is a focus of increasing violent behavior. The evidence suggests an obsession to achieve the best academic performance in order to access working life. This research aims to develop an explanatory model of violent behavior and its relationship with self-concept and emotional intelligence according to in relation to their academic performance. A sample of 932 Spanish undergraduate students participated in the multi-group structural equation modeling. Findings revealed that students who have a higher academic performance have problems to control and regulate their emotions, showing signs of direct and indirect violence. Moreover, it was found that that emotional intelligence and self-concept have a direct influence on episodes of violent behavior, with academic performance being a key component affecting each variable. The present study provides some implications and suggests some avenues for future research.
... , often at the expense of the victim who may suffer consequences regarding academic motivation, autonomy, and competence (Young-Jones, Fursa, Bykert, & Sly, 2015) and learning and academic performance (Chen & Chen, 2020). The relational mechanisms of bullying and victimization, however, are not a stable experience among young children in preschool (ages 4-6), as their social interactions may include aggressive behaviors, but these are brief and not repeated with the intend of causing harm from a well-defined group of aggressors (Monks et al., 2005). ...
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In the complex landscape of primary education, the nexus between cooperation and bullying is a subtle yet vital thread that weaves together the social dynamics of the classroom. Here, we probed this interplay, examining a diverse sample of 1,137 students dispersed across 47 public primary classrooms in Chile. Using a video-game interface to create a dyadic non-anonymous social dilemma, we charted the underlying cooperative network of each classroom. Complementing this, we collected data on bullying interactions, employing peer nominations and controlling for demographic and classroom context in a multilevel regression analysis. Our analysis unveils a robust negative correlation between the receipt of cooperation and the bully-victim category-students entangled in a dual role of both victim and perpetrator. Remarkably, this relationship persists even after stringent statistical controls, casting new light on the intricate relationships within the classroom ecosystem. Our findings thus extend beyond mere statistical observation to provide a fundamental understanding of the relationship between cooperation and bullying behavior, signposting a promising avenue for designing targeted interventions in primary education. By connecting the microcosm of the classroom with broader social phenomena, this study contributes to an evolving dialogue on human interaction and education, offering fresh insights to shape future educational policies and practices.
... Bullying research and media attention focus mostly on children and youths in schools and adults at workplaces, with relatively limited attention and research on peer bullying at colleges and universities (Coleyshaw, 2010;Harrison et al., 2022;Lund & Ross, 2017), particularly on the academic effects of peer bullying at universities (Young-Jones et al., 2015). Olweus (1993) defined bullying as a situation when a student repeatedly experiences exposure to hostile actions at the hands of one or more students over time. ...
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This study explored university students' perceptions of the usefulness of some antibullying measures in ensuring a bullying-free learning environment. The results in this paper are part of a larger comparative study that investigated the prevalence of bullying in Norway and Ghana, albeit limiting this paper to students' recommendations of preventive measures. Students from Norway (n = 438) and Ghana (n = 751) were recruited. The comparative study highlights the sociocultural tendencies underlying some recommendations to provide holistic knowledge. The analyses revealed significant differences in students' recommendations from both countries. Generally, the responses suggest the need for the impartial application of disciplinary measures to students and lecturers; independent contact persons for reporting; students' and authorities' collaboration for bullying prevention; antibullying employment contracts; counselling services; and awareness creation. With unique national cultures and changing societal trends, we suggest that national policies that aim at cultural consciousness regarding bullying would be ideal for its prevention. ARTICLE HISTORY
... Når over halvparten av de som engster seg for å vaere på skolen har vaert utsatt for mobbing, tyder dette på at skolemiljø er en faktor som må vektlegges. Sammenhengen mellom mobbeproblematikk og problemer med faglige prestasjoner er godt dokumentert i litteraturen (Bru et al., 2016;Strøm et al., 2013;Young-Jones et al., 2015). Funnene i denne studien tyder på at det å legge til rette for faglig mestring i skolehverdagen, bør vektlegges i arbeidet med å få barnet tilbake på skolen. ...
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Studien omfatter 673 foresatte til barn som strever med skolevegring. Den ble gjennomført som en web-basert studie i 2021, og informantene ble rekruttert ved hjelp av snøballmetoden. Vi ønsket å se nærmere på hvordan barna trivdes da de gikk i barnehagen, og hvilke faktorer som kan bidra til at de kommer tilbake til skolen. Utgangspunktet for studien er følgende problemstilling: Hvilke faktorer kan ha betydning for at barn som strever med skolevegring kommer tilbake på skolen? Funnene viser at barna trivdes og fant seg til rette i barnehagen. Det var i møte med skolen at problemene viste seg. Når det gjelder barna som har kommet helt eller delvis tilbake til skolen har disse bedre relasjoner til lærerne, de er tryggere på skolen, flere har venner på skolen, færre er redde for å snakke høyt i klassen, og flere deltar på fritidsaktiviteter. Gode relasjoner til lærerne og det at det tilrettelegges for faglig mestring i skolehverdagen, har stor betydning for hvorvidt barna kommer tilbake. I denne forbindelse er det verdt å merke seg at tre av fire foresatte mener deres barn ville profittert på en mer praktisk orientert undervisning. English abstract Which factors can be meaningful for students struggling with absenteeism? The study includes 673 parents of children struggling with school refusal. It was conducted as a web-based study in 2021, and the informants were recruited using the snowball method. We wanted to take a closer look at how the children enjoyed themselves when they went to kindergarten, and which factors could contribute to them returning to school. The starting point for the study is the following question: What factors can be important for children who struggle with school refusal to return to school? The findings show that the children enjoyed kindergarten. It was in the meeting with the school that the problems became apparent. As for the children who have fully or partially returned to school, they have better relationships with their teachers, they are safer at school, more have friends at school, fewer are afraid to speak loudly in class, and more participate in extracurricular activities. Good relationships with the teachers and the fact that arrangements are made for academic mastery in everyday school life are of great importance to whether the children return. In this text, it is worth noting that three out of four parents believe their children would benefit from a more practically oriented education.
... Because of the potential detrimental effects on adolescents' health [24][25][26], there has been growing and widespread public concern in schools about victimization over the last few years. Indeed, bullying victimization can cause a broad range of consequences, including impaired academic performance [27] and poor general health [25], as well as other internalizing [28] and externalizing [29] mental health problems. Internalizing problems involve depression, anxiety, stress [30,31], self-harm [32], and suicidal ideation and behaviors [33]; while externalizing problems include rule-breaking behaviors and aggression [34,35]. ...
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1) Background: The purpose of the present study was to validate the Perseverative Thinking Questionnaire (PTQ) and the Buss-Perry Aggression Questionnaire-Short Form (BPAQ-SF) and test whether repetitive negative thinking plays an indirect role in the relationship between bullying victimization and aggression among Lebanese adolescents. (2) Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted between January and May 2022 and included 379 Lebanese adolescent students (64.9% females, mean age 16.07 years). (3) Results: The three-factor solution of the PTQ and the four-factor solution of the BPAQ-SF showed excellent model fit. PTQ mediated the association between bullying victimization and physical aggression, verbal aggression, hostility, and anger. (4) Conclusions: This study expands on previous research by showing that repetitive negative thinking, an impactful socio-cognitive factor for students' mental health, has a mediating (indirect) effect on the cross-sectional relationship between bullying victimization and aggression. This suggests that interventions aiming to prevent aggressive behaviors among adolescent students may be more effective if focused on repetitive negative thinking.
... This study also revealed students' self-efficacy as the predictor of academic performance in STEM subjects. These findings align with various studies (Zeldin et al., 2008;Young-Jones et al., 2014;Bandura & Locke, 2003;Fager & Brewster, 1999;Bandura, 1997;Seymour, 1995;Eccles, 1994). For example, Fager and Brewster (1999) found a positive association between parental involvement and students' self-efficacy. ...
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Stem achievement is a predictor of national development since it empowers students with skills and capacities to confront challenges such as climate change, global warming, and unemployment. However, despite its significance and international priority, students' STEM performance has deteriorated in Bhutan. This study aimed to investigate stem subjects' performance and impeding factors by comparing the academic performance of boarding and day students in stem subjects. A convergent parallel mixed-method study was conducted with 301 participants comprising 281 students, 12 parents, and eight teachers in four secondary schools at Lhuentse. The research indicated a statistically significant difference in academic performance between boarding and day students in stem subjects, with day students outperforming boarding students. In addition, day students' self-efficacy was significantly higher than boarding students. Moreover, students' self-efficacy correlated significantly with academic performance in STEM subjects. Some of the recommendations are: to notify the need to upgrade physical structures such as hostels and bathrooms; to inform a proper use of available resources to enable students to use them for studying stem subjects; and to encourage guardians to support students in terms of resources and guidance to perform better academically in stem subjects.
... Only when individuals developed a negative cognitive processing bias due to past bullying experiences did they tend to have a negative self-evaluation. Early victimization is an important negative event for students [65]. The results of this study indicated that college students who have been bullied in primary/secondary school are more likely to hold negative cognition. ...
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Early victimization is associated with a range of psychological adaptation problems in young adulthood, including core self-evaluations. However, little is known about the mechanisms underlying the association between early victimization and young adults’ core self-evaluations. This study examined the mediating role of negative cognitive processing bias and the moderating role of resilience in the relationship. A total of 972 college students were recruited to complete measures of early victimization, negative cognitive processing bias, resilience, and core self-evaluations. The results showed that early victimization significantly and negatively predicted the core self-evaluations in young adulthood. The negative association between early victimization and core self-evaluations was completely mediated by negative cognitive processing bias. Resilience moderated the relationship between early victimization and negative cognitive bias, and the relationship between negative cognitive processing bias and core self-evaluations. Resilience has both risk-buffering and risk-enhancing effects. In light of these results, in order to help victims maintain good mental health, we should intervene in individual cognitive factors. Notably, while resilience is a protective factor in most cases, the benefits of resilience should not be overstated. So, we should not only cultivate students’ resilience but also provide them with more support and resources and intervene in risk factors at the same time.
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We may think that bullying is a childish behaviour that is left behind on finishing school, or that universities and colleges are too cultured and intellectual as institutions to have room for such behaviour, but these hopes are far from the truth. The research evidence shows that bullying of all kinds is rife in higher education. Indeed, it seems likely that the peculiar nature of higher education actively encourages particular kinds of bullying. This article provides a review of the research on bullying in higher education, considering what this shows about its meaning, extent and nature, and reviews the issues that have been identified and possible solutions to them. It concludes that, while there is much that higher education institutions need to do to respond effectively to bullying, revisiting their traditions and underlying purposes should support them in doing so.
Framed by queer theory, this qualitative study sought to better understand the unique experiences of homophobia that occur amongst Latinx gender and sexually diverse youth (GSDY) in south Texas. Latinx GSDY in this borderland region, are less likely to be in schools that adopt affirming policies and are therefore more likely to experience homophobia. The study collected written journal responses from eight Latinx gender and sexually diverse alumni of borderland region schools that presently serve as community leaders and advocates. Findings suggest that homophobia is experienced as trauma and that participants employed positive trauma responses to confront their experiences.
This chapter focuses on developmental issues in the primary prevention of aggressive behavior among children, adolescents, and emerging adults. The chapter emphasizes the importance of considering social, cognitive, and psychological development when designing and implementing primary prevention programs for youth. We also review developmental changes in aggressive behavior and associated social goals, discussing different forms and functions of aggression including variations in severity as well as relational/overt, cyberbullying and online aggression, and reactive/proactive distinctions. We also review research regarding sexual harassment and harassment based on gender, sexual orientation, and race, and we discuss prominent theories of the development of aggressive behavior. In our discussion of theory, we focus on Social Learning/Social Cognitive Information Processing (SCIP) Theory and aspects of Bioecological Theory. We conclude the chapter by specifically discussing what we know about the mediating mechanisms of aggression specifically from a SCIP perspective and how these can be utilized in developmentally sensitive prevention programs. Suggestions for future research and practice are also discussed, including ideas for online or socially distanced programming.
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This paper examines the implications of workplace bullying and social media policy and its impact on employees in today’s organizations. The paper focuses on defining workplace bullying and other types of E-harassment in the workplace. Workplace bullying has been defined in numerous ways. Two of the most recognized names in the field defined workplace bullying as “the repeated, malicious, health endangering mistreatment of one employee... by one or more employees” (Namie & Namie, 2003, p.3). Although workplace bullying continues to increase, organizations have been reluctant or may be unprepared to effectively deal with the issue (Yamada, 2008). The implications of workplace bullying can be substantial for management and the effective engagement of the employees. As employees and our society increased its reliance on social media as a means of communication, management and organizations must become more proactive in crafting policies and guidelines. The proverbial “school-yard bully” is no longer the problem of the elementary school principal but must be effectively managed by today’s organizations. The over-reliance and often impersonal use of social media has created new avenues for workplace bullying. Management and administrators may not fully comprehend the ramifications that cyberbullying or E-harassment may have within their workplace (Piotrowski, 2012). The paper concludes with practical management strategies for organizational leaders to consider when handling workplace bullying. Keywords: Workplace bullying, social media, management strategies, E-Harassment, Human resource policy Research
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This study examined a process model of relations among children's perceptions of their parents, their motivation, and their performance in school. Children's perceptions of their parents on dimensions of autonomy support and involvement were measured with the new children's perceptions of parents scale. Three motivation variables-control understanding, perceived competence, and perceived autonomy-were hypothesized to mediate between children's perceptions of their parents and their school performance. Analyses indicated that perceived maternal autonomy support and involvement were positively associated with perceived competence, control understanding, and perceptions of autonomy. Perceived paternal autonomy support and involvement were related to perceived competence and autonomy. In turn, the 3 motivation variables, referred to as inner resources, predicted children's performance. Structural equation modeling generally supported the mediational model.
I: Background.- 1. An Introduction.- 2. Conceptualizations of Intrinsic Motivation and Self-Determination.- II: Self-Determination Theory.- 3. Cognitive Evaluation Theory: Perceived Causality and Perceived Competence.- 4. Cognitive Evaluation Theory: Interpersonal Communication and Intrapersonal Regulation.- 5. Toward an Organismic Integration Theory: Motivation and Development.- 6. Causality Orientations Theory: Personality Influences on Motivation.- III: Alternative Approaches.- 7. Operant and Attributional Theories.- 8. Information-Processing Theories.- IV: Applications and Implications.- 9. Education.- 10. Psychotherapy.- 11. Work.- 12. Sports.- References.- Author Index.
This study investigated the prevalence of bullying and victimization among students in grades 7 and 8. It also explored the relationship of bullying and victimization to gender, grade level, ethnicity, self-esteem, and depression. Three survey instruments were used to obtain data from a convenience sample of 454 public school students. Twenty-four percent reported bullying involvement. Chi-square tests indicated significantly more male than female bullying involvement, seventh graders reported more involvement than did eighth graders, and there were no statistically significant differences in involvement based on ethnicity. Both bullies and victims manifested higher levels of depression than did students who were neither bullies nor victims. There were no significant differences between groups in terms of self-esteem.
Intrinsic and extrinsic types of motivation have been widely studied, and the distinction between them has shed important light on both developmental and educational practices. In this review we revisit the classic definitions of intrinsic and extrinsic motivation in light of contemporary research and theory. Intrinsic motivation remains an important construct, reflecting the natural human propensity to learn and assimilate. However, extrinsic motivation is argued to vary considerably in its relative autonomy and thus can either reflect external control or true self-regulation. The relations of both classes of motives to basic human needs for autonomy, competence and relatedness are discussed.
Although bullying and other forms of peer victimization at school are a growing concern, there has been little research examining the potential differences between student and staff perceptions of the frequency of bullying, most common location and forms of bullying, severity of the problem, social norms related to bullying, and responses to witnessing bullying. The data for this study came from a district-wide survey of student (n = 15,185) and staff (n = 1,547) perceptions of and experiences with bullying conducted in 75 elementary, 20 middle, and 14 high schools. Results indicated that staff at all school levels (elementary, middle, and high) underestimated the number of students involved in frequent bullying. Both middle school students and staff tended to report the greatest exposure to and concern about bullying. Staff with greater efficacy for handling bullying situations were more likely to intervene and less likely to make the bullying situation worse. Staff members' own experiences with bullying were predictive of their attitudes toward bullying and perceived efficacy for handling a bullying situation. Implications for prevention and intervention by school psychologists are provided.
The importance of quality in the Health care sector has been recognized relatively recently, but it has been accelerated over the past years through the development of quality assurance, quality improvement programs and patients' agendas. Quality was very popular in the marketing literature where the notion of «satisfying the customer» was a dominant model of quality of service provided and consumer satisfaction. This movement initiated a global research on assessing customer satisfaction in the past years and articles on Medline measuring somewhat patient satisfaction with care. The vast majority of these articles developed and used a patient satisfaction scale.Only few researchers developed a conceptual framework for conceptualization of service quality and patient satisfaction, before validating their scale. ISSN:-2230-7850