Analysis of a 610-mm-Diameter Pipe Installed Using Pipe Ramming

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Departments of transportation are increasingly embracing pipe ramming for culvert installation under roadways due to its cost effectiveness and ability to mitigate problems associated with open-cut trenching. Despite the increase in use, little technical guidance is available for the engineering of pipe-ramming installations. This study presents the analysis of the performance of an instrumented 610-mm-diameter steel pipe installed using pipe ramming. Measurements include ground surface movement and dynamic force and velocity waveforms to obtain driving stresses, hammer-pipe energy transfer, and static and dynamic soil resistance during the installation. Ground movements are compared to existing settlement prediction models. Inverted normal probability distribution models commonly used in tunnel engineering were evaluated and were observed to capture the observed settlement close to the center of the pipe but did not accurately predict the observed transverse settlement profiles. The transfer of energy was observed to range from as low as 17-39% of the estimated hammer energy. Compressive stresses were observed to remain relatively constant over the penetration length observed and were well below the yield stress of the pipe. Soil resistance derived from wave equation analyses were compared to four pipe-jacking models to evaluate their accuracy and applicability for planning pipe-ramming installations. The jacking models bracketed the static soil resistance components of the wave analysis, indicating that the models may be adopted for pipe-ramming applications pending empirical modification. (C) 2014 American Society of Civil Engineers.

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... Stuedlein and Meskele (2012) describe the apparent lack of engineering guidance available in the literature, and present a preliminary framework for engineers to begin to make quantitative assessments of pipe ramming feasibility. Since then, case histories of instrumented rammed pipes have been reported by Meskele and Stuedlein (2013a; 610 mm diameter pipe) and Stuedlein and Meskele (2014;2,440 mm diameter pipe), and aspects of pipe ramming hammer-pipe energy transfer efficiency were described by Meskele and Stuedlein (2013b). In order to further increase the understanding of pipe ramming mechanics and the response of the ground to pipe installation, a full-scale field experiment on pipe ramming was carried out in August 2010 to collect performance data under controlled conditions. ...
Conference Paper
Pipe ramming is an emerging trenchless technique that allows installation of pipes and culverts in soils that can pose difficulty to other trenchless technologies. However, because pipe ramming hammers provide high-frequency impact blows to the pipe, high-magnitude stress waves travel down the pipe and are transmitted to the surrounding soil. This can have a serious adverse effect on adjacent structures and nearby utilities if located sufficiently close to the pipe alignment. The potential effects include differential settlements, densification, and local liquefaction depending on the soil and groundwater conditions. Owing to the lack of field observations in the literature, this study was conducted to observe the ground vibrations that can result from pipe ramming and to provide guidelines for the prediction of pipe ramming-induced vibration. An experimental pipe-ramming project was conducted that consisted of the installation of open-ended steel pipe 1,070 mm in diameter and 36.5 m long rammed with two pneumatic hammers. Observations indicated that the vibrations measured at the ground surface largely comprised surface waves, and that vibrations propagate most intensely from the face of the pipe, but also from the surface area of the embedded casing. Ground vibrations are presented as a function of frequency content, magnitude of peak particle velocity, proximity to the source, and direction of propagation. The information obtained from the experimental evaluation of pipe ramming-induced ground vibrations reported herein can provide the means for a first approximation of vibration-induced damage susceptibility.
Pipe ramming is a cost-effective trenchless pipe installation method in which percussive blows generated by a pneumatically or hydraulically powered encased piston rammer are used to advance a pipe or culvert through the ground. To evaluate the feasibility of a pipe ramming installation, engineers must be able to reliably predict the pipe drivability and installation stresses. Assessment of the drivability of the pipe and selection of the optimal hammer for pipe ramming installation requires that the static and dynamic soil resistance to ramming at the pipe face and along the casing be reliably estimated. However, pipe ramming-specific models are not currently available, and engineers often resort to the existing traditional pipe-jacking and microtunneling models for static soil resistance computations. This paper describes the results of four full-scale pipes rammed in the field and the corresponding static soil resistance to ramming in granular soils. A companion paper addresses dynamic soil resistance and pipe drivability. The accuracy of the existing pipe jacking and microtunneling-based static soil resistance models is evaluated herein and found to provide unsatisfactory estimates of the face and casing resistance. New semiempirical pipe ramming-specific models are proposed based on the field observations and are found to produce good estimates of static soil resistance for use in pipe drivability evaluations. (C) 2014 American Society of Civil Engineers.
Full-text available
A method is presented for determining the axial static pile capacity from dynamic measurements of force and acceleration made under the impact of a large hammer. The basic equation for calculation of the forces resisting pile penetration is derived. With the availability of this derivation, it is possible to prove that the Case Pile Wave Analysis Program (CAPWAP) resistance force distribution is unique. Using the assumption that the resistance to penetration can be divided into static and dynamic parts, an expression is developed for calculating the dynamic resistance to penetration. The resulting method requires the selection of a damping constant which is shown empirically, to relate to soil size distribution. A correlation of Case Method capacity and the capacity observed in static load tests is given for 69 statically tested piles that were also tested dynamically.
Measurements of settlement and ground movement made on tunnelling projects located, in the main, in built-up areas are reviewed. The ground conditions studied included stiff-fissured clays, glacial deposits and recently deposited silty clays, as well as cohesionless soils of low density, weak rocks and made ground. Many of the tunnels were driven in free air by use of shields, but compressed air was used in the weaker soils to maintain stability; the bentonite shield and chemical treatment of the ground were also used in loose sands. -from Authors
During recent years wave analyses, or analyses of the elastic pile, were utilized with increasing frequency for both pile design and construction control. These methods range from purely analytical to experimental. This paper presents a review of available analytical methods and gives examples both of equipment used for measurements and of results obtained.
Stratigraphic and chronologic information collected for Quaternary deposits in the Willamette Valley, Oregon, provides a revised stratigraphic framework that serves as a basis for a 1:250,000-scale map, as well as for thickness estimates of widespread Quaternary geologic units. We have mapped 11 separate Quaternary units that are differentiated on the basis of stratigraphic, topographic, pedogenic, and hydrogeologic properties. In summation, these units reflect four distinct episodes in the Quaternary geologic development of the Willamette Valley: 1. Fluvial sands and gravels that underlie terraces flanking lowland margins and tributary valleys were probably deposited between 2.5 and 0.5 million years ago. They are the oldest widespread surficial Quaternary deposits in the valley. Their present positions and preservation are undoubtedly due to postdepositional tectonic deformation - either by direct tectonic uplift of valley margins, or by regional tectonic controls on local base level. 2. Tertiary and Quaternary excavation or tectonic lowering of the Willamette Valley accommodated as much as 500 m (meters) of lacustrine and fluvial fill. Beneath the lowland floor, much of the upper 10 to 50 m of fill is Quaternary sand and gravel deposited by braided channel systems in subhorizontal sheets 2 to 10 m thick. These deposits grade to gravel fans 40 to 100 m thick where major Cascade Range rivers enter the valley and are traced farther upstream as much thinner valley trains of coarse gravel. The sand and gravel deposits have ages that range from greater than 420,000 to about 12,000 years old. A widely distributed layer of sand and gravel deposited at about 12 ka (kilo-annum, thousands of years before the present) is looser and probably more permeable than older sand and gravel. Stratigraphic exposures and drillers' logs indicate that this late Pleistocene unit is mostly between 5 and 20 m thick where it has not been subsequently eroded by the Willamette River and its major tributaries. 3. Between 15,000 and 12,700 years ago, dozens of floods from Glacial Lake Missoula flowed up the Willamette Valley from the Columbia River, depositing up to 35 m of gravel, sand, silt, and clay. 4. Subsequent to 12,000 years ago, Willamette River sediment and flow regimes changed significantly: the Pleistocene braided river systems that had formed vast plains of sand and gravel evolved to incised and meandering rivers that are constructing today's fine-grained flood-plains and gravelly channel deposits. Subsurface channel facies of this unit are loose unconsolidated and are highly permeable zones of substantial groundwater flow that is likely to be well connected to surface flow in the Willamette River and major tributaries. Stratigraphic exposures and drillers' logs indicate that this unit is mostly between 5 and 15 m thick.
Installation of new buried pipes and culverts, and replacement of existing ones utilizing trenchless technologies, is increasing in popularity because these methods mitigate many of the surface disturbances associated with conventional open-cut placement. Pipe ramming is an efficient technique that allows installation of casings in soils that can present difficulties for other trenchless technologies. Despite increasing usage, little technical guidance is available to owners and engineers who plan installations with pipe ramming. This paper provides an overview of the pipe ramming technique, possible design procedures, and governing mechanics associated with pipe ramming, with the goal of providing a baseline for engineered installations and identifying areas for further research. Methods to estimate soil resistance to ramming, analysis of ground deformations, and ground vibrations are discussed and compared with measurements observed in field installations. Soil resistance predictions based on conventional jacking methods are shown to underpredict measured resistances inferred from dynamic load testing. Empirical Gaussian settlement models commonly employed in tunnel engineering were shown to result in somewhat inaccurate predictions for an observed pipe ramming installation in cohesionless soils. Field measurements of the ground vibrations resulting from ramming are presented and compared with commonly used safe vibration standards developed for residential structures; the frequencies of vibration generally range from 20-100 Hz, are considerably high for small source-to-site distances, and attenuate rapidly with radial distance. In general, the study lays a basis for planning pipe installation projects with the intent of providing technical advancement in pipe ramming.
An automated prediction scheme is presented which utilizes both force and acceleration records measured at the pile top during driving to compute the soil resistance forces acting along the pile. The distribution of these forces is determined, and the dynamic and static resistance forces are distinguished such that a prediction of a theoretical static load versus penetration curve is possible. As a theoretical basis stress wave theory is used, derived from the general solution of the linear one-dimensional wave equation. As a means of calculating the dynamic pile response, a lumped mass pile model is devised and solved by the Newmark β-method. Wave theory is also employed to develop a simple method for computing static bearing capacity from acceleration and force measurements. Twenty-four pile tests are reported, 14 of them with special instrumentation, i.e., strain gages along the pile below grade. The piles tested were of 12-in. (30-cm) diameter steel pipe with lengths ranging from 33 ft. to 83 ft. (10 m to 25 m).
Traditional methods of underground utility installation and replacement generally employ conventional open cut methods. These trenching methods in most urbanized settings typically create road closures, traffic delays, unnecessary detours, loss of access to homes and business, unsightliness, noise, and general disruption. Faced with population growth and an aging underground utility system, China has looked to emerging technologies to assist in providing sustainable solutions to addressing this situation. Three trenchless construction methods that have currently been adopted in China are horizontal directional drilling (HDD), pipe bursting, and pipe ramming. HDD is a technique that enables the installation of conduits and pipelines with minimum need for open-cut surface excavation. Pipe bursting is an accepted method for trenchless pipe replacement where an existing sewer or utility pipeline is replaced with a totally new structural pipe of equal or greater inside diameter. Pipe ramming is an established technology that provides a cost efficient alternative for placing steel casings under roads, railroads, finished landscapes, and structures. This paper describes each of the three trenchless construction methods and discusses several applications for sustaining underground utility networks through case histories of successful projects in China.
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Field research on fourteen case histories of microtunneling and pipe jacking projects was presented. Pertinent project details were provided including pipe materials, site geometry, geotechnical information, construction sequencing, lubrication injection, and jacking force records. Jacking force records for each project were separated into isolated segments along the alignment to analyze jacking stresses. Unlubricated segments of the microtunneling drive records were analyzed to compare actual and predicted jacking forces using the proposed model. The predictive model was compared to other models currently available for predicting the frictional component of jacking forces. Lubrication effects on jacking forces were analyzed to determine how the interface friction coefficient changed once lubrication was applied to the pipeline. Two types of lubrication strategies were identified and predicted lubricated jacking forces were shown. A step-by-step guide for using the jacking force predictive model was presented for design applications and estimating lubricated interface friction values. Dr. J. David Frost, Committee Chair ; Dr. G. Wayne Clough, Committee Co-Chair ; Dr. William F. Marcuson III, Committee Member ; Dr. Paul W. Mayne, Committee Member ; Dr. Susan Burns, Committee Member. Thesis (Ph. D.)--Civil and Environmental Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, 2007.
Vita. Includes bibliographical references (p. 146-148). Thesis (Ph. D.)--University of Illinois. Photocopy.
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