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Influence of Different Rest Interval Length in Multi-Joint and Single-Joint Exercises on Repetition Performance, Perceived Exertion, and Blood Lactate

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Senna GW, Figueiredo T, Scudese E, Baffi M, Carneiro F, Moraes E, Miranda H, Simão R. Influence of Different Rest Interval Length in Multi-Joint and Single-Joint Exercises on Repetition Performance, Perceived Exertion, and Blood Lactate. JEPonline 2012;15(5):96-106. The purpose of this study was to compare the influence of different rest interval lengths in multi-joint and single-joint resistance exercises on repetition performance, rating of perceived exertion, and blood lactate. Twelve trained men participated in this study. First, they performed test and retest for 10 repetition maximum in a multi-joint exercise (bench press, BP) and a single-joint exercise (machine chest fly, MCF). Then, all subjects completed four different training sessions. In each session, 5 sets of one exercise were performed with 10 repetition maximum load until fatigue with 1- or 3-min rest interval between sets in a counterbalance crossover design. The 3-min rest interval promoted a greater total number of repetitions in BP and MCF when compared to 1-min rest interval. As to rating of perceived exertion, progressive elevations occurred after the 3rd set in all conditions tested. For blood lactate concentration differences between intervals occurred at the MCF with higher elevations presented at the shorter intervals. Both exercises showed similar patterns on the repetitions performance, but multi-joint exercises led to greater fatigue with longer rest interval. Key Words: Muscle Strength, Weight Lifting, Physical Fitness
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96
Journal of Exercise Physiology
online
October 2012
Volume 15 Number 5
Editor-in-Chief
Tommy Boone, PhD, MBA
Review Board
Todd Astorino, PhD
Julien Baker, PhD
Steve Brock, PhD
Lance Dalleck, PhD
Eric Goulet, PhD
Robert Gotshall, PhD
Alexander Hutchison, PhD
M. Knight-Maloney, PhD
Len Kravitz, PhD
James Laskin, PhD
Yit Aun Lim, PhD
Lonnie Lowery, PhD
Derek Marks, PhD
Cristine Mermier, PhD
Robert Robergs, PhD
Chantal Vella, PhD
Dale Wagner, PhD
Frank Wyatt, PhD
Ben Zhou, PhD
Official Research Journal
of the American Society of
Exercise Physiologists
ISSN 1097-9751
Editor-in-Chief
Tommy Boone, PhD, MBA
Review Board
Deepmala Agarwal, PhD
Todd Astorino, PhD
Julien Baker, PhD
Steve Brock, PhD
Lance Dalleck, PhD
Eric Goulet, PhD
Robert Gotshall, PhD
Alexander Hutchison, PhD
M. Knight-Maloney, PhD
Len Kravitz, PhD
James Laskin, PhD
Yit Aun Lim, PhD
Lonnie Lowery, PhD
Derek Marks, PhD
Cristine Mermier, PhD
Robert Robergs, PhD
Chantal Vella, PhD
Dale Wagner, PhD
Frank Wyatt, PhD
Ben Zhou, PhD
Official Research Journal of
the American Society of
Exercise Physiologists
ISSN 1097-9751
JEPonline
Influence of Different Rest Interval Lengths in Multi-
Joint and Single-Joint Exercises on Repetition
Performance, Perceived Exertion, and Blood Lactate
Gilmar Weber Senna1, Tiago Figueiredo1, Estevão Scudese1,
Matheus Baffi1, Felipe Carneiro1, Eveline Moraes1, Humberto
Miranda1, Roberto Simão1
1Rio de Janeiro Federal University, Physical Education Post-
Graduation Program, Rio de Janeiro, RJ BRAZIL
ABSTRACT
Senna GW, Figueiredo T, Scudese E, Baffi M, Carneiro F, Moraes
E, Miranda H, Simão R. Influence of Different Rest Interval Length in
Multi-Joint and Single-Joint Exercises on Repetition Performance,
Perceived Exertion, and Blood Lactate. JEPonline 2012;15(5):96-106.
The purpose of this study was to compare the influence of different
rest interval lengths in multi-joint and single-joint resistance exercises
on repetition performance, rating of perceived exertion, and blood
lactate. Twelve trained men participated in this study. First, they
performed test and retest for 10 repetition maximum in a multi-joint
exercise (bench press, BP) and a single-joint exercise (machine chest
fly, MCF). Then, all subjects completed four different training
sessions. In each session, 5 sets of one exercise were performed with
10 repetition maximum load until fatigue with 1- or 3-min rest interval
between sets in a counterbalance crossover design. The 3-min rest
interval promoted a greater total number of repetitions in BP and MCF
when compared to 1-min rest interval. As to rating of perceived
exertion, progressive elevations occurred after the 3rd set in all
conditions tested. For blood lactate concentration differences between
intervals occurred at the MCF with higher elevations presented at the
shorter intervals. Both exercises showed similar patterns on the
repetitions performance, but multi-joint exercises led to greater fatigue
with longer rest interval.
Key Words: Muscle Strength, Weight Lifting, Physical Fitness.
97
INTRODUCTION
The length of rest interval is an acute variable that can be manipulated to approximate the responses
of resistance training with different objectives. Like strength, hypertrophy, power, and muscular
endurance training (2), length of the rest interval can create distinct adaptations on the endocrine (4)
and neuromuscular systems (5,21). The latest position statement of the American College of Sports
Medicine (2) recommends that recovery periods between sets should be from 2 to 3 min for multi-joint
exercises (i.e., squats or bench press) and from 1 to 2 min for single-joint exercises (such as leg
extension or machine chest fly). In a recent investigation (7), for strength and muscular power goals,
longer rest periods (3 to 5 min) were recommended without taking into consideration the exercises
(multi-joint and single-joint).
Numerous studies (11-13,15,16,20,22) have examined the influence of different rest intervals on the
number of repetitions in multi-joint exercises or in training sessions. But until now, only one study has
examined the influence of different length of rest intervals on distinct exercises (i.e., multi-joint x
singe-joint exercises) (17). Senna and colleagues (17) compared the repetitions performance and
ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) in different rest intervals between sets on multi- and single-joint
exercise. The results indicated that in leg press, leg extension, and MCF significant differences were
evident for all rest interval conditions (1 < 3 < 5 min) for the total number of repetitions completed.
For all exercises, coincident declines were observed on repetition performance between sets in
distinct intervals conditions, starting at the 2nd set for 1-min interval and 3rd set for 3 and 5 min,
respectively. Additionally, significant increases in RPE were evident on the subsequent sets for both
multi- and single-joint exercises with significant increases at the 1-min interval condition.
Even with the results of Senna et al. (17), blood lactate responses for different rest intervals between
sets of exercises and multi-joint exercise and single-joint exercise have not been examined.
Information about blood lactate concentrations would help demonstrate how both rest interval and
different type of exercises (multi-joint and single-joint) influence the neuromuscular system. Thus, the
aim of the present study was to compare the repetitions performance, rating of perceived exertion,
and blood lactate with 1-min and 3-min rest interval between sets for multi- and single-joint exercises.
It was hypothesized that multi-joint exercises would produce a greater decrease at the repetition
performance and, additionally, would allow for an increase in RPE followed by a higher blood lactate
value. These responses should be more evidenced with the shorter rest interval conditions.
METHODS
Subjects
Twelve trained men participated in this study (age: 23.41±2.53 yrs; body mass: 77.33±8.20 kg,
height: 177.08±6.17 cm, bench press relative strength: 1.53±0.25 kg/kg body mass) with the following
inclusion criteria:
Ø Performed resistance training for at least 1 yr with a minimum frequency of three sessions per
week;
Ø Could bench press at least 125% of their body mass;
Ø Did not perform any other physical activity for the duration of the current study;
Ø Did not present any medical conditions that could influence the training program; and
Ø Did not use any anabolic-androgenic steroids or other ergogenic substances that may enhance
repetition performance.
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Prior to data collection, all subjects answered “no” to all questions on the PAR-Q (18). After being
informed of testing procedures, all subjects read and signed an informed consent in accordance with
to the Declaration of Helsinki. The experimental procedures were approved by the Ethics Committee
of Federal University of Rio de Janeiro.
Procedures
10RM Determination
After two familiarization sessions with the experimental procedures, the subjects performed four
testing sessions with 10RM loads. At the first visit, the 10RM test was performed for the bench press
(BP) exercise. During the second visit (in a non-consecutive day) the 10RM was performed for the
machine chest fly (MCF). To establish reliability, two additional visits were conducted. During the
10RM tests, each subject performed a maximum of three 10RM attempts for each exercise with a 5-
min rest interval between the attempts. Each testing session was separated by 48 hrs in which the
subjects could not perform any exercise. The greatest load lifted over the 2-day period was
considered the 10RM load. The 10RM testing protocol was described previously (19).
Standard exercise techniques were followed for each exercise (3). The following strategies were
adopted to minimize errors:
Ø Standard instructions concerning the testing procedures were given to the subjects before the
test;
Ø The subjects received standardized instructions on exercise technique;
Ø Body position was held constant (i.e., hand width during BP);
Ø Verbal encouragement was provided during the testing procedure; and
Ø The mass of all plates and bars used were determined using a precision scale.
Rate Perception Effort Scale Procedures
The OMNI Resistance Exercise Scale (9) was used to obtain the RPE. All subjects performed two
familiarization sessions over a week, during which standard instructions were explained using the
OMNI Scale. Subjects were asked to choose a number on a scale based on their perceived exertion
or subjective intensity of effort, strain, discomfort, and/or fatigue experienced during the exercise
session (9). The familiarization sessions consisted of two exercises (bench press and machine chest
fly) performed for 2 sets of 15 repetitions with 2 min of rest between them. Immediately following each
exercise sequence, the subjects were asked to identify their RPE.
Experimental Procedures
Forty-eight to 72 hrs after the last 10RM test, the subjects completed the first visit of four different
training sessions (two sessions per week). In each session, 5 sets of 10RM loads were performed in
a randomized design that was used to determine the exercise (BP or MCF) in combination with the
rest interval (1 or 3 min) utilized in each session. The warm-up before each exercise consisted of two
sets of 12 repetitions with a load of 40% of 10RM for that exercise. A 2-min interval was instituted
between the warm-up sets and the realization of the first experimental set. Subjects were verbally
encouraged to perform 5 sets until voluntary exhaustion.
Although no attempt was made to control the repetition velocity, each subject was instructed to use a
smooth and controlled movement. All visits were conducted at the same time of day. The total
number of repetitions and RPE Omni-Res (9) were recorded following each set. During the session,
blood samples accessed from the antecubital vein for the determination of blood lactate
concentrations Pre, Post, and Post 15 min from the sessions executions. The period between blood
collection and verification was smaller than 30 min, in which the blood sample was placed in a
specific tube with an anti-coagulant containing fluoride. Samples were collected without an arm band.
99
The blood sample was centrifuged and used without further modifications. It was performed a double
analysis of blood lactate concentrations with BT 3000 plus equipment (Winter, Rosário, Arg).
Statistical Analyses
Statistical analysis was initially performed by Shapiro-Wilk normality test and homocedasticity test
(Bartlett criterion). All variables showed normal distribution and homocedasticity. The intraclass
correlation coefficient was used to determine the reliability of the loads between test and retest of
10RM for the exercises. A series of one-way ANOVAs were conducted to evaluate differences on the
number of repetitions completed of each set of exercises separately for different conditions of rest
interval, and also for the comparison of blood lactate in different times of examination (Pre, Post, and
Post 15 min). When significant differences were indicated, a Bonferroni post-hoc test was applied for
multiple comparisons. The Friedman test was used to compare differences between RPE in relation
to the sets for each interval and exercise. If necessary, a Dunn post-hoc was used for multiple
comparisons.
Additionally, to determine the magnitude of the findings, effect sizes (ES; the difference between the
pretest score and the posttest score divided by the pretest standard deviation) were calculated for
each exercise set of each rest condition, and the thresholds proposed by Cohen (6) were applied to
determine the magnitude of the treatment effects. The level of significance was P=0.05. Prism
software version 5.0 has been used for all statistical analysis (GraphPad, Inc).
RESULTS
Excellent test-retest reliability for each exercise was demonstrated via intra-class correlation
coefficients (BP, r = 0.94, MCF, r = 0.99; P=0.001). In addition, a paired student t-test indicated no
significant differences in the test-retest 10RM loads for each exercise (BP, P=0.54, MCF,
P=0.18). The total number of repetitions completed in BP and MCF within the 3-min interval between
sets was significantly higher than with the 1-min interval (P=0.05). For both exercises, the number of
repetitions decreased between the sets for the two rest intervals conditions starting from the second
set. No significant differences were observed between the 4th and 5th sets for both exercises (Table
1).
The ES were calculated using the repetition number of the 1st set as the pretest score, the repetition
numbers of the 2nd through 5th sets as the posttest scores, and the standard deviation of the first set
as the pretest standard deviation. The ES data demonstrated large magnitudes of repetition
reductions in both exercises and all rest conditions. The magnitude of reductions increased over
successive sets for all exercises in all rest interval conditions.
For all exercises, the magnitudes of reductions were higher for the 1 min rest condition across sets
(see Table 1). Significant increases in RPE were evident over successive sets for both multi-joint and
single-joint exercises. Significant differences for the 1st set started from the 3rd set for BP with 1-min
rest interval and the MCF in both intervals conditions. Additionally, significant differences were also
evident between 1- and 3-min rest intervals during the 4th and 5th set in the MCF (Table 1).
100
Table 1. Number of Repetitions (mean ± SD), Effect Size and RPE (median) in Each Set and
the Total Number of Repetitions (mean ± SD) in Each Exercise with 1-min and 3-min Rest
Intervals.
Set 1 Set 2 Set 3 Set 4 Set 5 Total
repetitions
Number of Repetitions
BP
1 min
*
5.00±1.2
0
*
l
*
*
28.01±3.30
3 min
10.25±0.62
*
l
¥
*
¥
*
¥
40.33±4.33
¥
MCF
1 min
10.67±0.98
*
*
l
*
*
31.92±1.51
3 min
10.33±0.50
8.91±
0.87
5.
67±1.29
*
l
¥
*
l
¥
37.66±3.06
¥
Effect Size of the Number of Repetitions
BP
1 min
-
11.83 (large)
17.61 (large)
23.09 (large)
25.11 (large)
-
3 min
-
1.60 (large)
3.62 (large)
5.90 (large)
6.42 (large)
-
MCF
1 min
-
3.55 (lar
ge)
4.65 (large)
6.34 (large)
7.19 (large)
-
3 min
-
2.81 (large)
7.10 (large)
9.25 (large)
8.59 (large)
-
RPE
BP
1 min
6.5
7
8
*
8
*
9
*
l
-
3 min
6
7
8
8
*
9
*
l
-
MCF
1 min
6
7
7
*
8.5
*
l
9
*
-
3
min
6
6
7
*
7
*
l
¥
8
*
l
¥
-
Values of the repetitions are expressed in repetitions maximum (RM); BP = bench press; MCF = machine
chest fly; *Significant difference to set 1; lSignificant difference to set 2; §Significant difference to set 3;
¥Significant difference to one minute rest interval (P= 0.05).
101
Significant elevations for blood lactate concentrations occurred in Post and Post 15 min compared
with Pre verification in all exercises and intervals conditions. Significant differences between rest
intervals (1 vs. 3 min) were observed in the MCF in Post and Post 15 min verification after completion
of the sessions, which did not occur on the BP exercise (Figure 1 and 2).
Figure 1. Blood lactate concentrations in pre, post and 15 minutes post exercise with one and three minutes
rest interval for bench press. Values are expressed in mmol/1. *Significant difference to pre-test;
lSignificant difference to pos-test (P=0.05).
Figure 2. Blood lactate concentrations in pre, post and 15 minutes post exercise with one and
three minutes rest interval for machine chest fly. Values are expressed in mmol/1. *Significant
difference to pre-test; lSignificant difference to pos-test (P=0.05).
102
DISCUSSION
The purpose of the present study was to compare the repetitions performance, rating of perceived
exertion, and blood lactate with 1- and 3-min rest interval between sets for multi-joint and single-joint
exercises. The key findings of this study were that both multi- and single-joint exercise (bench press,
BP or machine chest fly, MCF) reduced the total number of repetitions performed when short intervals
(i.e., 1-min) were utilized when compared with longer intervals (i.e., 3-min).
Number of Repetitions
Reducing the number of repetitions occurred from all sets especially at short rest intervals. The longer
rest interval (i.e., 3-min) resulted in smaller decreases in the number of repetitions for each set
regardless of the type of exercise (multi-joint or single-joint exercise). Our findings on repetitions
performance do not corroborate with recent positions statements that recommend resting periods
from 2 to 3 min for multi-joint exercises (e.g., squats, bench press) and shorter rest periods from
approximately 1 to 2 min for single-joint exercises (e.g., leg extension and machine chest fly).
Investigations that have examined the length of the rest interval between sets in multi-joint exercises
(15,21-23) or in training sessions (11,16) demonstrate that shorter intervals between the sets resulted
in a negative effect on the number of repetitions performance in each set and, therefore, affecting the
total volume, which is in agreement with our study. As to studies that looked at the influence of
different rest intervals between sets in multi-joint versus single-joint exercises, they are scarce. It
appears that only Senna et al. (17) directly compared the repetitions performance in multi-joint and
single-joint exercises using the same prime movers (pectoral and quadriceps). Specifically, they
compared repetition performance and RPE with 1-, 3-, and 5-min rest intervals between sets of multi-
and single joint resistance exercises. Fifteen resistance trained men completed 12 sessions (4
exercises x 3 rest intervals). Each session consisted of 5 sets with 10RM loads for the BP, machine
leg press, MCF, and machine leg extension exercises with 1-, 3-, and 5-min rest intervals between
sets. The results indicated significantly greater BP repetitions with 3 and 5 min versus 1 min between
sets. No significant difference was evident between the 3- and 5-min rest conditions. For the other
exercises (i.e., leg press, MCF, and machine leg extension), significant differences were reported
between all rest conditions (1 < 3 < 5). For all exercises, consistent declines of the repetition
performance (relative to the 1st set) were observed for all rest conditions, starting with the 2nd set for
the 1 min rest condition and the 3rd set for the 3- and 5-min conditions. Furthermore, significant
increases in RPE were evident over successive sets for both the multi- and single joint exercises, with
significantly greater values for the 1 min condition. These findings are in agreement with our data that
presented significant decreases in repetitions performance for each set as well as in the total number
of repetitions.
Blood Lactate Concentrations and RPE
In regards to blood lactate concentrations at different rest intervals (1 and 3 min) in distinct types of
exercises (multi-joint and single-joint exercises), our study differed from the Senna et al. (17). To our
knowledge, the present study is the first to elucidate these influences. Our results demonstrate
significant increases in blood lactate concentrations in relation to Pre, Post, and Post 15 min for all
conditions of rest interval and exercises. For the blood lactate concentrations in BP, no significant
differences were found among different rest intervals (1 or 3 min) for all blood samples. However,
differences for Post and Post 15 min occurred in different intervals between sets (i.e., 1 and 3 min),
with greater blood lactate values found in shorter intervals. These findings suggest that shorter
intervals (e.g., 1 min) provide higher muscle fatigue regardless of the exercise type. Although, for
longer intervals, higher levels of muscle fatigue were found in multi-joint exercises (i.e., BP).
103
Rahimi and colleagues (14) examined three different rest periods (i.e., 60 sec, 90 sec, and 120 sec)
on the acute hormonal response and lactate in 10 trained men. The resistance exercise session
consisted of 4 sets of squat and bench press exercises to failure using 85% of 1RM load. Blood
samples were collected at pre-exercise, immediately post, and 30 minutes post-exercise for the
measurement of growth hormone (GH), testosterone, and lactate concentration. Serum GH
concentrations were significantly higher at the 60 sec rest interval compared to the 120 sec rest
interval. Testosterone serum concentrations were significantly higher immediately post the resistance
exercises session when the 90 sec and the 120 sec rest intervals between sets were used. Blood
lactate concentrations were significantly increased after the resistance exercise session for the 3 rest
interval conditions, but no significant differences were observed between them.
These results are partially in agreement with Ahtiainen et al. (1) who researched the acute and long-
term hormonal and neuromuscular adaptations to hypertrophic strength training in 13 recreationally
strength trained men. Their experimental design consisted of a 6-month hypertrophic strength training
period including two separate 3-month training periods with the crossover design. The design
included a training protocol of short rest intervals (2 min) was compared with a longer rest interval (5
min) between the sets. The blood lactate concentrations, basal hormonal concentrations of serum
total testosterone, free testosterone, and cortisol were measured at the beginning of the research, 3rd
month, and 6th month. The two hypertrophic training protocols used in training for the leg extensors
(leg press and squats with 10RM sets) were also examined at the beginning of the research, 3rd
month, and 6th month. Before and immediately after, after 15 and 30 min after training, blood
samples were collected for determination of blood lactate and hormonal concentrations. Both
protocols before and after the experimental training period led to large acute increases in blood
lactate concentrations, serum hormonal, as well as large acute decreases in maximal isometric force.
However, no significant differences were observed between the different interval conditions.
Our study differs from these two studies in that the researchers (1,14) did not separate the conditions
in the multi-joint and single-joint exercise. They analyzed only the rest interval between sets
condition. However, our data partially agree with both studies in that both short and long rest intervals
in multi-joint exercises that demonstrated a similar increase in blood lactate concentration. Also, our
data demonstrated that for single-joint exercises (MCF) with shorter rest intervals between sets
caused a higher increase in blood lactate concentrations when compared to the longer rest intervals
(3 min). In support of the blood lactate results, the current study also demonstrated a significant
increase in RPE with successive sets for both BP and MCF exercises (with significant increases in
the RPE values for the 1 min interval conditions in the 4th and 5th sets of the MCF exercise).
The RPE is used to verify the intensity of resistance exercise sets (8-10). The 1 min condition may
emphasize anaerobic glycolysis to a greater extent to compensate for the incomplete resynthesis of
phosphocreatine. The greater reliance on anaerobic glycolysis is associated with the accumulation of
H+ that lowers the pH of intracellular fluid. The resulting effect is the afferent feedback from muscle
chemoreceptors and nociceptors that associates with an increase in the perception of exertion. The
central nervous system responds to the increase in RPE by increasing pulmonary ventilation and
motor unit recruitment (10).
CONCLUSIONS
The length of the rest interval between sets is a variable that may influence other crucial variables
(i.e., intensity and volume) involved in the development of specific objectives of resistance training
(e.g., strength, hypertrophy, power, and muscular endurance). The findings in this study support the
104
body of knowledge that for multi-joint or single-joint exercises short rest intervals between sets
produces significant decreases in the number of repetitions compared to long rest intervals between
sets. In addition, this study showed that short rest intervals between sets produce significant
increases in RPE and blood lactate concentrations regardless of the type of exercise performed.
Thus, these data suggest that if the purpose of resistance training is to produce a high level of fatigue
(as in muscular endurance), then, the shorter interval length seems to have great influence on the
neuromuscular responses (as well as the intensity and volume) regardless of exercise type (multi-
joint and single-joint exercises). On the other hand, when the training goals are related to high-
volume and maintenance of the load (such as muscle strength and power), longer rest intervals may
offer a higher performance of the number of repetitions. When prescribing multi-joint exercises, longer
intervals between sets are an interesting option when the goal is to increase muscle fatigue.
Address for correspondence: Humberto Miranda, MH, Rio de Janeiro Federal University. Rio de
Janeiro, Brazil, 21941-590. Phone 55 (21) 7719-1279; Email humbertomiranda01@hotmail.com
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Disclaimer
The opinions expressed in JEPonline are those of the authors and are not attributable to JEPonline,
the editorial staff or the ASEP organization.
... [3][4][5][6][7] In addition, in its latest position stand on resistance training, the ACSM recommended for strength, power and hypertrophy goals, that trained subjects should train in a repetition range of 1-12 repetitions applied in a periodized scheme. 2 Specifically, those who are aiming to improve dynamic strength should consider training with loads ranging from one to six maximal repetitions. 2 However, while a great number of experiments analyzed rest period manipulation and repetition performance in distinct repetition zones, [8][9][10][11][12] very few experiments have focused on identifying the optimal rest period length between 1-RM attempts. ...
... However, this kind of scenario does not necessarily translate to an acute decrease on exercise performance as previously demonstrated. 11 Additionally, Scudese et al. 13 observed significant increases on perceived effort when a short rest period between sets was implemented, even when training volume was maintained with near-maximum repetitions. Therefore, understanding the ideal duration for planning the rest period, goes far deeper then training efficiency alone (time vs. training volume), actually, it has the potential to enhance the training intensity. ...
... Furthermore, the rating of perceived exertion (RPE) has been used for assessing the subjective intensity of resistance exercise sets 14 and could improve the overall understanding of fatigue outcomes. Previous studies [8][9][10][11][12] reported that shorter rest period lengths (i.e. 1-min) increased RPE over the course of multiple sets when utilizing 3-RM to 10-RM loads. ...
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Objective: The purpose of this investigation was to compare different rest period lengths between consecutive one maximum repetition bench press attempts on performance and ratings of perceived exertion. Method: Eighteen trained men (27.95 ± 4.25 years; 81.00 ± 9.21 kg; 174.62 ± 3.34 cm; bench press relative strength 1.33 ± 0.11 kg/kg of body mass) participated in three randomly ordered sessions that required two consecutive one maximum repetition bench press attempts with 20, 40, or 60-s rest between attempts. Results: The Cochran Q analysis showed no significant differences in the ability to successfully perform a second one maximum repetition attempt with 20, 40, or 60-s rest between attempts (p = 0.882). Specifically, no significant differences were found in the successful completion of the first and second attempts for the 20-s (p = 0.317), 40-s (p = 0.083), and 60-s (p = 0.157) trials, respectively. Briefly, for both 20 and 60-s rest conditions Δ% = 88.88% of subjects successfully performed the second attempt and, for the 40-s protocol, only Δ% = 83.33% completed. For the pre and post-set ratings of perceived exertion, the shorter rest period (20-s) promoted significantly higher values compared to the longer rest periods (pre-set ratings of perceived exertion, p = 0.04; post-set ratings of perceived exertion, p = 0.023). Conclusions: The results of this study can be applied to recreationally trained individuals with the intent of generating a time-efficient process for conducting a valid and reliable one maximum repetition bench press assessment.
... In another study by Senna, Rodrigues, Sandy, Scudese, Bianco, Dantas 28 , it was observed that the smaller the interval between the set, the greater the reduction in performance, being evident in single-joint exercises the need for a recovery of more than 3 minutes, for maintenance of the same. In this sense, previous study compared the influence of different manipulations of the methodological variable of intervals between the series in the resistance exercise for single and multi-joint exercises on performance, RPE and blood lactate 29 . The participants (twelve trained men) performed four different training sessions (two with the BP and the other with the MCF). ...
... The values of RPE were used to evaluate the relative intensity of resistance exercise, as previously suggested by Lagally and Robertson 20 . In both experimental protocols, the methodological interval between set and exercises (1 minute) may have emphasized anaerobic glycolysis to a greater extent to compensate for the incomplete resynthesize of phosphocreatine 29 . The more significant emphasis on anaerobic glycolysis is associated with H+ accumulation, as well as decreases in intracellular fluid pH. ...
... The result of the afferent response of chemoreceptors and nociceptors may increase RPE 20 . Previous studies with 10-RM intensities 14,19,27,29 demonstrated increases in RPE during consecutive sets, and these increases were more evident at shorter intervals (1 minute) when compared to longer intervals long (3 and 5 minutes). More recently, it was observed significant increases in RPE at 1-minute intervals from the third set of single and multi-joint exercises with a 3-RM intensity 21 . ...
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Aim: The aim was to evaluate the effect of sodium bicarbonate supplementation (NaHCO3) in repetition performance, perceived exertion and blood lactate concentration. Methods: Fourteen trained men (25.14 ± 3.5 years; 85.83 ± 10.18 kg; 1.78 ± 0.06 m; 26.88 ± 3.17 kg/m²) realized two upper-body resistance exercise sessions consisting of 15-RM load and 1 minute of the interval, combining bicarbonate supplementation (BS) or Placebo conditions. Results: After the ANOVA analysis, no difference was found on the total number of repetitions during the session on both BS and Placebo condition (p = 0.11). However, a greater number of total of repetitions on the machine chest fly exercise for BS vs. Placebo condition (p = 0.04) was observed. The perceived exertion increased regardless of the supplementation condition (p < 0.0001). Additionally, for the blood lactate was observed significant increases in BS vs. Placebo condition in the post verification (p = 0.013), corroborated for a bigger area under the curve (AUC) on the BS compared to Placebo (p = 0.026) condition. Conclusion: In conclusion, sodium bicarbonate supplementation was not able to improve performance during a resistance exercise session, except for the single-joint exercise performed with high values of perceived exertion, not altering the perceived exertion, and blood lactate between protocols.
... Although TVL was not significantly different between conditions, the absolute values indicate that higher TVL was performed during the long RIs (i.e., 4,350 vs. 3,600 kg), making their results more comparable to ours (27). Our results oppose the findings of Senna et al. (34) when higher [La] occurred with 1-min RIs compared to 3-min RIs despite more repetitions being performed during the latter condition. Interestingly, this phenomenon was only observed during the chest fly, as [La] was similar between RI conditions during bench press (34). ...
... Our results oppose the findings of Senna et al. (34) when higher [La] occurred with 1-min RIs compared to 3-min RIs despite more repetitions being performed during the latter condition. Interestingly, this phenomenon was only observed during the chest fly, as [La] was similar between RI conditions during bench press (34). Based on our results and others, it seems that the [La] response to different RI lengths is greatly nuanced and potentially influenced by the muscle group, number of joints involved, and exercise modality used. ...
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The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of SHORT (1 min) and LONG (3 min) rest intervals (RI) on total volume lifted (TVL), repetition performance, fatigue index (FI), and blood lactate [La] during upper body (chest press) and lower body (leg press) exercise with low-intensity (75% of a 10-RM) in trained female lifters. Fourteen females (mean ± SD, age = 22.9 ± 5.4 years, training experience = 5.2 ± 2.5 years, height = 166.1 ± 6.9 cm, weight = 61.3 ± 5.1 kg, body fat % = 21.7 ± 3.3%) participated in this randomized, repeated-measures, cross-over design study. They performed four sets to failure on chest press (CP) and leg press (LP) under two conditions (SHORT and LONG RIs) in a counterbalanced manner. Paired-samples t-tests were used to analyze mean differences for TVL in CP and LP, separately. A 2 (exercise) x 2 (rest interval) repeated measures ANOVA was used to analyze mean differences in FI and average [La] values. A 2 (rest interval) x 4 (sets) repeated measures ANOVA was used to analyze mean differences in repetitions completed for each exercise. TVL for SHORT was significantly less when compared to LONG for both exercises. There was no significant difference in average [La] between RIs despite a greater FI in SHORT compared to LONG for both exercises. Lastly, [La] was higher during LP compared to CP irrespective of RI length. These results suggest that longer RIs are better for female lifters who want to optimize TVL with low-intensity resistance training. Metabolic stress, as measured by blood lactate, was greater during lower-body exercise.
... Significant increases in S-RPE were shown with reduced rest interval when volume load was matched between conditions [111]. Senna et al. [112] and [113] showed inconsistent trends towards higher RPE ratings with lower rest times, however, these studies did not control the number of repetitions completed in each set, meaning significantly greater numbers of repetitions were achieved in the longer rest interval conditions. Additionally, Tibana et al. [114] showed no differences in RPE following exercise using either a 1.5-or 3-min rest period, but once again, these trials were both completed until volitional fatigue meaning that both conditions should elicit a maximal RPE response. ...
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Background The validity of ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) during aerobic training is well established; however, its validity during resistance exercise is less clear. This meta-analysis used the known relationships between RPE and exercise intensity (EI), heart rate (HR), blood lactate (BLa), blood pressure (BP) and electromyography (EMG) to determine the convergent validity of RPE as a measure of resistance exercise intensity and physiological exertion, during different forms of resistance exercise. Additionally, this study aims to assess the effect of several moderator variables on the strength of the validity coefficients, so that clearer guidance can be given on the use of RPE during resistance exercise. Methods An online search of 4 databases and websites (PubMed, Web of Science SPORTDiscus and ResearchGate) was conducted up to 28 February 2020. Additionally, the reference lists of the included articles were inspected manually for further unidentified studies. The inclusion criteria were healthy participants of any age, a rating scale used to measure RPE, resistance exercise of any type, one cohort receiving no other intervention, and must present data from one of the following outcome measures: EI, HR, BP, EMG or BLa. Weighted mean effect sizes ( r ) were calculated using a random-effects model. Heterogeneity was assessed using the τ ² and I ² statistics. Moderator analysis was conducted using random-effects meta-regression. Results One-hundred and eighteen studies were included in the qualitative synthesis, with 75 studies (99 unique cohorts) included in the meta-analysis. The overall weighted mean validity coefficient was large (0.88; 95% CI 0.84–0.91) and between studies heterogeneity was very large ( τ ² = 0.526, I ² = 96.1%). Studies using greater workload ranges, isometric muscle actions, and those that manipulated workload or repetition time, showed the highest validity coefficients. Conversely, sex, age, training status, RPE scale used, and outcome measure no significant effect. Conclusions RPE provides a valid measure of exercise intensity and physiological exertion during resistance exercise, with effect sizes comparable to or greater than those shown during aerobic exercise. Therefore, RPE may provide an easily accessible means of prescribing and monitoring resistance exercise training. Trial Registration The systematic review protocol was registered on the PROSPERO database (CRD42018102640).
... In particular, recovery is impaired to a greater extent during multi-versus single-joint exercise. Senna et al. (135) found a significantly greater drop-off in the number of repetitions performed in a 10RM bench press across 3 sets when employing 1-versus 3-minute rest intervals (mean difference of 3 repetitions). Alternatively, a relatively similar repetition reduction was observed in the chest fly in both 1-and 3-minute rest conditions (mean difference of less than 1 repetition). ...
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Hypertrophy can be operationally defined as an increase in the axial cross-sectional area of a muscle fiber or whole muscle, and is due to increases in the size of pre-existing muscle fibers. Hypertrophy is a desired outcome in many sports. For some athletes, muscular bulk and, conceivably, the accompanying increase in strength/power, are desirable attributes for optimal performance. Moreover, bodybuilders and other physique athletes are judged in part on their muscular size, with placings predicated on the overall magnitude of lean mass. In some cases, even relatively small improvements in hypertrophy might be the difference between winning and losing in competition for these athletes. This position stand of leading experts in the field synthesizes the current body of research to provide guidelines for maximizing skeletal muscle hypertrophy in an athletic population. The recommendations represent a consensus of a consortium of experts in the field, based on the best available current evidence. Specific sections of the paper are devoted to elucidating the constructs of hypertrophy, reconciliation of acute vs long-term evidence, and the relationship between strength and hypertrophy to provide context to our recommendations.
... Additionally, when designing a resistance exercise program, one should consider the manipulation of several methodological variables that might influence training outcomes, both acutely and chronically [4]. One of these variables that are crucial to strength training is the rest interval between sets already known to influence the metabolic, hormonal, cardiovascular, and neuromuscular responses [5][6][7][8][9][10][11]. ...
... Additionally, when designing a resistance exercise program, one should consider the manipulation of several methodological variables that might influence training outcomes, both acutely and chronically [4]. One of these variables that are crucial to strength training is the rest interval between sets already known to influence the metabolic, hormonal, cardiovascular, and neuromuscular responses [5][6][7][8][9][10][11]. ...
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The present study aims to verify the responses of different rest period lengths on multiple attempts of the 1-RM (repetition maximal) in the Bench Press (BP) and Leg-Press (LP) exercises. Fifteen trained men (83.38 ± 10.89 kg, 179.40 ± 6.70 cm, 22.40 ± 2.52 years, 11.93 ± 3.51% BF, 1.23 ± 0.16 kg relative strength [maximum bench press load]\kg [body weight]-1) performed a test and retest for load evaluation in both exercises. After load determination, subjects performed four more visits, with five 1-RM attempts with distinct intervals (30 seconds, 1, 2, and 5 minutes). The Cochran Q test was applied in order to verify significant differences between 1-RM attempts. The results shown that short rest periods (< 2-min) promoted a decrease in the performance of multiple attempts, and that longer rests (2 to 5-min) were the best option for maintaining performance in 1-RM sets for both exercises. More specifically, 2 minutes was ideal for the maintenance of up to three successfully attempts and 5 minutes proved to be ideal for four attempts and somewhat high around 70% of success for the fifth and final set. We can conclude that the 2- and 5-minute rest intervals are the best option for maintaining multiple 1-RM attempts, and the choice must depend on the pre-stipulated number of sets.
... De acordo com o American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM, 2009) com o objetivo de desenvolver força e hipertrofia muscular, o período de descanso entre as séries deve ser de 1 a 2 minutos para exercícios uniarticulares e de 2 a 3 minutos para exercícios multiarticulares. Alguns experimentos sugerem que quanto maior o intervalo, mais poderá se manter o número de repetições em séries subsequentes tanto em sessões de treinamento (Senna et al., 2009) como para diferentes tipos de exercícios e membros treinados isoladamente (Senna et al., 2011;2012;2015;. Um exemplo é o estudo conduzido por Senna et al. (2016) que investigaram os efeitos agudos de diferentes períodos de descanso entre séries no desempenho da repetição de exercícios multi e uniarticulares com cargas quase máximas (3-RM). ...
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O objetivo do estudo foi verificar e correlacionar as variáveis metodológicas de tempo de intervalo e o volume do treinamento de força em indivíduos que utilizam ou não esteroides anabólicos. Participaram deste estudo 66 homens saudáveis (28,63 ± 8,17 anos; 77,26 ± 7,35 kg; 176,35 ± 1,45 cm) e treinados por pelo menos dois anos (avançados) com frequência mínima de 3 vezes por semana. Os participantes foram, após as respostas divididos, em usuários (n = 30) e não usuários de esteroides (n = 36). Um questionário com 17 perguntas foi utilizado para verificar o comportamento de prescrição das variáveis metodológicas de indivíduos que utilizam ou não esteroides anabólicos. Todas as questões desenvolvidas estavam totalmente ligadas ao TF, dados de identificação, antropométricos, e sobre o uso de esteroides para que compreendamos se há uma diferenciação no programa de treinamento (estritamente nos componentes de volume e intervalo) de praticantes que utilizam ou não essas substâncias. O questionário foi distribuído para os participantes do estudo, através de e-mail e mensagens de WhatsApp. Os principais achados do presente estudo foram as diferenças significativas entre o número de exercícios (componente do volume) para todas musculaturas analisadas (volume dos peitorais [p = 0,021]; costas [p = 0,044] e quadríceps [p = 0,024]) entre as distintas populações. Em adição, nosso estudo também verificou que para os usuários de esteroides anabólicos o tempo de intervalo entre as séries foi maior do que o dos participantes que não utilizaram estes recursos (p = 0,032). Os resultados indicam que tanto o volume de treinamento quanto o tempo de intervalo entre as séries são mais elevados na população que utiliza esteroides anabólicos.
... function may vary depending on the type of exercise performed (single-or multiple-joint). It seems that multi-joint exercises induce a higher rating of perceived exertion (RPE) when the same number of repetitions is performed, even with a greater inter-set rest interval for multi-joint exercise compared to single-joint exercise (Senna et al., 2012). Moreover, it seems the dynamic recovery process following single-and multi-joint exercises differ according to the neuromuscular performance as post-24 h resistance exercise, including only single-joint exercises, provides a faster recovery process than a session adopting only multi-joint exercises (Korak et al., 2015). ...
Article
Performing repetitions to failure (RF) is a strategy that might acutely reduce neuromuscular performance, as well as increase the rating of perceived exertion (RPE) and the internal training load (ITL) during and after a resistance training (RT) session. Thus, the aim of this study was to analyze the acute effects of RF or repetitions not to failure (RNF) on countermovement jump (CMJ) performance and the ITL in trained male adults. Eleven men performed two experimental protocols in randomized order (RF vs. RNF). Under the RF condition, participants performed 3 sets of the knee extension exercise using 100% of the 10RM load and rest intervals of 180-s between sets. Under the RNF condition, participants were submitted to 6 sets of 5 repetitions with the same intensity and an 80-s rest interval between sets in the same exercise. The CMJ test was analyzed before and following (15-s and 30-min, respectively) each experimental session. The ITL was evaluated through the multiplication of the RPE and the total session time, 30-min after the protocol. No main effect or interaction time vs. condition was found for CMJ performance (p > 0.05). In contrast, the ITL showed higher values under the RF condition (p = 0.003). Therefore, even though RF-induced a greater ITL, our results suggest that adopting this strategy in one single-joint exercise for the lower limbs does not seem to be sufficient to reduce CMJ height.
... In SEQ1, all subjects performed the BP followed by the MCF, while in SEQ2 the same procedures were performed, but in the reverse exercise order (the MCF followed by the BP). The warm-up before each session consisted of 2 sets of 12 repetitions at 40% of the 10-RM load (Senna et al., 2012) for the first exercise in the sequence. A 2min rest interval was implemented after the second warm-up set before the first experimental set. ...
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The purpose of this study was to examine the acute effects of multi-to single-joint or the reverse exercise order on repetition performance and perceived exertion for the pectoralis major. Fourteen trained men (24.05 ± 4.17 yrs, 78.85 ± 3.51 kg, 175.42 ± 4.01 cm) underwent two different training sequences (SEQ1 and SEQ2). In SEQ1, all subjects performed 5 sets for maximal repetitions, with a 2-min rest interval, of the bench press followed by the machine chest fly with 10 repetitions maximum load. In SEQ2, the same procedures were repeated, but with the reverse order. The t-test did not show any differences (p = 0.140) in total workout repetitions between SEQ1 (62.22 ± 11.00 repetitions) and SEQ2 (55.40 ± 8.51 repetitions). Conversely, the total repetition number for the bench press exercise was significantly greater (p = 0.001) following SEQ1 (34.36 ± 4.68 repetitions) compared to SEQ2 (25.85 ± 6.73 repetitions). In contrast, the total repetition number for the machine chest fly exercise following SEQ2 was significantly greater (p = 0.001) (33.50 + 4.11 repetitions) compared to SEQ1 (27.85 ± 6.52 repetitions). Despite no significant differences found for the rating of perceived exertion (RPE) values between SEQ1 and SEQ2 for the barbell bench press in all sets (p ≥ 0.083), significantly higher RPE values for the machine chest fly were observed over the first three sets following SEQ1 compared to SEQ2 (p < 0.01). In conclusion, the total workout repetitions were not significantly different when performing the traditional multi-to single-joint or the reverse exercise order when training the pectoralis major muscle.
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The purpose of the current study was to compare the workout volume (sets x resistance x repetitions per set) completed during two upper body resistance exercise sessions that incorporated 1 minute versus 3 minute rest intervals between sets and exercises. Twelve trained men completed two experimental sessions that consisted of 5 upper body exercises (i.e. barbell bench press, incline barbell bench press, pec deck flye, barbell lying triceps extension, triceps pushdown) performed for three sets with an 8-RM load. The two experimental sessions differed only in the length of the rest interval between sets and exercises; one session with a 1-minute and the other session with a 3-minute rest interval. The results demonstrated that for each exercise, significantly greater workout volume was completed when resting 3 minutes between sets and exercises(p < 0.05). These results indicate that during a resistance exercise session, if sufficient time is available, resting 3 minutes between sets and exercises allows greater workout volume for the upper body exercises examined.
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Rest intervals between sets appear to be an important variable that can directly affect training volume and fatigue. The purpose of the present study was to compare the influence of two and five-minute rest intervals on the number of repetitions per set, per exercise and total repetitions in resistance training sessions. Fourteen trained men (23.0 ± 2.2 yrs; 74.9 ± 4.1 kg; 1.75 ± 0.03 m) completed three sets per exercise, with 10RM load in four training sessions. Two sessions involved lower body exercises (leg press, leg extension and leg curl), with two-minute (SEQA) and with five-minute interval (SEQB). The other two sessions involved upper body exercises (bench press, pec-deck and triceps pulley), with two (SEQC) and five-minute intervals (SEQD). For two-minute, five of six exercises presented reductions in the second set, compared with the first set, and for the third set compared with the first and second sets. For five-minute, three of the six exercises presented reductions in the third set, compared with the first sets, and two of the six for the third set, compared with the second sets. The total number of repetitions in SEQA (66.7 ± 4.9) was significantly smaller than in SEQB (80.9 ± 6.9). Similarly, the total repetitions was significantly lower in SEQC (71.1 ± 4.7) compared with SEQD (83.7 ± 6.1). The results indicate that the training session performance is reduced by shorter intervals, being the initial exercises less affected during the progression of the sets.
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of very short rest periods on hormonal responses to resistance exercise in men. J Strength Cond Res 24(7): 1851–1859, 2010—The effect of 3 different rest periods on the acute hormonal responses to resistance exercise (RE) was examined in 10 experienced resistance trained men (age: 20.37 6 2.24 years, weight: 65.5 6 26.70 kg). On 3 separate sessions of an RE protocol, subjects were assigned in a random order a rest interval of 60 seconds (P60), 90 seconds (P90), or 120 seconds (P120) between sets. The RE session consisted of 4 sets of squat and bench press to failure using 85% of 1 repetition maximum. Blood draws occurred at pre-exercise (T0), immediately post (T1), and 30 minutes post (T30) exercise for measurement of serum growth hormone (GH), testosterone (TS), and blood-lactate concentrations. Serum GH concen-trations were significantly higher at T1 in P60 (64%) compared with P120. Also, serum TS concentrations were significantly higher at T1 in P120 (65%) and P90 (76%) compared to P60 (p # 0.05). Blood-lactate concentrations significantly increased at T1 for 3 protocols, but no significant protocols differences were observed. Although, training volume by using P90 and P120 was greater than that of P60, statistically a significant difference in training volume was not observed. The results of the present study support rest period in RE sets as an important variable to increase the anabolic hormone concentrations, and it should be mentioned that short rest intervals elevated greater increase in GH concentration compared with 120-second rest. However, TS response was greater in the RE protocol with a 120-second rest interval between sets.
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The purpose of this study was to compare repetition performance and rating of perceived exertion (RPE) with 1-, 3-, or 5-minute rest intervals between sets of multi and single-joint resistance exercises. Fifteen resistance trained men (23.6 ± 2.64 years, 76.46 ± 7.53 kg, 177 ± 6.98 cm, bench press [BP] relative strength: 1.53 ± 0.25 kg·kg(-1) body mass) completed 12 sessions (4 exercises × 3 rest intervals), with each session involving 5 sets with 10 repetition maximum loads for the free weight BP, machine leg press (LP), machine chest fly (MCF), and machine leg extension (LE) exercises with 1-, 3-, 5-minute rest intervals between sets. The results indicated significantly greater BP repetitions with 3 or 5 minutes vs. 1 minute between sets (p ≤ 0.05); no significant difference was evident between the 3- and 5-minute rest conditions. For the other exercises (i.e., LP, MCF, and LE), significant differences were evident between all rest conditions (1 < 3 < 5; p ≤ 0.05). For all exercises, consistent declines in repetition performance (relative to the first set) were observed for all rest conditions, starting with the second set for the 1-minute condition and the third set for the 3- and 5-minute conditions. Furthermore, significant increases in RPE were evident over successive sets for both the multi and single-joint exercises, with significantly greater values for the 1-minute condition. In conclusion, both multi and single-joint exercises exhibited similar repetition performance patterns and RPE, independent of the rest interval length between sets.
Article
The purpose of this study was to compare repetition performance when resting 1 minute vs. 3 minutes between sets and exercises for an upper-body workout performed in 2 different sequences. Sixteen recreationally trained men completed 4 experimental resistance exercise sessions. All sessions consisted of 3 sets with an 8-repetition maximum load for 6 upper-body exercises. Two different exercise sequences (i.e., A or B) were performed with either 1- or 3-minute rest between sets and exercises, respectively. For sequence A1 (SEQA1) and sequence A3 (SEQA3), resistance exercises were performed in the following order: lat pull-down with a wide grip (LPD-WG), lat pull-down with a close grip (LPD-CG), machine seated row (SR-M), barbell row lying on a bench (BR-B), dumbbell seated arm curl (SAC-DB), and machine seated arm curl (SAC-M). Conversely, for sequence B1 (SEQB1) and sequence B3 (SEQB3), the exercises were performed in the opposite order. The results demonstrated that the effect of exercise order was stronger than the effect of rest interval length for LPD-WG (SEQA3>SEQA1>SEQB3>SEQB1) and SAC-M (SEQB3>SEQB1>SEQA3>SEQA1), whereas the effect of rest interval length was stronger than the effect of exercise order for LPD-CG, SR-M, SAC-DB (SEQA3=SEQB3>SEQA1=SEQB1), and BR-B (SEQB3>SEQA3=SEQB1>SEQA1). These results suggest that upper-body exercises involving similar muscle groups and neural recruitment patterns are negatively affected in terms of repetition performance when performed at the end vs. the beginning of a session, and the reduction in repetition performance is greater when using 1-minute vs. 3-minute rest interval between sets.