Article

Comparative electromyographical investigation of the biceps brachii, latissimus dorsi, and trapezius muscles during five pull exercises

Authors:
To read the full-text of this research, you can request a copy directly from the authors.

Abstract

To compare the effectiveness of five different muscle training movements on the biceps brachii, latissimus dorsi and trapezius muscles, eight weight-trained men (age, 20.4 ± 0.5 years) were asked to perform three repetitions, at 70% one repetition maximum, of upright rowing (UR) and bent-over rowing (BR) exercises using a barbell ; and seated rowing (SR), front lat pull-down (LPf) and back lat pull-down (LPb) exercises using a Universal Machine. The activities of the biceps brachii, latissimus dorsi, and trapezius during the elbow flexsion and elbow extension phases of each exercise were analyzed using integrated electromyography (EMG) and normalized I-EMG. The results were as follows : 1. The mean nrmsEMG values for the biceps brachii were larger during UR and LPf exercises than during BR, SR, and LPb exercises, suggesting that UR and LPf are more effective than the other movements for training the biceps brachii. The mean nrmsEMG values for the latissimus dorsi were larger during SR, LPf, and LPb exercises, followed by BR and UR exercises (in descending order), suggesting that SR, LPf, and LPb exercises are more effective than the other movements for training the latissimus dorsi. 2. The mean nrmsEMG values for the upper trapezius were larger during UR and BR exercises than during SR, LPf, and LPb exercises, suggesting that UR and BR exercises are more effective than the other movements for training the upper trapezius. The mean nrmsEMG values for the middle trapezius were larger during BR and SR exercises than during UR, LPf, and LPb exercises, suggesting that BR and SR exercises are more effective than the other movements for training the middle trapezius. The mean nrmsEMG values for the lower trapezius were larger during BR exercise than during other movements, suggesting that BR exercise is more effective than the other movements for training the lower trapezius. 3. In all the exercises, each muscle showed a higher nrmsEMG value during the elbow flexsion phase than during the elbow extension phase. This observation suggests that the training method examined in this study should emphasize the elbow flexsion movement. The present results suggest that UR exercise is the most effective movement for training the biceps brachii and upper trapezius, BR is most effective for training the upper trapezius, middle trapezius and lower trapezius, SR is most effective for training the latissimus dorsi and middle trapezius, LPf is most effective for training the biceps brachii and latissimus dorsi, and LPb is most effective for training the latissimus dorsi.

No full-text available

Request Full-text Paper PDF

To read the full-text of this research,
you can request a copy directly from the authors.

... Yet research to determine the optimal variation of the LPD for particular muscle development is limited. Currently, much of the literature on the strength-building capacity of this exercise is based on personal beliefs and experiences (3,4,16), although a few investigations have used electromyography (EMG) to quantify the amount of activity in different muscles during different types of LPDs (10,12,14,15). These studies have provided several scientifically based weight training recommendations, but questions remain about the most effective combination of grip width and forearm orientation. ...
... Research has led to the general consensus that the anterior LPD is preferred to the posterior LPD. Most studies comparing the activity of the LD under both conditions have found that the anterior LPD elicits greater muscle activation (by EMG) than the posterior LPD (11,12,14). Only 1 study failed to observe any significant difference in muscle activity between anterior and posterior LPDs (15). ...
... These combinations have not been previously tested, we only hypothesize that WP will activate LD more than NS. This study will also assess MT and BB, because these muscles are also believed to be trained during an LPD (9,10,14). ...
Article
Full-text available
Based on electromyographic (EMG) studies, an anterior (in front of the face) wide grip with a pronated forearm has been recommended as the optimal lat pull-down (LPD) variation for strengthening the latissimus dorsi (LD) (Signorile, JF, Zink, A, and Szwed, S. J Strength Cond Res 16: 539-546, 2002; Wills, R, Signorile, J, Perry, A, Tremblay, L, and Kwiatkowski, K. Med Sci Sports Exerc 26: S20, 1994). However, it is not clear whether this finding was because of grip width or forearm orientation. This study aimed to resolve this issue by comparing wide-pronated, wide-supinated, narrow-pronated, and narrow-supinated grips of an anterior LPD. Twelve healthy men performed the 4 grip variations using an experimentally determined load of 70% of 1 repetition maximum. Two trials of 5 repetitions were analyzed for each grip type. Participants maintained a cadence of 2-second concentric and 2-second eccentric phases. The grip widths were normalized for each individual by using a wide grip that corresponded to their carrying width and a narrow grip that matched their biacromial diameter. Surface EMG of the LD, middle trapezius (MT), and biceps brachii (BB) was recorded, and the root mean square of the EMG was normalized, using a maximum isometric voluntary contraction. Repeated-measures analysis of variance for each muscle revealed that a pronated grip elicited greater LD activity than a supinated grip (p < 0.05), but had no influence of grip type on the MT and BB muscles. Based on these findings, an anterior LPD with pronated grip is recommended for maximally activating the LD, irrespective of the grip width (carrying width or biacromial diameter).
... Furthermore, studies have investigated different types of resistance exercises that target the same muscle groups activated during lat-pull down exercises (i.e. elbow flexors, shoulder adductors, and shoulder horizontal adductors) (Lehman, Buchan, Lundy, Myers, & Nalborczyk, 2004;Honda, Kato, Hasegawa, Okada, & Kato, 2005). For example, Honda, Kato, Hasegawa, Okada, & Kato (2005) compared EMG responses between different resistance exercises that engaged biceps brachii (BB) and latissimus dorsi (LD) as primary muscle groups (e.g. ...
... elbow flexors, shoulder adductors, and shoulder horizontal adductors) (Lehman, Buchan, Lundy, Myers, & Nalborczyk, 2004;Honda, Kato, Hasegawa, Okada, & Kato, 2005). For example, Honda, Kato, Hasegawa, Okada, & Kato (2005) compared EMG responses between different resistance exercises that engaged biceps brachii (BB) and latissimus dorsi (LD) as primary muscle groups (e.g. lat-pull down exercise, seated-rows, and bent-over rows). ...
... Various studies have examined EMG responses of lat-pull down exercises (Snyder andLeech (2009), Signorile et al., 2002;Lehman et al., 2004;Honda et al., 2005;Snyder & Leech, 2009;Sperandei et al., 2009;Koyama et al., 2010;Lusk et al., 2010); however, there are limited data on the EMG responses of chin-ups even though both types of resistance exercises appear to have similar movement patterns. Subsequently, this study compared the EMG responses between chin-ups and lat-pull down exercises and examined whether the characteristics of muscle activity were dependent on the kinematics of the exercises. ...
Article
The purpose of this study was to compare kinematics and muscle activity between chin-ups and lat-pull down exercises and between muscle groups during the two exercises. Normalized electromyography (EMG) of biceps brachii (BB), triceps brachii (TB), pectoralis major (PM), latissimus dorsi (LD), rectus abdominus (RA), and erector spinae (ES) and kinematics of back, shoulder, and seventh cervical vertebrae (C7) was analysed during chin-ups and lat-pull down exercises. Normalized EMG of BB and ES and kinematics of shoulder and C7 for chin-ups were greater than lat-pull down exercises during the concentric phase (p < 0.05). For the eccentric phase, RA during lat-pull down exercises was greater than chin-ups and the kinematics of C7 during chin-ups was greater than lat-pull down exercises (p < 0.05). For chin-ups, BB, LD, and ES were greater than PM during the concentric phase, whereas BB and LD were greater than TB, and LD was greater than RA during the eccentric phase (p < 0.05). For lat-pull down exercise, BB and LD were greater than PM, TB, and ES during the concentric phase, whereas LD was greater than PM, TB, and BB during the eccentric phase (p < 0.05). Subsequently, chin-ups appears to be a more functional exercise.
... 또한 pull-up 운동은 견갑대(shoulder girdle) 안정화(stability), 당기는 근력 및 높은 수준의 상대적 근력이 필요한 운동 수행을 향상시킬 수 있는 다관절(multi-joint) 상지 운동이라고 하였으며 [11], Nicholas et al. ...
... Pull-up 운동과 관련된 선행연구들은 잡는 방법(그립 종류)과 잡는 위치(그립 너비)에 따른 주동근에 미치는 영향에 관한 연구가 대부분 이며[4,11], 그립의 종류에 관한 선행연구의 결과로 Koehler[13]연구에 의하면, 잡는 방법으로 회외(supinated grips)는 상완 이두근과 승모근 의 근활성도가 높게 나타났으며, 회내(pronated grip)와 중립(neutral grips)은 광배근의 근활성도가 높게 나타났다고 보고하였다. 하지만 Kelly & Paul [14]은 pull-up 운동시에 일반적으로 사용하는 회내 그립 (pronated grip)이 광배근 발달에 효과적이라고 생각하지만 이에 대한 근거는 부족하다고 주장하였다. ...
Article
PURPOSE:There are various variables such as exercise posture, exercise intensity, number of repetitions, and rest time of training for muscle strength development, and these variables are intended to stimulate muscle activity. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of muscle activation according to grip thickness in pull-up exercise.METHODS: Eleven healthy men were randomly crossover design assigned to pull-up exercise (concentric: 1-s, eccentric: 1-s, 2-s/repetition) to failure. Surface electromyography (EMG) was recorded from the forearm flexors/extensors, biceps brachii, trapezius middle/lower and latissimus dorsi for muscle activation. Using the resulting EMG data, which were filtered of electromyogram artifacts, we calculated the root mean squares (RMS).RESULTS: Dependent-sample t-test produced a result, muscle activity in forearm flexors (p<.01), biceps brachii (p<.01), trapezius middle (p<.01), trapezius lower (p<.01) and latissimus dorsi (p<.05) were significantly increased at thick grip compared to normal grip in pull-up exercise.CONCLUSIONS:This study suggested that the thicker the grip, the higher the muscle activation. Using a grip thickness as one of the variables for training programs is considered as a method to stimulate muscle activity.
... To our knowledge, analyses of pulley exercises for the back have mainly focused on maximal power output or electromyographic (EMG) activity [25][26][27][28]. For instance, the global muscle contraction under the different activity stimuli was studied, and it was revealed that all selected exercises activate the latissimus dorsi and trapezius, but to varying degrees [29]. The cable row was found to involve the highest latissimus dorsi activity, whereas the upright row would trigger high firing activity in the upper trapezius [29]. ...
... For instance, the global muscle contraction under the different activity stimuli was studied, and it was revealed that all selected exercises activate the latissimus dorsi and trapezius, but to varying degrees [29]. The cable row was found to involve the highest latissimus dorsi activity, whereas the upright row would trigger high firing activity in the upper trapezius [29]. Additionally, the kinetics and kinematics of the seated row in elite athletes was described but only included limited biomechanical associations [30]. ...
Article
Full-text available
The back is an extremely common site of injury among both athletes and sedentary people. Furthermore, low back pain has become prevalent in our society. Maintaining strong back muscles can help prevent future pain or injuries. Here, the aim is therefore to assess the kinetic and kinematic movements of four pulling exercises with different external loading directions. Fifteen healthy subjects were analyzed using a 3D motion capture system. The pulley machine was equipped with a load cell for force data acquisition. The exercises consisted of 8 repetitions each of the lat pulldown (25% and 50% body weight (BW) extra load), the lat pulldown with 45° incline (10% and 25% BW), the seated cable row (25% and 50% BW) and the upright row (standing, 10% and 25% BW). The minimum and maximum curvature angle in the thoracic as well as the lumbar spine was larger during the upright row than during the other exercises. Furthermore, during the upright row, the sagittal moment in the shoulder joint is opposed to the other exercises in the direction of retroversion. Due to the higher lumbar curvature observed in low back patients, to avoid overload, it is not advisable for patients with back pain to perform upright rows.
... Various studies have investigated the EMG responses of different pull-ups, Chin-ups, and/or lat pull down exercises [4,6,7,9,10,12,13,14] . However, there is limited data on the EMG responses of pull-ups even though all the six types of pull-ups appear to have similar movement patterns. ...
... The bent-over row exercise, with the trunk parallel to the ground, has previously been proposed in the physical development pathway of high-performance tennis players (53). The bent-over row has been shown to produce greater level of muscle activation for the upper, middle and lower portions of the trapezius muscles in comparison to other pulling exercises (31) and requires a high stiffness level of the thoracic and lumbar spine (22). Both components are key physical factors involved in lower back injury prevention (49) and specific pulling actions (i.e., rucks) (21). ...
Article
Full-text available
Abstract The purpose of this article is to describe the training strategy built by the French Rugby Union to optimize strength and power development in elite rugby union players. The training process is based on 4 stages composed of educational and technical efficiency, work capacity, maximal strength and explosive power. The evolution of the player during these different steps should be adjusted according to individual progression and not only their chronological and biological age. Supervised training sessions with qualified and experienced strength and conditioning coaches are paramount to ensure individualized training and provide sound pedagogical approaches.
... Regarding handgrip width, a significant decrease in the number of repetitions between FLPD-WG and the FLPD-NG was observed only when the exercises were performed following PE of the BB. Handa et al. (2005), using surface electromyography, observed lower activation of the BB when a wide handgrip width was used with the FLPD exercise. Signorile et al. (2002) reported greater intervention of the BB muscle during the FLPD when the handgrip width was narrow. ...
Article
Full-text available
The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of pre-exhaustion (PE) of the biceps brachii muscle (BB) on the number of repetitions and the rate of perceived exertion (RPE) in the front lat pull-down (FLPD) using different handgrip positions. Additionally, the effect of sex and its interaction with performance and the RPE were also examined. The participants were 19 healthy subjects: 8 men (age: 27.13±2.85 years; body height: 180.63±6.65 cm; body mass: 82.05±8.92 kg; and body fat: 14.67±6.09%); and 11 women (age: 28.81±3.68 years; body height: 162.91±6.51 cm; body mass 59.63±6.47 kg; and body fat: 24.11±4.33%). The number of repetitions and the RPE in the FLPD exercise with different handgrip positions, with and without PE of the BB, was documented. The following main significant effects were seen: i) PE of the BB decreased the number of repetitions (p<0.001) and increased the RPE (p<0.001); ii) the narrow handgrip width elicited a higher RPE (p<0.001) and iii) women performed fewer repetitions than men in all FLPD exercise variations (p=0.023). Significant interactions were also observed between: i) PE or sex and the RPE (p=0.024); and ii) PE or handgrip width and the number of repetitions (p<0.001). In conclusion, PE of the BB promotes a decreased performance in the FLPD exercise along with a greater RPE, especially when using a narrow handgrip position.
... Regarding handgrip width, a significant decrease in the number of repetitions between FLPD-WG and the FLPD-NG was observed only when the exercises were performed following PE of the BB. Handa et al. (2005), using surface electromyography, observed lower activation of the BB when a wide handgrip width was used with the FLPD exercise. Signorile et al. (2002) reported greater intervention of the BB muscle during the FLPD when the handgrip width was narrow. ...
Article
Full-text available
The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of pre-exhaustion (PE) of the biceps brachii muscle (BB) on the number of repetitions and rate of perceived exertion (RPE) in the front lat pull-down (FLPD) using different handgrip positions. Additionally, the effect of sex and its interaction with performance and RPE were also examined. The participants were 19 healthy subjects: 8 men (age: 27.13±2.85 years; height: 180.63±6.65 cm; body mass: 82.05±8.92 kg; and body fat: 14.67±6.09%); and 11 women (age: 28.81±3.68 years; height: 162.91±6.51 cm; body mass 59.63±6.47 kg; and body fat: 24.11±4.33%). The number of repetitions and RPE in the FLPD exercise with different handgrip positions, with and without PE of the BB, was documented. The following main significant effects were seen: i) PE of the BB decreased the number of repetitions (p<0.001) and increased RPE (p<0.001); ii) the narrow handgrip width elicited higher RPE (p<0.001) and iii) women performed fewer repetitions than men in all FLPD exercise variations (p=0.023). Significant interactions were also observed between: i) PE or sex and RPE (p=0.024); and ii) PE or handgrip width and the number of repetitions (p<0.001). In conclusion, PE of the BB promotes a decreased performance in the FLPD exercise along with greater RPE, especially when using a narrow handgrip position.
Article
The upright row is commonly used to develop the deltoid and upper back musculature. However, little information exists concerning muscle recruitment during variations of this exercise. Sixteen weight-trained men completed two repetitions each in the upright row with three grip conditions; 50, 100, and 200% of the biacromial breadth (BAB). The load was the same for all grip conditions and was equal to 85% of the 1RM determined at 100% BAB. RMANOVA were used to compare the maximal activity of the anterior deltoid (AD), lateral deltoid (LD), posterior deltoid (PD), upper trapezius (UT), middle trapezius (MT), and biceps brachii (BB) during the three grip widths for eccentric and concentric actions. Significant differences (p<0.05) were noted in concentric muscle activity for LD (p<0.001), and PD (p<0.001), and in eccentric muscle activity for AD (p=0.023), LD (p<0.001), UT (p<0.001), MT (p<0.001), and BB (p=0.003). Bonferroni post hoc analysis revealed significant pairwise differences in the concentric actions from the LD (50% BAB vs 200% BAB and 100% vs 200% BAB) and PD (50% BAB vs 200% BAB and 100% vs 200% BAB), and eccentric actions of the LD (all comparisons), UT (all comparisons), MT (50% BAB vs 200% BAB and 100% vs 200% BAB), and BB (50% BAB vs 200%), with large to very large effect sizes. Moderate-to-large effect sizes were noted for several non-significant comparisons. The main findings of this investigation are increased deltoid and trapezius activity with increasing grip width, and correspondingly less biceps brachii activity. Therefore, those who seek to maximize involvement of the deltoid and trapezius muscles during the upright row should utilize a wide grip.
Article
It has been observed anecdotally that while performing the multijoint lat pull-down exercise, novice strength trainers often rely on the elbow flexors to complete the movement rather than fully utilizing the relevant back muscles such as the latissimus dorsi (LD) and teres major (TM). The primary aim of the study was to determine whether specific technique instruction could result in a voluntary increase in LD and TM electromyographic (EMG) activity with a concurrent decrease in the activity of the biceps brachii (BB) during the front wide-grip lat pull-down exercise. Eight women with little or no background in strength training were asked to perform lat pull-down exercise with only basic instruction, performing 2 sets of 3 repetitions at 30% max. After a brief rest, subjects then performed the same 2 sets of 3 repetitions following verbal technique instruction on how to emphasize the latissimus while de-emphasizing the biceps. EMG activity of the LD, TM, and BB were recorded, converted to root mean square, and normalized to the maximum isometric EMG (NrmsEMG). A significant increase was seen in Nrms EMG in the LD (p = 0.005) from the average of preinstruction NrmsEMG to the average of postinstruction NrmsEMG. No significant differences were observed between pre- and postinstruction muscle activity in the BB or TM. The results show that untrained individuals can voluntarily increase the activity of a specified muscle group during the performance of a multijoint resistance exercise, but the increase probably does not represent "isolation" of the muscle group through voluntary reduction of activity in complementary agonist muscles.
Article
Full-text available
The bar movement characteristics of 10 elite powerlifters were analyzed while bench pressing a maximum load and a submaximal load in a simulated competition using high-speed cinematography. Significant differences in bar path and alterations to the general force profile of movement were evident as the load was increased. These movement discrepancies resulted in the following conclusions being drawn with reference to the bench press movement: (a) The movement pattern adopted during the performance of an 81 % maximum load was not specific to that which was utilized during the maximal load. (b) Based upon the concepts of specificity of training and testing, the use of the popular one-repetition maximum test to quantify strength changes derived from submaximal training appeared invalid. This occurrence is further accentuated when the testing protocol is conducted on a bench press machine. (c) The design of “isotonic” bench press machines appeared to be load specific. Further, the development of bench press machines that would allow a number of bar paths to be pursued appear to represent a significant improvement over existing models.
Article
The purposes of this study were to assess the activity of selected muscles used during 4 sit-up exercises with and without the assistance of abdominal exercise devices and to determine what effect, if any, the devices have on muscle activity. Nineteen young, healthy subjects completed a series of unassisted abdominal exercises (basic crunch with arms up, basic crunch with arms down, oblique crunch, and reverse crunch). The same exercises also were performed using each of 4 exercise devices. Surface electromyography was recorded from the upper and lower rectus abdominis, external oblique, rectus femoris, and sternocleidomastoid during the concentric and eccentric phases of each repetition. Repeated-measures analysis of variance analyses were used to compare mean electromyographic activity across conditions. Results showed few significant differences in abdominal muscle activation among the conditions. Some differences were noted in rectus femoris and sternocleidomastoid activity when comparing unassisted exercise and exercise using the devices. The results suggest that abdominal devices such as those tested in this study do not elicit any greater or lesser involvement of the abdominal musculature than does performing similar exercises unassisted. (C) 1999 National Strength and Conditioning Association
Article
The purpose of this study was to compare the relative activation of the vastus lateralis (VL) and vastus medialis (VM) muscles among subjects of different training statuses during the completion of a single set of the back squat performed until failure (SSTF) at an intensity of 85% of the 1 repetition maximum (1RM). Nine trained (TR) and 7 untrained (UT) subjects performed 2 1RM tests followed by an SSTF at 85% of the 1RM on 3 separate days. Activation of VL and VM was recorded using surface electrodes during both the 1RM and SSTF. The data were digitally filtered, rectified, and integrated (IEMG) for the 1RM and each repetition of the SSTF. The SSTF 1EMGs were expressed as a percentage of 1RM IEMG (%1RM IEMG) for the first repetition, as well as 40, 60, 80, and 100% of the repetitions completed in the SSTF. The TR was significantly stronger than UT in 1RM back squat strength. The TR and UT exhibited similar VL activation. The TR had significantly greater activation for VM than UT. The combined activation (COMB) of these 2 muscles revealed significantly greater muscle activation by TR than UT. The TR used a significantly greater %1RM IEMG at 40, 80, and 100% of completed repetitions for VL. The %1RM IEMG for TR was also significantly greater at 80 and 100% of the completed repetitions for VM. The COMB %1RM IEMG for TR was significantly greater than that of UT at 80 and 100% of completed reps. The TR completed significantly more repetitions (9.67 +/- 0.91 repetitions) than UT (7.14 +/- 0.74 repetitions) in the SSTF. The results indicate that TR can utilize a greater %1RM IEMG. This may contribute to an increase in relative submaximal lifting capacity and invalidate the method of defining training intensity utilizing a percentage of the 1RM for a specific number of repetitions. (C) 2000 National Strength and Conditioning Association
Article
Six experienced lifters performed 3 squats in each of 4 foot positions: -10[degrees] inward, 0[degrees], 10[degrees] outward, and 20[degrees] outward. These were performed at 2 weight conditions: 65 and 75% of 1 repetition maximum. Surface electromyographic activity of the vastus medialis, vastus lateralis, and rectus femoris on the right leg was analyzed in terms of the activity duration and peak levels of activity. Results and analysis of variance indicated that the foot rotation position did not influence the mean peak activity or mean duration of activity of vastus medialis, vastus lateralis, or rectus femoris. The practice of adopting foot rotation to selectively strengthen individual muscles of the quadriceps group was not supported by this study, which involved smaller, more readily adopted, and comfortable levels of foot rotation than did those previously investigated. (C) 2000 National Strength and Conditioning Association