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Psoroptes sp. Infestation in Sulawesi Bear Cuscus (Ailurops ursinus) in Indonesia

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One male and two female sulawesi bear cuscus (Ailurops ursinus), weighing 4.4, 5.1 and 4.6 kg was admitted to the Animal Health Center of the Gowa Agriculture Extension College. Upon physical examination auricular skin lesions, and erythematous and pruritic skin lesions, both on the ventral abdomen and on extremities were detected. Microscopic examination of skin scrapings taken from pinnae and hair plucked from the medial extremities region revealed the presence of Psoroptes sp. The ventral abdominal and extremitas localization of Psoroptes sp. was evaluated as an ectopic infestation. To our knowledge, this is the first report of Psoroptes sp. in Sulawesi Bear Cuscus (Ailurops ursinus) in Indonesia. The Sulawesi bears cuscus were injected subcutaneously with ivermectin at 0.1 mg/kg of bodyweight, as well as with injected intramusculary a ADE combination to supportive therapy. Three Sulawesi Bears Cuscus became negative for mites after third treatments of ivermectin at seven days interval, and clinical mange did not recur.
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International Journal of Biology; Vol. 6, No. 4; 2014
ISSN 1916-9671 E-ISSN 1916-968X
Published by Canadian Center of Science and Education
20
Psoroptes sp. Infestation in Sulawesi Bear Cuscus (Ailurops ursinus)
in Indonesia
Purwanta1, Mihrani1, Sartika Juwita1, Ahmad Nadif2, Ali Ma’shum1 & Muh Arby Hamire1
1 Agriculture Extension College, Gowa, South Sulawesi, Indonesia
2 Agriculture Quarantine of Pare-Pare, South Sulawesi, Indonesia
Correspondence: Purwanta, Agriculture Extension College, Gowa, South Sulawesi 92171, Indonesia. Tel:
62-8134-2408-306. E-mail: purwantadrhmkes@gmail.com
Received: May 13, 2014 Accepted: June 25, 2014 Online Published: July 2, 2014
doi:10.5539/ijb.v6n4p20 URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.5539/ijb.v6n4p20
Abstract
One male and two female sulawesi bear cuscus (Ailurops ursinus), weighing 4.4, 5.1 and 4.6 kg was admitted to
the Animal Health Center of the Gowa Agriculture Extension College. Upon physical examination auricular skin
lesions, and erythematous and pruritic skin lesions, both on the ventral abdomen and on extremities were detected.
Microscopic examination of skin scrapings taken from pinnae and hair plucked from the medial extremities region
revealed the presence of Psoroptes sp. The ventral abdominal and extremitas localization of Psoroptes sp. was
evaluated as an ectopic infestation. To our knowledge, this is the first report of Psoroptes sp. in Sulawesi Bear
Cuscus (Ailurops ursinus) in Indonesia. The Sulawesi bears cuscus were injected subcutaneously with ivermectin
at 0.1 mg/kg of bodyweight, as well as with injected intramusculary a ADE combination to supportive therapy.
Three Sulawesi Bears Cuscus became negative for mites after third treatments of ivermectin at seven days interval,
and clinical mange did not recur.
Keywords: Psoroptes sp., infestation, Sulawesi bear cuscus (Ailurops ursinus)
1. Introduction
Diseases of the sulawesi bear cuscus (Ailurops ursinus) rare published. The disease is one threat to the survival of
possum if not handled properly and wildlife (Pederson et al., 2007). Sulawesi bear cuscus (Ailurops ursinus) is one
of the animal species endemic to the island of Sulawesi, which is protected by Indonesian Government Regulation
Number. 7/1999. These animals included in the red list of threatened species IUCN 2008 (Salas et al., 2008).
Sulawesi bear cuscus is an animal marsupial and from family Phalangeridae.
Report cases of disease caused Psoroptes sp. the possum has not been published, one of a kind Psoroptes is
Psoroptes cuniculi generally attacks on domesticated livestock such as rabbits (Acar et al., 2007; Kyung-Yeon &
Oh-Deog, 2010), Psoroptes is the causative agent of dermatitis in cattle, sheep, goats, rabbits and turkey (Kurtdede
et al., 2007; Lekimme et al., 2008). Type P. cuniculi attack on wildlife group Artiodactyls reported by Pederson et
al. (2007), whereas the incidence of deer in the United States reported by Schmith et al. (1982).
This mite has a host of high specification. Psoroptes species that normally live on the host will not infest other host
with different species. Psoroptes do not dig a tunnel under the skin and only live on the surface, under the scab, and
under the accumulated pile of scaly skin, outer ear, auditory canal, and obtain food by piercing the skin (Bowman,
1999).
2. Case History and clinical examination
One male and two female sulawesi bear cuscus (Ailurops ursinus), weighing 4.4, 5.1 and 4.6 kg was admitted to
the Animal Health Center of the Agriculture Extension College, Gowa from Gowa Discovery Park (GDP). Cuscus
presented pruritis, alopecic and weight loss. Clinical examination revealed severe bilateral lesions in both pinnae,
and erythematous, and alopecic skin lesions with pruritis on the ventral abdomen, perianal and extremities (Figure
1).
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Figure 1. Infection showing spread in extremitas, ventral abdomen and tail
3. Diagnosis
Diagnosis was performed by clinical signs, dermatological and microscopic examination of the skin lesions.
Microscopic examination of skin scrapings taken from pinnae and hair plucked from the medial extremities region
revealed the presence of Mange. Many mites were detected on microscopic examination of material scraped from
the external ventral abdominal and extremitas. Skin scrapings from each region then included in a separate vial
containing a solution KOH 10%. Identification is done under a microscope. Results identification diagnosed as
Psoroptes sp. (Figure 2).
Figure 2. Microscopic examination of skin sample from ventral abdomen of cuscus observes the mite Psoroptes sp.
Psoroptes sp. has an oval body shape and length of the section conical front. Psoroptes has a long pedicle
connected to the carancula. Mites large female with a body length of about 750 μm. Tarsi I and II culminate in
karankula while the tarsi III with the same limb size led to long setae (Wall & Shearer, 1997).
4. Treatment
The cuscuses were injected subcutaneously with ivermectin at 0.1 mg/kg of body weight, as well as with injected
intramusculary a ADE combination to supportive therapy. Three cuscus became negative for mites after third
treatments of ivermectin at seven days interval, and clinical mange did not recur.
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22
5. Discussion
Based on the results of a physical examination on cuscus, there is a dominant lesions include alopecia and purities
at the ventral abdominal, extremity, lightly hooked around the eyes and the base of the ear. This is in contrast to the
infestation P.caniculi on a change in the dominant rabbit ears, however, in many cases Psoroptes affected mainly
in area of ear, head, neck, abdomen, legs and perianal region of farm rabbits reported severe itching, infections,
lesions and swelling. In older or sick animals, or if not treated properly, the parasite can spread to other regions on
the body. The mite P. cuniculi is a worldwide obligatory ectoparasite, mainly of rabbits, goats, horses, and sheep
(Perrucci et al., 2005). Diagnosis of mange is achieeved through observation of clinical signs e.g. itching, pruritis,
and wool loss and ultimately through the detection of mites in skin scrapings. Early stages of infestation are often
difficult to diagnose and subclinical animals can be a major factor in disease spread (Burgess et al., 2012).
The mites puncture the epidermis of ear, suck lymph and give rise to local inflammatory swelling from which
serum exude, coagulates and forms enormous encrustation inside the ear. The mite causes intense pruritus with
formation of crusts and scabs, which can completely fill the external ear canal and internal surface of the pinnae in
untreated animals (Perrucci et al., 2005). In the rabbit, it is important to mention that in present study, lesions in the
experimental infestation with the mite werw detected after 21 day post infestation (Hallal-Calleros et al., 2013)
However, this study, Cuscus presented pruritis, alopecic and weight loss. Clinical examination revealed severe
bilateral lesions in both pinnae, and erythematous, and alopecic skin lesions with pruritis on the ventral abdomen,
perianal and extremities (Figure 1). Many cases Psoroptes affected mainly in area of ear, head, neck, abdomen,
legs and perianal region of farm rabbits reported severe itching, infections, lesions and swelling (Swarnakar et al.,
2014).
According to Jeesup and Boyce (2008), ivermectin administered SC 0.2 mg/kg effective controlling Psoroptes
infestations in cattle, but this formulation has been ineffective in infested big-horn sheep. Our preliminary studies
with both domestic and big-horn sheep have indicated that higher doses of ivermectin (from 0.8 to 1 mg/kg) are
requred to achive serum levels comparable to those that are miticidal in cattle. In this case report, the dose used
0.1 mg/kg, with consideration has not been reported on the use of ivermectin cuscus, contraindications arise feared
or other side effects adverse. Giving the injection of vitamin ADE as supportive therapy to improve growth,
enhance immunity against the disease, especially in young animals, help recovering from illness, and cope with
hair loss. Treatment is quite effective in controlling infestations Psoroptes sp. after 3 repetitions with 1-week
intervals, characterized by microscopic examination of skin scrapings not found Psoroptes sp., healing is also
characterized by the growth of the region experiencing hair loss (Figure 3). This is in accordance with Hillyer
(1994) recommended the administration of 3 doses.
Figure 3. Cuscus after treatment with ivermectin and vitamin ADE injections every week for 3 weeks
Acknowledgement
Authors are grateful to the Operational Manager Sheila Ishak, Gowa Discovery Park (GDP) Makassar South
Sulawesi-Indonesia for providing the facilities for the sample collection.
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... In the past it was thought that they pierce the skin of their hosts. Today it is believed that they do not pierce the skin, but that the mite feces cause an allergic reaction of the host's skin, which reacts producing exudations and skin thickening and hardening (lichenification) with formation of papules scale and crusts (excoriations), mostly with wool loss (Purwanta et al., 2014). The mites feed on the exudates and secretions produced by the affected skin. ...
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