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The relationship of eating until 80% full with types and energy values of food consumed

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... Therefore, mindfulness interventions should prioritize the perception of satiation signals before attempting to improve the perception of hunger signals. Preferably, a more intensive type of mindfulness training should be employed than just a single and brief body scan exercise and could possibly be combined with training individuals to stop eating before reaching complete satiation, which is associated with lower food intake (Fukkoshi, Akamatsu, & Shimpo, 2015). Finally, in this research (particularly in Study 1) we sacrificed external validity in order to isolate and assess the effects of interest. ...
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An increasing number of studies investigate the effects of mindfulness on food intake and weight outcomes, while the underlying mechanisms by which mindfulness exerts its effects have received less attention. We conducted two pre-registered studies to shed light on the frequently proposed yet largely understudied hypothesis that mindfulness improves awareness of bodily signals of satiation and hunger. We assessed the ability to perceive the onset of bodily signals of satiation with the two-step water load test (Study 1) and the ability to perceive the onset of bodily signals of hunger with the preload test (Study 2). A brief mindfulness exercise (body scan) did not impact the perception of satiation but improved the ability to perceive bodily signals of hunger. After the consumption of a standardized preload, participants in the two experimental conditions felt equally satiated; nevertheless, those in the mindfulness condition perceived the onset of hunger 18min earlier than those in the control condition and this effect persisted also in the presence of control variables. These findings together suggest that even a single and short mindfulness exercise can improve perception of hunger signals substantially, while more intensive mindfulness training may be needed to impact perception of satiation signals.
... High Bifidobacterium abundance was similarly observed in Asian children living in China, Taiwan, Japan, Indonesia and Thailand (Nakayama et al., 2015), and Japanese adults (Nishijima et al., 2016) as expected based on this genus' higher expression of glycoside hydrolases for degrading starch relative to other intestinal microbes. Other genera, significantly more represented in Singaporean Indians compared to Singaporean Chinese were Bacteroidetes (4-times higher), Prevotella (21-times higher), Megasphaera, Catenibacterium, Lactobacillus, Mitsuokella, Carnobacterium, and Lachnospira (Fukkoshi et al., 2015), pointing to a gut microbe determining role of dietary components characteristic of Indian plantbased diet-heavily spiced and curried foods, ghee, lentils and coconut milk. For example, basmati rice, commonly used in Indian cuisine, has a lower glycaemic index and higher amylose-amylopectin ratio compared to other medium-or longgrain rice (Kaur et al., 2014). ...
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In the last 150 years, we have seen a significant increase in average life expectancy, associated with a shift from infectious to non-communicable diseases. The rising incidence of these diseases, for which age is often the largest risk factor, highlights the need for contemporary societies to improve healthy ageing for their growing silver generations. As ageing is an inevitable, non-reversing and highly individualised process, we need to better understand how non-genetic factors like diet choices and commensal gut microbes can modulate the biology of ageing. In this review, we discuss how geographical and ethnic variations influence habitual dietary patterns, nutrient structure, and gut microbial profiles with potential impact on the human healthspan. Several gut microbial genera have been associated with healthy elderly populations but are highly variable across populations. It seems unlikely that a universal pro-longevity gut microbiome exists. Rather, the optimal microbiome appears to be conditional on the microbial functionality acting on regional- and ethnicity-specific trends driven by cultural food context. We also highlight dietary and microbial factors that have been observed to elicit individual and clustered biological responses. Finally, we identify next generation avenues to modify otherwise fixed host functions and the individual ageing trajectory by manipulating the malleable gut microbiome with regionally adapted, personalised food intervention regimens targeted at prolonging human healthspan.
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To investigate the association between eating behaviour and metabolic risk in the broader population. The association between metabolic risk factors (overweight, hypertension, hyperglycaemia, hypertriacylglycerolaemia, low HDL cholesterol, hyperuricaemia and fatty liver) and various eating behaviours were compared for four groups defined by subjective reporting: not eating until feeling full and not eating rapidly (G1); eating until feeling full only (G2); eating rapidly only (G3); and eating both rapidly and until feeling full (G4). A medical centre for health examinations in Tokyo, Japan. Men (n 8240) and women (n 2955) who underwent health examinations. The distribution of participants in G1 to G4 was 49·8 %, 11·5 %, 26·3 % and 12·4 % among men and 55·3 %, 15·0 %, 19·0 % and 10·7 % among women, respectively. Compared with G1, the age-adjusted OR (95 % CI) for overweight were significantly higher in G2 to G4, being respectively 1·85 (1·58, 2·17), 1·98 (1·76, 2·23) and 3·46 (2·99, 4·01) for men and 2·20 (1·62, 2·97), 2·59 (1·97, 3·39) and 3·12 (2·27, 4·26) for women. The age-adjusted OR were also significantly higher for hypertriacylglycerolaemia, hyperuricaemia and fatty liver in G2 and for all risks in G3 and G4 among men; and for hyperuricaemia in G2, for hyperglycaemia, hypertriacylglycerolaemia and fatty liver in G3 and for hypertriacylglycerolaemia and fatty liver in G4 among women. Both eating until feeling full and eating rapidly increase metabolic risk factors. Although the mechanism between rapid eating and metabolic risk requires further exploration, eating slowly and ending meals shortly before feeling full are important public health messages for reducing metabolic risk factors.
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To examine whether eating until full or eating quickly or combinations of these eating behaviours are associated with being overweight. Design and participants Cross sectional survey. Two communities in Japan. 3287 adults (1122 men, 2165 women) aged 30-69 who participated in surveys on cardiovascular risk from 2003 to 2006. Body mass index (overweight >/=25.0) and the dietary habits of eating until full (lifestyle questionnaire) and speed of eating (validated brief self administered questionnaire). 571 (50.9%) men and 1265 (58.4%) women self reported eating until full, and 523 (45.6%) men and 785 (36.3%) women self reported eating quickly. For both sexes the highest age adjusted mean values for height, weight, body mass index, and total energy intake were in the eating until full and eating quickly group compared with the not eating until full and not eating quickly group. The multivariable adjusted odds ratio of being overweight for eating until full was 2.00 (95% confidence interval 1.53 to 2.62) for men and 1.92 (1.53 to 2.40) for women and for eating quickly was 1.84 (1.42 to 2.38) for men and 2.09 (1.69 to 2.59) for women. The multivariable odds ratio of being overweight with both eating behaviours compared with neither was 3.13 (2.20 to 4.45) for men and 3.21 (2.41 to 4.29) for women. Eating until full and eating quickly are associated with being overweight in Japanese men and women, and these eating behaviours combined may have a substantial impact on being overweight.
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Long-term caloric restriction (CR) is a robust means of reducing age-related diseases and extending life span in multiple species, but the effects in humans are unknown. The low caloric intake, long life expectancy, and the high prevalence of centenarians in Okinawa have been used as an argument to support the CR hypothesis in humans. However, no long-term, epidemiologic analysis has been conducted on traditional dietary patterns, energy balance, and potential CR phenotypes for the specific cohort of Okinawans who are purported to have had a calorically restricted diet. Nor has this cohort's subsequent mortality experience been rigorously studied. Therefore, we investigated six decades of archived population data on the elderly cohort of Okinawans (aged 65-plus) for evidence of CR. Analyses included traditional diet composition, energy intake, energy expenditure, anthropometry, plasma DHEA, mortality from age-related diseases, and current survival patterns. Findings include low caloric intake and negative energy balance at younger ages, little weight gain with age, life-long low BMI, relatively high plasma DHEA levels at older ages, low risk for mortality from age-related diseases, and survival patterns consistent with extended mean and maximum life span. This study lends epidemiologic support for phenotypic benefits of CR in humans and is consistent with the well-known literature on animals with regard to CR phenotypes and healthy aging.
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Obesity is an important risk factor for lifestyle diseases. There has been much interest in the role of eating behavior in the development of obesity, but findings from population-based epidemiologic studies are limited and inconsistent. The objective of our cross-sectional study was to examine the association between eating behavior and prevalence of overweight. Subjects were 290 men of two municipal offices in northeastern Kyusyu, Japan. A positive association was found between overweight and some eating behaviors; multivariate-adjusted odds ratios (95% confidence intervals) for overweight were 4.33 (2.46-7.64), 2.29 (1.22-4.32), and 2.01 (1.06-3.80) for the behaviors of eating quickly, eating until full and eating fatty foods, respectively. Moreover, the prevalence of overweight was further increased when these eating behaviors were combined; multivariate odds ratios (95% confidence intervals) of overweight for men with 1, 2 and ≥3 versus no high-risk eating behaviors were 2.66 (1.27-5.56), 4.32 (1.87-9.97) and 7.32 (3.01-17.84), respectively (pp<0.0001 for trend). Our findings suggest that eating quickly, eating until full and eating fatty foods are related to overweight in Japanese men.
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It is generally assumed that a FFQ is not suitable to estimate the absolute levels of individual energy intake. However, in epidemiological studies, reported nutrients by FFQ are often corrected for this intake. The objective of the present study was to assess how accurately participants report their energy intakes by FFQ. We compared reported energy intake with actual energy intake needed to maintain stable body weights during eleven controlled dietary trials. FFQ were developed to capture at least 90 % of energy intake. Participants, 342 women and 174 men, with a mean BMI of 22.8 (SD 3.1) kg/m2 filled out the FFQ just before the trials. Energy intakes during the trials were calculated from provided foods and reported free-food items, representing 90 and 10 % of energy intake, respectively. Mean reported energy intake was 97.5 (SD 12.7) % of actual energy intake during the trials; it was 98.9 (SD 15.2) % for women and 94.7 (SD 16.3) % for men (P = 0.004 for difference between sexes). Correlation coefficients between reported and actual energy intakes were 0.82 for all participants, 0.74 for women and 0.80 for men. Individual reported energy intake as a percentage of actual intake ranged from 56.3 to 159.6 % in women and from 43.8 to 151.0 % in men. In conclusion, the FFQ appeared to be accurate for estimating the mean level of energy intakes of these participants and for ranking them according to their intake. However, the large differences found on the individual level may affect the results of epidemiological studies in an unknown direction if nutrients are corrected for energy intakes reported by FFQ.
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Plate shapes and package sizes, lighting and layout, color and convenience: these are a few of hidden persuaders that can contribute to how much food a person eats. This review first posits that these environmental factors influence eating because they increase consumption norms and decrease consumption monitoring. Second, it suggests that simply increasing awareness and offering nutrition education will be disappointingly ineffective in changing mindless eating. Third, promising pilot results from the National Mindless Eating Challenge provide insights into helping move from mindless eating to mindlessly eating better. The paper represents an invited review by a symposium, award winner or keynote speaker at the Society for the Study of Ingestive Behavior [SSIB] Annual Meeting in Portland, July 2009.
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"Mindful eating" describes a nonjudgmental awareness of physical and emotional sensations associated with eating. This article reports the development of a mindful eating questionnaire (MEQ) to support rigorous scientific inquiry into this concept. An item pool was developed based on hypothesized domains of mindful eating. A cross-sectional survey examined associations of MEQ scores with demographic and health-related characteristics. The MEQ was distributed to seven convenience samples between January and May 2007, with an overall response rate of 62% (n=303). Participants were mostly women (81%) and white (90%), and had a mean age of 42+/-14.4 years (range 18 to 80 years). Exploratory factor analysis was used to identify factors, which were defined as the mean of items scored one to four, where four indicated higher mindfulness; the mean of all factors was the summary MEQ score. Multiple regression analysis was used to measure associations of demographic characteristics, obesity, yoga practice, and physical activity with MEQ scores. Domains of the final 28-item questionnaire were: disinhibition, awareness, external cues, emotional response, and distraction. The mean MEQ score was 2.92+/-0.37, with a reliability (Chronbach's alpha) of .64. The covariate-adjusted MEQ score was inversely associated with body mass index (3.02 for body mass index <25 vs 2.54 for body mass index >30, P<0.001). Yoga practice, but neither walking nor moderate/intense physical activity, was associated with higher MEQ score. In this study sample, the MEQ had good measurement characteristics. Its negative association with body mass index and positive association with yoga provide evidence of construct validity. Further evaluation in more diverse populations is warranted.
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To investigate dietary quality among Japanese adults with a high vegetable diet, to consider dietary recommendation for vegetable intake. In the cross-sectional study of the National Health and Nutrition Survey 2003, we conducted the secondary analyses. The food-weighing method in one-day assessed the dietary intake. From 11,630 subjects, 2,305 men and 2,312 non-pregnant/lactating women, aged 20-69 y, and with an energy intake between 1,500 and 3,712 kcal were selected. Associations between vegetable, nutrient-density, and food intake were analyzed according to tertile cutoff: low vegetable diet (LVD), medium vegetable diet (MVD), or high vegetable diet (HVD). Differences across subgroups were tested after age adjustment. Mean vegetable intakes were 309 g for men and 318 g for women. Only 35% of Japanese met the vegetable intake (VI) recommendation of > or =350 g/d. VI had a positive association with age. Men 20-29 y-old and women 30-39 y-old were the subjects with the lowest VI. HVD subjects had higher intake for most food groups, whereas wheat in men; and wheat, sweets, and alcohol in women were negatively associated with VI. Main sources of energy for men and women with HVD were rice, wheat, and meat. HVD also had higher micronutrient-density. These analyses demonstrated the beneficial effects of HVD on dietary quality in the population studied. We concluded recommendations for adequate vegetable intake are expected to improve diet quality among Japanese adults, especially for the group aged 20-39.
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We assessed how accurately participants in dietary trials reported their free-living energy intake. We compared self-reported energy intake, calculated from 3-d food records, with actual intakes needed to maintain body weight during controlled trials lasting 6-9 wk. In 269 free-living healthy male (n = 119) and female (n = 150) adults with mean body weights close to ideal values (mean +/- SD body mass index in kg/m2, 22.1 +/- 2.4), energy intake reported in food records was 1.2 +/- 1.6 MJ/d (277 +/- 378 kcal/d) lower than actual energy requirements during the experiments. The relative bias was significantly smaller (P = 0.01) for men (-8.0 +/- 13.4%) than for women (-12.2 +/- 13.7%). Body mass index, daily energy intake, and age were not significantly related to the extent of underestimation. We conclude that food records systematically underestimate energy needs in young, nonobese well-educated adults.
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The National Cancer Institute (Rockville, Md) has launched a nationwide initiative--5 A Day for Better Health--to encourage consumption of fruits and vegetables. Because the tastes and culinary uses of fruits and vegetables differ, however, it is not known whether a general 5-A-Day message is an effective intervention strategy. This study examined whether there are differences between the demographic and psychosocial correlates of fruit and vegetable intakes. Data are from the Washington State Cancer Risk Behavior Survey (1995-1996), a cross-sectional, random-digit-dial telephone survey representative of the adult population of Washington State. Interviews were completed with 1,450 adults. Data were collected about demographic characteristics, health status, health-related behavior, fruit and vegetable intakes, and the following diet-related psychosocial factors: beliefs, motives, barriers, attitudes, and stages of dietary change. Multivariate linear regression analysis was used to test whether the associations of demographic characteristics and psychosocial factors with fruit intake differed from associations with vegetable intake. In general, health status, health-related behavior, and psychosocial factors were more strongly associated with fruit intakes than vegetable intakes. For example, regular exercisers consumed 0.44 more daily servings of fruits and 0.36 more servings of vegetables than nonexercisers. Compared with those in the preaction stage of dietary change, adults in the maintenance stage consumed 0.99 more daily servings of fruits and 0.68 more servings of vegetables. Intrinsic motivations for eating a healthful diet (eg, to feel better) were strongly associated with both fruit and vegetable intakes, and these associations were stronger for fruit. Extrinsic motivations were not associated with either fruit or vegetable intakes. Dietary interventions based on a general 5-A-Day message may be more effective in increasing fruit intakes than vegetable intakes. Targeted interventions that focus specifically on vegetables are probably necessary. Intrinsic motives for eating a healthful diet should be key components of interventions to increase fruit and vegetable intakes.
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Given the recent surge in obesity, effective dietary strategies for weight management are required. Because fruits and vegetables are high in water and fiber, incorporating them in the diet can reduce energy density, promote satiety, and decrease energy intake. Although few interventions have specifically addressed fruit and vegetable consumption, evidence suggests that coupling advice to increase intake of these foods with advice to decrease energy intake is a particularly effective strategy for weight management. This approach may facilitate weight loss because it emphasizes positive messages rather than negative, restrictive messages.
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It is often believed that people overeat the foods they like. We investigated whether environmental cues such as packaging and container size are so powerful that they can increase our intake of foods that are less palatable. In a 2 x 2 between-subjects design, 158 moviegoers in Philadelphia (57.6% male; 28.7 years) were randomly given a medium (120 g) or a large (240 g) container of free popcorn that was either fresh or stale (14 days old). Following the movie, consumption measures were taken, along with measures of perceived taste. Moviegoers who were given fresh popcorn ate 45.3% more popcorn when it was given to them in large containers. This container-size influence is so powerful that even when the popcorn was disliked, people still ate 33.6% more popcorn when eating from a large container than from a medium-size container. Even when foods are not palatable, large packages and containers can lead to overeating. The silver lining of these findings may be that portion size can also be used to increase the consumption of less preferred healthful foods, such as raw vegetables.
Article
The Dietary Guidelines for Japanese, released in 2000, provides the basics of a healthy diet for the people of Japan. In July 2005, the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare and the Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries of Japan jointly released a new pictorial guide, The Japanese Food Guide Spinning Top, to help people implement the Dietary Guidelines for Japanese. It guides people as to what kinds and how much food they should eat each day to promote health. This paper describes the nature of the diet and the theoretical framework applied in the development of the new guidelines.
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